US2590706A - Gear-operated socket wrench - Google Patents

Gear-operated socket wrench Download PDF

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US2590706A
US2590706A US100600A US10060049A US2590706A US 2590706 A US2590706 A US 2590706A US 100600 A US100600 A US 100600A US 10060049 A US10060049 A US 10060049A US 2590706 A US2590706 A US 2590706A
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gear
rotor
tool
sleeve
passageway
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US100600A
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Isaac Pcter
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B25HAND TOOLS; PORTABLE POWER-DRIVEN TOOLS; MANIPULATORS
    • B25BTOOLS OR BENCH DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR, FOR FASTENING, CONNECTING, DISENGAGING OR HOLDING
    • B25B23/00Details of, or accessories for, spanners, wrenches, screwdrivers
    • B25B23/14Arrangement of torque limiters or torque indicators in wrenches or screwdrivers
    • B25B23/145Arrangement of torque limiters or torque indicators in wrenches or screwdrivers specially adapted for fluid operated wrenches or screwdrivers
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T408/00Cutting by use of rotating axially moving tool
    • Y10T408/65Means to drive tool

Definitions

  • This invention relates generally to fastening drivers and more particularly to a compressed air powered fastening driver for nuts, bolts, studs, screws, and the like.
  • my invention generally comprises a fastening driver for nuts, bolts, studs, screws, and the like, having a .-head portion, a handle portion, a tool-supporting sleeve rotatably mounted on said head portion,
  • a bladed rotor concentrically rotatably mounted upon said tool-supporting sleeve, speed reduction gearing operatively connecting said rotor and said tool-supporting sleeve, and a passageway leading through said handle portion into said head portion whereby compressed air may be directed to impinge upon the blades of said rotor, causing the latter to rotate and, through said reduction I se ring, causing said sleeve to rotate.
  • Figure 1 is a top plan view of the head end of one modification of the fastening driver of my invention.
  • Figure 2 is a cross-sectional view taken along the line 2--2 in Figure 1, with the adaptor removed from the tool-supporting sleeve.
  • Figure 3 is a fragmentary side view of the 2 device taken along the line 3-3 of Figure 1, generally illustrating the rotor blades and the flow of air in the head portion.
  • Figure 4 is a bottom plan view of the fastening driver with the cover partially cut away in the area of the head portion, and. the handle partially cut away in the area of the socket.
  • Figure 5 is a perspective view of the gearing employed in my device, with the rotor being removed for clarity, and the ring gear removed from the tool supporting sleeve for the same reason.
  • Reference character A designates the head portion of the device
  • reference-character B the handle portion.
  • Head portion A and handle portion 3 are formed from two co-operating cast-metal sections I0 and II which are joined together by screws 12 in the handle portion and screws l3 in the head portion.
  • the handle portion B is provided with recesses, as indicated at M, which accommodate theheads of screws [2.
  • a generally cylindrical passageway I5 extends through handle portion B and communicates with a passageway I6 of generally rectangular cross section located in the head portion A. Passageway it follows a circular course within head portion A through substantially 360 degrees, terminating at a wall ll disposed adjacent the Juneture of passageways l5 and Hi.
  • the outer end of handle portion B is provided with a threaded socket [8,;whereoy a flexible hose leading from a compressed air supply may be coupled to the handle, and compressed air delivered through passageway l5 into passageway I 6.
  • a poppet valve I9 is disposed within'passageway l5 and is normally urged against a valve seat 2% by means of a spring 2
  • a rotating mechanism is mounted within head portion A.
  • This mechanism comprises a tool supporting sleeve 22 which is journalled both in section II and in an annular cap member 23 which is associated with section It; a rotor 24, havin blades 25, a hub 25 journalled on toolsupporting sleeve 22, and a web 21-; four planetary compound gears 28 rotatably mounted within web 21 of rotor 24 and spaced substantially degrees apart from one another along a circle concentric with sleeve 22; a ring gear 29 rotatably mounted upon tool-supporting sleeve 22; and a spur gear 36 rigidly secured to, and concentrically disposed with respect to, tool-supporting sleeve 22.
  • Each planetary compound gear 28 consists of an axle 3
  • Gear wheel 32 is arranged to mesh with ring gear 29, and gear wheel 33 is arranged to mesh with spur gear 33.
  • Gear 32 is Slightly larger and has more teeth than gear 33.
  • An annular collar 34 extends from ring gear 29. Collar 34 has the same internal diameter as gear 29. When the device is assembled, ring gear 29 is held in position upon sleeve 22 by shoulder 34a on the sleeve and by the inward surface of cap member 23.
  • Two locking dogs 36 and 31 are pivotally mounted upon pins 38 and 39 respectively which extend inwardly from cap member 23. Looking dogs 36 and 31 are designed to engage slots 35 in collar 34 and hold ring gear 29 stationary when a fastening is being driven.
  • Cap member 23 is provided with an arcuate slot 49.
  • is mounted by means of nut 42 and washer 43 so that the stud is slidable in slot 40, and the free end 44 of the stud projects inwardly of cap member 23.
  • Tension springs 45 and 46 attached at one end to locking dogs 36 and 3! respectively, and at the other end to the end 44 of stud 4
  • Guide members one of which is shown at 46a in Figure 1, guide the course taken by the tension springs between the locking dogs and the stud 4
  • the tension of the springs 45 and 46 may be varied by loosening nut 42, sliding bolt 4
  • the under surface of washer 43 and the surface of cap member 23 in the area of slot 40 are preferably serrated to insure that there is no sliding of stud 4
  • Cap member 23 is provided with a downwardly depending flange 4'! (which forms a side wall of passageway l6), and a flange. 48, extending from flange 4'! at right angles thereto.
  • Flange 48 forms the bottom wall of passageway IS.
  • a plurality of orifices 49 are formed in the bottom wall of passageway H5. The orifices 49 decrease in size the further they are disposed along the passageway I6 from the entrance thereof (see Figure 1). The orifices 49 are formed at a small angle to the direction of travel of the compressed air through passageway
  • Blades 25 are curved, as seen in Figure 3, and a plurality of exhaust of ports are provided in the portion of section II disposed beneath the rotor blades 25.
  • a tool adaptor C (see Figure 2), having a shank 5
  • Various fastening gripping tools are mountable upon the adaptor C; for example, if it were desired to drive a one-inch hexagonal nut, then a one-inch hexagonal socket member would be mounted upon the adaptor C'.
  • Handle portion B is coupled to a source of compressed air, and shank 5
  • Suitable socket member is placed upon the adaptor C.
  • Nut 42 is loosened and stud 4
  • the socket member is placed in position upon the nut which is to be tightened.
  • valve I9 Operating button 2
  • the rotation of the rotor causes tool supporting sleeve 22 to rotate also but at a greatly reduced speed and with increased force. Rotation is imparted to the tool-supporting sleeve in the following manner.
  • planetary compound gears 28 which are disposed in the web of the rotor, are carried with the rotor.
  • the dogs 36 which lockingly engage slots 35 in the collar 34 of ring gear 29, hold ring gear 29 stationary.
  • Ring gear 29 meshes with gear wheels 32 of the planetary compound gears 28.
  • Gear wheels 32 are caused to rotate about their own axes as well as revolving concentrically about tool-supporting sleeve 22. wheels 32 is transferred to gear wheels 33, since gears 32 and 33 have common axles.
  • the gear wheels 33 mesh with spur gear 30 which is rigidly secured to tool-supporting sleeve 22.
  • Sleeve 22 is driven at a greatly reduced speed compared to that imparted to the rotor 24.
  • R0- tation of tool supporting sleeve 22 drives the nut through the adaptor C and the socket member.
  • a compressed air powered fastening driver for nuts, bolts, studs, screws and the like comprising a head portion, a handle portion, a toolsupporting sleeve rotatably mounted in said head portion, a bladed rotor concentrically rotatably mounted upon said tool-supporting sleeve, speed reduction gearing operatively connecting said rotor and said tool-supporting sleeve, and a passageway leading through said handle portion into said head portion whereby compressed air may be directed to impinge upon the blades of said rotor, causing the latter to rotate and, through said reduction gearing, causing said sleeve to rotate, said rotor including an inwardly extending web that terminates in a hub member, said hub member being journalled on said toolsupporting sleeve, said speed reduction gearing comprising a spur gear rigidly secured to, and concentrically disposed with respect to, said toolsupporting sleeve, planetary compound gears journalled in the web of said
  • a compressed air powered fastening driver as defined in claim 1 and means for throwing said reduction gearing out of operative connection with said tool-supporting sleeve comprising a collar extending from said ring gear, said collar being disposed concentrically with respect to said sleeve, slots in said collar, locking dogs pivotally mounted within said head portion, tension springs urging said dogs into engagement with the said slots in said collar whereby said ring gear may be held against rotation, and means for varying the tension applied to said springs, said dogs coming out of engagement with said slots against the action of said springs when the resistance to turning presented by a fastening being driven by said tool-supporting sleeve overcomes the tendency of said springs to maintain said dogs in engagement with said slots.

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  • Engineering & Computer Science (AREA)
  • Mechanical Engineering (AREA)
  • Details Of Spanners, Wrenches, And Screw Drivers And Accessories (AREA)

Description

March 25, 1952 P, .SAA' 2,590,706
GEAR-OPERATED SOCKET WRENCH Filed June 22, 1949 2 Sl-IEETS-SHEET l fave/liar p/ETE/Q [SA/(c6 wia 2 SHEETS-SHEET 2 Filed June 22, 1949 fzuenior P5 75R [SAAC Patented Mar. 25, 1952 UNITED- STATES PATENT OFFICE 2 Claims. 1 This invention relates generally to fastening drivers and more particularly to a compressed air powered fastening driver for nuts, bolts, studs, screws, and the like.
It is the principal object of the present inven- Y vention to provide a light, compact, portable fasforce and a lesser speed than that imparted to the rotor.
It is a further object of the invention to provide a compressed air powered fastening driver which will drive a fastening in either a clockwise or an anti-clockwise direction.
It is a still further object of the invention to provide a compressed air powered fastening driver having a rotor and a tool-supporting sleeve, in which the tool supporting sleeve is driven by the rotor as long as a certain resistance to turning is not setup by the fastening, and in which a plurality of settings are available for pre-selection of the drive-cessation resistance relationship.
It is a further object of the invention to provide acompressed air powered fastening driver having valve means for varying the amount of compressed air delivered to the rotor.
With these and other objects in view my invention generally comprises a fastening driver for nuts, bolts, studs, screws, and the like, having a .-head portion, a handle portion, a tool-supporting sleeve rotatably mounted on said head portion,
a bladed rotor concentrically rotatably mounted upon said tool-supporting sleeve, speed reduction gearing operatively connecting said rotor and said tool-supporting sleeve, and a passageway leading through said handle portion into said head portion whereby compressed air may be directed to impinge upon the blades of said rotor, causing the latter to rotate and, through said reduction I se ring, causing said sleeve to rotate.
Figure 1 is a top plan view of the head end of one modification of the fastening driver of my invention.
Figure 2 is a cross-sectional view taken along the line 2--2 in Figure 1, with the adaptor removed from the tool-supporting sleeve.
Figure 3 is a fragmentary side view of the 2 device taken along the line 3-3 of Figure 1, generally illustrating the rotor blades and the flow of air in the head portion.
Figure 4 is a bottom plan view of the fastening driver with the cover partially cut away in the area of the head portion, and. the handle partially cut away in the area of the socket.
Figure 5 is a perspective view of the gearing employed in my device, with the rotor being removed for clarity, and the ring gear removed from the tool supporting sleeve for the same reason.
Throughout the several figures, like reference characters refer to like parts. The modification of the fastening driver of my invention which has been shown in the attached drawings will now be described in detail with reference to these drawings. Reference character A designates the head portion of the device, and reference-character B the handle portion. Head portion A and handle portion 3 are formed from two co-operating cast-metal sections I0 and II which are joined together by screws 12 in the handle portion and screws l3 in the head portion. -The handle portion B is provided with recesses, as indicated at M, which accommodate theheads of screws [2.
A generally cylindrical passageway I5 extends through handle portion B and communicates with a passageway I6 of generally rectangular cross section located in the head portion A. Passageway it follows a circular course within head portion A through substantially 360 degrees, terminating at a wall ll disposed adjacent the Juneture of passageways l5 and Hi. The outer end of handle portion B is provided with a threaded socket [8,;whereoy a flexible hose leading from a compressed air supply may be coupled to the handle, and compressed air delivered through passageway l5 into passageway I 6.
A poppet valve I9 is disposed within'passageway l5 and is normally urged against a valve seat 2% by means of a spring 2|, which presses upwardly upon operating button 21a of the valve. To open the valve, operating button 2m is depressed. I
A rotating mechanism is mounted within head portion A. This mechanism comprises a tool supporting sleeve 22 which is journalled both in section II and in an annular cap member 23 which is associated with section It; a rotor 24, havin blades 25, a hub 25 journalled on toolsupporting sleeve 22, and a web 21-; four planetary compound gears 28 rotatably mounted within web 21 of rotor 24 and spaced substantially degrees apart from one another along a circle concentric with sleeve 22; a ring gear 29 rotatably mounted upon tool-supporting sleeve 22; and a spur gear 36 rigidly secured to, and concentrically disposed with respect to, tool-supporting sleeve 22.
Each planetary compound gear 28 consists of an axle 3| (which is journalled in the rotor web 21), a gear wheel 32 rigidly secured to one end of axle 3|, and a gear wheel 33 rigidly secured to the other end of axle 3|. Gear wheel 32 is arranged to mesh with ring gear 29, and gear wheel 33 is arranged to mesh with spur gear 33. Gear 32 is Slightly larger and has more teeth than gear 33.
An annular collar 34 extends from ring gear 29. Collar 34 has the same internal diameter as gear 29. When the device is assembled, ring gear 29 is held in position upon sleeve 22 by shoulder 34a on the sleeve and by the inward surface of cap member 23.
Two slots 35 are formed in collar 34.
Two locking dogs 36 and 31 are pivotally mounted upon pins 38 and 39 respectively which extend inwardly from cap member 23. Looking dogs 36 and 31 are designed to engage slots 35 in collar 34 and hold ring gear 29 stationary when a fastening is being driven.
Cap member 23 is provided with an arcuate slot 49. A stud 4| is mounted by means of nut 42 and washer 43 so that the stud is slidable in slot 40, and the free end 44 of the stud projects inwardly of cap member 23. Tension springs 45 and 46, attached at one end to locking dogs 36 and 3! respectively, and at the other end to the end 44 of stud 4|, are provided to urge the dogs into locking engagement with the slots 35. Guide members, one of which is shown at 46a in Figure 1, guide the course taken by the tension springs between the locking dogs and the stud 4|. The tension of the springs 45 and 46 may be varied by loosening nut 42, sliding bolt 4| to a new position, and tightening nut 42. The under surface of washer 43 and the surface of cap member 23 in the area of slot 40 are preferably serrated to insure that there is no sliding of stud 4| once nut 42 has been tightened.
Cap member 23 is provided with a downwardly depending flange 4'! (which forms a side wall of passageway l6), and a flange. 48, extending from flange 4'! at right angles thereto. Flange 48 forms the bottom wall of passageway IS. A plurality of orifices 49 are formed in the bottom wall of passageway H5. The orifices 49 decrease in size the further they are disposed along the passageway I6 from the entrance thereof (see Figure 1). The orifices 49 are formed at a small angle to the direction of travel of the compressed air through passageway |6 (see Figure 3). Blades 25 are curved, as seen in Figure 3, and a plurality of exhaust of ports are provided in the portion of section II disposed beneath the rotor blades 25.
A tool adaptor C (see Figure 2), having a shank 5| of square cross-section is partially insertable in the square passageway 52 extending through tool-supporting sleeve 22, so as to project either outwardly from section I0, or from section II, dependant upon whether clockwise or anti-clockwise rotation of the fastening is desired. Various fastening gripping tools are mountable upon the adaptor C; for example, if it were desired to drive a one-inch hexagonal nut, then a one-inch hexagonal socket member would be mounted upon the adaptor C'.
It will be appreciated that the wide variety of fastenings which may be driven with the device of my invention, require to be driven with widely differing maximum forces. My means for holding ring gear 29 stationary takes this requirement into account. Adjustment of stud 4| in 43 enables the operator of my device to vary the tension of springs and 46 and thereby vary the tendency of locking dogs 36 and 3'! to lock in slots 35 of collar 34. When the fastening which the operator is attempting to drive presents a greater resistance to turning than the operator anticipates in his application of tension to the springs 45 and 46, then looking dogs 36 and 31 come out of engagement with slots 35, ring gear I9 is free to rotate, and no power is transmitted to sleeve 22. Scale 53, on cap member 23 adjacent slot 43, and a suitable indicator on washer 43, enable the operator to develop skill in the setting of tension in the springs 45 and 46.
The operation of the device will now be described with respect to the tightening of a nut. Handle portion B is coupled to a source of compressed air, and shank 5| of adapator C is inserted in the square passageway 52 of tool-supporting sleeve 22. Suitable socket member is placed upon the adaptor C. Nut 42 is loosened and stud 4| is moved to a position which applies the desired amount of tension to springs 45 and 46. The socket member is placed in position upon the nut which is to be tightened.
Operating button 2|a of valve I9 is depressed whereupon compressed air flows through passageway |5 into passageway l6.
As the compressed air travels through passageway l6 some of the air escapes through each orifice 49. Air rushing through orifices 49 impinges upon blades 25 of the rotor 24, causing the latter to rotate. After impinging upon the blades 25, the air is exhausted through ports 59 in section II.
The rotation of the rotor causes tool supporting sleeve 22 to rotate also but at a greatly reduced speed and with increased force. Rotation is imparted to the tool-supporting sleeve in the following manner. As the rotor 24 rotates, planetary compound gears 28, which are disposed in the web of the rotor, are carried with the rotor. The dogs 36, which lockingly engage slots 35 in the collar 34 of ring gear 29, hold ring gear 29 stationary. Ring gear 29 meshes with gear wheels 32 of the planetary compound gears 28. Gear wheels 32 are caused to rotate about their own axes as well as revolving concentrically about tool-supporting sleeve 22. wheels 32 is transferred to gear wheels 33, since gears 32 and 33 have common axles. The gear wheels 33 mesh with spur gear 30 which is rigidly secured to tool-supporting sleeve 22. Sleeve 22 is driven at a greatly reduced speed compared to that imparted to the rotor 24. R0- tation of tool supporting sleeve 22 drives the nut through the adaptor C and the socket member.
When the nut which is being driven is sufficiently tightened the forces resisting turning are greater than the ability of dogs 36 to remain in locking engagement with slots 35. Looking dogs 36 slip out of the slots 35, and ring gear 29 is permitted to rotate freely about the toolsupporting sleeve. The rotor 24 will continue to rotate as long as compressed air enters passageway |6. Rotor 24 will carry the planetary compound gears 28 and ring gear 29 will continue to rotate, with sleeve 22 remaining stationary. All
The motion of gear rotation ceases when valve I9, is permitted to return to valve seat 2|.
It is intended that the present disclosure should not be construed in any limiting sense other than that indicated by the scope of the following claims.
What I claim as my invention is:
l. A compressed air powered fastening driver for nuts, bolts, studs, screws and the like, comprising a head portion, a handle portion, a toolsupporting sleeve rotatably mounted in said head portion, a bladed rotor concentrically rotatably mounted upon said tool-supporting sleeve, speed reduction gearing operatively connecting said rotor and said tool-supporting sleeve, and a passageway leading through said handle portion into said head portion whereby compressed air may be directed to impinge upon the blades of said rotor, causing the latter to rotate and, through said reduction gearing, causing said sleeve to rotate, said rotor including an inwardly extending web that terminates in a hub member, said hub member being journalled on said toolsupporting sleeve, said speed reduction gearing comprising a spur gear rigidly secured to, and concentrically disposed with respect to, said toolsupporting sleeve, planetary compound gears journalled in the web of said rotor, and a ring gear journalled upon said tool-supporting sleeve, each of said planetary compound gears comprising an axle and two gear wheels rigidly secured to op: posed ends of said axle, one of the gears of the 6 planetary compound gear meshing with said spur gear, the other of the gears of said planetary compound gear meshing with said ring gear.
2. A compressed air powered fastening driver as defined in claim 1 and means for throwing said reduction gearing out of operative connection with said tool-supporting sleeve comprising a collar extending from said ring gear, said collar being disposed concentrically with respect to said sleeve, slots in said collar, locking dogs pivotally mounted within said head portion, tension springs urging said dogs into engagement with the said slots in said collar whereby said ring gear may be held against rotation, and means for varying the tension applied to said springs, said dogs coming out of engagement with said slots against the action of said springs when the resistance to turning presented by a fastening being driven by said tool-supporting sleeve overcomes the tendency of said springs to maintain said dogs in engagement with said slots.
PETER ISAAC.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file ofthis patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 1,405,739 Ratz Feb. 7, 1922 2,244,446 Clark June 3, 1941 2,423,957 Amtsberg July 15, 194'?
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Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2863347A (en) * 1956-04-26 1958-12-09 Gorman R Nelson Torque-transmitting tool for coupling nuts and the like
US3983759A (en) * 1975-09-02 1976-10-05 Linden Craig L Double-acting wrench

Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1405739A (en) * 1922-02-07 Bolting-up device
US2244446A (en) * 1939-04-18 1941-06-03 Clark Ernest Mechanism for driving the worker rolls of wool cards
US2423957A (en) * 1942-09-14 1947-07-15 Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co Driver for clinch nuts and the like

Patent Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1405739A (en) * 1922-02-07 Bolting-up device
US2244446A (en) * 1939-04-18 1941-06-03 Clark Ernest Mechanism for driving the worker rolls of wool cards
US2423957A (en) * 1942-09-14 1947-07-15 Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co Driver for clinch nuts and the like

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2863347A (en) * 1956-04-26 1958-12-09 Gorman R Nelson Torque-transmitting tool for coupling nuts and the like
US3983759A (en) * 1975-09-02 1976-10-05 Linden Craig L Double-acting wrench

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