US2700315A - Open-end ratchet wrench - Google Patents

Open-end ratchet wrench Download PDF

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Publication number
US2700315A
US2700315A US36171053A US2700315A US 2700315 A US2700315 A US 2700315A US 36171053 A US36171053 A US 36171053A US 2700315 A US2700315 A US 2700315A
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US
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Grant
Patent type
Prior art keywords
wrench
work
nut
head
open
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
Inventor
Raymond W Hermanson
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
TUBING APPLIANCE Co Inc
TUBING APPLIANCE COMPANY Inc
Original Assignee
TUBING APPLIANCE Co Inc
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Filing date
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B25HAND TOOLS; PORTABLE POWER-DRIVEN TOOLS; MANIPULATORS
    • B25BTOOLS OR BENCH DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR, FOR FASTENING, CONNECTING, DISENGAGING OR HOLDING
    • B25B13/00Spanners; Wrenches
    • B25B13/46Spanners; Wrenches of the ratchet type, for providing a free return stroke of the handle
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S81/00Tools
    • Y10S81/08Crowfoot-type wrenches

Description

Jan. 25, 1955 w, HERMANSON 2,760,315

OPEN-END RATCHET WRENCH Filed June 15, 1955- l 'llllll lllllllllll'IV/lA INVENTORI A 1 4 RAYMOND w. usnumsou ATTORNE Y.

United States Patent OPEN-END RATCHET WRENCH Raymond W. Hermanson, Los Angeles, Calif., assignor to Tubing Appliance Company, Inc., Los Angeles, Calif., a corporation Application June 15, 1953, Serial No. 361,710

2 Claims. (Cl. 81-183) This invention consists in new and useful improvements in wrenches and relates more particularly to open-end, ratchet wrenches of the spanner type. One of the objects of the invention is to provide a novel wrench head for open-end wrenches of the spanner type which can be formed of a pair of opposed stampings with a spacer block interposed therebetween, thereby minimizing the cost of manufacture and assembly, while at the same time providing maximum strength and adaptability with minimum overall dimension.

Another object of the invention is to provide an improved work gripping mechanism by means of which a nut or bolt head may be quickly and firmly engaged and so arranged that when the wrench is rotated in one direction the work will be positively turned therewith, rotation of the wrench head in the opposite direction causing the release of the work through a ratcheting action of the work gripping means.

A further object of the invention is to provide a wrench head having a pair of opposed work gripping elements, so arranged that upon reversal of the engaging position of the wrench head, the work piece may be positively turned in opposite rotary directions. Such a design facilitates the use of my improved wrench in applying and releasing both right and left hand threaded nuts by simply reversing the position of the wrench head with respect to the nut.

A still further object of the invention is to provide a wrench head of this type which is simple and sturdy in construction and effective, reliable and durable in operations.

With the above and other objects in view which will appear as the description proceeds, the invention consists in the novel features herein set forth, illustrated in the accompanying drawings and more particularly pointed out in the appended claims.

Referring to the drawings in which numerals of like character designate similar parts throughout the several views,

Fig. 1 is a plan view of a wrench embodying the invention, and arranged in position for positively turning a nut in counterclockwise direction, as in backing off a nut;

Fig. 2 is a view in side elevation;

Fig. 3 is a sectional view taken on line 3-3 of Fig. 2 with the top stamping removed to illustrate the work gripping mechanism. Here it will be noted that the position of the wrench is reversed from that shown in Fig. 1 so that clockwise rotation of the wrench head positively drives a nut as in applying a nut to a bolt;

Fig. 4 is a sectional view of the wrench head taken on line 44 of Fig. 3;

Fig. 5 is a sectional view taken adjacent one of the securing rivets, on line 55 of Fig. 3; and

Fig. 6 is a sectional view taken adjacent the pivot pin for one of the dogs, on line 6--6 of Fig. 3.

Briefly, the invention consists of a wrench head of the spanner type, the opposed arms of which form a work receiving area and carrying two pivoted dogs, the work engaging faces of which are spring biased into engaging position. These dogs are pivotally mounted in recesses in the respective arms and their work engaging ends normally protrude into the work engaging area, being retractable into the respective recesses upon the reverse rotation of the wrench head. Thus, when the Wrench is rotated in one direction the work itself cams the dogs into the recesses to permit the free rotation of ice the wrench head and when the wrench is rotated in the opposite direction the biasing of the dogs causes them to protrude into the work receiving area to firmly grip the work so that the work will be turned with the wrench. A reversal of the position of the wrench headpermits a reversal of the positive engagement thereof with the work piece.

Referring more specifically to the drawings, the wrench head generally indicated by the numeral 10, is formed with a slot 11 extending inwardly of the head and terminating in an opening or work receiving area 12 which is circular in cross section and of a slightly greater diameter than the diagonal dimension of a nut head with which the wrench head is to be used. The wrench head may be formed of a pair of stampings 13 and 14 of a bifurcated shape as shown in Figs. 1 and 3 and having interposed therebetween a spacer block 15 of generally cesses 16, one in each arm of the'head on substantially diametrically opposite sides of the work receiving area 12, said recesses opening into this work receiving area as shown in Fig. 3.

In each recess 16 a dog 17 is pivotally mounted on a pin 18 which extends through apertures provided in the opposed stampings 13 and 14, a spring 19 carried on a pin 20, similarly secured between the opposed stampings, normally urges'its respective dog 17 into work engaging position with its work engaging face lying well into the work receiving area 12. Thus, the normal position of each dog 17 causes its work engaging face 21 to be presented to the work piece in substantial alignment with the adjacent bounding wall 22 of the slot 11. I

As best seen in Fig. 3 the retracting movement of the two dogs 17 within their respective recesses 16, is in opposite directions and the respective end walls 16a of the recesses 16 act as abutments or stops for the dogs 17 to limit their movement into the work engaging area 12. These abutments are also respectively at opposite ends of the recesses 16 so that one rotates clockwise into operative engagement with the work piece while the other rotates in counterclockwise direction into such engagement.

The stampings l3 and 14 and the spacer block 15 are held firmly together by any suitable means. For instance, they may be secured together by rivets such as 23 and preferably the stampings are dimpled inwardly as at 24 and a bushing 25 may be interposed between the body of the rivets 23 and the body of the spacer block 15 with its opposite extremities in firm engagement with the annular face of the dimples 24. The rear portion of the wrench head including the stampings and spacer block, is provided with a squared opening 26 for receiving the squared pivoted end of a handle such as at 27 for rotating the wrench.

In Fig. 1 of the drawings the wrench head is shown in operative engagement with a nut, indicated in dot and dash lines as at 28 and the wrench head is so positioned that upon counterclockwise rotation thereof the nut will be backed off as the work engaging faces 21 of the dogs 17 firmly engage the nut and are held in operative position against the end stops or abutments 16a. Upon rotation of the handle in clockwise direction, the nut will cam the dogs into the respective recesses 16 against the tension of the springs 19, thus either releasing the nut or acting as a ratchet in the progressive backing off of the nut.

In the position shown in Fig. 3, the reverse occurs. That is, the clockwise rotation of the handle 27 causes the operative engagement of the dogs 17 with the nut for screwing the same onto a bolt or the like while the counterclockwise rotation of the wrench head causes the dogs to be cammed into their respective recesses as previously described.

It will thus be seen that a wrench constructed in accordance with this invention is simple and inexpensive in construction, comprises a minimum of parts which are very sturdy and durable. The wrenches release immediately and freely without binding when rotated in one direction and firmly seizes the work for instant operative engagement when rotated in the opposite direction.

3 Furtherrnore thegr eater the resistance the work offers to the-tturning-tof the-wrench, .the tighter willithe. dogs .17

grip against the work.

From the foregoing it is believed that my invention m bw ad y unders and a ese s 11 in h ar k-1 without-fur he d ssr p i nit b n b e ni ndstha :nu mfls 'ch i s s ma kbe made; n th ta' wast l sii n fi q t d n rom thes an: oft 1 nvenion a set o h i h f l w n shim KL m= 1. 'A Spanner wrench for use with nuts qiggthe -li-ke havin -a p s d fia -si es qQmP -i in a. s b ell p c l: e d; an win sl t t e e a s.. l t wq krambrac n o h i k c s p ,of said head; communicating with saids1 -d .snsi a ofid l t b sL -h l .di ens n Q n h ch h -w nt hrist qPPQ, d, transverse recesses in said head disposed ep s e sides of n a pa s hr u h t e ta ax sofith mm o b turned by'the. e h a i e te. alto the longitudinal-axis of said sloa openin f om "FP YPQQfiYQ ec ss c mmun qa n ith-vaid m at 9 QPPQ Qd, do s; av -a t an -e a n f ce length less than half the length of the fiat; side s ofi he nutg n eans; pivotallymounting a dog in each rec ess; for nx i t t ae hwusht h peninaof th c s; spx n y a mall pr ie na h or -e n ffaq o al. as throughsaid openings into. parallel engagement withdi- 1w P eatatio qfit mi ted doas hen-mhe ch tur ed iavne rect o nd r e se s d e s ettac igai nt s dmeee ses whe t e wrench i mmqd the opposite direction.

2. A wrench comprising: head having a slot extendinginwardlytthereofandterminating in a nut receiving opening of a diameter slightly greater than the diagonal dimension of a nut with which the wrench head is to be used; said slot and opening defining jaws for straddling a nut; each jaw having a recess presenting oppositely facing walls extending normal toithelongitudinal axis of said head; a dog pivotally mounted in each recess; each dog having a nu'hengaging tfaceof' a; length lessthan half the lengthpf thet ol-engaging flats of the nut and a second fae extendingsubstantiallynormalto said nut engaging :face; aspr'ingseeured-withineach recess and normally urging the dog pivotally mounted therein to a position in which said second face is facew isely engaging the wall of the recess extending normal to said longitudinal axis, said recess be ingso formedin said jaws as to lie on opposite sides of an axis passing through the rotational axis of the nut and extending normal to said longitudinal axis whereby the imyen a inat ias s. of, ai de n the n t-a i n ltm si e-p ti o he onp s t -9 he u asa wre chtisswun to pp yt aid. u .terquefqnces at he en aged diag a Spaced port ons- Ref emssCiteda file o th s pa e UNITED STATES-"PATENTS-

US2700315A 1953-06-15 1953-06-15 Open-end ratchet wrench Expired - Lifetime US2700315A (en)

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Cited By (26)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2810313A (en) * 1954-06-18 1957-10-22 Plomb Tool Company Open-end ratchet wrenches of the spanner type
US3095769A (en) * 1960-03-08 1963-07-02 Abraham S Weinstein Ratchet wrench
US3165015A (en) * 1963-01-26 1965-01-12 John H Farley Wrench
US3527327A (en) * 1968-12-04 1970-09-08 Gen Motors Corp Overrunning clutch
US4643053A (en) * 1981-09-09 1987-02-17 Rhodes Charles W Oil filter removal tool
US4644830A (en) * 1982-09-27 1987-02-24 Bailey Roy E Ratchet wrench
US5282830A (en) * 1992-11-03 1994-02-01 Reynolds Roy W Open-end ratchet wrench
US5537897A (en) * 1993-03-03 1996-07-23 Wilson, Jr.; David Split socket with movable facets and drive assembly
US5553520A (en) * 1995-02-21 1996-09-10 Jacobs; Leonard P. Open-end self-adjusting ratchet wrench
US5768958A (en) * 1997-01-16 1998-06-23 Gamble; Bruce H. Open ended rachet wrench
US5860339A (en) * 1996-09-03 1999-01-19 Snap-On Technologies, Inc. Drive configuration with differential driving surfaces
US6637300B2 (en) * 2002-02-21 2003-10-28 Arthur Wu Reversible adjustable wrench
US20040079203A1 (en) * 2002-10-24 2004-04-29 Weidmuller Interface Gmbh & Co. Kg Tool for fastening or loosening threaded couplings for cables
US20090044666A1 (en) * 2007-08-15 2009-02-19 The Stanley Works Self-adjusting wrench
US20090193941A1 (en) * 2008-02-06 2009-08-06 The Stanley Works Ratchet Wrench
US20090193939A1 (en) * 2008-02-06 2009-08-06 The Stanley Works Ratchet Wrench
FR2929161A1 (en) * 2008-03-26 2009-10-02 Mimoun Kaddouri Device i.e. open-end wrench, for screwing or unscrewing nuts on e.g. threaded pipe, has handle integrated to head of open head wrench, where wrench is positioned radially on tube and nut in positioning or disengaging mode of wrench
US20090272236A1 (en) * 2008-04-30 2009-11-05 Hsien-Chung Tuan-Mu Ratchetable open-ended wrench
US20090301271A1 (en) * 2008-06-10 2009-12-10 Danaher Tool Limited, Taiwan Branch Ratchetable open-ended wrench
US20110000343A1 (en) * 2009-07-06 2011-01-06 Nam Duck Hyun Wrench with ratchet
CN102672647A (en) * 2011-03-11 2012-09-19 志拓有限公司 Open wrench with ratcheting function
EP2517831A1 (en) * 2011-04-28 2012-10-31 New Way Tools Co., Ltd. Open-end wrench for quickly turning an object
US20120272794A1 (en) * 2011-04-26 2012-11-01 Ping-Wen Huang Open-end Wrench for Quickly Turning an Object
FR2979560A1 (en) * 2011-09-07 2013-03-08 Mimoun Kaddouri Spanner type device for screwing/unscrewing nut on e.g. hydraulic coupling, has reversible lever provided with head and nozzle, where side of opening of head is lower or upper than dimension on side of nut
EP2724819A2 (en) 2012-10-26 2014-04-30 New Way Tools Co., Ltd. Simple open-end wrench
US9227306B2 (en) 2013-08-30 2016-01-05 Stark Professional Tool, LLC Ratcheting torque wrench head

Citations (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US599837A (en) * 1898-03-01 Half to frederick pertwee
GB196177A (en) * 1922-04-07 1923-04-19 Rolls Percival Link An improved adjustable spanner
FR591574A (en) * 1924-11-12 1925-07-07 Improvements to the key nut
US1732000A (en) * 1929-03-30 1929-10-15 Louis Werkstell Wrench
US2047548A (en) * 1935-07-18 1936-07-14 Colognori Aldo Wrench
US2551669A (en) * 1948-09-01 1951-05-08 Philip P Hale Ratchet-pawl retaining structure
US2592781A (en) * 1951-01-02 1952-04-15 Yavner Sylvan Ratchet wrench
US2659257A (en) * 1951-01-15 1953-11-17 Thompson Garrie Turnbuckle wrench

Patent Citations (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US599837A (en) * 1898-03-01 Half to frederick pertwee
GB196177A (en) * 1922-04-07 1923-04-19 Rolls Percival Link An improved adjustable spanner
FR591574A (en) * 1924-11-12 1925-07-07 Improvements to the key nut
US1732000A (en) * 1929-03-30 1929-10-15 Louis Werkstell Wrench
US2047548A (en) * 1935-07-18 1936-07-14 Colognori Aldo Wrench
US2551669A (en) * 1948-09-01 1951-05-08 Philip P Hale Ratchet-pawl retaining structure
US2592781A (en) * 1951-01-02 1952-04-15 Yavner Sylvan Ratchet wrench
US2659257A (en) * 1951-01-15 1953-11-17 Thompson Garrie Turnbuckle wrench

Cited By (35)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2810313A (en) * 1954-06-18 1957-10-22 Plomb Tool Company Open-end ratchet wrenches of the spanner type
US3095769A (en) * 1960-03-08 1963-07-02 Abraham S Weinstein Ratchet wrench
US3165015A (en) * 1963-01-26 1965-01-12 John H Farley Wrench
US3527327A (en) * 1968-12-04 1970-09-08 Gen Motors Corp Overrunning clutch
US4643053A (en) * 1981-09-09 1987-02-17 Rhodes Charles W Oil filter removal tool
US4644830A (en) * 1982-09-27 1987-02-24 Bailey Roy E Ratchet wrench
US5282830A (en) * 1992-11-03 1994-02-01 Reynolds Roy W Open-end ratchet wrench
US5537897A (en) * 1993-03-03 1996-07-23 Wilson, Jr.; David Split socket with movable facets and drive assembly
US5697266A (en) * 1993-03-03 1997-12-16 Wilson, Jr.; David Line fitting orientation guide for a fitting manipulating tool including a split socket and combination thereof
US5553520A (en) * 1995-02-21 1996-09-10 Jacobs; Leonard P. Open-end self-adjusting ratchet wrench
US5860339A (en) * 1996-09-03 1999-01-19 Snap-On Technologies, Inc. Drive configuration with differential driving surfaces
US5768958A (en) * 1997-01-16 1998-06-23 Gamble; Bruce H. Open ended rachet wrench
US6637300B2 (en) * 2002-02-21 2003-10-28 Arthur Wu Reversible adjustable wrench
US20040079203A1 (en) * 2002-10-24 2004-04-29 Weidmuller Interface Gmbh & Co. Kg Tool for fastening or loosening threaded couplings for cables
US6883403B2 (en) * 2002-10-24 2005-04-26 Weidmüller Interface GmbH & Co. KG Tool for fastening or loosening threaded couplings for cables
US20090044666A1 (en) * 2007-08-15 2009-02-19 The Stanley Works Self-adjusting wrench
US7806025B2 (en) 2007-08-15 2010-10-05 The Stanley Works Self-adjusting wrench
US20090193941A1 (en) * 2008-02-06 2009-08-06 The Stanley Works Ratchet Wrench
US20090193939A1 (en) * 2008-02-06 2009-08-06 The Stanley Works Ratchet Wrench
FR2929161A1 (en) * 2008-03-26 2009-10-02 Mimoun Kaddouri Device i.e. open-end wrench, for screwing or unscrewing nuts on e.g. threaded pipe, has handle integrated to head of open head wrench, where wrench is positioned radially on tube and nut in positioning or disengaging mode of wrench
US8631725B2 (en) * 2008-04-30 2014-01-21 Apex Tool (Hk) Limited Taiwan Branch Ratchetable open-ended wrench
US20090272236A1 (en) * 2008-04-30 2009-11-05 Hsien-Chung Tuan-Mu Ratchetable open-ended wrench
US20090301271A1 (en) * 2008-06-10 2009-12-10 Danaher Tool Limited, Taiwan Branch Ratchetable open-ended wrench
US8978524B2 (en) 2008-06-10 2015-03-17 Apex Took (HK) Limited Taiwan Branch Ratchetable open-ended wrench
US8347764B2 (en) 2008-06-10 2013-01-08 Apex Tool (Hk) Limited Taiwan Branch Ratchetable open-ended wrench
US20110000343A1 (en) * 2009-07-06 2011-01-06 Nam Duck Hyun Wrench with ratchet
CN102672647B (en) 2011-03-11 2014-08-06 志拓有限公司 Open wrench with ratcheting function
CN102672647A (en) * 2011-03-11 2012-09-19 志拓有限公司 Open wrench with ratcheting function
US20120272794A1 (en) * 2011-04-26 2012-11-01 Ping-Wen Huang Open-end Wrench for Quickly Turning an Object
US8516929B2 (en) * 2011-04-26 2013-08-27 New Way Tools Co., Ltd. Open-end wrench for quickly turning an object
EP2517831A1 (en) * 2011-04-28 2012-10-31 New Way Tools Co., Ltd. Open-end wrench for quickly turning an object
FR2979560A1 (en) * 2011-09-07 2013-03-08 Mimoun Kaddouri Spanner type device for screwing/unscrewing nut on e.g. hydraulic coupling, has reversible lever provided with head and nozzle, where side of opening of head is lower or upper than dimension on side of nut
EP2724819A2 (en) 2012-10-26 2014-04-30 New Way Tools Co., Ltd. Simple open-end wrench
US9186778B2 (en) 2012-10-26 2015-11-17 New Way Tools Co., Ltd. Simple open-end wrench
US9227306B2 (en) 2013-08-30 2016-01-05 Stark Professional Tool, LLC Ratcheting torque wrench head

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