New! View global litigation for patent families

US2423144A - Emulsifiable hydrocarbon oils and emulsions thereof - Google Patents

Emulsifiable hydrocarbon oils and emulsions thereof Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US2423144A
US2423144A US55772244A US2423144A US 2423144 A US2423144 A US 2423144A US 55772244 A US55772244 A US 55772244A US 2423144 A US2423144 A US 2423144A
Authority
US
Grant status
Grant
Patent type
Prior art keywords
oil
water
emulsion
oils
amount
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
Inventor
George W Gregg
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Shell Development Co
Original Assignee
Shell Development Co
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Grant date

Links

Images

Classifications

    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01FMIXING, e.g. DISSOLVING, EMULSIFYING, DISPERSING
    • B01F17/00Use of substances as emulsifying, wetting, dispersing or foam-producing agents
    • B01F17/0085Mixtures of compounds
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10MLUBRICATING COMPOSITIONS; USE OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES EITHER ALONE OR AS LUBRICATING INGREDIENTS IN A LUBRICATING COMPOSITION
    • C10M173/00Lubricating compositions containing more than 10% water
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10MLUBRICATING COMPOSITIONS; USE OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES EITHER ALONE OR AS LUBRICATING INGREDIENTS IN A LUBRICATING COMPOSITION
    • C10M2201/00Inorganic compounds or elements as ingredients in lubricant compositions
    • C10M2201/02Water
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10MLUBRICATING COMPOSITIONS; USE OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES EITHER ALONE OR AS LUBRICATING INGREDIENTS IN A LUBRICATING COMPOSITION
    • C10M2201/00Inorganic compounds or elements as ingredients in lubricant compositions
    • C10M2201/085Phosphorus oxides, acids or salts
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10MLUBRICATING COMPOSITIONS; USE OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES EITHER ALONE OR AS LUBRICATING INGREDIENTS IN A LUBRICATING COMPOSITION
    • C10M2205/00Organic macromolecular hydrocarbon compounds or fractions, whether or not modified by oxidation as ingredients in lubricant compositions
    • C10M2205/16Paraffin waxes; Petrolatum, e.g. slack wax
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10MLUBRICATING COMPOSITIONS; USE OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES EITHER ALONE OR AS LUBRICATING INGREDIENTS IN A LUBRICATING COMPOSITION
    • C10M2207/00Organic non-macromolecular hydrocarbon compounds containing hydrogen, carbon and oxygen as ingredients in lubricant compositions
    • C10M2207/02Hydroxy compounds
    • C10M2207/021Hydroxy compounds having hydroxy groups bound to acyclic or cycloaliphatic carbon atoms
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10MLUBRICATING COMPOSITIONS; USE OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES EITHER ALONE OR AS LUBRICATING INGREDIENTS IN A LUBRICATING COMPOSITION
    • C10M2207/00Organic non-macromolecular hydrocarbon compounds containing hydrogen, carbon and oxygen as ingredients in lubricant compositions
    • C10M2207/04Ethers; Acetals; Ortho-esters; Ortho-carbonates
    • C10M2207/044Cyclic ethers having four or more ring atoms, e.g. furans, dioxolanes
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10MLUBRICATING COMPOSITIONS; USE OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES EITHER ALONE OR AS LUBRICATING INGREDIENTS IN A LUBRICATING COMPOSITION
    • C10M2207/00Organic non-macromolecular hydrocarbon compounds containing hydrogen, carbon and oxygen as ingredients in lubricant compositions
    • C10M2207/04Ethers; Acetals; Ortho-esters; Ortho-carbonates
    • C10M2207/046Hydroxy ethers
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10MLUBRICATING COMPOSITIONS; USE OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES EITHER ALONE OR AS LUBRICATING INGREDIENTS IN A LUBRICATING COMPOSITION
    • C10M2207/00Organic non-macromolecular hydrocarbon compounds containing hydrogen, carbon and oxygen as ingredients in lubricant compositions
    • C10M2207/08Aldehydes; Ketones
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10MLUBRICATING COMPOSITIONS; USE OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES EITHER ALONE OR AS LUBRICATING INGREDIENTS IN A LUBRICATING COMPOSITION
    • C10M2207/00Organic non-macromolecular hydrocarbon compounds containing hydrogen, carbon and oxygen as ingredients in lubricant compositions
    • C10M2207/10Carboxylix acids; Neutral salts thereof
    • C10M2207/16Naphthenic acids
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10MLUBRICATING COMPOSITIONS; USE OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES EITHER ALONE OR AS LUBRICATING INGREDIENTS IN A LUBRICATING COMPOSITION
    • C10M2207/00Organic non-macromolecular hydrocarbon compounds containing hydrogen, carbon and oxygen as ingredients in lubricant compositions
    • C10M2207/10Carboxylix acids; Neutral salts thereof
    • C10M2207/18Tall oil acids
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10MLUBRICATING COMPOSITIONS; USE OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES EITHER ALONE OR AS LUBRICATING INGREDIENTS IN A LUBRICATING COMPOSITION
    • C10M2207/00Organic non-macromolecular hydrocarbon compounds containing hydrogen, carbon and oxygen as ingredients in lubricant compositions
    • C10M2207/10Carboxylix acids; Neutral salts thereof
    • C10M2207/20Rosin acids
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10MLUBRICATING COMPOSITIONS; USE OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES EITHER ALONE OR AS LUBRICATING INGREDIENTS IN A LUBRICATING COMPOSITION
    • C10M2207/00Organic non-macromolecular hydrocarbon compounds containing hydrogen, carbon and oxygen as ingredients in lubricant compositions
    • C10M2207/28Esters
    • C10M2207/287Partial esters
    • C10M2207/289Partial esters containing free hydroxy groups
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10MLUBRICATING COMPOSITIONS; USE OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES EITHER ALONE OR AS LUBRICATING INGREDIENTS IN A LUBRICATING COMPOSITION
    • C10M2209/00Organic macromolecular compounds containing oxygen as ingredients in lubricant compositions
    • C10M2209/10Macromolecular compoundss obtained otherwise than by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds
    • C10M2209/103Polyethers, i.e. containing di- or higher polyoxyalkylene groups
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10MLUBRICATING COMPOSITIONS; USE OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES EITHER ALONE OR AS LUBRICATING INGREDIENTS IN A LUBRICATING COMPOSITION
    • C10M2209/00Organic macromolecular compounds containing oxygen as ingredients in lubricant compositions
    • C10M2209/10Macromolecular compoundss obtained otherwise than by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds
    • C10M2209/103Polyethers, i.e. containing di- or higher polyoxyalkylene groups
    • C10M2209/104Polyethers, i.e. containing di- or higher polyoxyalkylene groups of alkylene oxides containing two carbon atoms only
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10MLUBRICATING COMPOSITIONS; USE OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES EITHER ALONE OR AS LUBRICATING INGREDIENTS IN A LUBRICATING COMPOSITION
    • C10M2215/00Organic non-macromolecular compounds containing nitrogen as ingredients in lubricant compositions
    • C10M2215/02Amines, e.g. polyalkylene polyamines; Quaternary amines
    • C10M2215/04Amines, e.g. polyalkylene polyamines; Quaternary amines having amino groups bound to acyclic or cycloaliphatic carbon atoms
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10MLUBRICATING COMPOSITIONS; USE OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES EITHER ALONE OR AS LUBRICATING INGREDIENTS IN A LUBRICATING COMPOSITION
    • C10M2215/00Organic non-macromolecular compounds containing nitrogen as ingredients in lubricant compositions
    • C10M2215/22Heterocyclic nitrogen compounds
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10MLUBRICATING COMPOSITIONS; USE OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES EITHER ALONE OR AS LUBRICATING INGREDIENTS IN A LUBRICATING COMPOSITION
    • C10M2215/00Organic non-macromolecular compounds containing nitrogen as ingredients in lubricant compositions
    • C10M2215/22Heterocyclic nitrogen compounds
    • C10M2215/221Six-membered rings containing nitrogen and carbon only
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10MLUBRICATING COMPOSITIONS; USE OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES EITHER ALONE OR AS LUBRICATING INGREDIENTS IN A LUBRICATING COMPOSITION
    • C10M2215/00Organic non-macromolecular compounds containing nitrogen as ingredients in lubricant compositions
    • C10M2215/22Heterocyclic nitrogen compounds
    • C10M2215/225Heterocyclic nitrogen compounds the rings containing both nitrogen and oxygen
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10MLUBRICATING COMPOSITIONS; USE OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES EITHER ALONE OR AS LUBRICATING INGREDIENTS IN A LUBRICATING COMPOSITION
    • C10M2215/00Organic non-macromolecular compounds containing nitrogen as ingredients in lubricant compositions
    • C10M2215/22Heterocyclic nitrogen compounds
    • C10M2215/225Heterocyclic nitrogen compounds the rings containing both nitrogen and oxygen
    • C10M2215/226Morpholines
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10MLUBRICATING COMPOSITIONS; USE OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES EITHER ALONE OR AS LUBRICATING INGREDIENTS IN A LUBRICATING COMPOSITION
    • C10M2215/00Organic non-macromolecular compounds containing nitrogen as ingredients in lubricant compositions
    • C10M2215/26Amines
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10MLUBRICATING COMPOSITIONS; USE OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES EITHER ALONE OR AS LUBRICATING INGREDIENTS IN A LUBRICATING COMPOSITION
    • C10M2215/00Organic non-macromolecular compounds containing nitrogen as ingredients in lubricant compositions
    • C10M2215/30Heterocyclic compounds
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10MLUBRICATING COMPOSITIONS; USE OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES EITHER ALONE OR AS LUBRICATING INGREDIENTS IN A LUBRICATING COMPOSITION
    • C10M2219/00Organic non-macromolecular compounds containing sulfur, selenium or tellurium as ingredients in lubricant compositions
    • C10M2219/04Organic non-macromolecular compounds containing sulfur, selenium or tellurium as ingredients in lubricant compositions containing sulfur-to-oxygen bonds, i.e. sulfones, sulfoxides
    • C10M2219/044Sulfonic acids, Derivatives thereof, e.g. neutral salts
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10NINDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBCLASS C10M RELATING TO LUBRICATING COMPOSITIONS
    • C10N2240/00Specified uses or applications of lubricating compositions
    • C10N2240/40Metal working
    • C10N2240/401Metal working with removal of material, e.g. cutting, grinding, drilling
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10NINDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBCLASS C10M RELATING TO LUBRICATING COMPOSITIONS
    • C10N2240/00Specified uses or applications of lubricating compositions
    • C10N2240/62Textile oils
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10NINDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBCLASS C10M RELATING TO LUBRICATING COMPOSITIONS
    • C10N2250/00Form or state of lubricant compositions in which they are used
    • C10N2250/02Emulsions; Colloids; Micelles
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10NINDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBCLASS C10M RELATING TO LUBRICATING COMPOSITIONS
    • C10N2260/00Chemical after-treatment or modifications of compounds
    • C10N2260/04Oxidation
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S516/00Colloid systems and wetting agents; subcombinations thereof; processes of
    • Y10S516/01Wetting, emulsifying, dispersing, or stabilizing agents

Description

Patented July 1,1947 I EMULSIIIIABLE HYDROCARBON oiLs AND IEMULSIONS THEREOF George W. Gregg, South Bend, Ind., assignor to Shell Development Company, San Francisco, Calif., a corporation of Delaware No Drawing. Application October 7, 1944, Y

Serial No. 557,722

This invention is concerned with improved 1; Claim 5 ,1510]. 252-495) emulsifiable hydrocarbon oils and their"-e'm'ul 1 sions, and deals with such oils containing dis solved emulsifiers and an alkali, metal polyphosphate. 1

The invention is particularly applicable to spontaneously emulsifiable (so-called "soluble) cutting and grinding oils, although-itis useful in connection with other emulsifiable oils or their emulsions such as textile oils, plantandinsect spray oils, asphalt emulsions, oil-mud emulsions used in drilling of Wells, etc. I

Cutting and grinding oils serve a number of purposes. They must lubricate the surface being cut or ground so as to avoid seizure; they must eifect cooling; and they must carry away the metal particles cut away so that the latter do not get in the way of the cutting tool, or load the grindin wheel. Loading of the grinding wheel is particularly a serious problem, for instance when grinding chromium or alloys rich in chromium. As a result of loading, the grinding surface becomes smooth and glazed and fails to grind properly. In precision grinding, this often presents a great many difficulties.

In addition, so-called soluble cutting and grinding oils must mix spontaneously with water with little if any agitation, and the emulsion so formed should be stable and not settle out on reasonably long standing. Moreover, when rapidly circulating an emulsion of a soluble oil in water it should not foam excessively.

In textile oils, the ability of the oil of being removed from the textile by water-washing is one of its most important properties.

In spray oils, common problems are scumming and flocculation of the emulsion, and sticking of the oil to the sides of the vessel.

In asphalt emulsions it is very desirable to pro duce as fine a subdivision of the asphalt particles as possible. This has two important advantages: it reduces the danger of pellet formation, a common trouble due to partial separation; and it makes possible a deeper penetration of the asphalt emulsion through the soil to which it is applied. The latter is particularly important in the process of ground fixation in which asphalt emulsion is injected into substrata through pipes.

It is thus a purpose of this invention to. provide improved soluble grinding and cutting oils which when emulsified with water show improved performance in carrying away metal particles. Another purpose is to produce soluble mineral oils whose emulsions with Water have improved storage stability. A further purpose is to produce emulsions having smaller particle size of the discontinuous phase. Still another purpose is to reduce foaming tendencies of emulsified oils.

. :The invention comprises an emulsible mineral oil or an emulsion thereof in water, said mineral.

oil containing an emulsifier in an amount sufll-.

. cient to produce a relatively stable emulsion. In

addition there is present a minor amount of an alkali :'metal polyorthophosphate, preferably a tetraphosphate.

There'are several. polyorthophosphates known having the general formula NanPfl-2o3n5: pyrophosphates, triphosphates, tetraphosphates, heptapho'sphates and higher, including various thiopolyphosph'ates such as thiopyrophosphates, pentathiopyro'phos'phates, trithiopyrophosphates,

thiotetraphosphate's,etc, Any one or a combinationthereof may be used; Best results are obtained with a tetraphosphate' (free from sulfur) and higher phosphates.

Suitable amounts of the polyphosphate which should be present in the oil or its emulsion are from about .1% by wt. of the oil up to its solubility limit in the oil or emulsion, and preferably between about'.3 to 5% by weight of the oil. Depending upon convenience or requirements, the polyphosphate may be incorporated into the oil before emulsification, or els into the emulsion. Polyphosphates are substantially insoluble in hydrocarbon oils. However, dissolved emulsifiers contained in emulsible oils may make possible the dissolution of-small'amounts of polyphosphates in the mineral oil. Depending upon thev nature and concentration of the emulsifier, these amounts may or may not be suificient for the purpose of this invention. It insufiicient, a mutual solvent or solubility enhancer may be added in amountssay 2 to 50% by weight of the oil. Suitable mutual solvents include mono or poly glycolmonoalkyl esters or ethers, wherein the alkyl radicals may contain about 1-6 carbon atoms; diethylene dioxide, morph'oline, isopropyl alcohol, butylalcohols, acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, butyl or amyl amines, pyridine, etc.

Various types of emulsifiers which when dissolved in oilv form oil in water emulsions may be used. In general, they are organic surface-active compounds. Soap type emulsifiers are usually preferred. They should, if possible, be oil-soluble. although here again their solubility in mineral oils may be enhanced by the presence of mutual solvents such as those described above. Among the soap type emulsifiers may be mentioned alkali metal salts of fatty acids, rosin acids, tall'oil acids, acids produced by oxidation of paraifin wax.

naphthenic acids, oil-soluble sulfonic acids such as produced in the treatment of lubricating oils with sulfuric acid, sulfonic acids of dicarboxylic acid esters, alkyl naphthalene sulfonic acids, mono alkyl sulfuric acids having at least 10 carbon atoms per alkyl radical, etc.

Emulsifiers other than soap type include polyethylene glycol mono esters of various organic acids such as fatty acids, naphthenic acids, rosin acids, tall oil acids, wool fat acids, acids produced by oxidation of parafiin wax, etc.; polyethylene glycol mono alkyl ethers wherein the alkyl radical contains at least 8 carbon atoms. Still other emulsifiers are listed in Industrial 8; Engineering Chemistry, vol. 31, pp. 66-69; vol. 33, pp. 16-22; vol. 35, pp. 126-130.

The amounts of the emulsifier employed are at least sufflcient to enable without special aid spontaneous emulsification and impart to the emulsion a reasonable storage stability. These amounts will vary between extremely wide limits, depending upon the specific emulsifier, the nature of the oil, etc. "Amounts varying from about .2 to 50% by weight of the oil may be used. Thus, with the proper amount, oils which are liquid at emulsion temperature emulsify with'little-if any agitation. n the other hand, asphalts whose melting points are close to or higher than the boiling temperature of water must be mechanically subdivided in asuitable mill such as colloid mill, but thereafter will emulsify with little additional effort.

In addition, the oil may contain various additives for specific uses. Thus cutting oils may comprise extreme pressure compounds containing halogen, sulfur, phosphorus or a combination of these elements. Spray oils may contain various insecticides. Asphalt emulsions may contain timin agents such as methyl formate which cause the emulsion to break after a certain length of time. The oils may also contain anti-oxidants, anti-corrosives, etc.

In many cases it is very desirable to have available an emulsifiable but substantially water-free hydrocarbon oil containing all the necessary ingredients for emulsification other than water. It facilitates handling, storage and transportation problems, and makes unnecessary the measuring and blending in the field other than the addition of water. However, in other cases, as in the case of asphalt emulsions, this approach is not practical since special equipment is required for producing the emulsion, regardless of whether or not all of the ingredients are contained in the asphalt. Therefore in such instances the blending of various ingredients is normally carried out on the site where the emulsion is produced. In this event it is not necessary that these ingredients including the emulsifier be oil-soluble.

While soluble oils are normally emulsified with water for use, for some purposes, particularly for textile use and in metal drilling and cutting, they may be used straight, i. e. undiluted with water. In emulsions, the water-to-oil ratio may vary between very wide limits, from less than 1:1 to above 100:1. Thus asphalt emulsions may contain as little as 30% and up to about 75% water by weight. Cutting oil emulsions may be used at water-to-oil ratios of 1:1 to :1 by volume; grinding oils at 10:1 to 100:1; and insect spray oils at about 100:1 and even higher waterto-oil ratios. In these ratios, oil-soluble additives including the emulsifier are considered part of the oil.

Hydrocarbon oils employed in preparing the .the emulsion (315% emulsifiable oils or their emulsions naturally will vary considerably depending upon the use of the product. Cutting and grinding oils call, as well as textile oils, for mineral lubricating oils or varying viscosities; insect spray oils involve the use of anything from a light kerosene to a medium lubricating oil; asphalt emulsions obviously employ asphalt in some form or other including straight run, cracked, cutback, albino asphalts, etc.; oils used in oil-mud emulsions are usually of the gasoil type.

When comparing emulsions oi! distillate oils difiering only by the presence or absence respectively of an alkali metal tetraphosphate, two primary distinctions can be noted. Oil droplets in the former seem to be finer, and the general appearance is one of transparency, while the latter are decidedly more milky. Upon standing, the emulsion not containing the tetraphosphate usually separates or creams" slowly, while the one which does contain it remains emulsified for much longer periods of time and no precipitation may be discernible for days or weeks.

Regarding the ability 01' a typical grinding oil to carry away metal particles, the lollowing tests are illustrative:

An emulsiflable cutting oil consisting of 50% mineral lubricating oil and 50% by weight 011- soluble sodium sulfonate was diluted with '75 volumes of water. The resulting emulsion was employed in grinding a chromium alloy. The grinding wheel loaded up with metal particles in about one hour, making further accurate grinding impossible. The addition of sodium hexametaphosphate to the emulsion resulted in no improvement. Tetrasodiumphosphate (sodiumpyrophosphate) was then added in an amount 01 .01% by weight of the emulsion (175% by weight on the sulfonateoil solution) and grinding was resumed with a clean wheel. This time it was possible to continue grinding for about six hours before loading occurred. The test was then continued with a fresh emulsion of the same oil to which had been added .01% sodiumtetraphosphate by weight of byweight of the solution of the sulfonate in mineral oil). No loading, glazing or coating of the wheel occurred over several days period of operation.

I claim as my invention:

1. An emulsifiable oil comprising a major proportion of a hydrocarbon oil having dissolved therein an organic oil-in-water emulsifier and an alkali metal tetraorthophosphate in an amount suilicient to stabilize an oil-in-water emulsion of said emulsiflable oil.

2. An emulsiflable oil comprising a major proportion of a hydrocarbon oil having dissolved therein an organic oil-in-water emulsifier and sodium tetraorthophosphate in an amount sufiicientto.stabilize an oil-in-water emulsion of said emulsifiable oil.

3. An emulsiflable liquid oil concentrate substantially free from water and comprising a major proportion of a liquid hydrocarbon oil having dissolved therein an organic oil-in-water emulsifier in an amount sufiicient to obtain spontaneous emulsification of said hydrocarbon oil in water and an alkali metal polyorthophosphate having the general formula NflnP1z-203n-5 wherein n is an integer greater than 5 and in an amount suflicient to stabilize an oil-in-water emulsion of said emulsiflable oil.

4. An emulsifiable oil comprising a major pro- '5 portion of a hydrocarbon oil having dissolved therein an organic oil-in-water emulsifier and from .3-5.0% of an alkali metal tetraorthophosphate by weight of said emulsible oil.

5. An emulsifiable oil comprising a major proportion of a hydrocarbon oil having dissolved therein an organic oil-in-water emulsifier in an amount sumcient to enable spontaneous emulsification of the oil and water, an alkali metal tetraorthophosphate in an amount sufficient to stabilize an oil-in-water emulsion of said emulsifiable oil, and a mutual solvent for said hydrocarbon oil and tetraorthophosphate to cause the latter to be dissolved in said oil.

6. An emulsifiable oil comprising a major proportion of a hydrocarbon oil having dissolved therein a soap type emulsifier in an amount sufficient to obtain spontaneous emulsification of said hydrocarbon oil in water, and an alkali metal tetraorthophosphate in an amount suflicient to stabilize an oil-in-water emulsion of said emulsiflable oil.

7. A soluble cutting and grinding oil comprising a major proportion of a mineral lubricating oil having dissolved therein an organic emulsifier in an amount sufficient to obtain spontaneous emulsification of said lubricating oil in water, and a minor amount of an alkali metal tetraorthophosphate suflicient to stabilize an oil-inwater emulsion of said soluble oil.

8. A soluble cutting and grinding oil comprising a major proportion of a mineral lubricating oil having dissolved therein a soap type emulsifier In an amount suflicient to obtain spontaneous emulsification of said lubricating oil in water,

and from .3 to of an alkali metal tetraorthophosphate by weight of said soluble oil.

9. A soluble insecticidal oil comprisirg a major proportion of a mineral spray oil having dissolved therein an organic emulsifier in an amount sufil- :ient to obtain spontaneous emulsiflcation of said ;pray oil in water, and a minor amount of an ilkali metal tetraorthophosphate suflicient to :tabilize an oil-in-water emulsion of said soluble r11.

10. A stable oil-in-water emulsion comprising :ubstantial amounts each of water and liquid lydrocarbons, having dissolved in at least one of ts phases an organic emulsifier in an amount ufilcient to cause spontaneous emulsification of aid hydrocarbons in water, and an alkali metal etraorthophosphate in an amount suflicient to tabilize said oil-in-water emulsion.

11. A stable oil-in-water emulsion comprising ubstantial amounts each of water and a hydroarbon oil, having dissolved in at least one of its 'hases an organic oil-soluble emulsifier in an mount sufi'icient to cause spontaneous emulsifiation of said oil in water, and a minor amount of an alkali metal tetraorthophosphate suflicient to stabilize an oil-in-water emulsion of said soluble oil.

12. A cutting and grinding oil emulsion capable of preventing loading of grinding wheels consisting of a major portion of water and a minor but substantial portion of an emulsifiable oil, the latter comprising essentially a mineral lubricating oil having dissolved therein an organic oil-inwater emulsifier in an amount sufificient to enable spontaneous emulsification of said oil in water, and from .3 to 5.0% of an alkali metal tetraorthophosphate by weight of said emulsible oil.

13. A cutting and grinding oil emulsion capable of preventing loading of grinding wheels consisting of a major portion of water and a minor but substantial portion of an emulsifiable oil, the latter comprising essentially a mineral lubricating oil having dissolved therein a soap type emulsifier in an amount sufiicient to enable spontaneous emulsification in water, and from .3 to 5.0% of sodium tetraorthophosphate by weight of said emulsible oil.

14. An improved asphalt emulsion comprising substantial amounts of water and of an asphalt and an organic emulsifier in an amount sufiicient to emulsify said asphalt in water and a minor amount of an alkali metal tetraorthophosphate suflicient to stabilize said asphalt emulsion.

15. An emulsifiable oil comprising a major proportion of a hydrocarbon oil having dissolved therein an organic oil-in-water emulsifier and an alkali metal polyorthophospate having the general formula NflnPn-203n-5 wherein n is an integer greater than 5 and in an amount suflicient to stabilize an oil-in-water emulsion of said emulsifiable oil.

GEORGE W. GREGG.

REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:

UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 2,150,060 iGuttenberg Mar. 7, 1939 2,252,385 Orozco Aug. 12, 1941 2,294,877 Wayne Sept. 1, 1942 2,328,727 Langer Sept. 7, 1943 2,336,369 Porter Dec. 7, 1943 2,353,230 Garrison July 11, 1944 2,356,882 Porter Aug. 29, 1944 2,359,503 Alsmark Oct. 3, 1944 2,361,760 Garrison Oct. 31, 1944 OTHER REFERENCES Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 3d edition, page 600.

US2423144A 1944-10-07 1944-10-07 Emulsifiable hydrocarbon oils and emulsions thereof Expired - Lifetime US2423144A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US2423144A US2423144A (en) 1944-10-07 1944-10-07 Emulsifiable hydrocarbon oils and emulsions thereof

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US2423144A US2423144A (en) 1944-10-07 1944-10-07 Emulsifiable hydrocarbon oils and emulsions thereof

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US2423144A true US2423144A (en) 1947-07-01

Family

ID=24226634

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US2423144A Expired - Lifetime US2423144A (en) 1944-10-07 1944-10-07 Emulsifiable hydrocarbon oils and emulsions thereof

Country Status (1)

Country Link
US (1) US2423144A (en)

Cited By (27)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2453710A (en) * 1946-09-17 1948-11-16 Standard Oil Co Grinding oil composition
US2488304A (en) * 1947-02-10 1949-11-15 Shell Dev Emulsion fluid for drilling wells
US2509588A (en) * 1946-11-04 1950-05-30 Shell Dev Emulsion fluid for drilling wells
US2540795A (en) * 1949-02-08 1951-02-06 Socony Vacuum Oil Co Inc Emulsifiable hydrocarbon oils
US2542019A (en) * 1948-07-22 1951-02-20 Union Oil Co Drilling fluids
US2558762A (en) * 1948-12-14 1951-07-03 Sherwin Williams Co Carrier material for agricultural chemicals
US2582323A (en) * 1948-02-13 1952-01-15 Union Oil Co Rotary drilling fluids
US2587501A (en) * 1949-12-30 1952-02-26 Standard Oil Dev Co Drilling fluid compositions
US2589949A (en) * 1949-12-15 1952-03-18 Standard Oil Dev Co Controlling drilling fluid viscosity
US2665206A (en) * 1948-06-15 1954-01-05 Shell Dev Sizing of fibrous materials and compositions useful for sizing and for other purposes
US2665983A (en) * 1948-08-02 1954-01-12 Shell Dev Method of sizing paper
US2679478A (en) * 1947-01-04 1954-05-25 Union Oil Co Drilling mud
US2773030A (en) * 1954-10-28 1956-12-04 Gulf Oil Corp Drilling muds
US2773031A (en) * 1954-10-28 1956-12-04 Gulf Oil Corp Drilling muds
US3034983A (en) * 1957-11-05 1962-05-15 Magnet Cove Barium Corp Drilling and completion fluid
US3062740A (en) * 1956-04-18 1962-11-06 Magnet Cove Barium Corp Oil-in-water emulsion drilling fluid
US3150085A (en) * 1956-06-14 1964-09-22 Great Western Drilling Company Method of drilling a well through a subsurface formation employing an oil-in-water emulsion drilling fluid
US3173800A (en) * 1962-05-04 1965-03-16 Phillips Petroleum Co Reducing the caking of sulfonated asphalt
US3223622A (en) * 1962-06-25 1965-12-14 Pan American Petroleum Corp Drilling mud system
EP0011224A1 (en) * 1978-11-20 1980-05-28 Hoechst Aktiengesellschaft Lubricating and cooling agent
US4234437A (en) * 1971-03-30 1980-11-18 Arbman Development Ab Suspension of solid particles in a liquid
US4828724A (en) * 1986-12-18 1989-05-09 Shell Oil Company Drilling fluid to minimize solids disintegration
US5072794A (en) * 1988-09-30 1991-12-17 Shell Oil Company Alcohol-in-oil drilling fluid system
US5076373A (en) * 1990-03-30 1991-12-31 Shell Oil Company Drilling fluids
US5085282A (en) * 1988-03-14 1992-02-04 Shell Oil Company Method for drilling a well with emulsion drilling fluids
US5248664A (en) * 1988-03-14 1993-09-28 Shell Oil Company Water base drilling fluids comprising oil-in-alcohol emulsion
US5260269A (en) * 1989-10-12 1993-11-09 Shell Oil Company Method of drilling with shale stabilizing mud system comprising polycyclicpolyetherpolyol

Citations (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2150060A (en) * 1935-06-15 1939-03-07 Firm Henkel & Cie Gmbh Stabilizing color binding agent
US2252385A (en) * 1939-02-15 1941-08-12 Gilron Products Co Method of machining articles and solution therefor
US2294877A (en) * 1941-09-05 1942-09-01 Truman B Wayne Treatment of drilling fluids
US2328727A (en) * 1940-08-09 1943-09-07 Texas Co Soluble oil
US2336369A (en) * 1939-11-28 1943-12-07 Bennett Inc Dispersion of thermoplastic hydrocarbons
US2353230A (en) * 1939-07-01 1944-07-11 Texas Co Conditioning of drilling fluids
US2356882A (en) * 1943-02-25 1944-08-29 Bennett Inc Dispersions of thermoplastic hydrocarbons
US2359503A (en) * 1942-05-30 1944-10-03 Alsmark Kurt Olof Methods of producing emulsions of the oil in water type
US2361760A (en) * 1937-08-25 1944-10-31 Texas Co Drilling muds

Patent Citations (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2150060A (en) * 1935-06-15 1939-03-07 Firm Henkel & Cie Gmbh Stabilizing color binding agent
US2361760A (en) * 1937-08-25 1944-10-31 Texas Co Drilling muds
US2252385A (en) * 1939-02-15 1941-08-12 Gilron Products Co Method of machining articles and solution therefor
US2353230A (en) * 1939-07-01 1944-07-11 Texas Co Conditioning of drilling fluids
US2336369A (en) * 1939-11-28 1943-12-07 Bennett Inc Dispersion of thermoplastic hydrocarbons
US2328727A (en) * 1940-08-09 1943-09-07 Texas Co Soluble oil
US2294877A (en) * 1941-09-05 1942-09-01 Truman B Wayne Treatment of drilling fluids
US2359503A (en) * 1942-05-30 1944-10-03 Alsmark Kurt Olof Methods of producing emulsions of the oil in water type
US2356882A (en) * 1943-02-25 1944-08-29 Bennett Inc Dispersions of thermoplastic hydrocarbons

Cited By (27)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2453710A (en) * 1946-09-17 1948-11-16 Standard Oil Co Grinding oil composition
US2509588A (en) * 1946-11-04 1950-05-30 Shell Dev Emulsion fluid for drilling wells
US2679478A (en) * 1947-01-04 1954-05-25 Union Oil Co Drilling mud
US2488304A (en) * 1947-02-10 1949-11-15 Shell Dev Emulsion fluid for drilling wells
US2582323A (en) * 1948-02-13 1952-01-15 Union Oil Co Rotary drilling fluids
US2665206A (en) * 1948-06-15 1954-01-05 Shell Dev Sizing of fibrous materials and compositions useful for sizing and for other purposes
US2542019A (en) * 1948-07-22 1951-02-20 Union Oil Co Drilling fluids
US2665983A (en) * 1948-08-02 1954-01-12 Shell Dev Method of sizing paper
US2558762A (en) * 1948-12-14 1951-07-03 Sherwin Williams Co Carrier material for agricultural chemicals
US2540795A (en) * 1949-02-08 1951-02-06 Socony Vacuum Oil Co Inc Emulsifiable hydrocarbon oils
US2589949A (en) * 1949-12-15 1952-03-18 Standard Oil Dev Co Controlling drilling fluid viscosity
US2587501A (en) * 1949-12-30 1952-02-26 Standard Oil Dev Co Drilling fluid compositions
US2773030A (en) * 1954-10-28 1956-12-04 Gulf Oil Corp Drilling muds
US2773031A (en) * 1954-10-28 1956-12-04 Gulf Oil Corp Drilling muds
US3062740A (en) * 1956-04-18 1962-11-06 Magnet Cove Barium Corp Oil-in-water emulsion drilling fluid
US3150085A (en) * 1956-06-14 1964-09-22 Great Western Drilling Company Method of drilling a well through a subsurface formation employing an oil-in-water emulsion drilling fluid
US3034983A (en) * 1957-11-05 1962-05-15 Magnet Cove Barium Corp Drilling and completion fluid
US3173800A (en) * 1962-05-04 1965-03-16 Phillips Petroleum Co Reducing the caking of sulfonated asphalt
US3223622A (en) * 1962-06-25 1965-12-14 Pan American Petroleum Corp Drilling mud system
US4234437A (en) * 1971-03-30 1980-11-18 Arbman Development Ab Suspension of solid particles in a liquid
EP0011224A1 (en) * 1978-11-20 1980-05-28 Hoechst Aktiengesellschaft Lubricating and cooling agent
US4828724A (en) * 1986-12-18 1989-05-09 Shell Oil Company Drilling fluid to minimize solids disintegration
US5085282A (en) * 1988-03-14 1992-02-04 Shell Oil Company Method for drilling a well with emulsion drilling fluids
US5248664A (en) * 1988-03-14 1993-09-28 Shell Oil Company Water base drilling fluids comprising oil-in-alcohol emulsion
US5072794A (en) * 1988-09-30 1991-12-17 Shell Oil Company Alcohol-in-oil drilling fluid system
US5260269A (en) * 1989-10-12 1993-11-09 Shell Oil Company Method of drilling with shale stabilizing mud system comprising polycyclicpolyetherpolyol
US5076373A (en) * 1990-03-30 1991-12-31 Shell Oil Company Drilling fluids

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US3505374A (en) Gelling agents for hydrocarbons
US3504744A (en) Production of crude oil using micellar dispersions
US3307628A (en) Process for secondary recovery of petroleum using stabilized microemulsions
US3487844A (en) Pipelining crude oil
US3396105A (en) Drilling fluid treatment
US3575859A (en) Gelling hydrocarbon fluids with combinations of aluminum alkyl orthophosphates and amines
US4654155A (en) Microemulsion lubricant
Shinoda et al. The effect of temperature on the phase equilibria and the types of dispersions of the ternary system composed of water, cyclohexane, and nonionic surfactant
US2800962A (en) Surface-active agents in well treating
US2416504A (en) Prevention of foaming of hydrocarbon oils
Brooks et al. Dynamics of liquid—liquid phase inversion using non-ionic surfactants
Rang et al. Spontaneous emulsification of oils containing hydrocarbon, nonionic surfactant, and oleyl alcohol
US4446044A (en) Aqueous water-in-oil cleaning emulsion
US3793218A (en) Oil slick dispersant and method
US5355958A (en) Low viscosity acid-in-oil emulsions and methods
US4399050A (en) Bleach composition
US2999064A (en) Stable aqueous cutting fluid
US2907664A (en) Self-spraying wax polish and method for its production
US4278129A (en) Stimulation of oil and gas wells with phosphate ester surfactants
US4561905A (en) Method for suppressing coal dust
US4992213A (en) Cleaning composition, oil dispersant and use thereof
US3477511A (en) Process for the recovery of petroleum using soluble oils
US4614236A (en) Self-breaking foamed oil-in-water emulsion for stimulation of wells blocked by paraffinic deposits
US4393935A (en) Stimulation of gas wells with phosphate ester surfactants
US2492173A (en) Flow of thickened fluids