US2428312A - Refrigerator - Google Patents

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US2428312A
US2428312A US485366A US48536643A US2428312A US 2428312 A US2428312 A US 2428312A US 485366 A US485366 A US 485366A US 48536643 A US48536643 A US 48536643A US 2428312 A US2428312 A US 2428312A
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tanks
ice
tank
casing
holding
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US485366A
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Henry M Herbener
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Henry M Herbener
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25DREFRIGERATORS; COLD ROOMS; ICE-BOXES; COOLING OR FREEZING APPARATUS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F25D11/00Self-contained movable devices, e.g. domestic refrigerators
    • F25D11/006Self-contained movable devices, e.g. domestic refrigerators with cold storage accumulators
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25DREFRIGERATORS; COLD ROOMS; ICE-BOXES; COOLING OR FREEZING APPARATUS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F25D2400/00General features of, or devices for refrigerators, cold rooms, ice-boxes, or for cooling or freezing apparatus not covered by any other subclass
    • F25D2400/10Refrigerator top-coolers
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25DREFRIGERATORS; COLD ROOMS; ICE-BOXES; COOLING OR FREEZING APPARATUS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F25D2400/00General features of, or devices for refrigerators, cold rooms, ice-boxes, or for cooling or freezing apparatus not covered by any other subclass
    • F25D2400/30Quick freezing

Description

H. M. HERBENER Sept. 30, 1947.
REFRIGERATOR Filed May 1, 1943 7 Sheets-Sheet 1 7 a 26 as 25' fienviyMjy zaneh tum/w,
Sept. 30, .1947. H. M. HERBENER REFRIGERATOR Filed May 1, 1943 7 Sheets-Sheet 2 Henzj MHeTZene7".
PJWWW Sept.
REFRIGERATOR HERBENER Filed May 1, 1943 2a 1 ELE- 7 Sheets-Sheet 3 @btoww Sept. 30, 1947' HERBENER 2,428,312
REFRIGERATOR Filed May'l, 1943 '7 Sheets-Sheet 5 p 30, 1947- H. M. HERBENER 2,428,312
REFRIGERATOR Filed May 1, 1943 7 Sheets-She et 6 8 E1E=1E frozen in thin layers.
Patented Sept. 30, 1947 UNITED fsTArEs PATENT Henry M. Herbener, Thomasvillc, Ga. Application May 1, 1943, Serial No. 485,366 30 Claims. (01." 62-95) My invention relates to refrigerators, such as are operated by a compressor, heat 'or the like.
An important object of the invention is to provide refrigerating apparatus having the maximum efficiency. a
A further object of the invention is to provide a refrigerator which may be operated intermittently, throughout the entire day, or operated during a portion ofthe day, when current or the like is cheap or available, which produces ice,
which is employed 'to properly chill the refrigerator, when the ice producing means is inactive.
A further object of the invention is to provide means whereby the liquid freezable medium is A further object of the invention is to first freeze the liquid freezable medium at the bottom and cause the freezing action to continueupwardly,'so that the resultant ice will not burst the container or tank of the; liquid freezable medium.
A further object of the invention is to retain the previously formed and partly melted ice when floating, spaced from the freezing device or wall, thus providing a layer of the liquid freezable medium in direct contact with the freezing device or'wall, for the next freezing cycle.
A further object of the invention is to provide means to guide the ice producedin the tank when the ice partly melts and floats, so that the ice is retained centered with respect to the tank.v
means ,for surrounding "the sub-freezing com-Y partment, in whole or in' part, with chilled air. A further object, of the-invention is to provide a refrigerator of the above mentioned character,
wherein a-proper' circulationof the air is effected.
A further object of the"invention is to provide a downwardly tapered tank for holding theliquid' freezable medium with an expansion space at I its top and means for applying the freezing, action to the lower reduced portioniof the tank, thereby 7 increasing the efliciency of the apparatus.
A further object of the invention is to freeze.
the liquid freezable medium within the tank from the bottom toward the top whereby the unfrozen water at the top serves asa shield to prevent the. food products beingsubjected to a sub-freezing;
temperature.
A further objectof the invention is to arrange or nearthe level of the water in the tank so that the compressed; will be stopped when the water is completely the thermostatic element at frozen from the topto the bottom;
A further object of the invention is to guide the floating ice into thermal contact with the heat transfer wall of the while retaining the same spaced from the freezing means or wall.-
refrigerator casing A further object of the invention is to provide means for freezing a liquid freezable medium,
having a suitable volume'so that the ice produced I i is employed to retain the perishable products at a suitable refrigerating temperature, for a desired length hydrating them.
i A further object of the invention is toprovide g a' refrigerator having a large number of thin liquid freezable medium holding tanks, for pro-- the refrigerator, and permitting of the formation of the ice quickly and economically.
A further object of the invention is to provide,
a refrigerator having a separate compartment within its ing temperature.
casing, which is heat insulated and having means for producing therein a subefreez- .40 of time, without liability of de:
A further object of the inventionis to provide the wall or walls of the refrigerating casing with liquid freezable medium holding tanks, whereby 1 ice may be produced within such tanks, to'retain the interior'of thelre'frig'erating casing at ,a suit---.' able refrigerating temperature withoutdehydrating the edible foo *productsjand to prevent heat interior of the casing and. 7
exchange betweii t the exterior "thereof." r, v A further object of the invention is to provide a tank so shaped 'that the top cross section is larger than"the= -bottoi n crosssection to provide extra room for floating ice so that the top cannot freeze over befo'e'the .bottom of the liquid is frozen; i
This application is. a'icontinuation in, part of; my co-pending application for refrigeration apparatus, filed May'l, lilqfserial No.; 333,855.
Iri'jhe accompanying drawings forming apart or this application and'in' which like numerals are employed to designate likef'pa'rts throughout the same,
Figure 1 isa c entral vertical section through a refrigerator embodYiuB-m'y invention,
'- 'l ure 21s a transverse section taken on line g 2-2 of Figure 1,
Figure 3 is a hori'zontal section taken on line 8-3 of Figure 1,
Figure 4 is a similar View taken on line 4-4 of Figure 1,
A furtherobiect of the invention is to provide Figure 5 is a diagrammatic view showing the expansion coils and associated elements.
mice
REFRIGERATOR Figure 7 is a similar view showing the ice,
partlymelted and floating and guided from-the walls of the tank,
Figure 8 is a similar view throughone of the j-back wall tanks showingthe water completely frozen,
Figure 9 is a similar view. showing the ice partly melted and-floating and guidediromthe freezing wall and into thermal contact with the heat transfer-wall,
Figure 10- is a central vertical section through a modified form of refrigerating apparatusembodying my invention,
Figure 11 is a horizontal section-taken on'line ii-ll of Figure 10, r
Figure 12 is a central vertical section through a further modification of the invention,
Figure 13 is a plan view of the passages for circulating the refrigerant, Y Figure 14 is a plan view of, the passages for circulating the chilled fluid,
"Figure 15 isa central vertical section through a further modified form of the invention,
Figure 16 is a perspective view of the refrigerant circulating coil, and
Figure 17 is a plan view of the chilled fluid circulating passage.
In thedrawings, wherein for the purpose of illustration is shown a preferred embodiment of my invention, thenumeral ll designates a casing, including sides ii, a back l2,1a front 13, a top ll anda bottom IS. The casing includes a lower compartment, it for receiving the operating mechanism, including a-compressor and motor, if thistype of mechanism is employed, or a gas burning unit, or other heat operated unit, if the latter'type of mechanism isused. .The front I: has the usual .maln'entrance opening covered by a hinged door i-l. 3
The top is double-walled, including an'inner wall i8 and an outer wall ll, formed of metal or the like; I a i V r Arranged within this double-walled top ll is refrigerating means 18, adjacent to and in thermal contact with the inneriwall fit. This re-v frigeratingmeans is spaced from the outer wall it, and from the outer .walls of the front and back [3 and i2, and is surrounded by heat insulating material l9, arranged outwardly of the same, as shown; The refrigerating meansiv includes a plurality of horizontal tanks 20, preferably extending transversely of the casing 10. These tanks are hermetically sealed, are elongated, and taper downwardly and are generally V- -shaped in. cross-section and include downwardly converging sides 2i. These tanks also include downwardly converging ends H. The tanks 20 preferably have their tops arranged in thermal contact and their upper ends may'belhermetically sealedby acornrnon cover 21. 'The itanks 20 are separate and are filled-forthe maiorzportion suitable heat exchange material.
and inthermal contact therewith are ver- "tical heat exchange ice guide pins or devices 25.
These guide pins are disposed at the central longitudinal axis of the tank, are arranged therein, and are spaced longitudinally of the tank. The guide pins 26' preferably have their upper ends spaced from the plate 22 and preferablyterminaterat about the elevation of the freezable liquid medium-within the tanks. The tanks and associated elements are formed of metal or other of. the liquid medium within the tank is effected by applying -afreezing action to the bottom or lower portion of the tank, and the freezing starts at the bottom of the liquid freezable medium and continues upwardly. This provides an expansion space at the top of the resultant ice so that the tank cannot be bursted by the ice.
has been converted into ice, the resultant ice within the tank serves to chill the interior of the casing. Due to the heat exchange action of the inclined walls of the tank and the guide pins,
the ice will first melt adjacent to the same. This frees the ice from contact with the tank, so that it may float-or rise, and the guide pins serve to retain the floating ice centered in the tank so that the floating-ice is spaced from the bottom, side, and end walls of the tank. When the freezing orchilling action is again applied to the lower portion of the tank, with the remaining ice floating in the tank, the ice will be out of the way so that the liqud medium at the bottom and sides of the tank may be quickly and properly frozen, since it will be in a thin layer and in thermal contact with such bottom and sides.
Surrounding the lower portions of the tanks 20 are expansion elements or coils 25', in thermal bottom of the sides of the tank 20 and.-extencls through about one half of the vertical dimenslon of such sides. Portions of the coils 25' are within recesses 25', occurring between the tanks. Since the coils are adjacent to the lower half of the sides of the tank, the freezing occurs first at the bottom of such sides, and quickly, and coiltinues upwardly, and slows down upwardly. The refrigerating means i8 is arranged within the double-walled top H, and is disposed between the outer wall it of the tank and a compartment A of the refrigerator casing,'and will prevent or retard heat exchange from the compartment A to the outer wall [8' of the top, while serving to chill the compartment A. a
The back'of the refrigerator is double-walled and includes an outer wall 2" and an inner wall 21. The refrigerating means 28 is mounted within this double-walled back, and includes a" vertical group of tanks 29. The wall 21 is comcon to all the tanksand constitute? the inner vertical walls of the tanks. Each tank 29 further comprises an outer inclined wall 30, secured to the wall 21 and to a top 31. Each tank is hermetically sealed and receives a liquid freez able medium, such as water, brine or the like, partly filling the same, and leaving an air space 33, for expansion, upon freezing. The several tanks arein thermal contact with each other and in thermal contact with the inner wall 21, forming a part thereof,but are spaced from the outer wall 21", and heat insulating material is arranged between the tanks 28 and the wall 21, as shown. Arranged within each tank are heat ex- The freezing After the freezing action is discontinued, which usually 'occursafter all of the liquid freezable medium mam change ice guide pins 35, in thermal contact with the side 30, and'spacedfrom the top 3| and side 2], and extending, approximately. to the level of the. liquid freezable medium therein; If desired, the pins 35. may be in thermal contact with the side 21, or top 3l-, or both.- The. guide pins 35 are spaced longitudinallyrof the tanks, are disposed in transverse vertical planes, and are inclined toward the wall 21. The guide pins 35 correspond to the guide pins 26, and serve to guide the ice as it melts, ,so-thatlthe ice moves from the wall and into thermal contactwith the wall 21. The expansion elements or coils 33 are arranged in thermal contact with the; lower half of the sides 3ll'of tanks 29. v
a lasket sli im .Arranged beneath the compartment A is a 'l I double-walled shelf 31, supported ,bythe back of the casing and spaced fromthe sides and front, as shown. This double-walled shelf in:- cludes a lower diagonal sheet 33 and an upper horizontal sheet or cover'33. This double-walled shelf receives and holds; tanks 40, 4| and 42, similar and corresponding to the tanks I33," but differing slightly in shape in transverse section, so that they may be accommodated within the double-walled shelf 31. The tanks 40, and 42 j have their bottoms spaced from the diagonal sheet 38 while theirtops are 'in thermal contact with the cover 33. Heat insulating material 43 is arranged withinthe double-walled bracket 31 andis disposed. between the tanks and'the in-- clined sheet 33, as-show'n. The tanks 40, 4'! and 42 are hermetically sealed and the cover: is common to them. Each tank is separate but ispreferably in thermalcontact with the next tank and receives a liquid freezable medium, such as,
as, v r
mal conta t W th 9 theliquidl H "Par-merit A e ansd' etwees 49and 50ers tanks in. Substantially; identical dium, su h'as'brine or he like a q ha' sai 40 the inclined sheet 38 but are spaced and in- "sulated therefrom. The tanks 40, and 42'have spaced vertical heat transfer .ice' guiding pins v 45, 46 and 41; respectively, disposed at the cen- -tral longitudinal axis of the tanks. These pins have their upper ends secured toand in thermal contact with the cover 33, and their lower, ends spaced from the bottoms of .the tanks. In coning action is applied to the bottoms of the sides of the tanks, as explained in connection with the preceding freezing action, and after the ice is nection with the tanks 40, 4i and 42, thefreezformed and the freezing action is stopped, the
ice will melt, and the guide pins will retain the ice centered in the tanks, so that it will properly float-therein and remain spaced from the side's of the tank. It is thus seen that the refrigerat,-' ing means within the double-walled top 14 will chill the compartment A from the top while the refrigerating means within the double-walled bracket 31 will chill the compartment A from the bottom, both refrigerating means also serving to chill the interior of the casing l0.
The numeral 48 designates a heat-insulated cold or sub-freezing chamber or compartment, which is mounted upon the back I: and spaced from the sides andfront oi the casing I0. This compartment afiords spaces or passages 48', upon its opposite sides to'receive baskets 43' or the l like, removably mounted upon supports 50'.
These baskets are employed to hold perishable food products to be retained at ordinary refrigvided for the tans ,S'. I tact with the lowerh f or; the sides of these ime i;
hgfto-the-llina 2 .2 mint .5.! are her m f 2 2154 1 3 which bottom re n th mar contact with the inner wall 51! Expan ye ments'or' coils- L corre'spondihgtothe nsi 25 arepr ice guidingphi's 5 c." cr he' me'nii e; a
tanks. The tanks seem sbac'e 'fr m the shelf 56', .and heat inshlatmg matrlaligfis arranged between these parts-em I also extends. within allied comthe'fronji and ot m the d ubl e 'eh mb with the'tanks [sf-i, scheminga'1iqu1err zab1e spaces in .thirt'op's. 'The'expan'sionclern'ents or. coils 6|, correspond to the'elements fie', ar Lin thermal contact with thelowerhalfof thesides f e nk '50- ii fi lg w t h 5] are vertical: heat-transferice guiding pins-e25- corresponding to .th'eT'pins 23", and havin'g the same function. The pins 5: arein thefm con-- tact with the top 33 of all? tanks and also i'n thermal contactfwith; bottoms'flo'f h nk'sf At the back of the chamber 43 are tanks'ii, identical with the tanks 29 and having expansionv cells 36, identical with theiexpansioncoils' 3S; and heat exchange ice. guide pins 3! identical with the pins 35-, The tanks 85 are in thermal ll; and are'"insulated-therefrom,bythe insulat ing material 24; as s own. Both'sets of tanks andfll'andtlletanks will chillthe' c amber 49; was nk '0 w l elso c i l the hime cc. sinp thetan s'ss and 6,0 are m oyed to produce a sub-freezing temperaturethey' willhold a liquid. freezable medium such as brineorthe like. The chamb'erlillis h at insulated from the space 5 4, as shown. a As shown in Figure 5, the lower turns- Bl of the cells 61 are connected in series, and'the intake 6| is connected in series with the intaketurn 32? of the upper turns; These upper turns 32! are connected in series and the outlet turn'fl' pis connected with a pipe 63, connected with the second coil 66 from the bottom. 4 The second and third coils 86 from the bottom are, connected in x are; in thermal-.- con Q .7 V series, and the third coil 68 fr the bottom is connected withthe intake 58* of the lower set of tu'rnsfl. The outlet tum 58! is connected with the intake turn 59, of the upper set of turns I3, and the outlet turn 59 is: connectedwith a pipe 89,- connected 'with the lowermost coil 38. The'first, second, third,[fourth and fifth coils ll i'romthe'bottoln are connected in series and the fifth coil from the bottom'is connected in series with-the lowermost turni44' of the coil of-the tank 42. The uppermost or outlet coil 44 isconnected in series with the lower 44 of the coil 44 of the tank, and theuppermost turn is connected withia' pipeil, connected 8 third coils 88 from the bottom, the turns 58 and the turns 59'. into which further expansion and 38 from thebottom, wherein further expansion and vaporization occur. The liquid and gas then pass through the pipe 10, turn 44 and pipe H with, the sixth coil :6 fromthe bottom. This coil I6 is connected with the turn 449 of the coil. of the tankjL The turn 44 is connectedwith a rpipe: ll,connectedwith the seventh coil; from the'bottorn. hef'sev'enth, eighth, ninth and I tenth cells 36 from the bottom are connected in series, and the uppermost coil It is connected; with a pipeilhconne'cted with the intake turn 2i!ofa-lowersetpf turns ef the coils The outlet'turn "25 'ls connected with thejupper inlet Lturn 25" of anhpbci set ofturns, and the outlet'tum' 25' is connected with a pipe 13, having aliquid trapli'. -'T he pipe |3 is connected with 1 the intakesideof a compressor14,the outlet side of whichls connected with apipe1l,'discharging into'are'diator or'condenserlt. The pipe 11 con,- nectswith the discharge end of the condenser and L isLconnected' with'the pipe i1, and 'a' restrictory valve "is connected in the pipe '11. I
The-compressor 14 is driven by a motor 79.; This'motor is connected in a circuit including lead wires-8e and l I: -A thermostatic switch 82 is con-J .nected in'the wire 8|; A clock controlled switch and the seventh, ighth, ninth and tenth coils 38 from the bottom, wherein further expansion and vaporization occur. The liquid and gas then pass through the pipe 12, through the turns 25*, and the turns 25 and tO'the pipe 13, whereby further vaporization and expansion occur. When the vapor enters the pipe 13 the cycle of operation is repeated. The liquid trap 13' prevents any of up the liquid returning to the compressor. It is thus seen that the liquid and vapor when passing through the several turns, coils, pipes, either travel horizontally or upwardly, or the arrangement may be'such that they will travel upwardly a continuously.
83' is'connected in the wire 80' and this clock con-,
trolled switchmay be cutoutor into circuit by v a switch 84. A manually operated switch 85 is v also connected infl-thfwire 80'.-;It is thus seen.
that by opening the. switch 85. and closing the switch in; that the non; commute switch will thenbe'conn'ected in the'fwire all, '}This clock. controlledswitch mayclosei'thegcircuit at the" clock; intermittently, or continuously, during any selected portion cit-the 1 da or throughout the entire day. ,When it is :desired'not to employ a time controlledmeans'to ClQ fe the c'ircuitat one;-
point, switch-841s opened andthe circuit may be 7 manuallyclosed by the switch 85.1 The titer-mo static switch a: closes the circuit at a second p int.
As-more clearly shown'in'liigure '1, the thermostatic switch" 82 is located between one, tank 29 and, the tank 42. lhis'thermostatic switch; is in thermal contact with either orboth tanks, and is arranged ator slightly above the maximum-water level of the tank {or ,tanksh'T'I'h'e thermostatic switch remains'closed until thejtemperature-applied thereto reaches 32min'us, at
which timeitwill openand remain open until the 1 temperature again rises above i32 ninus at which;
time-it will close thecircuit} u p J v Iheoperationis asfollows?- I The compressor 14 withdraws the vaporized;
' refrigerant from the outlet turn 25 through the pipe 1.3, convertsit into a liquid and passes it intothe condenser or radiator 16. Front thisfcon.
denser theliquefied refrigerant passesthrough the restrictor valve 18 and enters the pipe Bl and passes in *succession through the lowermost coil -66 and the turns 6!, and throughxthe turns 62*,
in which expansion occurs and some of the liquid is vaporized, The liquid refrigerant and vapor then passes throughthepipe 88, the second and While I have shown the refrigerant as supplied from a unit including a compressor, the refrigerant may also be supplied in the form of a gas, from aunit as is employed in the Electrolux refrigerator. and in which a flame or heat is usedto produce the gaseous refrigerant.
Since the refrigerating means for the cha nbers 49 and; 50- are within the heat insulated 00111-1 partment, they do notmaterially chill the interior of the casing 10. This prevents the subfreezing temperature from occurring within thecasing l0, exteriorly of the sub-freezing corn-f partment, so that the food products within the ,casing, are not dehydrated. The interior of the casing is chilledprinclpally by the refrigerating means including the tanks I8,*,-tanks 29, tanks 65 and tanks 40, 4| and 42, without liability of dehydrating the food products, as the refrigerating mechanism will be stopped at about the time thatall of the water in these tanks is completely frozen. The, combined volume, of the ice produced is sufllcient to keep the interior of the case ing suitably chilled for a considerable period,
after the compressor stops; The'chilled'air produced at the topof the casing descends, while the warmer air rises, thus producing suitable cir the water is thus substantially completely frozen within this tank and within the other tanks, the refrigerating mechanism is rendered idle by stopping the action of the compressor, and the thermal contact between the ice and these adjacent parts, causes the ice to melt adjacent to r such parts, and the ice is partly melted. This frees the ice from the walls of the tank, and the ice floats and rises. The ice also melts adjacent to the guide pins. These guide pins new guide the ice in its floating movement and retain the icespaced from the sides and ends of the tank. If the ice contacted with one side, capillary action would cause the ice to adhere to such side and slide up the same. The pins 26 thusiguide the ice from the sides 2I and the coils 25. The,
almost instantly. When the thin layer of water 20 is provided, the compressor starts and the freezing starts at the outer face of the layer 28 adjacent to its bottom edge. This freezing continues inwardly, and slows down and becomes more difficult as the thickness of the icebetween the wall and the water increases. The freez ing action is continued until the layer is com- 20 pletely frozen and then the compressor is stopped. The freezing action also starts at the bottom of the layer and continues upwardly, so that the top layer is frozen last. This prevents the freezing action from bursting the tank. When the 26 layer of water finishes freezing at the top, it loses its ability .to absorb the sub-freezingtemperatures, and therefore the thermostatic switch is set to open at this time, to stop the compressor. The unfrozen water at the top serves as a shield 80 and will absorb any sub-freezing temperatures until the water is completelyfrozen. In this way, the food products can be subjected to the maximum cooling temperatures, without liability of being frozen or dehydrated. The cycle of operation is repeated. The same action occurs in all of the V-shaped tanks. Substantially the. same action occurs in the back tanks 29 and 65, except that the pins 6'! guide the ice into contact with the inner heat exchange wall .21, and pro-- duce a layer of water 21, between the wall 29 and the ice. When the refrigerating mechanism is again rendered active, the layer of water 21 is frozen, as explained.
In each instance, when the previously formed ice partly melts within the tank, it is guided from the freezing wall of the tank, so that a thin layer of water is produced at such wall, and
' when the refrigerating mechanism again starts,
the wall will freeze the thin layer of water. In this manner, a thin layer of water is successively frozen in each tank.
By providing a large number of thin tanks,
' the combined volume of the ice produced is sufiicient to properly chill the interior of the refrigerator casing The arrangement also produces a large number of thin water layers, which are frozen in succession, thus increasing the efilciency of the apparatus. This avoids the necessity of freezing through thick ice, except when first starting the refrigerator to completely freeze the water in the tanks.
The apparatus maybe operated without the thermostatic switch. In this event, the clock switch would be disconnected from the circuit and the circuit opened and closed, at intervals by the switch 85. When it is desired to have the operation automatic, the thermostatic switch is employed, while the switch 85 may be closed and v the switch 84 opened. When the ice partly melts in the tanks, the thermostatic switch will close and the compressor willbe driven, until the water in the tanks has again completely frozen, at which time the thermostatic switch will again open and the compressor will stop. This auto- 76 '10 matic operation may occur during a selected part of the day when current is cheap or available,
and when this is desired the switch is opened and the 'switch 8 closed. The thermostatic switch will open and close the motor circuit, as explained, and the clock switch will close thecircuit at another point at the beginning of a selected portion of the day and again open the circuit at the end of such selected pbrtion.
" The food products upon the shelf 86 are in -thermal contact therewith and therefore in thermal contact with the ice through the medium of the tanks 48, ll and 42. The shelf 88 may have a temperature of 32 plus but not a temperature below this. There is therefore no necessity to have the refrigerating mechanism produce an exposed temperature below 32 plus,
as must be done with the ordinary mechanical refrigerator, wherein the explosed temperature is always below 32 during operation, for otherwise the compressor wouldnever operate when the coil is covered with frost. The frost is at least 32, but is not of sufficient volume) to properly chill the box and therefore the compressor must continue to operate to properly chill the box.
In connection with all parts of the refrigerator where heat exchange is to be effected, such parts are to be formed of met-a1 or other suitable heat transfer material. r In Figures liland 11 I have shown asub-freezing box for holding frozen food products. This box is preferably rectangular, vertical andineludes an inner casing 86 and an outer'casing 81, forming a double-walled construction. The double-walled construction holds heat insulating material 88. Access is had to the interior of the inner casing 86 at the top only, through an opening 89, to be closed by a removable cover 98.
Surrounding the casing 86- are superposed horizontal sets of tanks 9 I, corresponding to thetanks 29. The walls of the casing 86-1'orm theinner sides of these tanks. The tanks 9I are therefore in thermal contact with the'casing 86. The.
tanks 9| are hermetically sealed, and are partly filled with a liquid freezable medium 92, such as brine or the like. There is an air space 83 at the top of each tank. Each tank has an ice guide pin 94, corresponding to the pin 35, and inclined upwardly toward the wall of the casing86. Surrounding the wall portions of each set of tanks is a. refrigerating coil 95, including a lower turn and an upper turn 86. The coil is in thermal contact with the outer sides of the tanks 9|, and does not extend above the lower half of the tanks.
Arranged beneath the bottom 96 ofthe casing 86 are tanks 91 corresponding to the tanks 28, and
in thermal contact with the bottom 96. 98 are vertical ice guide pins. The tanks 91 are hermetically sealedand are partly filled with'brine or the like, and have air spaces 9 9-at their tops.
A refrigerating coil I06 surrounds the lower porthe upper turns IIIII form a horizontal group and are connected in series like the turns 62.
The lower intake turn ")0 is connected with a pipe IllI, having a restrictor valve I62 connected therein. The pipe IIII is connected with the outlet end of a condenser or radiator I03, connected with a pipe I84. This'pipe is connected with the outlet turn I is connected with the-lower-turn of the next coil 95.. The upper turn 96' of each coil is connected with the lower turn- 95' "ofithe coil above it. All of the coils 05 are there.-
iore. connected in series. llhe upper turn 95 of theuppermost coil95 is connected with a pipe I0'I, having a liquid trap I 00 connected therein.
The pipe m is connected-with the intake side of the compressor. I
' It is thus seen that the liquid refrigerant passing'through the pipe IOI will first pass through V the lower group of turns I00;,-then through the upper group of turns I00, and then through the several coils 05Yin succession.- Expansion and vaporization occur in these coils. The-vapor is returnedthrough the pipe I01 to the compressor. Theliquid and gas therefore travel horizontally and upwardly through .the ,various coils. The
- groups of turns may be inclined outwardly, and
the coils 95 may be inclined upwardly, whereby the liquid and gas will travel upwardly continuously when passing through the coils. The apparatus may be used with or without the ther-- mostatic switch or with or without the clock switch. The operation of the apparatus is so similar to that of the first part of the invention that no further explanation is thought to be necessary, except to state that ice isformed in each tank, allowed to partly meltand float to provide the thin layer'of brine which isthen frozen.
In Figure 15, the same tanks-I09 are employed and the same tanks H3, except that the tanks H3 correspond in number to the tanks I09 and are arranged in alignment therewith. The same ice guide pins are provided. The tanks I09 have the same passages I I2 for the fluid to be chilled, such as brine, air, and the tanks II3 have the passages H8 to receive the fluid, such as brine or air, and these passages are connected in the same manner as described in connection with Figure 12. Coils I I1 surround the lower portions of the tanks I09 in thermal contact therewith, and receive the refrigerant from a unit including a compressor. Corresponding coils II8 surround the lower ends of the tanks H3, and in thermal contact therewith. The coils-III are connected in series with each other and'the coils II8 are connected in series with each other and in series that various changes in the shape, size, and ar- In Figure 12, I have shown a further modifica-,
tionof the invention." In this figure, the numeral 100 designates an insulating casing, in the lower portion of which are mounted tanks I09, correspending to the tanks '20 and having ice guide pins I I0, corresponding to the pins 26. The tanks I09 are hermetically sealed and partly filled with water, with air spaces at'the tops of the tanks.
Means are provided to form passages III, surrounding the lower portion of the tanks I09, and in thermal contact therewith to receive a gaseous refrigerant from a unit such as is used by the Electrolux." These several passages which Means are provided to form passages H2, surrangement of parts may be resorted to without departing from the spirit of my invention or the scope of the subjoined claims.
Having thus described my invention, what I claim is: p
1. In a refrigerator, a casing having a heat transfer wall, a downwardly tapered liquid freezable medium holding tank having a part thereof .in thermal contact with the wall, said tank having opposed downwardly converging walls, upstanding ice guide pins for the tank and disposed within the tank and arranged between the downwardly converging walls, a refrigerating element arranged adjacent to the tank, and means to retain the ice between the downwardly converging walls.
2. In a refrigerator, a casing having a heat transfer wall, a plurality of downwardly tapering tanks having their bottoms in thermal contact with the wall and adapted for holding a liquid 'freezable medium, each tank having opposed downwardly converging sldes, substantially rounding the upper portions of the tanks I09, and
in thermal contact therewith. These'passages H2 may also be connected in series and serve to hold a fluid which will freeze at a lower freezing "point than water, such as brine, air or the like.
refrigerant from a unit like the Electrolux. The passages II 5 are connected in series and the passages I I5 are also connected in series with the passages III. Means are provided to afiord passages IIB surrounding the upper portions of the tanks H3, and in thermal contact therewith, to receive a fluid medium, which will freeze at a lower freezing" point than water, such as brine, air or thelikeg The passages I I6 are connectecl in serieswith each other and in series with the passages H2. The fluid first passes through the passages H2 and then through the passages H6 and then to'the cooling coil of an air conditioning unit refrigerator or the like; When the water is completely frozen in the tanks I09 and. I13 a;-
thermostat will turn off the flame or heat,
vertical guide pins arranged within the tanks between the downwardly converging sides, re-
frigerating means disposed adjacent to the bottoms of the tanks, and means to retain the ice between the downwardly converging sides of each tank.
3. In a refrigerator, a downwardly tapering tank for holding a liquid freezable medium, said tank including opposed downwardly converging sides, a refrigerating element disposed exteriorly of the tank adjacent to its bottom and not extending upwardly for substantially 'more than one half of the height of the tank, and substantially vertical ice guide means within the tank and arranged between the downwardly converging sides and in thermal contact with the tank,
and spaced from'said top, said double-wallshelf including an upperheat'transferwallya plurality of liquid freezable medium holding tanks arranged within'the double wall shelf and inthermal contact with the upper wall, refrigeratingcasing and providing a passage for the cirCula-L tion of air within the casing, said shelf having an upper heat conducting wall, tanks arranged within the double wall shelf for holding a liquid freezable medium, refrigerating means within the double wall shelf and disposed-adjacent to the last named tanks, a heat insulated compartment mounted within the casing and providing a passage for the circulation of "air within the casing, said compartment including a cold chamber and an ice cube chamber, a plurality of tanks for holding a liquid freezable medium disposed within the heat insulated compartment at the top of the cold chamber, refrigerating means for the last named tanks, a plurality of tanks for holding a liquid freezable medium arranged within the heat insulated compartment and disposed between the cold compartment and the ice cube compartment, and refrigerating means for the last named tanks.
6. In a, refrigerator, a heat insulated compartof the ice cube chamber and in thermal contact therewith, refrigerating means for the last named tanks, and ice guide means within each of the last named tanks,
7. In a refrigerator, a casing including a double wall top having an inner heat transfer wall and a double wall back having an inner heat transfer wall, tanks for holding a liquid freezable medium in thermal contact with the top heat transfer wall, refrigerating means for the tanks,'tanks sulated compartmentg'j and {refrigerating means forthelastnamed tanks; v f 9: In a refrigerator acasing, tanks for holding I a liquid freezable-mediumdisposedadjac'ent to the-top of the casing; refrigerating'means for the tanks, a shelf arranged withinthe casing beneath and spacedfromithe topandf spaced from the I sides: of the-"casinggtanks for holding -a liquid freezable medium arranged in" thermal contact with "the shelf, refrig'erating means for the last named tanks-, a" heat insulated compartment within the lower fportion "of the :c'a'sing beneath ithe shelf and spaced from the' -shelfa'nd from the-bottorn 'of thecasingto' provide abott'om passage and from: the'sidesof the casing to provide side passages, tanks for holding a liquid freezable inediur'n" arranged within the heat insulated .ment having a cold chamber and an ice cube chamber, a plurality'of tanks for holding a liquid.
for holding a liquid freezable medium in thermal contact with the back heat transfer wall, refrigerating means for the last namedtanks, a heat insulated compartment arranged within the easing and forming an air circulating passage with the casing, tanks for holding a liquid freezable- 'medium and arranged within the heat insulated compartment, and refrigerating means for the last named tanks.
8. In a, refrigerator, a casing, tanks for holding a liquid freezable medium disposed adjacent to' the top of the casing, refrigerating means for the tanks, a shelf arranged within the casing next to the top, tanks for holding a liquid freezable me compartment, a receptacle removably inserted-in the bottom passage, and receptacles removably inserted within the side passages; 10. In a. refrigerator, a casing, a, doublew'all shelf'arranged'within the casing and having an upper heat transfer wall and formingwith the casing an air circulating assage, tanks for holding a liquid freezable medium arranged within the double wall shelf and in thermal contact with the upper transfer wall, expansion elements arranged within the double wall shelf adjacent to the tanks, and heat insulating means forthe tanks arranged beneath the same. 1 11. In a refrigerator, a casing having a double wall top including an inner heat transfer wall and a double wall back having an inner heat transfer wall, tanks for holding a liquid freezable medium mounted within the double wall top "and in thermal contact with the inner heat transfer wall, expansion coils within the double fwall top and disposed adjacent to the tanks, tanks for holding a liquid freezable medium and-'arthermal contact with the heatfl'tran'sfer'"shelf wall, expansion coils for the last named tanks arranged within the double wall shelf, aheat insulated compartment within the casing including a cold chamber and an ice cube chamber, the cold chamber having heat transfer opposed walls and the ice cube chamber having a'heat'transfer wall, tanks for'holding a liquid'freezable medium and arrangedwithin the heat insulated compartment and in thermal contact'with the cold chamber wall, expansion 'coils for the' last named tanks, tanks for holding a liquid freezable medium disposed between the wall or the-"cold chamber and the wall'of the ice'cubechamber and in thermal contacttherewith, andexpan'sion coils for the last named'tanks'.
-12. In a refrigeraton a casing having afchamber including a heat exchange;wallj means ar-' ranged upon the outer side-of the heat exchange wall to form a tank and iricluding'an inclined freezing wall in thermal contact, withthe heat exchange wall,th'e' 'tank holding a liquid freezable medium, inclined means arranged within thetank to guide the floating ice from the inclined wall and into contact with v the heat exchange wall,
- and means to"ap plyja freezing actionto the inclined walla {Y V 13. In apparatus for holding frozen'foods or the likei a easing closed {at 'itsside sand bottom and openatits topja cover for closing the open top,v water holding tanks disposed at different elevations at the side of the casing, water. holding tanks disposed at the bottom of the casing, re-
frigerating elements arranged adjacent to the lower ends of the water holding tanlmand ice guide means within the water, holding tanks.
14. In apparatus for holding frozen foods or the like, a casing having-its side and bottom closed and. its top provided with an opening, a cover for the opening, vertically tapered tanks adjacent to the sides of the casing and arranged in superposed relation, vertically tapered tanks arranged adjacent to the bottomof the casing, ice guide means within the tanks, and refrigerating elements arranged adjacent to the bottom portions of the tank. l
15. In apparatus for holding frozen foods or the like, a substantially vertical casing havingits side and bottom closed andihaving an opening in its top, a cover for the opening, vertically tapered water holding tanks in thermal contact with the side of the casing, vertically inclined ice forming passages for holding a refrigerant, and
means arranged adjacent to the upper portions of the tanks for forming a passage for holding a chilling fluid. I a
17. In apparatus of the character described, an insulating casing-,a lower group of vertically tapered water holding tanks arranged. within-the.
casing, ice guide .means within' the tanks, an upper group of vertically tapered water holding tanks arranged within the casing, ice guide means within the upper group of tanks, means arranged adjacent tothe lower ends of all of the water holding tanks and forming apassage for receiving a refrigerant, and means arranged adjacent to the upper ends of all of said tanks for receiving a chilling fluid. 1
18. In apparatus of the character described, a heat insulatingcasing, a lower horizontal group a of vertical tapered tanks arranged within the easing and forming spaces between them, means surrounding the lower end portions of thetanks and extending into the spaces between the tanks for forming a passage for receiving a refrigerant, means arranged adjacentto the upper end portion of the tanks and extending into the spaces between them for forming a passage for holding a chilling fluid, an upper horizontal group of water holding tanks arranged within the casing, means arranged adjacent to the lower end portions of the upper tanks and extending'into the spacesbetween them for forming a passage having communication with the passage near the lower end of the first namedtanks, means arranged adjacent to the upper ends of the upper tanks and extending into the spaces for holding a chilling fluid and havingcommunication with the passage adjacent to the upper end of the first named tanks. V
19. In apparatus of the character described, an insulating casing, a group of vertically tapered water holding tanks arranged within thecasing, refrigeratingcoils in thermal contact with the lower ends of the tanks,- and means disposed in thermal contactwith the upper ends of the tanks 16 and in thermal contact therewith and forming a passage for holding a chilling fluid.
20. In a refrigerator, a case having a food compartment, a tank to chill the air within the food compartment, said tank having a chamber freezable medium, upstanding'ice guide means within the downwardly tapered chamber, and a refrigerating element disposed exteriorly of and adjacent to the tank, and means to retain the ice within the downwardly tapered chamber.
22. In a refrigerator, a case, refrigerating mechanism for the case including a plurality of tanks-having downwardly tapered chambers for holding a liquid freezable medium, upstanding ice guide pins disposed within the downwardly tapered chambers, refrigerating means disposed outwardly of the tanks and adjacent thereto, and
T means to retain the ice within each downwardly tapered chamber. 23. In a, refrigerator, case, refrigeratin mechanism for the case including'a plurality of separate tanks arranged in close relation, each tank having a downwardly tapered chamber to hold a liquid freezable medium, substantially vertical ice guide pins within the downwardly tapered chambers, means to apply a freezing action to each chamber, and means to retain the ice within each downwardly tapered chamber.
24.v In a, refrigerator, a casing having a food compartment, a downwardly tapered liquid freezing medium holding tank to chillthe air within the food compartment, said tank having opposed downwardly converging walls, an upstanding ice guide pin arranged within the tank between the downwardly converging walls, a refrigerating element adjacent to the tank, and means to retain the ice between the downwardly converging walls.
25. In a refrigerator, a heat insulated case having a food compartment, substantially horizontal long narrow downwardly tapering tanks for holding a liquid freezable medium arranged within the heat insulated case and exteriorly of the food compartment for chilling the air within the long narrow downwardly tapering tanks for holdmg a liquid freezable medium arranged within the heat insulated case and exteriorly of the food compartment for chilling the air within the food compartment, at least some of the tanks being arranged near the top of the food compartment, a shelf arranged within the food compartment and spaced from the top of the food compartment, at least some of the tanks being zontal long narrow downwardly tapering tanks case, tanks for holding the liquid freezable medium arranged within the heat insulated compartment, and refrigerating means for the last named tanks.
27. In a refrigerator, a heat insulated case having a food compartment, substantially horizontal long narrow downwardly tapering tanks arranged within the case exteriorly of the food compartment for holding a liquid freezable medium to chill the air in the food compartment, means for applying a freezing action to the reduced lower portion of each tank, at least some of the tanks being arranged adjacent to the top of the food compartment, a shelf arranged within the food compartment and spaced from its top, substantially horizontal long narrow downwardly tapering tanks arranged beneath the shelf in thermal contact therewith for holding a liquid freezable medium, means to apply a freezing action to the lower portions of the last named tanks, and heat insulating means covering the last named tanks beneath the shelf.
28. In a refrigerator, a heat insulated case having a food compartment, a shelf arranged within the food compartment and spaced from the top of the food compartment, substantially horlzontal long narrow downwardly tapering tanks for holding a liquid freezable medium arranged within the case exteriorly of the food compartment for chilling the air within the foodcompartment, at least some of the tanks being arranged above the shelf, means for applying a freezing action to the lower portion of each tank, substantially horizontal long narrow downwardly tapering tanks arranged beneath the shelf in substantial thermal contact therewith for holding a liquid freezable medium, means for applying a freezing action to the lower portion of each last named tank, insulating means for covering the lower portions of the last named tanks, a heat insulated compartment within the case, substantially horizontal long narrow downwardly tapering tanks within the heat insulated compartment, and means to apply a freezing action to the lower portion of the last named tanks.
29. In a refrigerator, a heat insulated case having a food compartment, substantially horifor holding a liquid freezable medium arranged within the heat insulated case exteriorly of the food compartment for chilling the air within the food compartment, the tanks extending substantially throughout the horizontal dimension of the food compartment, the tanks being arranged in close relation, the combined volume of the tanks being sufllciently large to hold enough ice to retain the products refrigerated for a substantial period, and means for applying a freezing action to the lower portion of each tank.
30. In a refrigerator, a heat insulated case having a food compartment, substantially horizontal long narrow tanks within the case for holding a liquid freezable medium to chill the air within the food compartment, the tanks being arranged in close relation and substantially covering at least a portion of one face of the compartment, and means to intermittently apply a freezing action to the lower portion of each tank for producing thin layers of ice and prolonging the intervals between the freezing action sufllciently to permit the thin layers to melt and free the ice from the inner face of the tank so that the ice may float in the water in the tank.
HENRY M. HERBENER.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 529,341 Church Nov. 13, 1894 1,719,818 Benoist July 2, 1929 1,728,696 Platten Sept. 17, 1929 1,936,770 Pownall Nov. 28, 1933 1,993,130 Ballew Mar. 5, 1935 1,998,693 Voorhees Apr. 23, 1935 2,007,288 Thompson July 9, 1935 2,137,555 Young Nov. 22, 1938 2,145,308 Jordan Jan. 31, 1939 2,145,775 Mufliy Jan. 31, 1939 2,169,332 Zerk Aug. 15, 1939 2,191,198 Gould Feb. 20, 1940 2,221,694 Potter Nov. 12, 1940 2,226,271 Vose 1 Dec. 24, 1940 2,253,512 Fechner Aug. 26, 1941 2,257,925 Vretman Oct. 7, 1941 2,274,220 Sticelber Feb. 24, 1942 2,323,354 Rees July 6, 1943 2,345,453
Brace Mar. 28, 1944
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US2534273A (en) * 1948-06-28 1950-12-19 Dole Refrigerating Co Self-contained refrigerating freight car unit
US2540343A (en) * 1945-10-09 1951-02-06 Muffly Glenn Refrigerating mechanism
US2545054A (en) * 1946-02-25 1951-03-13 Wilbur E Stitz Refrigerator control
US2591168A (en) * 1948-01-21 1952-04-01 Hodges Res & Dev Co Apparatus for refrigerating enclosures
US2641109A (en) * 1947-08-29 1953-06-09 Muffly Glenn Multitemperature refrigerating system
US2702457A (en) * 1949-02-26 1955-02-22 Electrolux Ab Evaporator structure in absorption refrigeration
US2703480A (en) * 1950-09-07 1955-03-08 Lawrence E Riemenschneider Plural temperature refrigerated cabinet
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US4082143A (en) * 1976-04-27 1978-04-04 Thomason Harry E Solar energy
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EP0098052A2 (en) * 1982-06-26 1984-01-11 THORN EMI Domestic Appliances Limited Improvements in or relating to freezers
US4748823A (en) * 1984-12-07 1988-06-07 Nippondenso Co., Ltd. Automotive refrigerator
US4807443A (en) * 1987-10-20 1989-02-28 Battson R Kenneth Refrigeration control system
US4862707A (en) * 1988-10-06 1989-09-05 University Of Maine System Two compartment refrigerator
US4928501A (en) * 1988-03-17 1990-05-29 Sanden Corporation Cold preserving container
US4951481A (en) * 1988-03-17 1990-08-28 Sanden Corporation Refrigerator with efficient cold accumulator
US20050132733A1 (en) * 2003-12-22 2005-06-23 Rafalovich Alexander P... Methods and apparatus for controlling refrigerators
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US2540343A (en) * 1945-10-09 1951-02-06 Muffly Glenn Refrigerating mechanism
US2545054A (en) * 1946-02-25 1951-03-13 Wilbur E Stitz Refrigerator control
US2641109A (en) * 1947-08-29 1953-06-09 Muffly Glenn Multitemperature refrigerating system
US2591168A (en) * 1948-01-21 1952-04-01 Hodges Res & Dev Co Apparatus for refrigerating enclosures
US2534273A (en) * 1948-06-28 1950-12-19 Dole Refrigerating Co Self-contained refrigerating freight car unit
US2702457A (en) * 1949-02-26 1955-02-22 Electrolux Ab Evaporator structure in absorption refrigeration
US2703480A (en) * 1950-09-07 1955-03-08 Lawrence E Riemenschneider Plural temperature refrigerated cabinet
US2722107A (en) * 1952-04-08 1955-11-01 Frazer W Gay House cooling system
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EP0053589A3 (en) * 1980-12-01 1983-05-18 INDESIT INDUSTRIA ELETTRODOMESTICI ITALIANA S.p.A. Perfected refrigerator
EP0098052A2 (en) * 1982-06-26 1984-01-11 THORN EMI Domestic Appliances Limited Improvements in or relating to freezers
EP0098052A3 (en) * 1982-06-26 1984-03-28 THORN EMI Domestic Appliances Limited Improvements in or relating to freezers
US4748823A (en) * 1984-12-07 1988-06-07 Nippondenso Co., Ltd. Automotive refrigerator
US4807443A (en) * 1987-10-20 1989-02-28 Battson R Kenneth Refrigeration control system
US4928501A (en) * 1988-03-17 1990-05-29 Sanden Corporation Cold preserving container
US4951481A (en) * 1988-03-17 1990-08-28 Sanden Corporation Refrigerator with efficient cold accumulator
US4862707A (en) * 1988-10-06 1989-09-05 University Of Maine System Two compartment refrigerator
US20050132733A1 (en) * 2003-12-22 2005-06-23 Rafalovich Alexander P... Methods and apparatus for controlling refrigerators
US7237395B2 (en) 2003-12-22 2007-07-03 General Electric Company Methods and apparatus for controlling refrigerators
DE102015014696A1 (en) * 2015-10-02 2017-04-06 Liebherr-Hausgeräte Lienz Gmbh Refrigerator with internal freezer compartment

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