US268176A - blanchard - Google Patentsblanchard Download PDF
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- US268176A US268176A US268176DA US268176A US 268176 A US268176 A US 268176A US 268176D A US268176D A US 268176DA US 268176 A US268176 A US 268176A
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- XLYOFNOQVPJJNP-UHFFFAOYSA-N water Substances O XLYOFNOQVPJJNP-UHFFFAOYSA-N 0.000 description 152
- 239000000446 fuel Substances 0.000 description 52
- 238000009833 condensation Methods 0.000 description 46
- 230000005494 condensation Effects 0.000 description 46
- 238000002485 combustion reaction Methods 0.000 description 36
- 239000000203 mixture Substances 0.000 description 34
- 238000010438 heat treatment Methods 0.000 description 30
- 210000003414 Extremities Anatomy 0.000 description 20
- 239000007789 gas Substances 0.000 description 18
- 238000000034 method Methods 0.000 description 14
- 239000002699 waste material Substances 0.000 description 14
- 238000001704 evaporation Methods 0.000 description 12
- 239000007788 liquid Substances 0.000 description 12
- 229910052751 metal Inorganic materials 0.000 description 10
- 239000002184 metal Substances 0.000 description 10
- WYTGDNHDOZPMIW-UHOFOFEASA-O Serpentine Natural products O=C(OC)C=1[C@@H]2[C@@H]([C@@H](C)OC=1)C[n+]1c(c3[nH]c4c(c3cc1)cccc4)C2 WYTGDNHDOZPMIW-UHOFOFEASA-O 0.000 description 8
- 230000000694 effects Effects 0.000 description 8
- 230000000630 rising Effects 0.000 description 8
- 206010022000 Influenza Diseases 0.000 description 6
- 210000001364 Upper Extremity Anatomy 0.000 description 6
- OKTJSMMVPCPJKN-UHFFFAOYSA-N carbon Chemical compound [C] OKTJSMMVPCPJKN-UHFFFAOYSA-N 0.000 description 6
- 229910052799 carbon Inorganic materials 0.000 description 6
- 238000010276 construction Methods 0.000 description 6
- 230000005484 gravity Effects 0.000 description 6
- 239000012535 impurity Substances 0.000 description 6
- 238000004519 manufacturing process Methods 0.000 description 6
- 239000002912 waste gas Substances 0.000 description 6
- 210000000188 Diaphragm Anatomy 0.000 description 4
- 210000003141 Lower Extremity Anatomy 0.000 description 4
- RHZUVFJBSILHOK-UHFFFAOYSA-N anthracen-1-ylmethanolate Chemical compound C1=CC=C2C=C3C(C[O-])=CC=CC3=CC2=C1 RHZUVFJBSILHOK-UHFFFAOYSA-N 0.000 description 4
- 239000003830 anthracite Substances 0.000 description 4
- 230000015572 biosynthetic process Effects 0.000 description 4
- 239000002802 bituminous coal Substances 0.000 description 4
- 210000000038 chest Anatomy 0.000 description 4
- 239000004020 conductor Substances 0.000 description 4
- 239000006185 dispersion Substances 0.000 description 4
- 239000012153 distilled water Substances 0.000 description 4
- 238000005755 formation reaction Methods 0.000 description 4
- 230000004048 modification Effects 0.000 description 4
- 238000006011 modification reaction Methods 0.000 description 4
- 239000002023 wood Substances 0.000 description 4
- 210000001503 Joints Anatomy 0.000 description 2
- 238000009825 accumulation Methods 0.000 description 2
- 230000003321 amplification Effects 0.000 description 2
- 230000005540 biological transmission Effects 0.000 description 2
- 238000009835 boiling Methods 0.000 description 2
- 239000011449 brick Substances 0.000 description 2
- 239000004927 clay Substances 0.000 description 2
- 229910052570 clay Inorganic materials 0.000 description 2
- 230000003292 diminished Effects 0.000 description 2
- 238000004821 distillation Methods 0.000 description 2
- 238000004880 explosion Methods 0.000 description 2
- 239000011521 glass Substances 0.000 description 2
- UFHFLCQGNIYNRP-UHFFFAOYSA-N hydrogen Chemical compound [H][H] UFHFLCQGNIYNRP-UHFFFAOYSA-N 0.000 description 2
- 239000001257 hydrogen Substances 0.000 description 2
- 229910052739 hydrogen Inorganic materials 0.000 description 2
- 229910052500 inorganic mineral Inorganic materials 0.000 description 2
- 239000000463 material Substances 0.000 description 2
- 238000002844 melting Methods 0.000 description 2
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- 238000003199 nucleic acid amplification method Methods 0.000 description 2
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- F—MECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
- F01—MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
- F01K—STEAM ENGINE PLANTS; STEAM ACCUMULATORS; ENGINE PLANTS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; ENGINES USING SPECIAL WORKING FLUIDS OR CYCLES
- F01K13/00—General layout or general methods of operation of complete plants
- Y—GENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
- Y02—TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
- Y02E—REDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
- Y02E20/00—Combustion technologies with mitigation potential
- Y02E20/12—Heat utilisation in combustion or incineration of waste
.(No Model.) 2 Sheets-Sheet I. v. W. BLANOHARD.
I HYDROOARBON FURNACE.
No. 268,176. f Patented Nov. '28, 1882.
(N0,Mode1.) 2 Sheets-Sheet; 2.
v. W. BLANGHAR'D.
No. 268,176. Patented Nov. 28, 1882.
UNITED STATES PATENT. OFFICE.
vineln W. BLANoHAni) on NEW YORK, N. Y.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 268,176; dated November 28, 1882.
Application filed December 16, 1881.
beinghad to theaccompanyingdrawings,and to the letters of reference marked thereon, which form part of this specification, and in which- Figure 1 is a side view of my invention partly in section. Fig. 2 is a section through the water-reservoir 0, showing the alarm mechanism; and Figs. 3, 4, and 5 are detail views of the liquid-distributers.
This invention relates to hydrocarbon-furnaces and an apparatus for the production of steam and for other purposes; and it consists, first, in an improved furnace for general purposes in the arts, and which is designed for burning ordinary fuelsuch, for instance, as wood, anthracite 0r bituminous coal, or for burning liquid or pulverized fuel separately or singlyin each instance realizing from the fuel which it is found desirable to use the most desirable results in the process of its combustion; second, in a combined air heater and distributer of novel construction, that may be applied to .the fire or fuel chamber of any furnace, by
means of which a more perfect combustion of the fuel burned on the grate-bars or dispersed above them is obtained than would be possible it it were burned by the methods now in usual practice; third, in a combined air-heater and steam-condenser thatserves as ayaluable auxiliary to the combined air heater and distributer within the furnace, in serving both to for the purpose of a more perfect utilization of the waste gases that usually pass 011' through the escape-flue ot' the furnaces hitherto constructed; fifth, in a receptacle for the water fresulting from the condensation of the exhauststeam from the cylinder of the engine, which isso applied as to afford a suitable reservoir (No model.)
I to the water of condensation from the combined air-heater and steam-condenser previous to its being returned by a pump to the boiler; sixth, in a water-heater of novel construction, forming a part of the steam-boiler, and so applied that when it is used in combination with a pump and the combined air heater and steam-condenser it will return the water of condensation to the boiler at a very high teming the evaporization or distillation of water by means of the heat contained in the exhauststeam, by means of which water may be freed from impurities before it is supplied to the to leakage, and also the waste resulting from the motion of the piston in the cylinder of the engine; eighth, in a device bymeans of which steam, as well as air, may be introduced into the blast by which combustion is carried on within the furnace; ninth,'iu a novel arrangement of parts by which the water of condensation from the exhaust-steam is returned to the boiler at a temperature a little below the heat of the exhaust-steam as it leaves the cylinder of the engine; tenth, in such an arrangement of an air-pump, with connecting pipes and valves therefor, that the volume of air may be measured previous to its being discharged into the fuel and combustion chamber of the furnace to carry on'and make complete the process of combustion in the same; eleventh, in a'combination of elements whereby a partial vacuum is formed behind the piston'of the steam-engine, thereby obviating the loss of power consequent on its working against the pressure of the atmosphere; twelfth, in a novel water derived from the condensation of the exhaust-steam and the steam of evaporation, so that a failure of the pump to return the water of condensation back to the boiler will cause an alarm to be sounded, thus warning the attendant of danger and preventing the explosion of the boiler in consequence of low water that attends the usual method, as will be hereinafter explained.
A designates an ordinary tubular boiler of the upright kind, and of the ordinary and usual construction. The heating-fines occupy the upper portion of this boiler. Below the fines perature; seventh, in a novel device for effectboiler to compensate for the waste consequent device applied to the reservoir holding the.
the water-space is seen in Fig. 1, with the aperture for the furnace-door, which opens into the fire-box, also the aperture for the door opening into the ash-pit.
The grate-bars are not shown, they being just below the fire-box aperture.
F designates-the steam-chest, and F the vertical cylinder thereof, the governor being arranged above the cylinder and crank, the flywheel and its connections being arranged below the cylinder. These parts need no detailed description, as they are so well known, although they take part incidentally in my invention.
D designates a secondary steam chest and cylinder, receiving live or common steam from the boiler A by means of the pipe M, and exhausting the same from the cylinder D by means of the pipe D into the pipe G. The office of this engine is to give motion simultaneously to the air-pump D and the waterpurnp L. It will be observed that motion is communicated from one end of the piston-rod of the air-pump D to the piston-rod of the water-pump L by means of the arm J. Both the air-pump D and the water-pump L are similar to those in general use, therefore do not require a more detailed description, the office of the former being to supply the furnace of the boiler A with air or air and steam to carry on the process of combustion of the fuel within the same after such gaseous elements have performed other offiees, which will be hereinafter described, and the office of the latter to return heated water to the boiler A in the manner also hereinafter specified.
B designates a cylindrical air-heater above the boiler A. It will be observed by reference to the drawings that the said air-heater is closedat both ends, and that it is supplied with a large number of upright pipes or flues, a, extending its entire length. These pipes or flues aafl'ord a passage for the waste gases from the top of the furnace, with which they communicate, to a suitable conductor that may be adjusted to the upper portion of the air-heater B to carry the same away. The air-heater B is aclosed vessel, and is divided by horizontal diaphragms or partitionsb into compartments which communicate with each other zigzagging by a portion of the partitions being omitted alternately, so that air or gases being introduced under pressure into the lower compartment will pass across the same and rise into the compartment next above, and thus take a tortuous or serpentine course through the heater B, as indicated by the arrows. I thus expose said gaseous elements to the effects of the heat resulting from the passage of the waste heated gases through the upright pipes or fines a in the most effectual manner to receive or eliminate heat from the same. It will thus be seen that with a brisk firein the boiler-furnace the heated air or other gaseous elements introduced through the pipe R under pressure into the lowest compartment of the air-heater aesgtac B will be compelled to pass to and fro in a transverse direction across said air-heater as many times as there are horizontal partitions or diaphragms b, and will during the passage thereof become heated'by the upright pipes or flues a previous to its passage from said heater through the pipe K. It will be clearly seen that my manner of constructing the airheater B serves in a high degree to transmit the heat ofthe waste gases passing from the top of the boiler A to the gaseous elements passing under pressure through the interior of said air-heater in the manner heretofore set forth.
0 designates a cylindrical vessel composed of a series of concentric tubes, d, with closed extremities. The annular spaces between said tubes (2 communicate with each other in the manner hereinafter explained. The object of this vessel 0 is threefold, viz: first, to heat the air supplied by the air-pump D previous to its entering the air-heater B; second, to condense the exhaust-steam coming from the steam-chest F of the engine and the engine D back to Water previous to its being returned to the boiler A by the pump L; and, third, to serve, if desired, as a water-heater to heat water to supply the waste resulting from a greater or less loss from running the engine, whose valve-box is lettered F, and also the engine D. It will be seen that the annular spaces between the tubes composing the vessel 0 have a certain regular connection with each other, such space between two tubes connecting at their closed extremities by a tube, 0, with a space, so that two distinct channels are formed through the vessel 0, independent of each other, by the thickness of the metal forming the walls of the concentric tubes that take part in the formation of the vessel aforesaid. Hence, if at the same time the exhaust-steam from the engines F and D is introduced by a pipe into the interior cavity of the vessel (3, and cold air is introduced under suitable pressure by a pipe communicating from the airpump D with the annular space between the inner tube and the one that surrounds it, it will be seen that the steam and the air will traverseseparatechannels formed bythe spaces between the concentric tubes in the vessel 0 and their connecting-pipes, being separated only by the thickness of the metal out of which the walls of the said tubes are formed. It therefore follows, if the vessel is of ample size, that if a sufiicient volume of cold air be so introduced into it simultaneously with the exhaust-steam in the manner just described the heat of the exhaust-steam will be imparted to the current of air, separated from it by a me-, tallic wall only sufficient to cause a condensation of the said steam to water at or near the boiling-point, while at the same time the current of air by which the condensation of the steam is produced is heated to a greater or less degree of intensity, according to its volume and the pressure used in its transmission. It will be observed that the annular spaces in the IIO v IO
vessel 0, which constitute the steam-channels in the same,are so connected with each other by tubes as to form a descending passage, so that the water of condensation will flow by its own weightfrom said vesselthrough the pipe 0, which connects outwardly with said steamchannels. my invention. By the introduction of a stream of cold water into said channels, traversed by the steam in the combined steam-condenser and air-heater 0, it is evident that less air would be required to cond nse the steam to water in the manner described, while at the same time the water thus introduced would become heated to a temperature the same or nearly the same as the exhaust-steam within said vessel. Thus the vessel 0 would serve at the same time as a waterheater and an apparatus for condensing exhaust-steam to water by means of cold water and cold air mingled in suitable proportions.
Gr designates a pipe for conveying the exhaust-steam from the cylinder'of the engine F to the vessel 0. It will be observed thatin close proximity to the engine-cylinder the pipe G is expanded into a vessel, S, so as to allow another pipe, G, to pass ina serpentine direction through it, and also beyond this vessel it is expanded in diameter, so as to allow the pipe G to pass inside of it, leaving sufficient .space between the two pipes to allow a free passage of the exhaust-steam from the chest F of the engine through a part of its journey to vessel 0. It will also be observed that at a certain point the pipe G passes out ot'the pipe G, after which the pipe G, in a diminished size, after entering and leaving the vessel Gr, communicates with the interior of the vessel 0. It will also be seen that the pipe G enters the boiler A, and that its interior is continuous with the steam-space of the boiler tothe pointwhere said pipe is connected with the pump L, near the check-valve L of the latter, so that the steam-pressurein theboilerextends through The two pipes A, the vessel 0, and the pump L, forms an element of the greatest importance, whose function will be hereinafter set forth.
0 designates a pipe connecting with the steam-channelsin vesselOand the reservoir 0,
and it will be seen that a continuation of this pipe 0 also connects the reservoir 0 and the pump L, so that a stream of water will'pass by its own gravity from the steam-channels of vessel 0 to the pump L, passing through the reservoir 0'. This reservoir 0 performs two very important offices, viz: first, to afford a reservoir to contain the water of condensation from the vessel 0 and prevent the steam passage in this vessel from being filled or flooded with water in case of any derangement in the working of the pump L; and, second, to serve as an element in an automatic alarm in case of a derangement in the working of the pump L,
This is a very important feature of nects with a reservoir, H, of water.
thereby calling assistance to repair the difficulty. This reservoir 0 is provided with an ordinary water-gage, so that the engineer may at a glance determine the depth of water in it. This reservoir C should be of sufficient size to hold for a considerable period of time the water of condensation as it flows from the vessel O in the manner above described, so that in theevent of any derangement of the pump L the vessel 0 may not be in danger of being flooded with water, which should be conveyed into the boiler A as fast as it accumulates at the inlet-valve L" of saidpump by the action of the latter.
The letter U (see Fig. 2) represents a hollow metallic float located inside of the reservoir 0. This float is provided with a stem, U, which passes through the top wall of the reservoir. The float U, being of thin metal and provided with a closed cavity filled with air, will always float on the surface of the water in the reservoir C when the water accumulates in thclatter so as to rise above its upper third.
V represents a coiled spring attached to an arm of a rotarysteam valve in apipe connected with the boiler A, said steam-valve being connected with a pipe terminating with an ordinary steam-whistle, V, in such a manner that a release of the tension of the spring will open the steam-valve in the pipe leading .to the whistle, or ring a bell, as may be desired.
V represents a hinged arm attached by a proper connection to the retracted spring V, and W is a notch which will engage the free extremity of the hinged arm V. Now, with -the springVretracted and-held in position by the tree extremity of the arm V, resting in the notch W, it is e\ident that when the float U is raised by the water in the reservoir 0 to a certain height its stem will come forcibly in contact with the extremity of the hinged arm V and disengage it from the notch N, which will allow spring V to actuate the steam-valve,- or a valve to which it is attached, thus sounding an alarm and Warning the attendant that the pump L is not returning the water of condensation to the boiler A as fast as it is received into the reservoir 0'. By these means the return of the water of condensation from the boiler A is made secure, thus avoiding all danger of low water in the boiler.
G represents a vessel contained within another vessel, G, the space between the two vessels forming a channel that connects the two portions of the pipe G with each other, so that the exhaust-steam, in passing from the cylinder of the engine F to the interior cavity of the vessel 0, will be compelled to pass around, the vessel G, in the space between it and the exterior vessel, G, thereby communicating a.
portion ot'its heat to the vessel G. This vessel 'G is provided with a perforated top for the escape of steam that may be generated in it into the space that surrounds it, and also with a pipe, 0, having astop-cock, which pipe con- By op- IIO .ning the engines may be supplied with pure crating the cock in pipe 0 water may be admitted into the vessel G, which may be evaporated in the manner already described, the steam from such evaporation passing out of the perforations in the top of the vessel G. The bottom of this vessel G is provided with a pipe directed downward through the bottom ofthe vessel G, to which pipeastop-cock is applied, by means of which the contents of vessel G may be drawn as occasion requires. This apparatus, composed of vessels G and G, together with the reservoir I1 and the pipes and stop-cocks described, forms a very important part of my invention, in that I supply thereby pure distilled water to the boilerAto make good the waste or loss that may result from the leakage and escape of steam and water in running theengines F and D. Although the cold air traversing the channels in'the vessel 0 will condense to water the greater, if not the entire, volume of exhaust-steam passing at the same time through said vessel that will be returned to the boiler A by the pump L, as set forth, still there will be a large volume of water lost .daily by leakage of the boiler and engine-cylinders, when in operation, which must be re.- supplied, By opening the cock in the pipe 0 to a greater or less degree water will be admitted to the vessel G, which will be readily evaporated by the heat of the exhaust-steam which surrounds said vessel in its passage from the steam-cylinders F and D to the vessel 0. The steam resulting from the evaporation of this water will readily pass through the perforations in the top of the vessel G, and from thence pass directly into thevesselOtobe condensed back to water in the manner described, and conveyed into the boiler A by means of the pump and the pipeconnections. Thus, although impure water maybe admitted into the vessel G, only pure water will pass t'roin'said vessel in the form-of steam to be conveyed to the boiler. The impurities of various kinds in the water admitted into the vessel G from reservoir H may be drawn off from time to time by means 'of the pipes, which should be provided with stop-cocks, and which are connected with the bottom of said vessel. By these means, if the boiler A is filled with pure water, the waste or loss thereof resulting from runwater derived trom impure water, thus effectually preventing the formation of scale or the accumulation of dirt in the boiler A. In case, however, it is not desirablein practice to evaporate the water that is admitted to the vessel G from the reservoir H, by allowing this vessel to become filled with water from this reservoir H a continuous stream may then be caused to flow through the perforations in the top of the vessel G into the space between the lattcr and the vessel G by a proper adjustment of the valve in pipe 0. This water would then pass, with the exhaust-steam, into the vessel 0 and become heated previous to its exit therefrom. Certain impurities admitted with the water, in the manner described, into the vessel G would settle to the bottom of this vessel, and could be drawn therefrom, as set forth. If it is desired to add only pure or distilled water to the boiler A from the vessel G, the latter vessel should not be permitted to fill with water, and the water should only be admitted into it as fast as evaporation takes place.
M and Mf represent the respective pipes, with their valves, that supply the engines with live steam from the boiler A. N designates the pipe that supplies the vessel 0 with cold air from the air-pump D. r
R designates the pipe that conveys the heated air from the vessel 0 to theair-heater B.
Q is a pipe that extends between the lower extremity of the steam-channel in the vessel O and the upper extremity of the air-heater B. By means of pipe Q an uninterrupted channel is afforded for the exhaust-steam trom the cylinders of the engines to the flue-passage at the upper extremity of the air-heater B, passing through the open valve Q in said pipe, after its passage through the vessel C.
R represents a pipe connecting with the pipe Q and passing into the reservoir H. it will be seen that the pipe It passes to and fro a number of times in the reservoir H before it emerges to terminate in a connection with the pipe Q.
R" is a valve closing the pipe Q, by means of which the contents passing in this pipe may be compelled to pass through the pipe R in the reservoir H.
R is a valve by means of which the pipe Q may be closed above the junction of the pipe R with the latter. Now, with the reservoir H supplied with a flowing stream of cold water, it is evident that by opening valve Q and closing the valve R in the pipe Q any uncondensed steam passing from the vessel 0 from the two engines would immediately pass by the channel already described through the pipe R in the reservoir H, where said steam would be immediately condensed to water by the cold water in said reservoir, surrounding the pipe R" in its passage through said reservoir, and it will be seen that the water of condensation in the pipe R in the reservoir H would flow by its own gravity through pipes Q and G into the reservoir 0, to be returned to the boiler A in the manner set forth.
M represents a pipe with a valve, connecting the pipe M with the vessel S. By opening the valve in pipe M and in the pipe M, and also the valve Q and valve R', at the same time closing the valve R, live steam from the boiler will pass through the pipe G, thence around the vessel G and into the steam from the steam-channel last described by, the
live steam from the boiler A, by closing the valve in the steam'pipe M'and the valve R in the steam-pipe Q, a partial vacuum will be immediately formed in the pipe R in reservoir H, where said pipe is exposed to the cold water flowing into and out of it. um established in the pipe R the pistons of the engines, when put in. motion, will be relieved of the weight of the atmosphere, thereby making low-pressure engines of both and economizing the production of power. If the exhaust-steam is not entirely condensed to water by the cold air passing through the vessel G, such steam will immediately pass into the condensing-pipe in the reservoir H, where condensation cannot fail to take place. Under certain conditions the apparatus just described for establishing a vacuum behind the pistons in theengine-cylinders may be dispensedwith, the condensation of the steam being carried on only in the vessel 0. I desire to be understood as claiming thatthe condensation of steam in a pipe traversing the reservoir H is a valuable, though not an indispensable, auxiliary in my invention.
P represents a pipe provided with a stoprock that connects the pipe G with the pipe N. By means of this pipe and its stop-cock steam may be added, if desired, to the air by which the combustion of fuel is carried on in the furnace of the boiler A. Y
K is a pipe leading from the upper portion of the air-heater B to the ash-pit of the furnace of the boiler A. At the lower extremity of the pipe K it divides into two branches which enter the ash-pit of the furnace of the boiler. The lower branch, T, is provided with a valve, T, and terminates in the ash-pit by a free extremity, and the upper branch, K, is provided with a valve, K, and after entering and passing'partly across the ash-pit in a horizontal direction connects with a vertical pipe, which in turn connects at its upper extremity with a horizontal pipe, E, provided with several distributing-pipes, E, each one of which enters it at one extremity and extends across the space above the grate in the boiler-furnace. It will be observed that the heating and dis tributing pipes E are so arranged at a suitable distance from each other that gases resulting from combustion risingfroln the burning fuel will pass directly between them in theirjourney to the upper part of the furnace.
The pipes E are finely perforated at their free extremities, and are also provided with rows of perforations near their center, extend ing their entire length, so that any gaseous elements discharged from said perforations under pressure will pass out in jets at right angles, and into the currents of combustible gases rising from the fuel, and thereby become intimately mixed with the same, thus effectually completing the act of combustion. The horizontal pipe E and its perpendicular supporting-pipe are connected by a loose joint,
13, '(shown by Fig. 5,) composed of the open- With this vacu ing a in the pipe E and the entering portion 0, with its flanges c and dowel-pins 0 The fixed portion of the connection is maintained from any cause to substitute new pipes for those which have been injured by heat. The loose joints between pipes E and E are of the same kind as thejoint E above described. In some instances the pipes E maybe dispensed with, in which case the heated gaseous elements would issue directly from the apertures in the pipe E, that in the other case would be occupied by one extremity of the pipes E, instead of issuing from the perforations in said pipes, as heretofore described.
In practice I shall sometimes apply furnacebrick, or other equivalent material that is hi ghly refractory to heat, to the upper and lower sides of the heating and distributing pipes E for the protection of the same against the intense heat to which they are exposed.
I may adopt, as a modification of the heating and distributing apparatus above described, an apparatus similar to that described in the schedule annexed to my Letters Patent dated January 4, 1881, for dispensing liquid and pulverized fuel in horizontal directions above the grate-bars and below the air-heater in the fuelchamber of the furnace. Said apparatus for dispensing the liquid and pulverized fuel consists (see Fig. 4) of the receptacle 2, steam-pipe 1, conducting-
pipe 3, and disks etand 5 for the lateral dispersion of the liquid or pulverized fuel. The fuel above named, admitted into the receptacle 2, would be carried by the force of steam from the pipel through the pipe 3 to the 4 and 5 to be dispersed horizontally above the grate-bars of the furnace and below the heating and distributing arms E. In this case the space below the pipes E would constitute the fuel-chamber of the furnace, while the space above the said pipes would constitute the combustion-chamber proper. I contemplate the application of such a furnace to the melting, reduction, or purification of ores, disks
metals, or minerals, or to any other purpose in the arts, as well as for the production of steam.
In the practical operation of my invention (when it is desired to free the engines from atmospheric pressure) pure water should be introduced into the boiler A, and a tire from Wood, or anthracite or bituminous coal, kindled in the furnace on its grate. After the steamgage indicates a pressure of steam in the boiler exceeding theweight of one atmosphere the steam-valves should be opened, so as to admit live steamfrom theboiler into the vessel S, after which the valve Q, and the
valve 3 in the pipe Q should be opened, while the valve R in the pipe Q should be shut. This will ing gases from the top of the afford a continuous channel for the live steam from the boiler A through the vessel S, pipe G, the space between the vessels G and G, into the vessel 0, andfrom thence through the pipes It and Q into the conductor above the air-heater B. After atmospheric air has been expelled from the channel just described by the live steam from the boiler A the valve R in pipe Q should be shut. Then cold water should be introduced into the reservoir H, which will instantly condense the steam in the therein-contained portion of the pipe R, forming a partial vacuum behind the pistons in the cylinders F D.
1 would here add that in practice a small stream ofcold water should be kept constantly flowing into and out of the reservoir H to prevent the water therein from becoming heated. hen the steam-pressurein the boiler has become sufficient the valves in pipes M M should be opened, and at the same time the door ofthe ash-pit should be securely closed. The action of the cylinder D will at once give motion to theair-pump D and the water-pump L. From the pump D a current of air will be forced through the pipe N, vessel C, pipe R, air-heater B, pipe K, and from the latter pipe, by its two branches, into the ash-pit beneath the grate and out of the perforations in the combined air heater and distributer above the grate; or if the heating and distributing pipes-are not employed the air will be forced out of the apertures in the horizontal pipe E. Said air,in its course through vessel 0 and heater B, will become heated to a greater or lessintensity by the exhaust-steam in the vessel 0 and the escapboiler passing through the heater B.
The advantage of supplying heated air beneath the furnace-grate to carry on the process of combustion of the ignited fuel above it need not be herein set forth, and also the advantage of injecting heated gaseous elements containing oxygen and hydrogen gases in jets into the combustible gases rising from the ignited fuel is well known.
It will be observed in this connection that the combined air heater and distributer, composed of a vertical pipe conneet-ing with the horizontal pipe E and its perforated distributing-branches E, from its position in thefurnace ot' the boiler, serves to reheat the heated air and steam to a still greater intensity during their passage through it, whether they are discharged from the openings or apertures in pipe E or from the perforated pipes E.
By adopting the modification of the air heater and distributer which allows the pipes E to be raised or lowered, as described in my aforesaid patent, the said pipes maybe adjusted nearer to or farther from the ignited fuel than would be possible if the pipes were fixed permanently in one position. In this case the application of furnace-brick to the pipes E, or the incasingof each one of these pipesin acylinder of fire-clay, might in'some cases be desirable;
'ticularly described hereinafter.
'o 268, ll as The incasing-cylinders would be suitably perforated for the escape of the gaseous elements.
In some instances afan might be used instead of the air-pump D, although I prefer to use the air-pump.
As the perfect combustion of the fuel requires a certain volume of atmospheric air to every pound of carbon that the fuel may contain, when air alone is used to effect its combustion, by the use of an air-pump of a certain capacity, if the quantity of carbon in the fuel burned per hour is actually known, by giving a certain activity to the air-pump,rso that from three hundred and twenty-five to three hundred and fifty cubic feet of air will be supplied in a proper manner to the furnace to every pound of carbon consumed therein per hour, an approximately perfect combustion of fuel used may be realized; but in the application of an air-pump in the manner described for measuring the amount of air supplied to a furnace per hour the air must be heated before it is discharged in the furnace, and part of this heated air must be discharged into the current of combustible gases rising from the ignited fuel on the grate, as above described.
By means of the pipe P and its valve steam may be mixed with the air that is supplied to the furnace to carry on combustion.
In case of the dispersion of liquid and pulverized fuel, as set forth, the use of a certain volume of steam mixed with the air discharged into the furnace, especially when the barometer shows unusual density of the atmosphere, would conduce to a greater economy in fuel. The exhaust-steam, after leaving the steamchest F, comes in contact with the pipe G at the point at which it enters the vessel S, and near the point where the pipe G enters the boiler. This feature is very important, and will be par- After leaving the vessel S the exhaust-steam passes for a certain distance around the pipe G, which is inclosed in pipe G, and thence through this pipe to the vessel 0, where it traverses a channel or channels separate from the cold-air channel only. by the thickness of metal sufficient to withstand the steam-pressure. In this channel the condensation of steam to water at or below the boiling temperature is efi'eeted by the cold air, as described, while in a continuation of this same channel-viz., in the pipe R in the reservoir His a vacuum, thereby relieving the piston in the cylinder F of atmospheric pressure and greatly economizing power. In case that the current of cold air supplied by the air-pump D to the vessel 0 should not entirely condense to water the exhaust-steam passing to said vessel from the cylinders F and D, said steam will immediately pass to the pipe 1% in the reservoir H, where its condensation must take place. Thus the reservoir H, with its pipe, becomes a valuable anxiliary to the vessel (J, and should be of ample capacity to meet all of the necessary requirements.
ees we 7 If it should not be desired to relieve the pistons in the two engines ofatmospheric pressure when in use, the valveR, and also the
valve 3 in pipe Q, may be pened, al1owing a free channel from the vessel G outward to the 2 atmosphere. In such case the reservoir H and its pipe R could be dispensed with altogether.
The water of condensation will flow by its own gravity from vessel G through pipe 0 into v being flooded with the water of condensation should the force-pump cease to work properly. The alarm mechanism described would 'warn the attendant of any danger from the above cause. from reservoir 0, and the glass gage, with which it is provided, depended on to indicate to the eye-the depth of water it may contain.
The leakage of water from the boiler may be repaired by allowinga small stream to flow into the vessel G through the pipe 0, which leads to the reservoir H. If the stream is only sufficient to repair the waste in the boiler A, and is in correct proportion to the size of the vessel G, evaporation of said water in said vessel will take place as fast as it is admitted, from the effects of the heat of the exhauststeam passing around said vessel G. The steam resulting from the evaporation of said water will pass out of the perforated top of the vessel G and enter the vessel 0,.to be condensed with the exhaust-steam. 1f desired, water may be so freely admitted into the vessel G from reservoir H that it will pass through the perforated top of G and, with the exhaust-steam, enter the vessel 0. This would convert the steam-channel in vessel 0 into a water-heater. The water of condensation, after passing the force-pump L, enters the pipe G", whose interior is continuous with the interior of the boiler A. It should be borne in mind that when the water enters the pipe G through pump Lit is heated so as to be near the boiling-point, and that after entering pipe G it is still further heated by the exhaust-steam until it reaches the vessel S, where its temperature rises to only a few degrees below the temperature of the steam in the cylinder of the engine I It will be observed that in the vessel S the exhaust-steam from the cylinder F comes in direct contactwith the water-heating pipe G at or near the point at which its expansion commences to take place, thus communicating to said pipe a degree of heat a little below the heat of the steam in the boiler A, and-that it continues to give out heat as its expansion. takes place through the entire length of the This alarm mechanism maybe omittedenlarged portion of pipe'G. Consequently, with the water heated to. or near the boilingpoint, as it passes the pump L into the pipe G it is evident that-it will enter the boiler A in the manner specified at a temperature a few degrees below thetemperature of the water therein, if the steam is not worked expansively in the cylinders of t.heengines. The vessel b is only a continuation and'enlargement ot' the pipe G, and the water-heater within it is only an amplification of pipe G.
The importance of making the interior of the pipe G continuous with the interior of the boiler A must not be overlooked, as water heated to a temperature that the waterin said pipe acquires in the vessel S and the pipe G could not be readily returned by a pump or other apparatus to the boiler A. In some cases the air-heater B might be dispensed with, the heated air from the vessel G being couveyed directly to the furnace of the boiler A,
and, if desired, the water-heating apparatus (composed of vessel S, pipe G, and the pipe G) may be dispensed with, the water being returned directly to the boiler by the pump L.
In certain patents which have been granted to me, dated respectively June 8, 1867, January 4, 1881, and April 5, 1881, several forms of air heating and distributing apparatus are described for effecting the process of combustion of combustible gases rising from the ignited fuel; but in such case a separate chamber for such combustion is required. In the present application the greatest simplicity and durability are combined in an apparatus for the same purpose without the necessity of a separate combustion-chamber to complete the process of combustion, and a great advantage is derived from theparts being easily adjusted in case of repairs.
Having thus fully described my invention, what I claim as new, and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is-
1. The combination of the horizontal pipe E, its perpendicular pipe, the perforated distributing-pipes, and the loose joint-connections of :these pipes, substantially as described.
2. The combination ofthe air heating and distributing device, a furnace, the vessel 0, and
the air-heater B, substantially as described.
3. Thecombinatiouoftheairheatinganddistributin tr device, arrangedin the furnace above the grate, with the
4 and 5 above the grate for dispersing liquid and pulverized fuel, substantially as described. device
4. The combination of the vessel C, constructed of concentric tubes with closed extremities, forming spaces between said tubes, and the short connecting-tubes between said spaces, substantially as described.
5. The combination of the outside shell of the air-heater B, the heating-fines therein, and the transverse partitions, the latter being cut away at alternate portions of the diameter of said shell, whereby gaseous elements passing through said vessel under pressure in a zigzag direction will absorb a large amount of heat passing through the said tlues, substantially as described.
6. The combination of the air-pump D for measuring the volume of heated air supplied to the boiler-furnace, the air-heater at the top of the boiler, and the pipe-connections and their cocks between the said pump and heater, substantially as described.
7. The combination of the reservoir 0, the vessel 0, the pump L, and the pipe-connections provided with stop-cocks, substantially as described, and for the purposes specified.
S. ll he combination of the reservoir 0, airheating vessel (3, and the apparatus composed of the float and stem thereof, the notch W, the hinged arm, the spring, and an alarm, substantially as and for the purpose set forth.
9. The combination of the vessel G, the vessel G, the pipe 0, its stop-cock, the reservoir H, and the air-heating vessel 0, substantially as and for the purposespecified.
10. The combination of the air-heating vessel U, "essel G, its perforated top, the inclosing vessel G, and the outlet-pipe at the bottom, provided with a stop-cock, substantially as described.
11. The combination of the steam-pipe G with the apparatus consisting of the vessels G and G. the vessel 0, and the pump L, with their pipe-connections and stop-cocks, substantially as described.
12. The combination of the air-heating vessel G, the exhaust-pipe of engine F, the vessel S, the pipe Gr, the pipe G, boiler A, and pump L, the interior of pipe G being continuous with the boiler, substantially as described.
13. The combination of the air-heating vessel O, the engine-cylinder F, vessel S, pipe Gr, pipe G, and boiler A, substantially as described. v
14. The water-heating device consisting of the pipes G G, (with or \vithoutthe vessel 8,) in combination with the boiler A,pump L, reservoir G, and vessel 0, substantially as described.
15. The process consisting in heating the air by the exhaust used for carrying on the combustion of fuel and at the same time reheating the water derived from its condensation to a very high degree of temperature before the latter is returned to the boiler, substantially in the manner and for the purposes described. 16. The combination of the vessel 0, (as a Water-heater,) the vessels G and 6, and pipe 0 with the tube G, the air-pump,the pipe N, and reservoir H, substantially as described.
17. The combination, in a low-pressure engine, of the cylinder F, boiler A, vessel G,"reservoir G, water-pump L, ainpump 1), reservoir H, pipe R, air-heater B, and the pipes with cocks communicating with said parts, substantially as described.
In testimony that 1 claim the foregoing as my own I affix my signature in presence ottwo witnesses.
VIRGIL XV. BLANOHARI).
H. P. SIssoN, JOHN R. QUAIFE.
|Publication Number||Publication Date|
|US268176A true US268176A (en)||1882-11-28|
Family Applications (1)
|Application Number||Title||Priority Date||Filing Date|
|US268176D Expired - Lifetime US268176A (en)||blanchard|
Country Status (1)
|US (1)||US268176A (en)|
Cited By (2)
|Publication number||Priority date||Publication date||Assignee||Title|
|US3179152A (en) *||1961-02-09||1965-04-20||Babcock & Wilcox Co||Combination oil and gas burner|
|US4319458A (en) *||1979-04-23||1982-03-16||Berkley James R||Multiple pressure boiler with energy recovery system|
- US US268176D patent/US268176A/en not_active Expired - Lifetime
Cited By (2)
|Publication number||Priority date||Publication date||Assignee||Title|
|US3179152A (en) *||1961-02-09||1965-04-20||Babcock & Wilcox Co||Combination oil and gas burner|
|US4319458A (en) *||1979-04-23||1982-03-16||Berkley James R||Multiple pressure boiler with energy recovery system|
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