US2404818A - Valve action for cornets, trumpets, and like instruments - Google Patents

Valve action for cornets, trumpets, and like instruments Download PDF

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Publication number
US2404818A
US2404818A US552106A US55210644A US2404818A US 2404818 A US2404818 A US 2404818A US 552106 A US552106 A US 552106A US 55210644 A US55210644 A US 55210644A US 2404818 A US2404818 A US 2404818A
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United States
Prior art keywords
valve
abutment
barrel
spring
spring barrel
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US552106A
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Oscar E Swinehart
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MARTIN BAND INSTR Co
MARTIN BAND INSTRUMENT Co
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MARTIN BAND INSTR Co
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G10MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; ACOUSTICS
    • G10DSTRINGED MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; WIND MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; ACCORDIONS OR CONCERTINAS; PERCUSSION MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; AEOLIAN HARPS; SINGING-FLAME MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G10D9/00Details of, or accessories for, wind musical instruments
    • G10D9/04Valves; Valve controls

Description

July 30 1946- ca. E. SWINEHART 2,404,813

VALVE ACTION FOR CORNETS, TRUMPETS, AND LIKE INSTRUMENTS 4 Filed Aug. 51,1944

Patented July 30, .1946

VALVE ACTION FOR CORNETS, TRUMPETS, AND LIKE INSTRUMENTS Oscar E. Swinehart, Elkhart, Ind., assignor to The Martin Band Instrument Company, Elkhart, Ind., a. corporation of Indiana Application August 31, 1944, Serial No. 552,106

4 Claims.

This invention relates, in general, to musical instruments, and has particular relation to an improved valve action for cornets, trumpets and like instruments.

It is known that every note on an instrument of the class described is derived as a harmonic from a given prime or fundamental note, the pitch of which is determined by the length of the tube, and that notes not in the harmonic series of the original prime or fundamental note are obtained by altering the length of the tube, In cornets, trumpets and like instruments the alteration of the length of the tube is accomplished by a valve action which is operable to add a crook or tubing of the length required, for example to flatten the pitch of the instrument by one or more semitones.

In general, in these valve actions, pistons work in casings or cylinders, and usually there are ways or passages one of which, when the piston is in its normal position, forms part of the main tubing of the instrument; the other ways or passages being so placed that, when the piston is depressed, they introduce into the circuit an extra length of tubing suicient, for example, to lower the pitch one or more semitones.

The early piston valves were cumbersome, and the passages through them were either constricted in diameter or so placed as to introduce sharp angles instead of gently owing curves. The many attempts to overcome these defects have resulted in various forms of valves.

In one existing form of valve, for example, the coiled spring for returning the piston to normal position is disposed inside the spring barrel or tubular extension on the piston, and abuts against an abutment member which is also disposed inside the spring barrel and has three prongs which extend for longitudinal sliding movement through three circumferentially spaced and longitudinally elongated slots in the wall of the barrel. The abutment member for the spring also serves as a guide, and for this purpose the extending prongs enter guideways within the cylinder.

The disposition of the spring inside the spring barrel limits the diameter of the spring, and the abutment or guide above described is free to tilt. With the springs of these prior valve actions limited to relatively small diameters, the action is not as velvety and sure as desired, and tilting of the abutment or guide will cause it to stick or to fail to function properly, thus interfering with full register and proper operation of the instrument.

Moreover, in these prior valve actions, as above described, the contact of the three prongs of the abutment or guide member with the sides of the slots through which the prongs extend increases the friction. Where there are three guideways, one for each of the prongs, the piston valve can be inserted in the valve casing otherwise than with its ways or passages in proper functioning position.

One of the main objects of the present invention is to provide an improved valve action of the class described which will have a more velvety and surer action by providing for the use of a large diameter spring; also by the provision of a non-tilting guide or abutment member and less friction.

Another object of the invention is to provide a valve action having the improvements set forth and of such character that it is foolproof, because the piston valve can be inserted into the valve casing only in the correct way or in proper functioning position.

Another object of the invention is to provide a valve action in which the spring is disposer outside the spring barrel and is combined with an abutment or guide member in the form of a collar disposed outside and encircling the spring barrel and held against tilting by the barrel.

Another object of the invention is to provide a valve action having the features set forth, combined with a pair of diametrically opposite lugs one of which cooperates with a guideway in the cylinder so that the piston valve can be inserted into the casing only in the correct way. The lugs are adapted to receive a diametrical pin, preferably formed of stainless steel, which passes through a pair of diametrically opposite slots in the spring barrel to hold the abutment or guide member against turning on the barrel, and, in

...ie preferred form of device, the lugs are carried by the inner side of the abutment or guide member to provide for the functioning set forth and, in addition, to dispose the pin where it will not interfere with proper operation of the spring.

In order to acquaint those skilled in the art with the construction and operation of the invention, I shall describe in connection with the accompanying drawing a. certain preferred embodiment of the invention.

In the drawing:

Figure 1 is a perspective view of a cornet embodying the valve action of the present invention;

Figure 2 is a longitudinal sectional view through) one of the valve casings or cylinders showing the improved piston valve action there- 111;

Figure 3 is an enlarged fragmentary longitudinal section through the outer end of the piston and the spring barrel, spring and abutment or guide member, with the finger piece in section and its stem partially in elevation;

Figure 4 is a transverse detail section taken on the line 4--4 of Figure 2; and

Figure 5 is a fragmentary elevational view of the spring barrel and the adjacent end of the piston valve with the spring and. abutment or guide member in section.

Referring now to the drawing, the invention is shown, for purposes of illustration, embodied in a cornet, which is designated in its entirety at I and comprises, in general, the tapering or conical tube II, usually formed of brass and having at one end the conventional cupped mouth piece I2 and, at its opposite end, the outlet I3 of bell form. The length of the tube is increased and the tone of the instrument chromatically lowered by opening, as well understood in the art, into small crooks or bends Ill, I5, and I5 by valves, three of which are shown at I8, i9, and 20. Each of these valves i8, I9, and 2Q embodies the improved valve action of the present invention, and therefore the detailed showing and following description of the valve IS will suffice.

The valve I8 comprises a valve casing or cylinder 2|, preferably formed of brass, in which the piston valve 22 is mounted for reciprocatory movement. The valve 22 has the conventional ways or passages 23 for passage of the sound straight through the tube II when the valves are in their outwardly projected or normal positions, and through the respective crooks or bends I4, I5, and I6 when the piston valves 22 are depressed.

The valve 22 carries, at its outer end, a tubular spring barrel 25, preferably formed of brass and provided, for example, at its inner end with a collar 26 having a reduced portion secured in the outer end of the piston valve 22 by a diametrical pin 21. The spring barrel has a pair of diametrically opposite and longitudinally elongated guide slots 28. The abutment member 29 comprises a collar which is on the outside of the barrel 25 The abutment member 29 is held against tilting by cooperation with the barrel 25, with the result that sticking or failure of the abutment member 23 to operate properly is prevented.

The outer end of the barrel 25 is provided with an abutment in the form of a flange 39 on the inner end of a Stern 3|; the flange 39 having a reduced threaded shank 30 which screws into the outer end of the barrel 25. A relatively large diameter coiled spring 32 is disposed outside the spring barrel 25, with its convolutions encircling the barrel and abutting at opposite ends with the abutment member 29 and abutment 3G. The relatively large diameter spring 32 provides a more velvety and surer valve action for the in- Strument and improved performance or functioning of the instrument.

at its opposite end, into a threaded opening in? and freely encircles the barrel.l

CIL

the lug 33. The pin 35, which is preferably formed or stainless steel, holdsl the abutment member 29 against turning on the spring barrel 25. There is less friction because there are only two points of contact between the pin 35 and the spring barrel 2.5, i. e., only along the sides of the two slots 28. With the pin 35 of stainless steel and the spring barrel 25 formed of brass, the parts of contact are steel against brass, which makes a better bearing and provides a valve action which gives better service and outlasts prior forms of actions.

The valve casing 2| has an internal substantially annular shoulder 38 upon which the annular abutment member 29 is adapted to have substantially complete annular seating engagement, which further makes for improved functioning of the valve action. One lug 33 only extends radially beyond the outer periphery of the piston valve 22 for engagement, as shown in Figure 4, in a single guideway 39 in the valve casing 2i. The engagement of the lug 33 in the guideway 39 holds the guide member 29, and thereby the piston valve 22, against turning in the valve casing 2l. And the use of only one lug 33 and a single guideway 39 makes the device foolproof because the piston valve 22 can be inserted in only one way in the valve casing 2l, i. e., in the Way in which the ways or passages 23 are positioned to function properly. The disposition of the lugs 33 and 34 on the inner side of the abutment member 29, with the pin 35 inserted as shown in the drawing, disposes the pin 35 where it will not interfere with the proper operation of the spring 32.

The stem 3i extends outwardly through the usual cap Il?) screwed upon the outer end of the valve casing 2 I, and the usual cork and felt pads or washers may be provided at 4I and 42, respectively, the stem 3l extending through openings in these pads or washers, as known in the art. The outer end of the stem 3| of each valve I8, I9, and 2E! is provided with the conventional or any suitable nger key d5. The nger key 45, as illustrated in Figure 3 in the drawing, is shown as having a reduced shank 46 screwed into the outer end of the stem 3i. The valves I8, I9, and 20 are manipulated by pressing the nger keys 45 with the fingers, as well understood in the art. The length of the tube is increased and the tone of y he instrument chromatically lowered by pressing the valves inwardly to open the tube into the small crooks or bends Iii, I5 and I6.

The embodiment of the invention shown in the drawing is for illustrative purposes only, and it is to be expressly understood that said drawing and the accompanying specification are not to be construed as a definition of the limits or scope of the invention, reference being had to the appended claims for that purpose,

I claim:

l. In a valve action of the class described, in combination, a valve casing, a piston valve operable in said casing, a tubular spring barrel on the outer end of said valve and provided with a pair of diametrically opposite and longitudinally elongated guide slots, an abutment member comprising a collar encircling the inner end of said spring barrel and held against tilting by cooperation with said barrel, an abutment on the outer end of the spring barrel, a relatively large diameter coiled spring disposed outside said spring barrel with its convolutions encircling said barrel and abutting at opposite ends said abutment member and said abutment, a pair of diametrically opposite lugs carried by the inner side of said abutment member with one lug only extending radially beyond the outer periphery of the piston for engagement in a single guideway in the valve casing, and a diametrical pin passing through the guide slots in the spring barrel and engaged at opposite ends in said lugs to hold the abutment member against turning on the spring barrel.

2. In a valve action of the class described, in combination, a valve casing, a piston valve operable in said casing, a tubular spring barrel on the outer end of said valve and provided with a pair of diametrically opposite and longitudinally elongated guide slots, an abutment member comprising a collar encircling the inner end of said spring barrel and held against tilting by cooperation With said barrel, an abutment on the outer end of the spring barrel, a relatively large diameter coiled spring disposed outside said spring barrel with its convolutions encircling said barrel and abutting at opposite ends said abutment member and said abutment, a pair of diametrically opposite lugs carried by the inner end of said abutment member with one lug only extending radially beyond the outer periphery of the piston for engagement in a single guideway in the valve casing, a diametrical pin passing through the guide slots in the spring barrel and engaged at opposite ends in said lugs to hold the abutment member against turning on the spring barrel, and a substantially annular shoulder in the valve casing upon which said abutment member is adapted to have substantially complete annular seating engagement,

3. In a valve action of the class described, in

combination, a valve casing, a piston valve operable in said casing, a tubular spring barrel on the outer end 0f said Valve and provided with a pair of diainetrically opposite and longitudinally elongated guide slots, an abutment member comprising a collar encircling the inner end of said spring barrel and held against tilting by cooperation with said barrel, a pair of diametrically opposite lugs carried by the inner side of said abutment member with one lug only extending radially beyond the outer periphery of the valve casing, and a diametrical pin passing through the guide slots in the spring barrel and engaged at opposite ends in said lugs to hold the abutment member against turning on the spring barrel.

4. In a valve action of the class described, in combination, a valve casing, a piston valve operable in said casing, a tubular spring barrel on the outer end of said valve and provided with a pair of diametrically opposite and longitudinally elongated guide slots, an abutment member comprising a collar encircling the inner end of said spring barrel and held against tilting by cooperation With said barrel, a pair of diametrically opposite lugs carried by the inner side of said abutment member with one lug only extending radially beyond the outer periphery of the piston for engagement in a single guideway in the valve casing, a diametrical pin passing through the guide slots in theJ spring barrel and engaged at opposite ends in said lugs to hold the abutment member against turning on the spring barrel, and a substantially annular shoulder in the valve casing upon which said abutment member is adapted to have substantially complete annular seating engagement.

OSCAR E. SWINEHART.

US552106A 1944-08-31 1944-08-31 Valve action for cornets, trumpets, and like instruments Expired - Lifetime US2404818A (en)

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Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2511255A (en) * 1948-02-26 1950-06-13 Vinton R Springer Lubricating means for musical instruments
US2612811A (en) * 1948-06-09 1952-10-07 H N White Company Valve for wind instruments
US2929292A (en) * 1957-01-14 1960-03-22 Conn Ltd C G Top spring valve mechanism
US2988948A (en) * 1958-03-12 1961-06-20 Conn Ltd C G Musical instrument valve construction
US3044126A (en) * 1958-12-08 1962-07-17 John S Fisher Finger key valve for wind musical instruments and method of making the same
US20060191397A1 (en) * 2005-02-25 2006-08-31 Wei-Fu Lin Button of wind instrument
US20060219083A1 (en) * 2005-04-04 2006-10-05 Steven Wasser Musical instrument piston valve

Cited By (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2511255A (en) * 1948-02-26 1950-06-13 Vinton R Springer Lubricating means for musical instruments
US2612811A (en) * 1948-06-09 1952-10-07 H N White Company Valve for wind instruments
US2929292A (en) * 1957-01-14 1960-03-22 Conn Ltd C G Top spring valve mechanism
US2988948A (en) * 1958-03-12 1961-06-20 Conn Ltd C G Musical instrument valve construction
US3044126A (en) * 1958-12-08 1962-07-17 John S Fisher Finger key valve for wind musical instruments and method of making the same
US20060191397A1 (en) * 2005-02-25 2006-08-31 Wei-Fu Lin Button of wind instrument
US20060219083A1 (en) * 2005-04-04 2006-10-05 Steven Wasser Musical instrument piston valve
US7667117B2 (en) * 2005-04-04 2010-02-23 Verne Q. Powell Flutes, Inc. Musical instrument piston valve

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