US2409733A - Repeating firearm - Google Patents

Repeating firearm Download PDF

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Publication number
US2409733A
US2409733A US605774A US60577445A US2409733A US 2409733 A US2409733 A US 2409733A US 605774 A US605774 A US 605774A US 60577445 A US60577445 A US 60577445A US 2409733 A US2409733 A US 2409733A
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Prior art keywords
block
link
inertia
receiver
locking
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US605774A
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Val A Browning
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J M & M S Browning Co
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J M & M S Browning Co
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F41WEAPONS
    • F41AFUNCTIONAL FEATURES OR DETAILS COMMON TO BOTH SMALLARMS AND ORDNANCE, e.g. CANNONS; MOUNTINGS FOR SMALLARMS OR ORDNANCE
    • F41A3/00Breech mechanisms, e.g. locks
    • F41A3/12Bolt action, i.e. the main breech opening movement being parallel to the barrel axis
    • F41A3/36Semi-rigid bolt locks, i.e. having locking elements movably mounted on the bolt or on the barrel or breech housing
    • F41A3/38Semi-rigid bolt locks, i.e. having locking elements movably mounted on the bolt or on the barrel or breech housing having rocking locking elements, e.g. pivoting levers or vanes
    • F41A3/40Semi-rigid bolt locks, i.e. having locking elements movably mounted on the bolt or on the barrel or breech housing having rocking locking elements, e.g. pivoting levers or vanes mounted on the bolt

Description

v. A. BROWNING 2,409,733
REPEATING FIREARM 2 sheets-sheet 1' Filed- July 18, 1945 wm INN a a Oct. 22, 1946. v. A. BRowNlNG REPEATING FIREARM Filed July 18, 1945 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 EEA l/d/ A. rowing Patented Oct. 22, 1946 REPEATING FIREARM Val A. Browning, Ogden, Utah, assigner to J. M. & M. S. Browning Company, Ogden, Utah, a
corporation of Utah Application July 1s, 1945, serial No. 605,774
10 Claims.
This invention relates'to firearms of the selfloading, recoil-operated type wherein the barrel and breech block are locked together by a locking block with which is associated an inertia member adapted, during recoil movement of the barrel extension, to unlock the locking block from the barrel, and the invention has particular reference to the means or arrangement for operating the locking block.
'I'he aim of the invention is to provide an improved arrangement for operating the locking block which will permit reduction in weight of the inertia member, thus lightening the gun; which eliminates certain Vparts heretofore used, thus effecting economy in manufacture andassembly, and which will result in a more positive action.
In the accompanying drawings, wherein I have shown one embodiment which the present invention may take:
Figure 1 is a sectional view taken generally longitudinally and vertically through the rearm with the parts illustrated in nring position;
Fig. 2 is a similar view but showing the'parts in position at which the locking :block is about to be disengaged from the barrel extension during recoil of the latter; and
Fig. 3 is a similar View showing the position which the parts have during forward movement of the ibreech block.
In the drawings, I have shown, f or illustrative purposes only, the improvements of the present invention incorporated in a rearm such as 'is illustrated and disclosed in my copending application Serial No. 555,941, liled September 24, 1944, it being understood, however, that such a showing is by way of example only and not by way of limitation. Only so much of the firearm is illustrated as is necessary for an understanding of the present invention, the cartridge carrier for transferring cartridges from the magazine to the barrel extension and the trigger mechanism being omitted as they may be of any suitable construction so far as the present invention is concerned.
Referring to the drawings in detail, the rearm is"shown as" having a frame or receiver I and abarrel II. The barrel has a barrel extension I2 mounted for reciprocating movement within the receiver. Below the barrel is a cylindrical magazine I4 from therear end of which the Vshells are transferred, as by means of acarrierinot shown), to the chamber offthe barrel extension. Yrissrociated with the barrel aresuitable ngres ,for reiarding the recoil mevneei f 2 the barrel and then restoring the lbarrel to its firing position upon ring the firearm. This means may conveniently take the form of a recoil spring I5, only a portion of which is shown in the present instance as encircling the magazine. Extending downwardly and rearwardly from the rear end of the receiver is a tube I6 within which is mounted an inertia member I'l. Behind the inertia member is an action spring I8.
Mounted within the receiver I is a breech block I9 which carries the firing pin Z. The receiver is provided in its side walls with longitudinally extending grooves 2l for guiding the breech block in its reciprocating movements. Carried by the breech block is locking block`22 having a rearwardly facing locking shoulder 23. The barrel extension I2 has anopening in its upperwall provided at its rear end with a foiwardly facing shoulder 24 with which the shoulder on the locking iblock is adapted to engage, as shown in Fie. 1'. The locking block is pivoted at its upper rear corner to the 'breech block for swinging movement in any suitable manner, as by means of arcuate lugs 25 vextending from the opposite sides of the locking block and, engaging in arcuate grooves 26 in side walls of the breech block. 'The locking block swings relative to the breech block about a centeror point indicated by the letter a. yThe locking block is slotted on its u nder side so as to accommodate the firing pin 20, the spring 21 thereabout, and the forward end of a vlink 35 which constitutes the connection between the locking block andthe inertia memlber.
In the present illustrative disclosure, the rear end of the link 35 is pivotally connected to the forward end of the inertia member or guide piece I1 by means of'a parti-cylindrical head 36 engaging in a similarly shaped transverse groove in the forward end of the inertia member. The link is pivoted Ibetween its ends to the rear lower corner of the locking block, as by means of a pin 31. The link, forwardly of this pin,`has an'a'rm or finger 33. The breech block has, on the rear face'of its forward wall, an upwardly and rearwardly inclined cam surface'39 with which the forward end of the nger 38 is adapted t'o cooperate upon recoil of the barrel, as hereinafter explained more in detail. This face of the'breech block further has a rearwardly facing abutment 48 leading vertically from the upper -end of the cam surface 33, and the forward end of the finger 38 cooperates with this abutment during'the forward movement of the breech block, as will be later explained. f
The parts described are normally in the firing position shown in Fig. l. When the parts are in this position, the action spring I8, through its forward pressure on the inertia member Il, forces the inertia member, the link 35, and, through the locking block 22, the breech block i9 together so that these parts act as an integral mass to close the breech and maintain the firearm in locked position when the same is fired. The pivot pin 3l is slightly forward of the pivot point a of the locking block. When a .shell is fired within the firing chamber, the power gases generated act against the forward face of the breech block and cause the barrel, the breech block, the link,.and the inertia member to move rapidly rearwardly in recoil. At the instant of firing, the pressure of the gases builds up very rapidly so that the barrel and breech block in locked condition aredriven.V
backwardly through an extremely small distance with an accelerating movement and then, as the seen from Fig. l, when the parts are in firing position, the forward end of the cam finger of the link is slightly spaced from the lower end of the cam surface so that this finger will not engage the cam surface until after the parts start to decelerate. During the accelerating movement of the parts, the link and the inertia member, due to their mass and their tendency to remain in a state of rest, will move rearwardly with the breech block acting in the nature of an integral mass so that, during such portion of the recoil movement, the locking block will be securely retained in locked relation to the barrel. As the barrel starts to decelerate, the forward end of the finger 38 will be raised into engagement with the cam surface 39 due to the fact that the link is pivoted between its ends to the locking block, and the rear end of the link is moving downwardly and rearwardly owing to its connection with the inertia member. ThisV results in a rearward movement of the link and inertia member with respect to the recoiling barrel extension and, as the link is pivotally connected with the locking block, the latter is carnmed downwardly and rearwardly with respect to the shoulder on the barrel extension. In Fig. 2, this camming action is shown as having been substantially completed. At this time, the recoil movement of the barrel is about stopped but the recoil force of the link and inertia member causes these parts to continue to move rearwardly against the force of the action spring with the result that the locking block is entirely disengaged from the barrel extension. It will be understood that the camming action between the finger of the link and the cam surface on the breech block imparts ,to the link and inertia member a rearward movement with respect to the barrel, and this force, added to the recoil force of these parts, causes an acceleration of the link and inertia member over the rearward movement of the barrel extension so that the inertia member is effective to insure complete disengagement of the locking block from the barrel extension and continued movement of thebreech block to its full rearward position after the locking block is disengaged from the barrel extension, Owing to the fact that the engagement of the cam nger of the link with the cam surface on the breech block, while thebarrel extension, breech block,
link, and inertia member are recoiling rearwardly' substantially as a unit, causes the inertia member and link to move faster than the rearwardly recoiling barrel extension at the time of disengagement of the locking block from the barrel extension, such increased velocity permits of the use of a lighter inertia member. This is particularly advantageous in small gauge Shotguns where light weight is highly desirable.
The breech block and associated parts having' recoiled to their rearmost position, the action spring will now return the breech block forwardly to its firing position and, during such movement, the action spring tends to throw the locking block upwardly. Heretofore, a separate latching lock'has been employed for latching the locking block in down position with respect to the breechY ment, such locking latch is eliminated. With thisA arrangement, the locking block is held down or nearly so to its lowermost position during the return or forward movement of the breech block due to the engagement of the forward end of the cam linger against the rearwardly facing abutment 40 on the breech block. During such movement, the pivot pin 3l is slightly behind the vertical plane which includes the pivot point a of the locking block, and the engagement of the nger against the abutment prevents the action spring from swinging the locking block upwardly and forwardly. Also, during such movement, the ringer is prevented from moving up against the ring pin spring 2. Actually, the locking block is held downwardly in such position that it might have a slight wiping action against the rear end of the extension. As the breech block moves to its full closed position, the forward end of the link will swing downwardly to the position shown in Fig. 1.
As many changes could be made in the above construction and many apparently widely different embodiments of this invention could be made without departing from the scope thereof, it is intended that all matter contained in the above description or shown in the accompanying drawings shall be interpreted as illustrative and not in a limiting sense.
It is also to be understood that the language used in the following claims is intended to cover all of the generic and specific features of the invention herein described and all statements of the scope of the invention which, as a matter of language, might be said to fall therebetween.
I claim as my invention: v
1. In a recoil-operated firearm of the character described, a receiver, a barrel having a barrel extension member mounted for reciprocation in the receiver and provided with a locking shoulder, a breech'block member carried by said rereceiver and mounted for reciprocation therein, a locking block movably carried by said breech v block member and having a shoulder arranged to engage said first-mentioned shoulder when the breech block member is locked to the barrel extension, an inertia member mounted for reciprocation at the rear end of Athe receiver, a link pivotally connected to said locking block and inertia' described, a receiver, a barrel having a barrel extension mounted for reciprocation in the receiver and `provided with a locking shoulder, a breech Vblock carried by said receiver and mounted for reciproca-tion therein, a locking block movably carried by said breech block and having a shou.- der arranged to engage said first-mentioned shoulder when the breech block is locked to the barrel extension, an inertia member mounted for reciprocation at the rear end of the receiver, a link pivotally connected to said locking block and inertia member, and interengaging means between the link and breech block for moving the locking block towards unlocked position and imparting added velocity to the link and inertia member upon recoil movement of the barrel extension.
3. In a recoil-operated firearm of the character described, a receiver, a barrel having a barrel extension rmounted for reciprocation in the receiver and provided with :a locking shoulder, a breech block carried by said receiver and mounted for reciprocation therein, a locking block movably carried by said breech block and having a shoulder 1arranged to engage said first-mentioned shoulder when the breech block is locked to the barrel extension, an inertia member mounted for reciprocation at the rear end of the receiver, and a link pivotally connected to said locking block and inertia member, said link and breech block having interengageable portions for moving the locking block towards unlocked position and imparting added velocity to the link and inertia member upon recoil movement of .the barrel eX- tension.
4. In a recoil-operated firearm of the character described, a receiver, a barrel having a barrel eX- tension mounted for reciprocation in the receiver and provided with a locking shoulder, a breech block carried by the receiver and mounted for reciprocation therein, a locking block pivotally carried by the breech block and having a shoulder arranged to engage with said first-mentioned shoulder when the breech block is locked to said barrel extension, a guide extending downwardly and rearwardly from the rear end of said receiver, an inertia member mounted for reciprocation in said guide, and a link pivoted at its rear end to said inertia member and between its ends to said locking block, the forward end of said link being engageable with said breech block upon recoil movement of the barrel extension to effect an unlocking movement of the locking block and a rearward movement of the link and inertia member relative to the rearwardly recoiling barrel extension.
5. In a recoil-operated firearm of the character described, a receiver, a barrel having a barrel extension mounted for reciprocation in the receiver and provided with a locking shoulder, a breech block carried by the receiver and mounted for reciprocation therein and having an upwardly and rearwardly inclined surface, a locking block pivotally carried by the breech block and having a shoulder arranged to engage with said rstmentioned shoulder when the breech block is locked to said barrel extension, a guide extending downwardly and rearwardly from the rear end of said receiver, an inertia member mounted for reciprocation in said guide, and a link pivoted at its rear end to said inertia member `and between its ends to said locking block, the forward end of said link being engageable with said surface on said breech block upon recoil movement of the barrel extension to effect an unlocking movement of the locking block and a rearward movement of the link and inertia member relative to the rearwardly recoiling barrel extension.
r6. VIn a recoil-operated rearmof the character described, a receiver, a barrel having a barrel extension mounted for reciprocation in the receiver and provided with na locking shoulder, a breech block carried by said receiver and mounted vfor reciprocation therein, a locking block movably carried by said breech block and having va shoulder arranged to engage said first-mentioned shoulder, an inertia member mounted for recipr rocation at the rear end of the receiver, `a link pivotally connected to said locking block and inertia member, and interengaging means between the `link and breech block for moving the locking block towards unlocked position and imparting added velocity to the link vand vinertia ,member upon recoil movement of the barrel extension and for maintaining the locking'block in unlocked position during the forward movement of the breech block.
'7. In a recoil-operated rearm of the character described, a receiver, a barrel having a barrel extension mounted for reciprocation in the receiver and provided with a locking shoulder, a breech block carried by the receiver and mounted for reciprocation therein, a locking block pivotally carried by the breech block and having a shoulder arranged to engage with said first-mentioned shoulder, a guide extending downwardly and rearwardly from the rear end of said receiver, an inertia member mounted for reciprocation in said guide, and a link pivoted at its rear end to said inertia member and between its ends to said locking block, the forward end of said link being engageable with said breech block upon recoil of the barrel extension to eifect a rearward movement of the link and inertia member relative to the rearwardly recoiling barrel extension, the forward end of said link being also engageable with said breech block upon forward movement of the breech block to maintain the locking block in unlocked position until the breech block has substantially reached its foremost position.
8. In a recoil-operated firearm of the character described, a receiver, a barrel having a barrel extension mounted for reciprocation in the receiver and provided with a locking shoulder, a breech block carried by the receiver and mounted for reciprocation therein, said breech block having an upwardly and rearwardly inclined surface and a rearwardly facing abutment leading upwardly from the upper end of said surface, a locking block pivotally carried by the breech block and having a shoulder engageable with said firstmentioned shoulder, a guide extending downwardly and rearwardly from the rear end of the receiver, an inertia member mounted for reciprocation in said guide, and a link pivoted at its rear end to said inertia member and between its ends to said locking block, the forward end of said link being engageable with said inclined surface upon recoil movement of the barrel extension to effect an unlocking movement of the locking block and a rearward movement of the link and inertia member relative to the rearwardly recoiling barrel extension, and said forward end of said link being engageable with said abutment during the forward movement of the breech block to maintain the locking block in unlocked position until the breech block has substantially reached its foremost position.
9. In a recoil-operated firearm of the character described, a receiver, a barrel having a barrel extension mounted for reciprocation inthe receiver and provided with a forwardly facing locking shoulder, a breech block carried by the receiver and mounted for reciprocation therein, a lockingblock pivoted at its rear upper corner to the breech block and having a rearwardly facing shoulder forwardly of its pivot and arranged to engage said first-mentioned shoulder when the breech block is locked to the barrel extension, a guide extending downwardly and rearwardly from the rear end of the receiver, an inertia member mounted for reciprocation in said guide, an action spring behind said inertia member, and a link pivoted at its rear end to said inertia member and between its ends to said locking block at a point substantially below the pvot of the locking block when the parts are in ring position, said link having an arm extending forwardly of its pivot with the locking block, said breech block having an upwardly and rearwardly inclined surface and a rearwardly facing shoulder extending upwardly from the upper end of said surface, said surface being engaged with the forward end of said arm upon recoil of the barrel extension to effect an unlocking movement of the locking block and a rearward movement of the link and inertia member relative to the rearwardly recoiling barrel extension, and the forward end of said arm 8 being engaged with said abutment during forward movement ofthe breech block to maintain the locking block in unlocked position until the breech block has substantially reached its foremost position.
10. In a recoil-operated firearm of the chary acter described, a receiver, a barrel having a barrel extension member mounted for reciprocation in the receiver and provided with a locking shoulder, a breech block member carried by the receiver and mounted for reciprocation therein, a locking block movably carried by said breech block member and having a shoulder arranged to engage said first-mentioned shoulder When the breech block member is locked to the barrel extension member, a guide piece mounted for reoiprocation at the rear end of the receiver on a li-ne at an angle to the line of reciprocation of the breech block member, a link pivotally connected to said locking block and guide piece and arranged to pivot relative to the locking block upon recoil movement of the barrel extension member, and interengaging means between the link and one of said members for moving the locking block towards unlocked position and imparting added velocity to the link and guide piece upon recoil movement of the barrel extension member.
VAL A. BROWNING.
US605774A 1945-07-18 1945-07-18 Repeating firearm Expired - Lifetime US2409733A (en)

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Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2499090A (en) * 1944-09-27 1950-02-28 J M & M S Browning Company Inertia operated pivoted bolt lock
US2570772A (en) * 1949-03-03 1951-10-09 Remington Arms Co Inc Recoil operated firearm with pivoted bolt lock
US2741950A (en) * 1948-01-21 1956-04-17 Smith Grover Cleveland Recoiling barrel firearm with pivoted lock

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2499090A (en) * 1944-09-27 1950-02-28 J M & M S Browning Company Inertia operated pivoted bolt lock
US2741950A (en) * 1948-01-21 1956-04-17 Smith Grover Cleveland Recoiling barrel firearm with pivoted lock
US2570772A (en) * 1949-03-03 1951-10-09 Remington Arms Co Inc Recoil operated firearm with pivoted bolt lock

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