US2512655A - Electrical apparatus - Google Patents

Electrical apparatus Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US2512655A
US2512655A US684901A US68490146A US2512655A US 2512655 A US2512655 A US 2512655A US 684901 A US684901 A US 684901A US 68490146 A US68490146 A US 68490146A US 2512655 A US2512655 A US 2512655A
Authority
US
United States
Prior art keywords
tube
apertures
cathode ray
beam
grid
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
US684901A
Inventor
Hans W Kohler
Original Assignee
Hans W Kohler
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Hans W Kohler filed Critical Hans W Kohler
Priority to US684901A priority Critical patent/US2512655A/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of US2512655A publication Critical patent/US2512655A/en
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical
Application status is Expired - Lifetime legal-status Critical

Links

Images

Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01JELECTRIC DISCHARGE TUBES OR DISCHARGE LAMPS
    • H01J31/00Cathode ray tubes; Electron beam tubes
    • H01J31/02Cathode ray tubes; Electron beam tubes having one or more output electrodes which may be impacted selectively by the ray or beam, and onto, from, or over which the ray or beam may be deflected or de-focused
    • H01J31/04Cathode ray tubes; Electron beam tubes having one or more output electrodes which may be impacted selectively by the ray or beam, and onto, from, or over which the ray or beam may be deflected or de-focused with only one or two output electrodes with only two electrically independant groups or electrodes

Description

June 27, 1950 H. w. KOVHLER 2,512,55

ELECTRICAL APPARATUS Filed July 19, 1946 4 Sheets-Sheet l liT'TO/P/VEY June 27, 1950 H. w. KOHLER 2,512,355

ELECTRICAL APPARATUS Filed July 19, 1946 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 7 0 W E A MQk ll. 1 u E L wv In $3.9m

l WW

June 27, 1950 H. w. KOHLER ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 4 Sheets-Sheet 5 Filed July 19, 1946 F/GUHE 7 F/GURE 6 n M; "mm Am 5 LM QM HI 0 m K .H s M Y H B June 27, 1950 H. w. 'KOHLER 2,512,655

ELECTRICAL APPARATUS Filed July 19, 1946 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 F/GU/PE /0 i' 4 4 4 A f/m/s W /f0HLE/P l [A/VENTOR F/QUEE /2 @WWQ Patented June 27, 1950 STAES (Granted under the act of March 3, 1883, as

Claims.

amended April 30, 1928; 370 0. G. 757) The invention described herein may be manufactured and used by or for the Government for governmental purposes, without the payment to me of any royalty thereon.

This invention is in electrical apparatus and specifically provides means for converting certain kinds of amplitude modulated signals into frequency modulated signals. The signals in question vary in value at predetermined instants in time which are multiples of a unit time interval apart.

Such signals are used in communications of various types, and, since, when short wave transmission and long distances are involved, it is desirable to use frequency modulation, the problem arises of converting a stepped amplitude modulated signal into a stepped frequency modulated signal.

Two types of amplitude modulated signals are converted into frequency modulated signals according to my invention. In the first type of signal, the amplitudes assume successively a plurality of constant predetermined levels, said levels differing, for example, by integral multiples of a unit level. This is known as a quantized signal. For the second type of amplitude modulated signal, the amplitude assumes successively constant levels, but the levels are not predetermined and do not vary from each other by fixed amounts. Such signals are obtained if a continuously variable signal is sampled instantaneously at a constant rate.

For both types of amplitude modulated signals, the resulting frequency modulated signal is stepped (quantized) and thus is caused to assume predetermined frequencies f1, f2, f3, only. The frequencies change at instants which are multiples of unit time intervals apart.

The principal object of my invention is to pro vide means' and a method for converting a steppedamplitude modulated signal of the nature mentioned into a frequencymodulated signal.

Another object is to provide a novel cathode ray tube for quantizing electrical signals.

A .further object is to provide certain novel electrode structures for use in cathode ray tube quantizing apparatuses.

Additional objects will be apparent from a reading of thefollow-ing specification and claims,

In the; drawings:

Figure 1 is a view of acathoderay tube target electrode structure utilized in myinvention;

one embodiment of 2 Figure 2 is a section on the line AA of Figure Figure 3 illustrates an electrode structure for a six-level converter according to my invention;

Figure 4 is a diagram of a circuit for controlling the sweep path of the cathode ray beam; Figure 5 shows a circuit utilizing the principles of my invention and providing means for synchronizing a plurality of cathode ray beams;

Figure 6 is a directive electrode used in the preferred embodiment of my invention;

Figure '7 is a diagrammatic representation ofv a complete cathode ray tube converter;

Figures 8, 9, 10, and 11 illustrate modified target arrangements for use in my invention; and

Figure 12 is a novel stepping circuit.

With reference particularly to Figures 1 and 2, l0 represents a member which serves to screen a target electrode proper I0 from a cathode ray beam. The plate is shown with six apertures arranged at regular intervals about its center and at equal distances therefrom. The apertures bear the reference characters ll, l2, l3, I4, 95, and Hi. It willbe seen that, if a cathode ray beam be rotated so as to travel about plate It] in the path of apertures ll through "5, it will at regular intervals impingeupon the target electrode l0 and thus provide, in an ideal case, a one hundred per cent modulated square wave.

According to the preferred mode of practicing my invention, advantage is taken of the voltage drops produced by a cathode ray beam in circuits associated with two target electrodes arranged as shown in Figure 2 and above described. In another form, member ID is transparent and adapted to fluoresce under the influence of the cathode ray beam which, of course, impinges upon the plate only when permitted to do so by the openings ll through I6. In the latter case, l0" may be a coating on the inside surface of the screen end of the cathode ray tube, and member 10a may be a metal platewith windows located adjacent the screen of the cathode ray tube (see Figure 8, wherein for the purposes of illustration:-

In still another embodiment, a window pattern (similar to those of Figures 1 and 3, for example) 1 is painted in fluorescent material on the'inside of the tube. The remainder of the screen surface is coated with conductive material and may be grounded to prevent the accumulation of electric charges on the glass surface.

In any case in which fluorescent effects are to be used, the light emitted is focused by a suitable lens system on a photocell or other light sensitive circuit. Witha short decay time,'a high degree of light modulation can be achieved.

According to Figure 3, six groups of apertures.

are arranged in concentric circles in electrode which corresponds in function to member In of Figure l. apertures while the other rings have six, seven, eight, nine, and ten. As an electron beam travels on a circular path at or near the centerline of one of the rings, the ,current in the punched plate 20 is interrupted :a number of I times corresponding to the number of windows in its path. At a sweep'frequency of 200 cycles per second, for example, there may be obtained a square wave of 1000 cycles, 1200, 1400, 1600, 1800, or 2000 cycles depending upon which row of openings interrupts the beam. I

It will be seen that along one radial line (the vertical line BB of Figure3) the edges of all windows of the severalrings are aligned. In operation, a cathode ray beam is normally per mitted to change its orbit only during the interval'immediately following the crossing of this line, it being understood that the electron pencil is assumed to be traveling in a' counterclockwise direction. Because of this arrangement, successive cycles (of the cathode ray beam) will produce integral. predetermined numbers of complete cycles of'square waves.

The foregoing descriptionincludes the basic features of the invention, but in practice it will be found desirable to provide additional electrodes particularly to prevent undesired distor- The innermost group contains five M tion of the field within th'e' cathode ray tube and to assist in directing the'beam.

One type of electrode which maylbe used in this connection is shown in Figure 6;' essentially, it comprises seven circular grid members and a plurality of radial bracing and supporting structures 55' and'55". The purpose of grid members 55 isto keep the electron pencil away from the websbetween the several rings of windows. This is achieved by giving the 'wires a slightly negative potential with respect to the emitting cathode and locating each between a web and the emitter.

The grid structure 55, 55, and 55" is necessary only 'when the control voltages whichdetermine the diameters of 'the electron orbits are derived by sampling an irregularly varying signal, when, in other words, the diameter of a cathode ray beam orbit may be such as to coincide with one of the webs between the rows of windows of Fig ure 1 01" Figure 3. charged grids 55 of Figure 6 will cause the electron beam to travel on an adjacent row ofwin- In this case, the negatively" (lows, the next orbit having either a; greater or smaller diameter than the particular web. This property of the tube is called self-quantizing since it permits translation of arbitrary levels of amplitude modulated input into quantized levels of frequency modulated output.

Of course, if a quantized amplitude modulated signal is applied to the control circuit of the tube,

grid members 55, 55 and 55" may be dispensed with, the beam orbits in such case automatically being centered in the several rows of windows.

The grid structure of Figure 6 is preferably and the masking electrodes may be plane (Figures 1, 2 and 3), spherical (Figure 7), or conic sections. tures also may be varied as desired, but normally the orifices will be bounded by concentric arcs and two radial lines. The radii of the arcs preferably will be so calculated that rz-rr equals a constant or equals a constant where r; and m are the radii of the inner and outer arcs, respectively. Gener ally, the angle subtended by the windows of a particular ring equals the angle between adjacent windows of that ring (Figures 1 and 3), this arrangement giving a balanced square wave output consisting of fundamental and odd harmonics. If even harmonics also are desired, the angular" length of the windows must be made either larger or smaller than the angle between them (0e 5, see

FigurelO) I As'the windows become shorter relative to'the spaces between them, the harmonic amplitudes become relatively larger, with a corresponding loss, however, in the output power developed by the tube.

The circuit of Figure 4, which will provide.

control voltages for a circular sweep such as is desired for the cathode ray tube of my invention, is adapted to have "a sinusoidal voltageof constant frequency and amplitude applied across terminals 40 and 4|. Currents in transformers 42-43 are out of phase relative to each-- other; the transformer secondaries are connected f to push-pull amplifiers :45-46. and 41-.48, the outputs of which are controlled by their screen grid potentials. The screens are tied'together and connected to .the'output 'of a control tube 50, the control grid of the last mentioned tube being fed,--in the preferred embodiment of my invention, by astepped voltage which is in quantized or in arbitrary steps. I

Figure 12 shows a circuit which makes it possible to use a continuously varying signal in place of the quantized signal just mentioned which, in other words, converts a signal of varying amplitudes into 'a stepped signal. According to this circuit, a varying direct current potential is applied to the grid of tube 5| thereby to produce an inverted replica of the input at plate resistor 5|. A portion of the output voltage of tube 5| is applied to tube 52 which comprises two triodesin series. 1

Positive pulses occurring preferably at regu lar intervals are fed to the grids. of tube 52 through limiting resistors 52'-52", and said tube, normally nonconducting, conducts during the intervals of the pulses' The output of tube 52 assumes a potential determined by the potential of resistor 5| at the point of tapping, by the grid limiting resistors of tube 52, and by variable resistors 53--53 Since all components are constant during operation, the output of tube 52 whichcharges condenser 53" bears a direct relationship to'the' The shapes of the windows or aperacre-pas input of the tube 5! during each pulse applied to tube 52. Between pulses, tube 52 is out oil, and the grid'-to-cathode potential of tube 54 is determined by the voltage across condenser 53- and the bias voltage in cathode resistor 54'.

In. order to eliminate the switching effect of the tube 52 on the operation of tube 5|, the values of variable resistors 53-53 should be large as compared with plate resistor 51 of tube The. output potential of tube 54 is a stepped signal and is used as has already been described to control the circuit of Figure 4.

Figure 5 illustrates a means for synchronizing two cathode ray tubes operating in accordance with my invention. By an obvious extension of this circuit, additional cathode ray tubes may be synchronized. According to the drawing, the parallel resistor-condenser circuits BU-61 and 62-63 allow a variable phase shift to be applied to cathode ray tube 55, the variation, of course, being achieved by varying the ganged resistors 60 and 62. The remainder of the circuit is similar to that illustrated in Figure 4 and will not be described in detail.

Figure '7 shows an arrangement of target and directive electrodes such as are used according to the preferred mode of practicing my invention. The figure is a diagrammatic showing and not a true section through my novel cathode ray tube. The beam forming, focusing, and defiecting means are conventional and are not illustrated in detail. In Figure '7 may be seen a curved target electrode proper adjacent the forward end of the tube. Between target 10 and the masking plate or secondary target electrode II is a grid 12 (constructed in any convenient fashion) which serves as a suppressor to prevent secondary emission from target Hi from interfering with proper operation of the tube.

Adjacent masking device I! and between it and the electron source is the concentric selfquantizing grid structure 5555' of Figure 6. This structure is intended to be maintained somewhat negative with respect to the cathode of the tube and serves, as described, to repel an electron beam from the areas between the several rows of apertures and thus to center it within the paths of the apertures. If quantized amplitude modulated signals are used, grid structure 55-55 may be omitted.

Between structure 55 and cathode BI is a further grid 90. This grid is conventional and serves principally to make more uniform the field within the tube adjacent the punched plate. Commonly, it will be maintained at potential higher than that of the cathode of the tube. A still further grid H which serves a purpose similar to that of grid as may be seen adjacent the perforated plate 16; preferably, although not necessarily, this grid includes radially extending wires, some of which are aligned with and/or welded direct to the edges of the apertures in the plate.

A further electrode 95 involves a single wire extending from the efiective outer extremity of the tube to approximately the center thereof. This member is adapted to provide an impulse to a, switching circuit each time a cathode ray beam impinges upon it and in a structure like that of Figure 3 will normally be aligned with the line B-B.

The invention may be used in various ways. Suppose, for example, a frequency diversity system is desired having two mark frequencies of 1-000 and 2000 cycles and space frequencies of 1500 and 2500 cycles per second, respectively. One means for achieving this result is to use two cathode ray tubes synchronized (as with the circuit of Figure 5) One-tube will have a perforated plate with a row of four apertures therein and a row of six apertures therein. With a sweepf'requency of- 250 cycles per second, there will thus be generatedtwo signals of 1000 and 1500 cycles per second. In the second tube (the same-sweep frequency being employed), the perforated plate has a, row of eight apertures and a row often apertures. In both cases, the apertures of the rows areseparated by distances equal to aperture length so that balanced outputs-are-obtained.

Another way of'reaching the desired result is to employ a single cathode ray tube with a perforated plate providing an unbalanced output, with spacing between the apertures in other words greater or less than the lengths of the openings. If the frequency remains at 250 cycles per second, a ring of two apertures will produce a, 500 cycle fundamental; the third and fifth harmonics are utilized. Another row of four openings in the perforated plate will give a fundamental of 1000 cycles; the fundamental and the second harmonic are utilized.

The foregoing description is in specific terms, and many modifications will suggest themselves within the spirit of the invention. For the true scope of my invention, therefore, reference should be had to the appended claims.

I claim:

1. In a cathode ray tube having a source of electrons and means for focusing the same into a, beam, a target electrode and a masking device between said electrode and said source and adjacent the former but electrically distinct therefrom said masking device being provided with concentric rows of apertures, means for repelling said beam from the areas between said concentric rows of apertures, and means for selectively sweeping said rows with said beam.

2. In a cathode ray tube having a source of electrons and means for focusing the same into a beam, a target electrode and a masking device between said electrodes and said source and adjacent the former but electrically distinct therefrom said masking device being provided with concentric rows of apertures bounded in part by a radial edge, the said edges of the apertures of the several rows being in radial alignment at at least one point, means for selectively sweeping said rows with said beam, and an electrical conductor located between said source and said masking device and aligned with said aligned edges or said apertures so as to be swept by said beam substantially simultaneously with the crossing thereby of any one of said aligned edges.

3. In a cathode ray tube of the nature described having a source of electrons therein, a target structure including a masking device with concentric rows of apertures therein, a grid comprising concentric conductors located between said source and said masking device the said conductors being adapted to repel electrons from those portions of said masking device which lie between said concentric rows of apertures, and a further grid structure adapted to make substantially uniform the field within said tube.

4. In a cathode ray tube of the nature described having a source of electrons therein, a target structure including a masking device with concentric rows of apertures therein and a grid adapted to repel electrons from those portions of saidmasking device which lie between said concentric rows of apertures.

5. In a cathode ray tube having a source of electrons and means for focusing the same into a beam, a target electrode and a, masking device between said electrode and said source and adjacent the former but electrically distinct therefrom said masking device being provided with concentric rows of apertures the size of the apertures in a row difiering from the spacing between thelapertures in said row by a predetermined amount, means for repelling said beam from those portions of said masking device which lie between said concentric rows, and means for selectively sweeping said rows with said beam.

HANSW. KOI-ILER.

REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:

UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 2,086,904 Evans July 13, 1937 2,173,193 Zworykin Sept. 19, 1939 2,246,283 Zworykin June 17, 1941 2,324,314 Michel July 13, 1943 2,396,395 Smith et a1 Mar. 12, 1946

US684901A 1946-07-19 1946-07-19 Electrical apparatus Expired - Lifetime US2512655A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US684901A US2512655A (en) 1946-07-19 1946-07-19 Electrical apparatus

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US684901A US2512655A (en) 1946-07-19 1946-07-19 Electrical apparatus

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US2512655A true US2512655A (en) 1950-06-27

Family

ID=24750022

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US684901A Expired - Lifetime US2512655A (en) 1946-07-19 1946-07-19 Electrical apparatus

Country Status (1)

Country Link
US (1) US2512655A (en)

Cited By (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2652514A (en) * 1949-09-14 1953-09-15 Automatic Telephone & Elect Display arrangement
US2724771A (en) * 1950-12-30 1955-11-22 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Pulse generator utilizing bombardment induced conductivity
US2777088A (en) * 1952-02-05 1957-01-08 Gen Electric Tri-color cathode ray image reproducing tube
US3204107A (en) * 1961-07-05 1965-08-31 Honeywell Inc Signal resolution increasing means
US3395305A (en) * 1966-12-02 1968-07-30 Hughes Aircraft Co Cathode ray tube graticule
US4034363A (en) * 1976-01-14 1977-07-05 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Air Force Real time data rate quantizer and analog-to-digital converter system

Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2086904A (en) * 1934-11-30 1937-07-13 Rca Corp Frequency multiplier
US2173193A (en) * 1937-08-18 1939-09-19 Rca Corp High-frequency oscillator
US2246283A (en) * 1930-05-01 1941-06-17 Westinghouse Electric & Mfg Co Photoelectric mosaic
US2324314A (en) * 1941-11-13 1943-07-13 Gen Electric Electronic switch
US2396395A (en) * 1942-09-18 1946-03-12 Rca Corp Electronic switch

Patent Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2246283A (en) * 1930-05-01 1941-06-17 Westinghouse Electric & Mfg Co Photoelectric mosaic
US2086904A (en) * 1934-11-30 1937-07-13 Rca Corp Frequency multiplier
US2173193A (en) * 1937-08-18 1939-09-19 Rca Corp High-frequency oscillator
US2324314A (en) * 1941-11-13 1943-07-13 Gen Electric Electronic switch
US2396395A (en) * 1942-09-18 1946-03-12 Rca Corp Electronic switch

Cited By (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2652514A (en) * 1949-09-14 1953-09-15 Automatic Telephone & Elect Display arrangement
US2724771A (en) * 1950-12-30 1955-11-22 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Pulse generator utilizing bombardment induced conductivity
US2777088A (en) * 1952-02-05 1957-01-08 Gen Electric Tri-color cathode ray image reproducing tube
US3204107A (en) * 1961-07-05 1965-08-31 Honeywell Inc Signal resolution increasing means
US3395305A (en) * 1966-12-02 1968-07-30 Hughes Aircraft Co Cathode ray tube graticule
US4034363A (en) * 1976-01-14 1977-07-05 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Air Force Real time data rate quantizer and analog-to-digital converter system

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US2192049A (en) Electron beam device
US2268194A (en) Electron discharge device
US2283383A (en) Signaling system
US2144337A (en) Electrical device
US2250528A (en) Signal translating system and apparatus
USRE24776E (en) voltage
US2313966A (en) Cathode ray tube system
US2053268A (en) Cathode ray tube
US2454410A (en) Cathode beam tube and circuit therefor
US2660689A (en) Ultrahigh-frequency vacuum tube
US3315117A (en) Electrostatically focused electron beam phase shifter
US2275017A (en) Signaling system
US2621292A (en) Electrical integrating circuit arrangement
GB488094A (en) Improvements in or relating to thermionic valves and thermionic valve circuit arrangements for use on short waves
US2631259A (en) Color television
US2477008A (en) Electrical apparatus
US2265337A (en) Pulse generating and pulse modulating system
US2417450A (en) Electron discharge device
US2415190A (en) Electronic computer
US2233126A (en) Device for and method of controlling high frequency currents
GB647761A (en) Improvements relating to the generation of electrical oscillations
US2463535A (en) Electron discharge device
US2322361A (en) Electronic device
US3753034A (en) Electron beam apparatus
US2374666A (en) Electronic device, circuit, and method