US2471368A - Gunfire control training apparatus - Google Patents

Gunfire control training apparatus Download PDF

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US2471368A
US2471368A US565296A US56529644A US2471368A US 2471368 A US2471368 A US 2471368A US 565296 A US565296 A US 565296A US 56529644 A US56529644 A US 56529644A US 2471368 A US2471368 A US 2471368A
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target
recording
aiming
driving
operatively
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US565296A
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Ekstrom Gunnar
Dietmann Paul Wilhelm
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Arenco AB
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Arenco AB
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F41WEAPONS
    • F41GWEAPON SIGHTS; AIMING
    • F41G3/00Aiming or laying means
    • F41G3/26Teaching or practice apparatus for gun-aiming or gun-laying

Description

May 24, 1949. A G. EKSTRCM ET AL 2,471,368
GUNFI'RE CONTROL TRAINING APPARATUS Filed NOV. 27, 1944 2 Sheets-Sheet l May 24, 1949.
G. EKsTROM ET AL GUNFIRE CONTROL TRAINING APPARATUS Filed NOV. 27, 1944 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Patented May 24, 1949 UNITED EFICE GUNFIRE CON TBOL TRAINING APPARATUS Application November 27, 1944, Serial No. 565,296 In Sweden September '7, 1942 15 Claims.
This invention relates to apparatus for the training of operators of gun-fire control instruments including range finders and cannon laying apparatus, and it has for its object to provide means whereby an effective training and testing under realistic conditions is made possible.
The invention consists in the construction and novel combination and arrangement of parts hereinafter described, illustrated in the accompanying drawings and pointed out in the claims hereunto appended.
, Various embodiments of the invention are shown diagrammatically in the accompanying drawings:
Fig. 1 is a perspective view showing a practice apparatus for following a target,
Figs. 2 and 3 are separate views of a registering and a target image device adapted to be used in the apparatus,
Fig. 4 is a perspective view of a cannon laying exercise apparatus.
The apparatus shown in Fig. 1 has for its object to permit practice in following movable aerial targets in such manner as takes place in certain central station instruments for calculating firing data. The various parts of the apparatus are carried by a framework not shown as an entirety, on the upper part I of which is rotatably carried a table 2 which corresponds to the movable base of the central instrument. A pedestal 3 on the table carries a T-shaped part 4, 5 provided with two eye pieces I8 and also with an objective of a telescope. The other, L-shaped part 6, l of the telescope, is suitably carried rotatably on the table in a bearing 8 with its limb 6 forming an extension of the central part 5 of the T-shaped part. The table can be rotated by means of a handwheel carried thereon or a crank e, for example by the hand wheel being connected through a suitable transmission gear with a spur-wheel Ill which engages with a toothed rim I I on the frame I. Two other handwheels I2, l3 carried on the table are connected through suitable spur-wheel gearing with a horizontal spindle Hi carried on the table and which is connected by a spur-Wheel I5 with a toothed rack I6 carried on the table and movable vertically. The rack I 5 engages with a spurwheel I1 connected with the limb 6. By means of the handwheel 9 and/or one of the hand wheels I2 and I3, the telescope T can be traversed and/or elevated on to an object which, by prisms or the like suitably arranged in the telescope, can be observed by the eye pieces I8. These Sweden, assignors to 2 and the handwheels have preferably the same mutual arrangement as the corresponding parts on a central instrument.
An arm I9 mounted on the apparatus carries in front of the objective aperture Ia of the telescope a holder Zii for a reticule or cross-wires, the image of an aircraft or other target image, which by means of a suitable illuminating device fitted on the holder, can be illuminated. The arm I9 is oscillatable about the same horizontal and vertical axes as the part 1 of the telescope, for example by being carried by means of pivot 2| coaxial with the limb 6 on an arm 22 which is fitted on a hollow spindle 23 carried rotatably with respect to the table 2 and coaxially with the axis of rotation thereof. For the shifting of the target image in a predetermined path, the arm H! is, in the embodiment shown, mechanically connected with a driving arrangement mounted in the framing under the table 2. This driving device comprises two cam discs 24, 25 which may be fitted so as to be easily interchangeable on spindles 26, 2'I which by means of suitable transmission gearing are connected with an electric motor 28, suitably common for both, the transmission being preferably such that the cam discs make one revolution in a minute or some other period of time for a presumed aerial attack. The cam disc 24 imparts a predetermined movement of rotation to the spindle 23, by means of a toothed rack 36 which is movable horizontally at right angles to the spindle 26 and engages a toothed wheel 29 secured to the spindle 23, the rack 30 bearing by means of a roller 3| and, if desired, under spring pressure against the edge of the cam disc 24. The cam disc 25 has to impart to the arm I9 a predetermined oscillating movement about the pivot 2|, for which purpose the cam disc 25 controls a vertically movable rack 35 which is connected to the lower end of a rod 35 which is axially displaceable in the spindle 23 but is rotatable therewith. The upper end of the rod 3:3 is firmly connected to avertical rack 33 which engages with a toothed sector 32 on the arm l9.
On the rotation of the cam discs 24, 25, the target image is shifted in a path predetermined by the form of the cam discs, and the practice party has to follow the target image as exactly as possible by the telescope, preferably provided with cross wires or the like, by means of the adjusting or setting device consisting of the handwheels and the associated members. A continuous recording of the adjustment of the telescope during this operation is valuable. The
divergencies of the telescope in the direction of the target image either in traversing or elevating can be recorded by two separate recording means, each of which is operatively connected through a differential gear with the corresponding of the driving device and the adjusting device. In the embodiment shown, one recording medium 36 is, for the sake of simplicity, fitted on the spindle 37 of a planet wheel 33 which is in engagement with two toothed wheels 39, which are so operatively connected with the toothed wheel 29, and with a toothed wheel All rotatabie with the table 2, that the recording medium 36 is in a Zero position as long as the telescope is correctly directed in the traversing direction on to the target image. The second recording medium 42 can be arranged in a corresponding manner to obtain by a differential gear at the difference in movement between a toothed wheel is ctuated by the rack 35 and a toothed wheel 25 which engages with a member Q which is axially displaceable on the rod 36 but not rotatable and which is operatively connected in the axial direction with the rod 16. The recording media can be arranged adjacent to each other, each to record on a separate or a common paper strip 41 continuously moved forward by clockwork or the like not shown on the drawing.
The telescope or aiming apparatus can, however, be also connected in such manner with a single recording stylus resting against a stationary support that the movement thereof in two directions perpendicular to each other corresponds to the movements of the instrument in the traversing or elevating directions. For example, with the embodiment shown in Fig. 1, the differential gearing and the members connected thereto would be replaced by a recording device coinciding in principle with that shown in Fig. 2, which comprises two parallel spindles 50, 5|, a slide 52 carried thereon, and a holder 53 for a recording stylus displaceable at right angles to said spindles. The holder 53 is in threaded engagement with a screwthreaded spindle 54 which is carried in the slide and is ronected with the toothed wheels 4| and Q5, re-
spectively, the recording stylus will decribe on a support 56, a path 51 corresponding to the arrangement of the telescope, the support consisting preferably of a sheet of paper on which a curve 58 indicating the predetermined path of r the target image has been previously marked. Such a recording device is particularly suitable when the target image is not arranged on the apparatus itself.
In order to make the exercise more realistic, the target image on the holder can be replaced by a stepwise movable member such as a disc, a band or the like, showing a number of different images of a target and which is arranged to convey these images one after the other into a position of presentation with respect to the aiming apparatus. According to Fig. 3, the holder 20 is thus provided with a rotatable disc 60 showing a number of different pictures SI of an aircraft and is provided with a preferably electro-magnetic stepwise feeding device by which the pictures or images appear one after the other in an aperture 62 in the holder. A corresponding change of the picture or image may also be suitable when the target image con- 4 sists of a photograph produced by a projector and which, like the arm [9, may be adjustable in the traversing and elevating directions.
An apparatus agreeing in principle with Figure 1 can also be used for exercise in following the target with smaller anti-aircraft weapons for direct firing, e. g. those with a reflex sight for altitude aiming and a reflex sight for horizontal aiming. The target arm I9 is here provided with two target images adjacent to each other and the telescope 4-'l is replaced by two reflex sights adjustable with a handwheel for elevation and deflection, respectively, or by simple tubes with cross wires, which are located as close as possible to the target image.
It should be obvious that the invention can also be used with apparatus where the direction of the target is variable only in one plane. The invention can thus be used with advantage in exercises with range finders which are provided with a measurement drum rotated by the service attendants, for example until the two images produced by the objectives of the apparatus, of an incidence line on the target, come opposite to each other. The measuring drum may here be connected through a screw drive with a recording stylus which, for example, bears against a paper strip continuously fed forward in its longitudinal direction. Instead of an actual target, a target image movable in a predetermined path can also be used in this case, a front lens being arranged in front of each objective and a target image or a datum mark being arranged in front of the lens at focal distance. The one target image is here driven laterally for example by means of an easily interchangeable cam disc driven by a motor, so that the sighting lines of the two objectives of the range finder through the corresponding target images intersect each other at a distance which corresponds to the distance of the imagined air target which runs through a definite imagined path. Instead of recording the absolute value of the measured distance, it is possible as with the embodiment according to Figure 1, to record its relative value or its divergence from the distance corresponding to the form of the cam disc.
The invention can also be used with such apparatus where instead of an aiming apparatus some other kind of tracking member is fitted. In this the primary value, e. g. the direction of an assumed target can be given by means of a movable pointer, the setting mechanism being in driving connection with a tracking member in the shape of another corresponding pointer (follower pointer). The two pointers are connected with the recording device. In the cannon laying exercise apparatus shown in Figure 4, one of the firing data, e. g. the timing period or the lateral angle to the impact point, is given by means of a disc 10 provided with an index or pointer, on a rotatably carried spindle H, and this spindle receives a predetermined rotary movement by means of a driving device which comprises a cam disc '33 driven by a spring motor and regulator, or by a synchronous motor 12 and a rack. "M actuated thereby which engages with a toothedin'the same direction. By means of a second gearing 8|, the handwheel can be placed in driving connection with a timing apparatus or a cannon or a casement therefor. The adjustment of the setting mechanism in relation to the variable primary value given by the pointer is is suitably recorded on a paper strip 82 by means of a recording medium provided with a recording stylus and which is operatively connected through a dinerential gear with the driving device and the setting mechanism. In the embodiment shown, the recording medium 83 is, for the sake of simplicity, shown on the pivot of a planet wheel 85, which pivot is oscillatably carri d on the spindle or shaft H, the planet wheel 81% engaging with a toothed wheel 85 secured to the spindle 2i and with a toothed wheel 87 connected with the spindle tit through a pinion gearing 85. Naturally, the absolute'value of the firing data introduced can also be recorded. In the embodiment shown the said firing data is given by means of a pointer. This can naturally be connected through a fine adjustment with a corresponding follower pointer connected to the pointer it. A number of apparatus according to Figure 4 can be combined for a corresponding number of firing data into a unit and be provided with a common driving device. The driving device can also consist of a step-bystep receiver motor which by means of a cable is connected to a corresponding transmitter in a central instrument, or to a transmitter which actuated by the corresponding adjusting handwheel Si or E2 of an exercise apparatus according to Figure 1 said receiver and transmitter forming part of a self-synchronous electric transmission system known per see, such linking of different apparatus serving the purpose of training teamwork. Such systems are disclosed in United States Patent Nos. 1,813,543 and 1,976,727, Each record-- ing device is suitably provided with an electromagnetically actuated recording stylus to mark the point of time, for example, of the firing of an imaginary cannon, this making it possible afterwards to ascertain the degree of accuracy at such instant.
What we claim is:
1. An apparatus of the character described comprising a movable target member, a driving device operatively connected with said target member for imparting a determined movement thereto, a setting mechanism, a tracking member under positive control of said setting mechanism for performing a movement corresponding to that of said target member, and a recording device including a stylus operatively connected with said 1 setting mechanism for continuously and graphically recording the movement of said tracking member.
2. An apparatus of the character described, comprising a movable target member, a driving device operatively connected with said target member for imparting a determined movement thereto, a setting mechanism, a tracking member under positive control of said setting mechanism for performing a movement corresponding to that of said target member, and a recording device including a stylus operatively connected through a differential gear with said driving device and said setting mechansim so as to record the movement of said tracking member relatively to that of said target member.
3. An apparatus of the character described, comprising a direction indicating member mounted to swing about a center, a driving device operatively connected with said indicating member for imparting a determined movement thereto, a tracking member swingable about said center and capable of being set in directions indicated by said indicating member, a setting mechanism in driving connection with said tracking member, and a recording device including a stylus operatively connected with said setting mechanism for continuously and graphically recording the direction imparted to said tracking member.
4. An apparatus for training in laying a gun, comprising in combination, a target pointer mounted to swing about an axis, a cam-operated driving device operatively connected with said target pointer for imparting a predetermined movement thereto, a tracking pointer mounted to swing about said axis in the proximity of said target pointer, a setting mechanism in driving connection with said tracking pointer, and recording device including a stylus operatively connected through a differential gear with said driving device and said setting mechanism so as to record the movement of said tracking pointer relatively to that of said target pointer.
5. An apparatus of the character described, comprising a, movable target, a driving device operatively connected with said target for imparting a determined movement thereto, a telescope directable at said target, a setting mechanism in driving connection with said telescope, and a recording device including a stylus operatively connected with said setting mechanism for continuously and graphically recording the direction imparted to said telescope.
6. An apparatus of the character described, comprising a movable target, an aiming apparatus mounted to swing universally about a center and directable at said target, a driving device operatively connected with said target for imparting a determined movement thereto vertically as well as laterally relatively to said aiming apparatus, and a recording device operatively connected with said aiming apparatus for continuously and graphically recording the direction imparted thereto.
'7. Apparatus according to claim 6, wherein said driving device comprises two interconnected cams adapted to move said target in the Vertical and lateral direction respectively.
8. An apparatus of the character described, comprising a movable target, an aiming apparatus mounted to swing universally about a center and constructed to permit two persons to aim simultaneously at said target, a driving device operatively connected with said target for imparting a determined movement thereto vertically as well as laterally relatively to said aiming apparatus, and a recording device operatively connected with said aiming apparatus for continuously and graphically recording the direction imparted thereto.
9. An apparatus of the character described, comprising a direction indicating arm mounted to swing universally about a center, a tracking member mounted to swing universally about the said center and capable of being set in directions indicated by said arm, a driving device operatively connected with said arm for imparting a determined movement thereto vertically as Well as laterally, a setting mechanism in driving connection with said tracking member, and a recording device including a stylus operatively connected with said setting mechanism for continuously and graphically recording the direction imparted to said tracking member.
IOz A'pr-acticeapparatus for following a target, comprising in combinati'on, an arm mounted to swing about a center, a target image-device carriedby'said arm; an aimingapparatus directable on 'said target image',and a recording device arranged to record the direction of said aiming apparatus.
11-. Apparatus according to claim 8, wherein said aiming apparatus'comprises a telescope with two eye-pieces for one and the same objective.
12. Apparatus according to claim 6, wherein said recording-apparatus comprises a recording stylus cooperating with a stationary support and operatively connected to said aiming apparatus in' such manner that its movement in two directions" perpendicular to each other corresponds tothe movements of said aiming apparatus in the vertical and lateral direction.
13. A practice apparatus for following a target, comprising in combination, a target direction indicating arm mounted to swing about a center, a driving mechanism for said arm, an aiming apparatus, a manually operated device for adjusting said aiming apparatus to agree in direction with th direction indicated by said arm, and a recording device arranged' to record the adjustment of said aiming apparatus, said aiming apparatus together with'said adjusting device being mounted to swing about a vertical axis, and said driving mechanism being stationarily mounted an'd' 'mechanically' connected with said arm by means of a member coaxial with the said vertical axis-of said aiming apparatus.
14. A practice apparatus for following a target,
8:. comprisinga target direction indicatingsarm ann adjustable aiming apparatus and .a I'GCOI'diIlga device arranged to recordtheadjustment-of said" aiming apparatus, said-aiming apparatuscomprising a part rotatable about a horizontal axis. one vertical axis intersecting this; and saidarm being oscillatable about the same twoaxes.-
15. Apparatus according to claim -10, wherein:
said target image device comprisesa stepwise movable member having a plurality of -different images of a target and being arranged-to convey said images one after the other into-a position: of exposure with 1 respect to the said aiming. apparatus.
GUNNAR EKs'rRoM.
PAUL'WILHELM DIETMANNB REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the ire of this patent:
UNITED STATES- PATENTS m Number Name Date" 729,491 Dick May 2figl903 1,56%,138 Rowland Dec. 1, 1925 1,825,452 Link Sept. 29,1931 1,939,706 Karnes Dec. 19," 1933 2,065,303 Chafee Dec. 22, 1936 2,066,498 Watson Jan. 5;193'7'" 2,387,749 Darnell Oct; 30; 1945" FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 521,928 Great Britain -1938-
US565296A 1942-09-07 1944-11-27 Gunfire control training apparatus Expired - Lifetime US2471368A (en)

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Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2583398A (en) * 1950-01-03 1952-01-22 B J Palmer Instrument reading training device
US2645037A (en) * 1951-12-03 1953-07-14 Albert J Talone Gun sighting
US2694869A (en) * 1949-11-25 1954-11-23 Eugene M Mcnatt Gun sight trainer
US2709076A (en) * 1951-01-18 1955-05-24 Linn F Hansen Weight recording and calculating apparatus
US2856702A (en) * 1953-10-01 1958-10-21 Communications Patents Ltd Gunnery training apparatus
US2965979A (en) * 1949-09-09 1960-12-27 Robert E Holzer Training device for mark 14 gunsight
DE1106647B (en) * 1959-08-13 1961-05-10 Bodenseewerk Perkin Elmer Co Richtuebungsgeraet, especially Kinotheodolit training device

Citations (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US729491A (en) * 1901-09-23 1903-05-26 Charles J A Dick Instrument for indicating and recording the aiming of naval guns.
US1564138A (en) * 1923-03-12 1925-12-01 North American Company Testing apparatus
US1825462A (en) * 1930-03-12 1931-09-29 Jr Edwin A Link Combination training device for student aviators and entertainment apparatus
US1939706A (en) * 1931-05-20 1933-12-19 James C Karnes Apparatus for conducting training in gunnery
US2065303A (en) * 1933-01-28 1936-12-22 Sperry Gyroscope Co Inc Apparatus for the control of gunfire
US2066498A (en) * 1931-06-20 1937-01-05 Vickers Armstrongs Ltd Gunfire control apparatus
GB521928A (en) * 1937-12-15 1940-06-04 Anonima Officine Galileo Soc Apparatus for training personnel in sound detection
US2387749A (en) * 1944-06-23 1945-10-30 Richard C Darnell Director trainer

Patent Citations (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US729491A (en) * 1901-09-23 1903-05-26 Charles J A Dick Instrument for indicating and recording the aiming of naval guns.
US1564138A (en) * 1923-03-12 1925-12-01 North American Company Testing apparatus
US1825462A (en) * 1930-03-12 1931-09-29 Jr Edwin A Link Combination training device for student aviators and entertainment apparatus
US1939706A (en) * 1931-05-20 1933-12-19 James C Karnes Apparatus for conducting training in gunnery
US2066498A (en) * 1931-06-20 1937-01-05 Vickers Armstrongs Ltd Gunfire control apparatus
US2065303A (en) * 1933-01-28 1936-12-22 Sperry Gyroscope Co Inc Apparatus for the control of gunfire
GB521928A (en) * 1937-12-15 1940-06-04 Anonima Officine Galileo Soc Apparatus for training personnel in sound detection
US2387749A (en) * 1944-06-23 1945-10-30 Richard C Darnell Director trainer

Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2965979A (en) * 1949-09-09 1960-12-27 Robert E Holzer Training device for mark 14 gunsight
US2694869A (en) * 1949-11-25 1954-11-23 Eugene M Mcnatt Gun sight trainer
US2583398A (en) * 1950-01-03 1952-01-22 B J Palmer Instrument reading training device
US2709076A (en) * 1951-01-18 1955-05-24 Linn F Hansen Weight recording and calculating apparatus
US2645037A (en) * 1951-12-03 1953-07-14 Albert J Talone Gun sighting
US2856702A (en) * 1953-10-01 1958-10-21 Communications Patents Ltd Gunnery training apparatus
DE1106647B (en) * 1959-08-13 1961-05-10 Bodenseewerk Perkin Elmer Co Richtuebungsgeraet, especially Kinotheodolit training device

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