US2411308A - Surface covering material - Google Patents

Surface covering material Download PDF

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US2411308A
US2411308A US573704A US57370445A US2411308A US 2411308 A US2411308 A US 2411308A US 573704 A US573704 A US 573704A US 57370445 A US57370445 A US 57370445A US 2411308 A US2411308 A US 2411308A
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edge
shingle
shingles
sloping
course
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US573704A
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Washburn Frank
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Washburn Frank
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04DROOF COVERINGS; SKY-LIGHTS; GUTTERS; ROOF-WORKING TOOLS
    • E04D1/00Roof covering by making use of tiles, slates, shingles, or other small roofing elements
    • E04D1/12Roofing elements shaped as plain tiles or shingles, i.e. with flat outer surface
    • E04D1/20Roofing elements shaped as plain tiles or shingles, i.e. with flat outer surface of plastics; of asphalt; of fibrous materials

Description

Nov. 19, 1946. F. WASHBURN 2,411,308

SURFACE COVERING MATERIAL Filed Jan. 20, 1945 INVEIW 3 flan/f Wag/Marry BY mm Patented Nov. 19, 1946 1 r UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE SURFACE COVERING MATERIAL Frank Washburn, Battle Ground, Ind.

Application January 20, 1945, Serial No. 573,704

8 Claims.

This invention relates to surface covering material, particularly to semi-rigid or rigid shingles for use in covering side Walls, roofs, etc., of buildings, and has for an object to provide an improved design of covering material in which the joints formed in the application of the material are substantially leakproof.

One of the problems incident to the application of shingles to building surfaces has been to provide an economical arrangement whereby the joints formed by the abutting shingles are sufficiently leakproof, particularly against rain seepage. Several remedial expedients have been proposed heretofore, such as by the use of joiner shingles, of smaller size than the regular shingles, disposed intermediate and over the regular size shingles. Although the above joiner shingle arrangement satisfactorily protects the joints against leakage, the application thereof requires more time, labor, and material than other methods, in view of the different sizes of shingles. Allowance must be made by the applicator in ad- Vance for the space required by the joiner shingle while laying the regular shingles, and it is read- .ily apparent that the spacing allowance is a difficult factor to overcome in applying the shingles around doors, windows, gables, and dormers, so that the advantages in joint coverage are offset somewhat. The joiner shingle furthermore requires a strip mounted underneath the shingle to prevent the shingle from bowing at the middle. Accordingly, a more uniform and at the same time more economical shingle of the usual size, which at the same time provides a leakproof joint, is highly desirable.

It is therefore'another object of the invention to overcome the above disadvantages and to provide an improved and simplified shingle for application over side walls and/or roofs of buildings.

Still another object of the invention is to provide a universal shingle of more economical design, which is capable of being applied with minimum effort and time and which reduces material waste to a minimum.

A further object of the invention is to provide an improved shingle that when applied as a covering material eliminates open butted joints, thus providing head and side laps for shedding rain and wind and for keeping the insulation dry.

A still further object of the invention is to provide an improved design of shingle that when applied as a covering material will permit the material to shrink without opening the joints.

A still further object of the invention is toprovide an improved shingle design which requires a minimum number of exposed nails when" applied as a coverage without causing the shingles to bow;

According to a feature of the present invention advantages are secured over the prior designs by providing a shingle in which asection at one end thereof is wider than that at the other end, so that efiicient joint coverage with the proper amount-s of side and head laps is obtained.

Another feature of the invention resides in the provision of a sloping edge at a pair of opposite corners of the shingle for preventing penetration of moisture through the joint formed between adjacent shingles and also for providing a substantial nailing place adjacent the sloping edge.

Still another feature of the invention resides in an arrangement of shingles wherein only one stud is exposed, the remainder of the nails being covered.

These and other features of the invention will be more fully described in the following specification taken in connection with the accompanying drawing in which:

Fig. 1 illustrates a design of shingle of substantially rectangular shape adaptable for siding cov-- erage,

Fig. 2 illustrates a design of a shingle of substantially square shape adaptable for roofing 'coverage,

Fig. 3 is similar to Fig. 2 with the off-set along the lower edge of smaller length,

Fig. 4 illustrates a typical application of the shingle design shown in Fig. 1,

Fig. 5 illustrates a blown-up section of an interior joint shown in Fig. 4 at 5.

Fig. 6 is a sectional view taken along line B--6 of Fig. 5, illustrating the pile-up orcoverlapping arrangement of the shingles at the joint,

Fig. 7 is a sectional view taken along line 1-7 of Fig. 5, illustrating the pile-up of the shingles at the joint, and

Fig. 8 illustrates a typical application of the design shown in Fig. 2.

Referring now to the drawing and particularly to Fig. '1, there is shown a shingle ID, of anysui'table material, such as slate, tile, asbestos cement or the like, which is adaptable for surface coverage, especially to side walls of a building structure. The shingle I0 is preferably of rectangular shape, and has a pair of opposite corners H, H! that are substantially square and another pair of opposite corners in which a pair of parallel sloping or angular edges l3, M are provided, One of the latter corners includes a pair of shoulders I 6, I1, shown as being substantially at right Iangles with respect to each other, which shoulders in conjunction with sloping edge l3 form a notch. As will be explained hereinafter in connection with surface application of the shingles, sloping edge |3 of one shingle l abuts sloping edge l4 of a contiguous shingle Ill, forming an inclined joint which is effective in preventing moisture leakage to the surface being covered.

A portion of the lower edge of shingle ID, as viewed in Fig. 1, adjacent sloping edge l4,.is offset as at l8 to provide a narrower sectional width at the "right end thereof in comparison with a section taken at the other end, for purposes as will appear hereinafter. In shingles adapted for siding coverage wherein a head lap of 1 inches is provided, an offset of inch has been found satisfactory. While the offset l8 hasbeen shown in Fig. 1 at the lower right end, it is, of course,

understood that the invention is not limited to this location, since the offset may be placed at the lower left end with corresponding changes made in the other corners.

Apertures IS in shingle l0 are preformed for the nails (not shown) required in fastening the shingle to the surface (not shown) to be covered. It is to be particularly noted that the aperture l9 adjacent to sloping edge I3 provides an advantageous point for securing that corner of the shingle without causing the shingle to bow or draw.

In Fig. 2 the shingle 2| is similar to that shown in Fig. 1 except that it is of substantially square configuration being particularly adapted for application to roofs of a building structure. In the application of shingle 2| to roofs, wherein a head lap of 3 inches is provided, an offset 22 of one inch has been found satisfactory.

' In Fig. 3 the shingle 2| is almost identical to that shown in Fig. 2 with the exception that the offset '23 is somewhat foreshortened as compared to offset 22 of Fig. 2. The shoulder 24 adjacent the oifset 23 also facilitates alignment of the singles. It is tobe noted that shingle 2| of this figure conforms with the principle involved in the invention, namely, that a section including offset 23 is of shorter length than one taken adjacent to shoulder l6.

In Fig. 4 is shown a typical layout or application of the shingles Hi, preferably for siding coverage, the shingles being laid from left to right,

as viewed on the drawing. It is understood, of course, that the application thereof is not to be limited from left to right, as mentioned hereinbefore. .By redisposition of the corners the shingles may be laid from right to left. At the bottom or starter course the bottom edges of the shingles are laid on a horizontal line with the left edge of one shingle, for example shingle A, overlapping the right edge of its'contiguous shingle B thereby providing a side lap. In practice a 2 inch side lap for siding coverage has been,

found satisfactory. The shingles are fastened by nails 24 in the approximate positions shown.

In the bottom course, the staggered edges of the shingles; may beftrimmed in line with the offsets 18, thereby forming a continuous straight edge along the bottoms of these shingles.

In laying the next upper course the right edge of shingle C is then laid with its sloping edge 1|4 abutting the sloping edge l3 of shingle A, :shoulders HS'and ll of shingle A embracingly engaging the right edge and offset edge I8 of shingle C, respectively. Shoulders H, l8 also aid inaligning the -shingle C both vertically and horizontally in conjunction with sloping edge 4.3.- However, theshingle C is further aligned 4 vertically by truing its left edge with that of shingle B. The head lap, which in this instance is 1 inches, may be considered as being measured from the ofiset edge I8 to the top edge of the overlapped shingle B of the bottom course, as shown clearly in Fig. 5. Shingle D is next laid with its bottom edge overlapping shingles B and A and with its sloping edge |4 abutting the sloping edge l3 of shingle E, the left edges of shingles D and C being in alignment. The remaining shingles of the course, as well as the remaining courses, are laid in a similar manner. It is readily understood that by applying the shingles in the above manner and securing them as shown,

only two nails 24 will be exposed, the remaining nails being covered by overlapping shingles. Referring particularly to Fig. 5, which is a blown-up view of the joint 5 shown in Fig. 4, and also to sectional views 6, 1 illustrating the pile-up of the shingles thereat, it can be seen that a moistureproof joint is provided, particularly the overlapping portion of shingle D over the joint. The weakest spot of the joint resides along shoulder l6 and were it not for the sloping edges I3, l4, assuming that shoulder I1 intersected shoulder l6 at right angles, it might be possible for moisture to creep horizontally along shoulder II to shoulder l6 and thence down to the surface to be covered with consequent damage. .The upwardly sloping edges l3, l4, however, act as a barrier to prevent such creepage to shoulder IS, the moisture being deflected downwardly at the juncture of shoulder l1 and sloping edge I 3.

. In Fig. 8 is shown a typical layout of the shingles 2| of Fig, 2 adapted preferably for roofing coverage, the shingles being applied in a manner similar to that of Fig. 4. In this instance it is preferable to use studs 26, instead of nails 24, where exposure of the fastening means is found necessary. The stud 26, which is of wellknown type, extends from the bottom shingle through the aligned holes formed in the overlapped shingles and is clinched at the top surface of the uppermost shingle. It is to be noted that only one exposed stud 26 per shingle is required and this is located just above an imaginary juncture of the extensions of shoulders I6,

ll, thereby providing a support for stud 26, so that buckling of the shingle is effectively prevented. This would not be possible were the shoulders l6, l1 extended to a right angle corner and thesloping surface l3 eliminated.

In the event that a thatched or offset edge 22 along the lower edge of the shingle is not 'desired, the shingle 2| of Fig. 3 may be employed and applied in accordance with the layout of Fig. 8. In this arrangement, the outlines or edges of the shingles would appear as continuous vertical and horizontal lines intersecting each other. Such an arrangement is preferable in the application of large 2 ft. by 4 ft. asbestos sheets to siding or roofing coverages. However, in the case of smaller asbestos shingle units, such as 16 inch by 16 inch, a stud is usually not required. Where 1. Siding for building walls and the like comprising in combination, a plurality of overlapping courses of shingles, one extremity of the lower edge of each shingle being ofiset a predetermined distance, said offset portion being connected with a side thereof by a sloping edge, one extremity of the upper edge of each shingle having a sloping edge in parallel relationship with said first sloping edge, the shingles of each course being lapped along their side margins by adjacent shingles, the shingles of the first course being also lapped along their upper margins by adjacent shingles of a second course, the first sloping edge of one of said second course upper shingles being in butting engagement with the second sloping edge of one of said first course shingles to form an angular joint, and another of said second course shingles overlapping said angular joint.

2. Siding for building Walls and the like comprising in combination, a plurality of overlapping courses of shingles, one extremity of the lower edge of each shingle being offset a predetermined distance, said ofiset portion being connected with a side thereof by a sloping edge, one extremity of the upper edge of each shingle having a notched corner, a sloping edge in said notched corner in parallel relationship with said first sloping edge, the shingles of each course being lapped along their side margins by adjacent shingles, the shingles of the first course being also lapped along their upper margins by adjacent shingles of a second course, the first sloping edge of one of said second course upper shingles being in butting engagement with the second sloping edge of one of said first course shingles to form an angular joint, and another of said second course shingles overlapping said angular joint.

3. Siding for building walls and the like comprising in combination, a plurality of overlapping courses of shingles, one extremity of the lower edge of each shingle being oifset a predetermined distance, said offset portion being connected with a side thereof by a sloping edge, one extremity of the upper edge of each shingle having a notched corner, said notched corner comprising a vertical and a horizontal shoulder interconnected by a sloping edge, said sloping edge being in parallel relationship with said first sloping edge, the shingles of each course being lapped along their side margins by adjacent shingles, the shingles of the first course being also lapped along their upper margins by adjacent shingles of a second course, the first sloping edge of one of said second course upper shingles being in butting engagement with the second sloping edge of one of said first course shingles to form an angular joint, thereby preventing moisture from seeping along said horizontal shoulder to said vertical shoulder, and another of said second course shingles overlapping said angular joint.

4. An oblong shingle comprising a continuous upper edge, a second edge perpendicular to said upper edge, a lower edge comprising a continuous and an inwardly offset edge in parallel relationship with each other, an oblique edge join-,

ing said ofiset edge with said second edge, a third edge perpendicular to said lower continuous edge, said third edge having a notch between said upper continuous edge and said third edge, and an oblique shoulder in said notch, said oblique shoulder being disposed diagonally opposite to said oblique edge.

5. An, octagonal shingle comprising an upper edge, a side edge at right angles thereto, a bottom inwardly stepped edge, a sloping edge joining said side edge with said bottom stepped edge, a second side edge at right angles to said bottom stepped edge, and a second sloping edge intermediate said second side edge and said upper edge, said second sloping edge being parallel with and diagonally opposite to said first sloping edge.

6. An octagonal shingle comprising an upper edge, a side edge at right angles thereto, a bottom inwardly stepped edge, a sloping edge joining said side edge with the inwardly stepped portion of said bottom edge, a second side edge at right angles to said bottom stepped edge, a horizontal edge adjoining said second side edge, a vertical edge adjoining said upper edge, and a second sloping edge joining said horizontal edge with said vertical edge, said second sloping edge being parallel with said first sloping edge.

7. A substantially rectangular shingle comprising a continuous first edge, a second edge forming a square corner therewith, a third edge forming an inclined corner with said second edge, said third edge having a stepped surface whereby a reduced section is formed between said first. and third edges adjacent to said second edge, and a fourth edge forming a square corner with said third edge and an inclined corner with said first edge.

8. A substantially square shingle comprising an upper edge, a right edge perpendicular thereto for forming a square corner therebetween, a lower edge comprising a continuous edge and an inwardly offset edge in parallel relationship with each other, an inclined edge joining said offset edge with said right edge, a left edge perpendicular to said lower continuous edge for forming a square corner therebetween, and a notch including a second inclined edge joining said left edge with said upper continuous edge, said second inclined edge being substantially parallel with said first inclined edge.

FRANK WASHBURN.

Certificate of Correction Patent No. 2,411,308. November 19, 1946. FRANK WASHBURN It is hereby certified that errors appear in the printed specification of the above numbered patent requiring correction as follows: Column 3, line 40, for the numeral 24 read 24'; line 42, for singles read shingles; line 72, for 17, 18 read 16', 17; column 4, line 10, for D and C read D and A; line 66, for single read shingle; and that the said Letters Patent should be read with these corrections therein that the same may conform to the record of the case in the Patent Ofiice.

Signed and sealed this 25th day of February, A. D. 1947.

LESLIE FRAZER,

First Assistant Uommz'ssz'oner of Patents.

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Cited By (23)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2756699A (en) * 1950-03-31 1956-07-31 Lloyd K Lockwood Roofing shingles and fasteners
DE3614039A1 (en) * 1986-02-28 1987-09-03 Zuercher Ziegeleien Cladding panel for producing an imbricated wall cladding
US20040148895A1 (en) * 2003-02-04 2004-08-05 Jolitz Randal J. Roofing shingle with a laying line
US20070277464A1 (en) * 2004-10-08 2007-12-06 Showa Co., Ltd. Lining Structure
US9399870B2 (en) * 2014-11-21 2016-07-26 Building Materials Investment Corporation Roofing shingle system and shingles for use therein
US9399871B2 (en) 2014-11-21 2016-07-26 Building Materials Investment Corporation Roofing shingle system and shingles for use therein
USD763468S1 (en) 2015-03-26 2016-08-09 Building Materials Investment Corporation Shingle
US9410323B1 (en) 2015-03-13 2016-08-09 Building Materials Investment Corporation Roofing shingle system and shingles for use therein
USD764076S1 (en) 2015-03-13 2016-08-16 Building Materials Investment Corporation Shingle
US9416539B2 (en) * 2014-11-21 2016-08-16 Building Materials Investment Corporation Roofing shingle system and shingles for use therein
USD765274S1 (en) 2015-03-26 2016-08-30 Building Materials Investment Corporation Shingle
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Cited By (33)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2756699A (en) * 1950-03-31 1956-07-31 Lloyd K Lockwood Roofing shingles and fasteners
DE3614039A1 (en) * 1986-02-28 1987-09-03 Zuercher Ziegeleien Cladding panel for producing an imbricated wall cladding
US20040148895A1 (en) * 2003-02-04 2004-08-05 Jolitz Randal J. Roofing shingle with a laying line
US8099923B2 (en) 2003-02-04 2012-01-24 Tamko Building Products, Inc. Roofing shingle with a laying line
US7475516B2 (en) * 2003-02-04 2009-01-13 Epoch Composite Products, Inc. Roofing shingle with a laying line
US20090165402A1 (en) * 2003-02-04 2009-07-02 Jolitz Randal J Roofing shingle with a laying line
US20100186312A1 (en) * 2003-02-04 2010-07-29 Jolitz Randal J Roofing shingle with a laying line
US7882677B2 (en) 2003-02-04 2011-02-08 Tamko Building Products, Inc. Roofing shingle with a laying line
US7980036B2 (en) * 2004-10-08 2011-07-19 Showa Co., Ltd. Lining structure
US20070277464A1 (en) * 2004-10-08 2007-12-06 Showa Co., Ltd. Lining Structure
USD774215S1 (en) 2014-11-21 2016-12-13 Building Materials Investment Corporation Shingle
US9399871B2 (en) 2014-11-21 2016-07-26 Building Materials Investment Corporation Roofing shingle system and shingles for use therein
USD856538S1 (en) 2014-11-21 2019-08-13 Building Materials Investment Corporation Shingle
USD834220S1 (en) 2014-11-21 2018-11-20 Building Materials Investment Corporation Shingle
USD829935S1 (en) 2014-11-21 2018-10-02 Building Materials Investment Corporation Shingle
US9416539B2 (en) * 2014-11-21 2016-08-16 Building Materials Investment Corporation Roofing shingle system and shingles for use therein
US9399870B2 (en) * 2014-11-21 2016-07-26 Building Materials Investment Corporation Roofing shingle system and shingles for use therein
USD827158S1 (en) 2014-11-21 2018-08-28 Building Materials Investment Corporation Shingle
USD804687S1 (en) 2014-11-21 2017-12-05 Building Materials Investment Corporation Shingle
USD776303S1 (en) 2014-11-21 2017-01-10 Building Materials Investment Corporation Shingle
USD856539S1 (en) 2014-11-21 2019-08-13 Building Materials Investment Corporation Shingle
USD766467S1 (en) 2015-03-13 2016-09-13 Building Materials Investment Corporation Shingle
USD764076S1 (en) 2015-03-13 2016-08-16 Building Materials Investment Corporation Shingle
USD769472S1 (en) 2015-03-13 2016-10-18 Building Materials Investment Corporation Shingle
US9410323B1 (en) 2015-03-13 2016-08-09 Building Materials Investment Corporation Roofing shingle system and shingles for use therein
USD765888S1 (en) 2015-03-26 2016-09-06 Building Materials Investment Corporation Shingle
USD765885S1 (en) 2015-03-26 2016-09-06 Building Materials Investment Corporation Shingle
USD765886S1 (en) 2015-03-26 2016-09-06 Building Materials Investment Corporation Shingle
USD765887S1 (en) 2015-03-26 2016-09-06 Building Materials Investment Corporation Shingle
USD765273S1 (en) 2015-03-26 2016-08-30 Building Materials Investment Corporation Shingle
USD766469S1 (en) 2015-03-26 2016-09-13 Building Materials Investment Corporation Shingle
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USD765274S1 (en) 2015-03-26 2016-08-30 Building Materials Investment Corporation Shingle

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