US2541900A - Multiple fuel jet burner and torch igniter unit with fuel vaporizing tubes - Google Patents

Multiple fuel jet burner and torch igniter unit with fuel vaporizing tubes Download PDF

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US2541900A
US2541900A US67118A US6711848A US2541900A US 2541900 A US2541900 A US 2541900A US 67118 A US67118 A US 67118A US 6711848 A US6711848 A US 6711848A US 2541900 A US2541900 A US 2541900A
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fuel
flame tube
tubes
igniter
jet
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US67118A
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Frederick D M Williams
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A V ROE CANADA Ltd
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A V ROE CANADA Ltd
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23RGENERATING COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OF HIGH PRESSURE OR HIGH VELOCITY, e.g. GAS-TURBINE COMBUSTION CHAMBERS
    • F23R3/00Continuous combustion chambers using liquid or gaseous fuel
    • F23R3/28Continuous combustion chambers using liquid or gaseous fuel characterised by the fuel supply
    • F23R3/30Continuous combustion chambers using liquid or gaseous fuel characterised by the fuel supply comprising fuel prevapourising devices
    • F23R3/32Continuous combustion chambers using liquid or gaseous fuel characterised by the fuel supply comprising fuel prevapourising devices being tubular
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02CGAS-TURBINE PLANTS; AIR INTAKES FOR JET-PROPULSION PLANTS; CONTROLLING FUEL SUPPLY IN AIR-BREATHING JET-PROPULSION PLANTS
    • F02C7/00Features, components parts, details or accessories, not provided for in, or of interest apart form groups F02C1/00 - F02C6/00; Air intakes for jet-propulsion plants
    • F02C7/26Starting; Ignition
    • F02C7/264Ignition
    • F02C7/266Electric

Description

951 F. D. M. WILLIAMS 2,541,900

MULTIPLE FUEL JET BURNER AND TORCH IGNITER UNIT WITH FUEL VAPORIZING TUBES Filed Dec. 24, 1948 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 ,HHHII 1 O (D Q B O 0 I 1 INVENT'OR .740. 7. V/LLI/i'llli Feb. 13, 1951 F. D. M. WILLIAMS 2,541,900

MULTIPLE FUEL JET BURNER AND TORCH IGNITER UNIT WITH FUEL VAPORIZING TUBES Filed Dec. 24, 1948 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 ttoagy Patented Feb. 13, 1951 MULTIPLE FUEL JET BURNER AND TORCH IGNITER UNIT WITH FUEL VAPORIZING TUBES Frederick D. M. Williams, Nobel, Ontario, Can

ada, assignor to A. V. Roe Canada Limited, Malton, Ontario, Canada, a corporation Application December 24, 1948, Serial No. 67,118

Claims. (Cl. 60-44) This invention relates to improvements in burners for the combustion chambers of gas turbine engines and to the igniters associated therewith.

Air is the working medium of a gas turbine.

engine and it is introduced into the engine by means of a compressor, heated in the combustion chamber and then directed to the turbine to perform useful work. The exhaust from the turbine may be used to give a propulsive thrust and I chamber it is heated directly by the burning of fuel introduced into the stream by means of an injector, commonly known as the burner. Combustion takes place within an inner liner of the combustion chamber, known as the flame tube, which is designed to control the combustion and to achieve the most efiicient heating of the air charge. In operation, combustion is continuous; the fuel-air mixture being ignited by the gases which are already burning. But t start and establish this type of combustion, the engine must be turned by means of a starter to generate a flow of air through the combustion chamber and, at a predetermined speed, fuel must be ill-- jected into the air stream and the resulting mixture ignited by means of an electric spark. Once started by this m ans combustion becomes continuous and the igniter is no longer required and may be. switched off.

It will be readily understood that continuous combustion such as I have described would be impossible if all the burning gases were carried downstream at a speed greater than that of flame propagation, and in practice, due to the high speed of the air stream, it is necessary to arrange a small region of reverse flow into which fuel may be introduced. There are two conventional methods of arranging this stabilizing zone, namely the upstream injection of the fuel into the wake of a bafile' suitably situated in the air stream, and the downstream injection of the fuel into a region of low pressure in the centre of the flame tube, created by an air swirler. Clearly the ideal location of the igniter is in the centre of the stabilizing zone and with the upstream injection method it is sometimes possible to situate the igniter in the centre of the baffle. However, with the downstream injection method the ideal location for the ignlter is occupied by the burner itself and the igniter has to be set as conveniently as possible in the side of the flame tube.

The foregoing refers to systems in which liquid fuel is injected directly into the flame tube. However more satisfactory burning may be obtained by what is knownas the vapor combustion system, that is by the vaporization of the fuel, its preheating and-mixture with a certain amount of air, before its entry into the flame tube. This vaporization and preheating is .carried out in vaporizer tubes, which are circular tubes installed longitudinally in the combustion chamber and mounted on a bafile at the upstream end thereof. The downstream ends of these vaporizer tubes are bent through 180. Liquid fuel is injected into the upstream ends, which are open and exposed to the air stream from the compressor, and the mixture is carried down the tubes and discharged into the flame tube in an upstream direction. The flame of the subsequent combustion of the mixture, before being carried away downstream, plays upon the vaporizer tubes as they enter the flame tube, thereby promoting vaporization and preheating of the fuelair mixture within them.

In the vapor combustion system, the vaporizer tubes occupy the centre of the flame tub-e so that again it is difiicult to find a satisfactory location for the igniter. Furthermore, starting is ren.. dered difficult by the fact that there are no provisions for preheating the tubes before combustion has started.

The object of this invention is to improve the methods of igniting the charge of a combustion system employing the vapor combustion principle and to insure more positive starting over a wide range of inlet velocities. A further object of the invention is to furnish in one unit a fuel injector and an igniter which are thus readily accessible for removal, for maintenance and 121- spection purposes.

Other objects and advantages of this invention will be apparent during the course of the following description.

Fig. 8 is an end elevation of the combination burner torch igniter viewed from downstream. and

Fig. 4 is a sectional side elevation, of the combination burner torch igniter on the line l'l in Fig. 3.

It will be seen from Fig. 1 that the principal components of the combustion chamber are the outer casing 5, the flame tube 6 and the vaporizer tubes 1. The direction of flow of the air stream passing through the combustion chamber is from left to right of Fig. 1. At the upstream end of the flame tube is a baffle 8 upon which the vaporizer tubes are mounted, as shown particularly in Fig. 2. The flame tube is perforated by a number of holes throughout its length for the purpose of admitting air from the outer casing into the flame tube, to control the manner in which combustion takes place.

The fuel injector is illustrated in detail in Fig. 4. It comprises an injector head 9 containing six straight jets I and a swirl-type atomizing jet I I. In addition, the injector head carries two electrodes I2 and I3 one of which is mounted directly on the head and the other connected by a high tension lead, through the tube I4 to a terminal I5 mounted on the outside of the combustion chamber. The atomizing jet II is fed by a fuel line I6 which in this example runs substantially parallel to the aforementioned tube I4. It will be understood, however, that this is not necessary since the fuel can be introduced to the injector from any convenient position,

which may not coincide with the most convenient.

location for the ignition terminal I5. The six main fuel jets are situated at oblique angles around the central atomizing jet and are fed by passages within the head which, as can be seen in Fig. 4, run together to a common chamber II surrounding the aforementioned fuel line I6. This chamber is in turn connected to the outer casing of the combustion chamber by a line I8, coaxial with the line IE but of a substantially greater diameter, so that fuel can pass down the annular space between them.

Fig. 2 indicates the arrangement of the injector head 9 in relation to the vaporizer tubes. The ignition electrodes I2 and I3 protrude through the baflle 8 and the atomizing jet II, which is located in a recess in the head immediately below the aforementioned electrodes, is also given direct access into the flame tube 6. The six main jets I0 are arranged to discharge into the mouths of the six vaporizer tubes but they discharge into these tubes obliquely so that a substantial area of each tube is exposed to the direct flow of air from the compressor.

In order to start the engine the starter motor is energized and turns over the compressor thereby delivering air to the combustion chamher. The rotation of the compressor also has the effect of driving the fuel pump and when the fuel pressure reaches a predetermined value, the fuel supply to the atomizing jet II is turned on. In addition, the electrical system is energized so that current beings to flow across the spark gap of the electrodes I2 and I3. A flne 5 spray of fuel emerges from the atomizing jet and is delivered across the electrodes into the combustion chamber. This spray is ignited by the spark, producing a flame centrally located among the vaporizer tubes and playing upon them.

Under the action of the compressor air is flowing rapidly through the combustion chamher, and part of it is directed by the baille I into the mouths of the vaporizer tubes, whence it is carried down the tubes and discharged upstream into the low pressure region in the wake 5 of the said baffle. When the main fuel supply is turned on, the fuel flows through the annulus between the lines I6 and I8 into the chamber I1, and thence through the six jets I0 into the vaporizer tubes. During its passage through the tubes, the liquid fuel is vaporized and mixed with the air; vaporization is assisted by the heat of the flame of the atomizing jet playing upon the outside of the tubes. Thus a preheated, combustible mixture emerges from the vaporizer tubes and is readily ignited by the pilot flame, burning from the atomizing jet.

Thereafter combustion becomes continuous, the mixture entering the flame tube being ignited by the flame of the gas already burning,

The vaporizer tubes are fully exposed to combustion in the flame tube so that the gas, entering through these tubes is preheated, and in turn the liquid fuel, running down the inside of the tubes and being vaporized on the hot surfaces, serves to cool the tubes against burning. There is no further need for the igniter, and the current may be switched off and the fuel supply to the atomizing jet discontinued.

It is to :be understood that the form of my invention, herewith shown and described, is to be taken as a preferred example of the same: various changes in the shape, size and arrangement of the parts may be resorted to, and, for example, the igniter may take the form of a glow plug or a spark gap, without departing from the spirit of my invention or the scope of the claims.

What I claim as my invention is: 1. In a combustion chamber of a gas turbine engine, a flame tube in which combustion takes place, openings in the flame tube for admitting a stream of air at one end of the flame tube to support combustion, vaporizer tubes mounted in the flame tube adjacent the upstream end of the flame tube and extending longitudinally thereof, each such vaporizer tube having an inlet end exposed to the air stream through the combustion chamber and an outlet end discharging into the flame tube, and an injector head located substantially on the longitudinal axis of the flame tube at its upstream end, said injector head having a centrally located igniter jet directed into the flame tube substantially at the longitudinal axis thereof between the vaporizer 55 tubes, whereby an igniting flame may be injected directly into the flame tube and played upon the vaporizer tubes, an igniter mounted on the head in front of said igniter jet, a plurality of fuel supply jets arranged around the igniter 60 jet and directed to the inlet ends of the vaporlze'r-tubes, said injector head being provided with a chamber, oblique passageways from the fuel supply jets to the chamber, and a passageway from the igniter jet, and having a fuel inlet con- 05 duit communicating with said chamber for conducting fuel to the fuel supply jets, and a fuel inlet conduit communicating with the passageway to the igniter jet to conduct fuel to said igniter jet.

70 2. In a combustion chamber of a gas turbine engine, a flame tube in which combustion takes place, openings in the flame tube for admitting before that flame is carried away downstream.

flame tube and extending longitudinally thereof, each such vaporizer tube having an inlet end exposed to the air stream through the combustion chamber and an outlet end discharging into the flame tube, and an injector head located substantially on the longitudinal axis of the flame tube at its upstream end, said injector head comprising an igniter jet directed into the flame tube substantially at the longitudinal axis thereof between the vaporizer tubes, whereby an igniting flame may be injected directly into the flame tube and played upon the vaporizer tubes, an igniter situated in front of said jet, a plurality of fuel supply jets arranged around the igniter jet and directed to the inlet ends of the vaporizer tubes, a fuel inlet conduit for the fuel supply jets, and a fuel inlet conduit for the igniter jet within and substantially co-axial with the fuel inlet conduit for the fuel supply jets.

3. .In a combustion chamber of a gas turbine engine, a flame tube in which combustion takes place, openings in the flame tube for admitting a stream of air at one end of the flame tube to support combustion, vaporizer tubes mounted in the flame tube adjacent the upstream end of the flame tube and extending longitudinally thereof. each such vaporizer tube having an inlet end exposed to the air stream through the combustion chamber and an outlet end discharging into the flame tube, and an injector head located substantially on the longitudinal axis of the flame tube at its upstream end, said injector head comprising a body member having a centrally located igniter jet directed'into the flame tube substantially at the longitudinal axis thereof between the vaporizer tubes, whereby an igniting flame may be injected directly into the flame tube and played upon the vaporizer tubes, a plurality of fuel supply jets arranged around the igniter jet and directed to the inlet ends of the vaporizer tubes the injectorhead being provided with, a central fuel inlet passage, oblique pass w ys from the fuel supply jets to said central passage, and a passageway from the igniter jet opening into the aforesaid central passage, and the head having secured thereto a fuel inlet conduit communicating with the aforesaid central passage for conducting fuel to the fuel sup- Ply jets, and another fuel inlet of smaller diameter extending through the first mentioned inlet conduit and the aforesaid central passage and communicating with the passageway to the igniter jet to conduct fuel to said igniter jet, and an igniter mounted on the head in front of said igniter jet.

4. In a combustion chamber of a gas turbine engine, a flame tube in which combustion takes place, openings in the flame tube for admitting a stream of air at one end of the flame tube to support combustion, vaporizer tubes mounted in the flame tube adjacent the upstream end of the flame tube and extending longitudinally thereof, each such vaporizer tube having an inlet end exposed to the air stream through the combustion chamber and an outlet-end discharging into the flame tube, and an injector head located substantially on the longitudinal axis of the flame tube at its upstream end, said injector head having a centrally located recess in its discharge end in which is mounted an igniter jet directed into the flame tube substantially at the longitudinal axis thereof between the vaporizer tubes, whereby an igniting flame may be injected directly into the flame tube and played uponthe vaporizer tubes, an igniter mounted on the head at the open end of the igniter jet recess in front of said igniter jet, a plurality of fuel supply jets arranged around the igniter jet and directed to the inlet ends of the vaporizer tubes, said injector head being provided with a chamber, oblique passageways from the fuel supply jets to the chamber, and a passageway from the igniter jet, and having a fuel inlet conduit communicating with said chamber for conducting fuel to the fuel supply jets, and a fuel inlet conduit communicating with the passageway to the igniter jet to conduct fuel to said igniter jet.

5. In a combustion chamber of a gas turbine engine, a flame tube in which combustion takes place, openings in the flame tube for admitting a stream of air at one end of the flame tube to support combustion, vaporizer tubes mounted in the flame tube adjacent the upstream end of the flame tube and extending longitudinally thereof, each such vaporizer tube having an inlet end exposed tothe air stream through the combustion chamber and an outlet end discharging into the flame tube, and an injector head located substantially on the longitudinal axis of the flame tube at its upstream end, said injector head having a recess in its discharge and in which is located an igniter jet directed into the flame tube substantially at the longitudinal axis thereof between the vaporizer tubes, whereby an igniting flame may be injected directly into the flame tube and played upon the vaporizer tubes, a pair of electrodes mounted on the head at the forward open end of the igniter jet recess, and an electrical conduit supported by the head and connected to one of said electrodes, and a plurality of fuel supply jets arranged around the igniter jetand directed to the inlet ends of the vaporizer tubes.

FREDERICK D. M. WILLIAMS.

REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:

UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 2,404,335 Whittle July 16, 1946 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 603,485 Great Britain June 16, 1948

US67118A 1948-12-24 1948-12-24 Multiple fuel jet burner and torch igniter unit with fuel vaporizing tubes Expired - Lifetime US2541900A (en)

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Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US67118A US2541900A (en) 1948-12-24 1948-12-24 Multiple fuel jet burner and torch igniter unit with fuel vaporizing tubes

Applications Claiming Priority (4)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US67118A US2541900A (en) 1948-12-24 1948-12-24 Multiple fuel jet burner and torch igniter unit with fuel vaporizing tubes
GB3218349A GB660775A (en) 1948-12-24 1949-12-15 An improved combustion and ignition apparatus for a gas turbine engine
FR1006966D FR1006966A (en) 1948-12-24 1949-12-16 Burner and ignition device for combustion chamber of turbine engines
DEC336A DE804504C (en) 1948-12-24 1949-12-22 Burner for ignition with gas turbine combustors

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DE (1) DE804504C (en)
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GB (1) GB660775A (en)

Cited By (25)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2646664A (en) * 1949-02-24 1953-07-28 A V Roe Canada Ltd Annular fuel vaporizer for gas turbine engines
US2648197A (en) * 1951-01-06 1953-08-11 A V Roe Canada Ltd Vaporizer tube system
US2655786A (en) * 1950-09-18 1953-10-20 Phillips Petroleum Co Method of operating jet engines with fuel reforming
US2674846A (en) * 1950-12-18 1954-04-13 Lummus Co Combustion chamber with baffle means to control secondary air
US2678535A (en) * 1950-04-12 1954-05-18 A V Roe Canada Ltd Liquid fuel injecting burner
US2693676A (en) * 1951-06-11 1954-11-09 Westinghouse Electric Corp Combustion apparatus with multipleoutlet fuel vaporizing tubes
US2699648A (en) * 1950-10-03 1955-01-18 Gen Electric Combustor sectional liner structure with annular inlet nozzles
US2706889A (en) * 1949-08-18 1955-04-26 Armstrong Siddeley Motors Ltd Combustion chambers of gas turbine engines
US2727358A (en) * 1952-03-27 1955-12-20 A V Roe Canada Ltd Reverse-flow vaporizer with single inlet and plural outlets
US2735633A (en) * 1956-02-21 Jet propelled aircraft
US2781637A (en) * 1950-12-15 1957-02-19 Gen Motors Corp Combustion chamber with fuel vaporizer
US2805547A (en) * 1952-02-01 1957-09-10 Sherry Peter Temperature responsive control for fuel and water vaporizers in combustion chamber
US2828605A (en) * 1951-03-19 1958-04-01 Power Jets Res & Dev Ltd Method of generating combustion gases by burning a gaseous combustible mixture
US2941364A (en) * 1955-04-05 1960-06-21 Armstrong Siddeley Motors Ltd Igniter chamber for a gas turbine engine
US2977760A (en) * 1955-03-16 1961-04-04 Bristol Aero Engines Ltd Annular combustion chambers for use with compressors capable of discharging combustion supporting medium with a rotary swirl through an annular outlet
US2982098A (en) * 1953-04-22 1961-05-02 Power Jets Res & Dev Ltd Liquid fuel vaporizing combustion systems
US3018626A (en) * 1960-02-02 1962-01-30 Gen Electric Vapor combustion system
US3273621A (en) * 1966-09-20 Burner assembly
US3287913A (en) * 1962-07-09 1966-11-29 Aerojet General Co Igniter
US3398528A (en) * 1965-10-05 1968-08-27 Ishikawajima Harima Heavy Ind Evaporation type burner
US3548592A (en) * 1969-06-13 1970-12-22 Gen Electric Combination fuel nozzle and spark plug for a gas turbine
US3952503A (en) * 1973-03-20 1976-04-27 Rolls-Royce (1971) Limited Gas turbine engine combustion equipment
US5127822A (en) * 1987-08-14 1992-07-07 Toa Nenryo Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Combustion apparatus with atomizer and method of controlling same
US5163287A (en) * 1989-12-22 1992-11-17 Sundstrand Corporation Stored energy combustor with fuel injector containing igniter means for accommodating thermal expansion
CN103343984A (en) * 2013-06-24 2013-10-09 北京航空航天大学 Combustor for combustion test with biomass replacing fuel oil

Families Citing this family (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE1015271B (en) * 1955-04-05 1957-09-05 Armstrong Siddeley Motors Ltd Main combustion chamber for gas turbines with ignition chamber
GB2297151B (en) * 1995-01-13 1998-04-22 Europ Gas Turbines Ltd Fuel injector arrangement for gas-or liquid-fuelled turbine

Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2404335A (en) * 1939-12-09 1946-07-16 Power Jets Res & Dev Ltd Liquid fuel burner, vaporizer, and combustion engine
GB603485A (en) * 1946-02-23 1948-06-16 Armstrong Siddeley Motors Ltd Liquid fuel combustion chamber

Patent Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2404335A (en) * 1939-12-09 1946-07-16 Power Jets Res & Dev Ltd Liquid fuel burner, vaporizer, and combustion engine
GB603485A (en) * 1946-02-23 1948-06-16 Armstrong Siddeley Motors Ltd Liquid fuel combustion chamber

Cited By (26)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2735633A (en) * 1956-02-21 Jet propelled aircraft
US3273621A (en) * 1966-09-20 Burner assembly
US2646664A (en) * 1949-02-24 1953-07-28 A V Roe Canada Ltd Annular fuel vaporizer for gas turbine engines
US2706889A (en) * 1949-08-18 1955-04-26 Armstrong Siddeley Motors Ltd Combustion chambers of gas turbine engines
US2678535A (en) * 1950-04-12 1954-05-18 A V Roe Canada Ltd Liquid fuel injecting burner
US2655786A (en) * 1950-09-18 1953-10-20 Phillips Petroleum Co Method of operating jet engines with fuel reforming
US2699648A (en) * 1950-10-03 1955-01-18 Gen Electric Combustor sectional liner structure with annular inlet nozzles
US2781637A (en) * 1950-12-15 1957-02-19 Gen Motors Corp Combustion chamber with fuel vaporizer
US2674846A (en) * 1950-12-18 1954-04-13 Lummus Co Combustion chamber with baffle means to control secondary air
US2648197A (en) * 1951-01-06 1953-08-11 A V Roe Canada Ltd Vaporizer tube system
US2828605A (en) * 1951-03-19 1958-04-01 Power Jets Res & Dev Ltd Method of generating combustion gases by burning a gaseous combustible mixture
US2693676A (en) * 1951-06-11 1954-11-09 Westinghouse Electric Corp Combustion apparatus with multipleoutlet fuel vaporizing tubes
US2805547A (en) * 1952-02-01 1957-09-10 Sherry Peter Temperature responsive control for fuel and water vaporizers in combustion chamber
US2727358A (en) * 1952-03-27 1955-12-20 A V Roe Canada Ltd Reverse-flow vaporizer with single inlet and plural outlets
US2982098A (en) * 1953-04-22 1961-05-02 Power Jets Res & Dev Ltd Liquid fuel vaporizing combustion systems
US2977760A (en) * 1955-03-16 1961-04-04 Bristol Aero Engines Ltd Annular combustion chambers for use with compressors capable of discharging combustion supporting medium with a rotary swirl through an annular outlet
US2941364A (en) * 1955-04-05 1960-06-21 Armstrong Siddeley Motors Ltd Igniter chamber for a gas turbine engine
US3018626A (en) * 1960-02-02 1962-01-30 Gen Electric Vapor combustion system
US3287913A (en) * 1962-07-09 1966-11-29 Aerojet General Co Igniter
US3398528A (en) * 1965-10-05 1968-08-27 Ishikawajima Harima Heavy Ind Evaporation type burner
US3548592A (en) * 1969-06-13 1970-12-22 Gen Electric Combination fuel nozzle and spark plug for a gas turbine
US3952503A (en) * 1973-03-20 1976-04-27 Rolls-Royce (1971) Limited Gas turbine engine combustion equipment
US5127822A (en) * 1987-08-14 1992-07-07 Toa Nenryo Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Combustion apparatus with atomizer and method of controlling same
US5163287A (en) * 1989-12-22 1992-11-17 Sundstrand Corporation Stored energy combustor with fuel injector containing igniter means for accommodating thermal expansion
CN103343984A (en) * 2013-06-24 2013-10-09 北京航空航天大学 Combustor for combustion test with biomass replacing fuel oil
CN103343984B (en) * 2013-06-24 2016-01-06 北京航空航天大学 A kind of burner for living beings replacing fuel oil combustion test

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FR1006966A (en) 1952-04-29
DE804504C (en) 1951-04-23
GB660775A (en) 1951-11-14

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