US2566087A - Tube of the magnetron type for ultra-short waves - Google Patents

Tube of the magnetron type for ultra-short waves Download PDF

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US2566087A
US2566087A US23063A US2306348A US2566087A US 2566087 A US2566087 A US 2566087A US 23063 A US23063 A US 23063A US 2306348 A US2306348 A US 2306348A US 2566087 A US2566087 A US 2566087A
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cathode
tube
ultra
electrons
anode
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US23063A
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Lerbs Alfred
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Thales SA
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CSF Compagnie Generale de Telegraphie Sans Fil SA
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01JELECTRIC DISCHARGE TUBES OR DISCHARGE LAMPS
    • H01J25/00Transit-time tubes, e.g. klystrons, travelling-wave tubes, magnetrons
    • H01J25/34Travelling-wave tubes; Tubes in which a travelling wave is simulated at spaced gaps
    • H01J25/42Tubes in which an electron stream interacts with a wave travelling along a delay line or equivalent sequence of impedance elements, and with a magnet system producing an H-field crossing the E-field
    • H01J25/44Tubes in which an electron stream interacts with a wave travelling along a delay line or equivalent sequence of impedance elements, and with a magnet system producing an H-field crossing the E-field the forward travelling wave being utilised
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01JELECTRIC DISCHARGE TUBES OR DISCHARGE LAMPS
    • H01J25/00Transit-time tubes, e.g. klystrons, travelling-wave tubes, magnetrons
    • H01J25/74Tubes specially designed to act as transit-time diode oscillators, e.g. monotrons

Description

Aug. 28, 1951 A. LERBS 2,566,087
TUBE OF THE MAGNETRON TYPE FOR ULTRA SHORT WAVES Filed April 24, 1948 '2 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTOR ALFRED LE 5 By; "I I 5 AC NTS Aug. 28, 1951 A. LERBS TUBE OF THE MAGNETRON TYPE FOR ULTRA SHORT WAVES Filed April 24, 1948 2 Sheets- Sheet 2 .z'hlvs/vral HLFRE. Lsnaa Patented Aug. 28, 1951 TUBE OF THE MAGNETRON TYPE FOR ULTRA-SHORT WAVES Alfred Lerbs, Paris, France, assignor to Compagnie Generale de Telegraphic Sans Fil, a corporation of France Application April 24, 1948, Serial No. 23,063
In France June 13, 1947 3 Claims. (Cl. 315-39) This invention relates to electronic tubes of the type generally disclosed by Dohler, Kleen and Huber in their application Serial No. 794,164 filed December 27, 1947, and now Patent No. 2,511,407, and which are intended for the transmission of ultrav short waves and operating by an exchange of energy between an electro-magnetic wave cir culating in the interior of the tube and the electrons which are propelled by a circular movement, the invention being more particularly applicable to magnetrons and like tubes using a magnetic field which is at right angles to the electric field accelerating the electrons.
The latter tubes have such a shape that the electro-magnetic wave circulates therein with a decelerated speed and having more particularly a phase velocity equal to that of the electrons so that a multiple interaction takes place between the wave and the electrons.
Hitherto magnetrons have been used exclusively for the generation of oscillations and their easy self-starting has prevented them from being used for other purposes and more particularly as amplifiers. In magnetrons with split anode the anode members may be considered as elementary self-inductances and capacities causing a certain retardation of the wave circulating therein, which wave is the result of the interaction of the magnetic and electric fields created in the tube.
The electronic flux moves around a cathode having generally a circular section. The selfexcitation of these tubes is more particularly due to .two phenomena; the wave traverses the same circular anode circuit several times; the same electron effect several complete revolutions and thus exchanges energy several times with the same field. These phenomena can be compared to a retroactive coupling resulting in self-excitation of the tube which becomes unstable and is useless as regards amplification.
The object of the invention is to provide a new mode of producing magnetrons and like tubes in which this self-starting is avoided and which are consequently suitable for amplification and other associated operations, such as detection, etc. requiring stable operation.
According to the invention the tube is provided in addition to the usual output circuit with coupling means which enables incident oscillations which are to be amplified, detected, etc. to be applied thereto, these two circuits being clearly separated from one another and the tube being dimensioned in such a manner that the wave circulating therein, fed by the incoming signal is so decelerated that its speed of propagation becomes equal to that of the circulation or the electrons. In this way the exchange of energy between them is greatly increased and one obtains an increased output and good efliciency. On the other hand the tube referred to is very easily self-started and in order to avoid this means are provided such that the electrons after they have exchanged the energy with the circulating wave during a single complete cycle no longer return to the input circuit.
According to a modification use is made of a screen of conducting material arranged between the input and output circuit.
According to another modification the effect of the screen is obtained by a repulsive electric field. The decoupling of the input and output circuits is accentuated by the interruption of the trajectory of propagation of the electro-magnetic wave.
The invention is more particularly described with reference to the accompanying drawings illustrating it by way of example only without limiting it thereto, and wherein:
Figure l is a view largely diagrammatic illustrating a magnetron the anode A of which comprises a number of gaps terminating in cavity resonators C1, C2, C: etc.
Figure 2 is a similar view showing a modification of the coupling with the outer circuit;
Figure 3 is a transverse sectional view of a com-, plete magnetron embodied in accordance with the invention;
Figure 4 is a sectional view along line bb' of Figure 3;
Figure 5 is a further sectional view along line cut of Figure 3; and
Figure 6 is a view similar to Figure 1 showin how feed-back is prevented by a repulsive field.
As shown in Figure l, the cavity resonators are uniformly distributed over the larger part of the periphery of the anode; the part between A1 and A2 is not recessed. The incident oscillations are introduced by any suitable means such as the loop E in one of the cavities, namely C1. The energy is taken off by the loop S inserted in another cavity. The magnetic field is applied in a direction B, determined by the mutual position of the inlet and outlet terminals and a continuous potential is applied between the cathode K and the anode imparting to the latter a positive potential and creating the radial field of the acceleration of the electrons. Under the action of these two fields the electrons are displaced along .a trajectory shown by the circular arrow F. The signal applied at E produces an electromagnetic tion and by suitably dimensioning the tube the speed can be made substantially equal to that of the electrons. The speed of the electrons is tion:
V=E1/B E1 being the radial electric field and B the ma'gnetic field.
On the other hand one could consider the circular space between the anode and the cathode as a succession of coupled circuits such as the one shown in dotted lines to which one could apply the theory of transmission lines; in these circumstances the phase velocity Vp of the wave circulating therein would be:
In this formula Z is the linear extension of "an elementary quadripole of this line along the periphery of the anode, L is the series selfinductance and C the transverse capacity of the elementary quadripole such as illustrated in dotted lines. For determining these values the couplings between the elementary circuits have also to be borne in mind. In order to increase the power of the tube and its efiiciency one should ensure that augmented interaction takes place between the electrons and the wave and for this purpose make V and V1) equal to one another.
A tube as above described has the very pronounced tendency to start on its own initiation and'for this reason would not'be suitable'for amplification.
The self-starting is prevented by suppressing feed-back between the input and output circuits and more particularly by stopping the electrons and also the wave after they have traversed a complete cycle. For this purpose a break of the transmission is provided in the region between the dotted lines M1 and M. In this figure the break is ensured by means of a screen of conducting material P'P to which a suitable potential is preferably applied with respect to the cathode and more particularly a positive potential with respect thereto by connecting it for example to the body of the anode. On the other hand the circuit of the wave is interrupted by dispensing with "the cavity resonators between A1 and A modification is shown in Figure 2 in which the coupling with the outer circuits is more suitable for adaptation to the conditions of these circuits, being more particularly suitable for connection to an aerial.
The incoming and outgoing waves are sent through rectangular guides GE and Gs connected to the resonant cavities -by guiding sections of the wave length M4 intended for the transformation of the voltage.
Referring to Figures 3, '4 and 5, a metallic envelope T contains a cathode K, ananodeA, and :ascreen :P, these electrodes being-provided Owing 1 given by the equa- I in serpentine.
with input and output passages E, O, P, K. The magnetic poles N and S, seen in Figure 5, furnish the magnetic field. In order to increase the interaction efiiciency between the retarded wave and the electrons, it is of interest to increase the number of anodic slots 0. Such an arrangement is equivalent to the increase of the number of coupled circuits and thus there is assured a wider pass-band. The section of Figure 4 shows a fragmentary View of the anode and shows that the anodic elements are arranged The arrows F-F indicate the sense of rotation of the electrons, and the arrow 13 indicates the direction of magnetic field.
Finally in the arrangement according to Figure 6 the feed-back is prevented by the creation of a repulsive field between the inlet and outlet circuits by means of an auxiliary electrode U to which a suitable potential is applied relatively to the cathode.
Although the tubes hereinbefore described show certain similarities with themagnetroh they differ therefrom in various important respect's. They are provided with an outlet electr'ode and withan inlet electrode betweenwhich means are provided which prevent the retroaction. They are so dimensioned that the incoming signal produces an electro-magnetic wave which is displaced at the same speed as the electrons; the magnetic field directed towards the cathode has to-be constant and have at the same time a definite polarity, whereas in the case of magnetrons its inversion does not infiu'ence their operation. Finally the arrangement of their electrodes cannot be circular and in certain cases the cathode can even be out of axial alignment with respect to the anode.
I claim:
1. Ultra high frequency amplifier tube com--; prising, a cylindrical cathode, a cylindrical anode surrounding said cathode and provided with an input terminal and an output terminal for ultra high frequency, a delay line extending in the plane perpendicular to the cathode axis and incorporated in said anode on an are comprised between the input terminal and the output terminal, means for connecting a voltage source between the cathode and anode for producing an electric field between these two electrodes, means for producing a magnetic field parallel to the axis of the cathode and in such direction that the electrons emitted by the cathode are displaced, under, the combined influence of the electric field and of the magnetic field, parallel to the delay line in the direction from the input to the output terminals, and means comprising a screen with means whereby a voltage negative respecting the cathode may be impressed thereon and arranged between the cathode and the anode within the limits of the arc complementary to that occupied by the delay line, for preventing the electrons and the ultra high 'frequency of the output from following the path between the output terminal and the input terminal alon said complementary arc.
2. Ultra high frequency amplifier tube comprising, a cylindrical cathode, a cylindrical anode surrounding said cathode and provided with an input terminal and an output terminal for ultra high frequency, a delay line extending in the.
plane perpendicular to the cathode axis and incorporated in said anode on an are comprised between the input terminal and the output terminal, means for connecting a voltage source between :the cathoderand anodeior producing an electric field between these two electrodes, means for producing a magnetic field parallel to the axis of the cathode and in such direction that the electrons emitted by the cathode are displaced, under the combined influence of the electric field and of the magnetic field, parallel to the delay line in the direction from the input to the output terminals, and means comprising an electrode with means whereby a voltage negative respecting the cathode may be impressed thereon and arranged outside the electronic path in the anodic zone complementary to the are occupied by the delay line, for preventing the electrons and the ultra high frequency of the output from following the path between the output terminal and the input terminal along said complementary are.
3. Ultra high frequency amplifying tube comprising, a cylindrical cathode, a cylindrical anode surrounding said cathode and provided with an 20 these two electrodes, means for producing a magnetic field parallel to the axis of the cathode and having a direction such that the electrons emitted by the cathode are displaced, under the combined influence of the electric field and of the magnetic field, parallel to the delay line in the direction of the input to the output terminal, and means outside the electron path in the anodic zone complementary to the arc occupied by the delay line for preventing the electrons and the ultra high frequency from the output from following the path between the output terminal and the input terminal along the complement of the aforesaid arc.
ALFRED LERBS.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 2,419,172 Smith Apr. 15, 1947 2,423,716 McArthur July 8, 1947 2,429,291 Okress Oct. 21, 1947 2,433,481 Retherford Dec. 30, 1947 2,439,401 Smith Apr. 13, 1948
US23063A 1947-06-13 1948-04-24 Tube of the magnetron type for ultra-short waves Expired - Lifetime US2566087A (en)

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Cited By (37)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2620458A (en) * 1949-03-31 1952-12-02 Raytheon Mfg Co Microwave amplifier
US2632866A (en) * 1949-12-31 1953-03-24 Gen Electric Velocity modulation electron discharge device
US2645737A (en) * 1949-06-30 1953-07-14 Univ Leland Stanford Junior Traveling wave tube
US2657314A (en) * 1947-11-18 1953-10-27 Csf Ultra short wave generator having a wide band of oscillation frequencies
US2680825A (en) * 1949-03-07 1954-06-08 Csf Traveling-wave amplifying tube
US2681427A (en) * 1949-04-23 1954-06-15 Raytheon Mfg Co Microwave amplifier
US2687777A (en) * 1948-07-20 1954-08-31 Csf Thermionic tube for ultrashort waves
US2688106A (en) * 1948-07-20 1954-08-31 Csf Traveling wave amplifying tube with a magnetic field
US2697799A (en) * 1948-12-01 1954-12-21 Ericsson Telefon Ab L M Amplifying device for microwaves
US2749523A (en) * 1951-12-01 1956-06-05 Itt Band pass filters
US2760111A (en) * 1950-06-28 1956-08-21 Beverly D Kumpfer Magnetron amplifier
US2760112A (en) * 1950-07-27 1956-08-21 M O Valve Co Ltd Electrical amplifying devices
US2761088A (en) * 1949-02-22 1956-08-28 Csf Travelling-wave amplifying tube
US2764710A (en) * 1951-03-17 1956-09-25 Zenith Radio Corp Signal-translating devices of the traveling-wave type
US2770780A (en) * 1951-04-23 1956-11-13 Csf Symmetrical interdigital line for travelling wave tubes
US2770754A (en) * 1950-01-20 1956-11-13 Csf Transverse field travelling wave tube
US2774913A (en) * 1951-05-31 1956-12-18 Csf Electron discharge tube with crossed electric and magnetic fields
US2786959A (en) * 1952-11-29 1957-03-26 Csf Traveling wave tubes
US2787734A (en) * 1949-06-10 1957-04-02 Int Standard Electric Corp Broadband magnetron
US2788465A (en) * 1951-04-19 1957-04-09 Itt Traveling wave electron discharge device
US2791717A (en) * 1950-03-13 1957-05-07 Csf Travelling wave tube with crossed electric and magnetic fields and transversely directed beam
US2794146A (en) * 1949-02-23 1957-05-28 Csf Ultra-high frequency amplifying tube
US2802141A (en) * 1949-03-16 1957-08-06 Raytheon Mfg Co Electron discharge devices
US2806179A (en) * 1954-04-05 1957-09-10 Westinghouse Electric Corp Strapless resonator system
US2808532A (en) * 1951-10-26 1957-10-01 Univ Leland Stanford Junior Space harmonic amplifiers
US2823332A (en) * 1951-06-08 1958-02-11 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Microwave amplifier device
US2827588A (en) * 1951-04-28 1958-03-18 Csf Travelling wave discharge tube arrangements utilizing delay lines
US2828443A (en) * 1951-07-28 1958-03-25 Raytheon Mfg Co Electron discharge devices
US2828439A (en) * 1952-03-14 1958-03-25 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Space charge amplifier
US2850671A (en) * 1952-01-24 1958-09-02 Raytheon Mfg Co Magnetron amplifiers
US2863092A (en) * 1953-08-05 1958-12-02 Raytheon Mfg Co Magnetron oscillators
US2888595A (en) * 1951-03-15 1959-05-26 Csf Travelling wave delay tubes of the magnetron type
US2895071A (en) * 1952-12-23 1959-07-14 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Traveling wave tube
US2925567A (en) * 1954-05-12 1960-02-16 Siemens Ag Retardation conductor for variable field electronic tubes or the like
US2943235A (en) * 1955-12-19 1960-06-28 British Thomson Houston Co Ltd High frequency oscillators
US3255422A (en) * 1962-08-07 1966-06-07 Sfd Lab Inc Pulsed crossed-field devices
US3309660A (en) * 1961-05-26 1967-03-14 Mourier Georges Electron discharge amplifier device

Families Citing this family (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2859411A (en) * 1953-06-19 1958-11-04 Raytheon Mfg Co Modulated traveling-wave tube
DE953102C (en) * 1953-12-03 1956-11-29 Deutsche Elektronik Gmbh Magnetic field tubes for amplification or frequency transformation of very short waves
DE1260035B (en) * 1957-05-06 1968-02-01 Siemens Ag Running field pipes in the manner of a magnetron for generating or amplifying millimeter waves
US4082979A (en) * 1976-09-29 1978-04-04 Varian Associates, Inc. Method and apparatus for reducing noise in crossed-field amplifiers

Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2419172A (en) * 1943-11-19 1947-04-15 Rca Corp Electron discharge device having coupled coaxial line resonators
US2423716A (en) * 1943-03-20 1947-07-08 Gen Electric Ultra high frequency magnetron of the resonator type
US2429291A (en) * 1943-07-01 1947-10-21 Westinghouse Electric Corp Magnetron
US2433481A (en) * 1943-07-01 1947-12-30 Westinghouse Electric Corp Magnetron
US2439401A (en) * 1942-09-10 1948-04-13 Raytheon Mfg Co Magnetron oscillator of the resonant cavity type

Patent Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2439401A (en) * 1942-09-10 1948-04-13 Raytheon Mfg Co Magnetron oscillator of the resonant cavity type
US2423716A (en) * 1943-03-20 1947-07-08 Gen Electric Ultra high frequency magnetron of the resonator type
US2429291A (en) * 1943-07-01 1947-10-21 Westinghouse Electric Corp Magnetron
US2433481A (en) * 1943-07-01 1947-12-30 Westinghouse Electric Corp Magnetron
US2419172A (en) * 1943-11-19 1947-04-15 Rca Corp Electron discharge device having coupled coaxial line resonators

Cited By (37)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2657314A (en) * 1947-11-18 1953-10-27 Csf Ultra short wave generator having a wide band of oscillation frequencies
US2687777A (en) * 1948-07-20 1954-08-31 Csf Thermionic tube for ultrashort waves
US2688106A (en) * 1948-07-20 1954-08-31 Csf Traveling wave amplifying tube with a magnetic field
US2697799A (en) * 1948-12-01 1954-12-21 Ericsson Telefon Ab L M Amplifying device for microwaves
US2761088A (en) * 1949-02-22 1956-08-28 Csf Travelling-wave amplifying tube
US2794146A (en) * 1949-02-23 1957-05-28 Csf Ultra-high frequency amplifying tube
US2680825A (en) * 1949-03-07 1954-06-08 Csf Traveling-wave amplifying tube
US2802141A (en) * 1949-03-16 1957-08-06 Raytheon Mfg Co Electron discharge devices
US2620458A (en) * 1949-03-31 1952-12-02 Raytheon Mfg Co Microwave amplifier
US2681427A (en) * 1949-04-23 1954-06-15 Raytheon Mfg Co Microwave amplifier
US2787734A (en) * 1949-06-10 1957-04-02 Int Standard Electric Corp Broadband magnetron
US2645737A (en) * 1949-06-30 1953-07-14 Univ Leland Stanford Junior Traveling wave tube
US2632866A (en) * 1949-12-31 1953-03-24 Gen Electric Velocity modulation electron discharge device
US2770754A (en) * 1950-01-20 1956-11-13 Csf Transverse field travelling wave tube
US2791717A (en) * 1950-03-13 1957-05-07 Csf Travelling wave tube with crossed electric and magnetic fields and transversely directed beam
US2760111A (en) * 1950-06-28 1956-08-21 Beverly D Kumpfer Magnetron amplifier
US2760112A (en) * 1950-07-27 1956-08-21 M O Valve Co Ltd Electrical amplifying devices
US2888595A (en) * 1951-03-15 1959-05-26 Csf Travelling wave delay tubes of the magnetron type
US2764710A (en) * 1951-03-17 1956-09-25 Zenith Radio Corp Signal-translating devices of the traveling-wave type
US2788465A (en) * 1951-04-19 1957-04-09 Itt Traveling wave electron discharge device
US2770780A (en) * 1951-04-23 1956-11-13 Csf Symmetrical interdigital line for travelling wave tubes
US2827588A (en) * 1951-04-28 1958-03-18 Csf Travelling wave discharge tube arrangements utilizing delay lines
US2774913A (en) * 1951-05-31 1956-12-18 Csf Electron discharge tube with crossed electric and magnetic fields
US2823332A (en) * 1951-06-08 1958-02-11 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Microwave amplifier device
US2828443A (en) * 1951-07-28 1958-03-25 Raytheon Mfg Co Electron discharge devices
US2808532A (en) * 1951-10-26 1957-10-01 Univ Leland Stanford Junior Space harmonic amplifiers
US2749523A (en) * 1951-12-01 1956-06-05 Itt Band pass filters
US2850671A (en) * 1952-01-24 1958-09-02 Raytheon Mfg Co Magnetron amplifiers
US2828439A (en) * 1952-03-14 1958-03-25 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Space charge amplifier
US2786959A (en) * 1952-11-29 1957-03-26 Csf Traveling wave tubes
US2895071A (en) * 1952-12-23 1959-07-14 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Traveling wave tube
US2863092A (en) * 1953-08-05 1958-12-02 Raytheon Mfg Co Magnetron oscillators
US2806179A (en) * 1954-04-05 1957-09-10 Westinghouse Electric Corp Strapless resonator system
US2925567A (en) * 1954-05-12 1960-02-16 Siemens Ag Retardation conductor for variable field electronic tubes or the like
US2943235A (en) * 1955-12-19 1960-06-28 British Thomson Houston Co Ltd High frequency oscillators
US3309660A (en) * 1961-05-26 1967-03-14 Mourier Georges Electron discharge amplifier device
US3255422A (en) * 1962-08-07 1966-06-07 Sfd Lab Inc Pulsed crossed-field devices

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GB681425A (en) 1952-10-22
FR948762A (en) 1949-08-10
CH273805A (en) 1951-02-28
DE916328C (en) 1954-08-09

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