US2388545A - Apparatus for spinning tubular articles - Google Patents

Apparatus for spinning tubular articles Download PDF

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US2388545A
US2388545A US347418A US34741840A US2388545A US 2388545 A US2388545 A US 2388545A US 347418 A US347418 A US 347418A US 34741840 A US34741840 A US 34741840A US 2388545 A US2388545 A US 2388545A
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valve
carriage
blank
tool
slide
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US347418A
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Gustave J Horak
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Arconic Inc
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Aluminium Company of America
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B21MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21DWORKING OR PROCESSING OF SHEET METAL OR METAL TUBES, RODS OR PROFILES WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21D22/00Shaping without cutting, by stamping, spinning, or deep-drawing
    • B21D22/14Spinning
    • B21D22/16Spinning over shaping mandrels or formers

Description

Nov. 6, 1945 G. J. HORAK APPARATUS FOR SPINNING TUBULAR ARTICLES Filed July 25, 1940 8 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTOR Gus/ave J hbrak M ATTORNEY Nov. 6, 1945. e, .1. HORAK APPARATUS FOR SPINNING TUBULAR ARTICLES Filed July 25, 1940 8 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR Gusfa ve J Horak ATTORN EY Nov. 6, 1945. cs. J. HORAK APPARATUS FOR SPINNING TUBULAR ARTICLES Filed July 25, 1940 8 Sheets$heet 3 INVENTOR mg m T 6m m m M a G. J. HORAK Nov. 6 1945.

APPARATUS FOR SPINNING TUBULAR ARTICLES Filed July 25, 1940 8 Sheets-Sheet 4 mm mm INVENTQR Gusfal/e I Horak Elma/a aewz/ ATTORNEY 1945- G. J. HORAK APPARATUS FOR SPINNING TUBULAR ARTICLES Filed July 25, 1940 8 Sheets-Sheet 5 Q W J @m w m m Nov. 6, 1945. ca. J. HORAK APPARATUS FOR SPINNING TUBULAR ARTICLES Filed July 25, 1940 8 Sheets-Sheet e lllllllll 1| Wm m J l fl om R r Y L mm A o 0 @TE 1 .g H 4 4 N 0 R a E O wa A W e w o .I. V A ||u|r f/ ryv, I G 8; mu 5 N #8 @Q 3 u fl m B8 on 9 #2 p G a 1| L Q8 w .w T- is 1 W mm a 3% m2 m9 E MM: l NQ W 0 0 0 o w w o 0 0 0 O 0 O 0 O O O O O O O \Mfiul 0 0 O 0 W 00 000 00 Mt o o o o o o o o M\ .n n m\ V A:

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Nov. 6, 1945. G. .1. HORAK APPARATUS FOR SPINNING TUBULAR ARTICLES Filed July 25, 1940 8 Sheets-Sheet 7 Q K m n 0 8 m N w M9 m m E O Q v n iL m e A m :1- B& N K9 9% mu Q9 Q9 6 km ma Jlv MR u \u\\\ n m gxlLn P k 3 m n 49 Nov. 6, 1945. G, J. HORAK 2,388,545

APPARATUS FOR SPINNING TUBULAR ARTICLES Filed July 25, 1940 8 Sheets-Sheet 8 m 5 INVENTOR H 5: 635love Jbbra/f ATTORNEY Patented Nov. 6, 1945 APPARATUS FOR SPINNING TUBULAR ARTICLES Gustave J. Horak, Penn Run, Pa., assignor to Aluminum Company of America, Pittsburgh, Pa., a corporation of Pennsylvania Application July 25, 1940, Serial No. 347,418

20 Claims.

This invention relates to metal working and more particularly to an improved apparatus for working and shaping tubular and cylindrical blanks to a predetermined configuration and contour by rolling or spinning, and is primarily concerned with the precision spinning of comparatively heavy gauge and thick walled blanks to a preselected contour.

The invention is applicable to the production of a large variety of contoured tubular or cylindrical articles, but it is especially concerned with the manufacture of spun articles having a contour requiring a relatively heavy reduction in the diameter of the original blank, such, for example, as is required in producing containers, metal bottles, shells, and the like having necks and mouth portions of small diameter relative to the diameter of the body portions thereof.

The principal object of the invention is the provision of an improved apparatus for spinning the peripheral wall of a blank to a desired pattern or shape with precision and accuracy, and the finished product reproduced with uniformity 9f shape and dimensional characteristics without the necessity of employing internal formers or supports.

Another object is to provide an automatic apparatus arranged to produce completely finished articles.

A further object is to provide a metal spinning apparatus applicable to produce, by a series of progressive and recurrent deformative and shaping passes in opposite directions, a relatively great total reduction in the diameter of a blank in accordance with a preselected pattern without materially changing the wall thickness of the blank.

Another object is to provide cam controlled metal working tools for operating upon blanks to reduce them to a shape determined by the cam contour and, in connection therewith, to provide means for translating cam contours into tool movement with precision and accuracy.

Still another object is to provide spinning tool controlling mechanism that is cam actuated under low cam follower pressure and capable of generating high tool working pressures without loss of precision and accuracy, whereby metals requiring high deformative pressures can be readily spun to desired shape.

A still further object is to provide spinning apparatus wherein the work is radially confined and acted upon by at least three spinning tools so arranged that the radial thrust of one tool against the work is counteracted by the other tools in combination with an automatic power means for simultaneously actuating the tools through equal and identical movements.

'Still other objects and purposes of the invention, including novel combinations and simplified and detailed features of the construction and arrangement, will become apparent as the detailed description proceeds, taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings illustrating a preferred embodiment of the invention, where- Fig. 1 is a side elevational view of a spinning machine;

Fig. 2 is a plan view thereof;

Fig. 3 is a longitudinal sectional elevational view of the driving spindle and work holding chuck, on an enlarged scale;

Fig. 4 is a view on an enlarged scale taken on the line IVIV of Fig. 2 and showing one of the g tool slides in section;

Fig. 5 is a vertical sectional view taken on the line V-V of Fig. 4;

Fig. 6 is a view taken on the line VIVI of Fi 5:

Fig. 7 is a view similar to Fig. 4 but with the cover plate and tool slides removed;

Fig. 7;

Fig. 9 is a view taken on the line IX-IX of Fig. '1;

Fig. 10 is an enlarged detail view of the cross slide and control valve taken on the line X--X of Fig. 9;

Fig. 11 is an end view of the indexing mechanism disposed at the upper side of the machine as viewed in Fig. 2;

Fig. 12 is a side elevational view thereof partially in section;

Fig. 13 is a view taken on the line XIIIXIII of Fig. 11;

Fig. 14 is a developed view of the centering and. locking drum of the indexing mechanism;

Fig. 15 is a view on an enlarged scale taken on the line XV-XV of Fig. 2;

Fig. 16 is a schematic view showing the series of cams of the pattern controlling device arranged in superimposed relation and illustrating the progressive contouring .of.the cams for controlling the spinning tool movements and imparting progressively the desired shape to the work;

Fig. 17 is a view taken on the line XVII-XVII of Fig. 2 showing the second carriage and its bead forming tool slides; a

Fig. 18 is a fragmentary sectional view taken The art of shaping metal by spinning has long been practiced by both hand and machine methods, but at present such methods have many limitations that render them unsuited for the commercial production, in large quantities, of many forms of products, especially those formed of comparatively heavy gauge material or a metal requiring high deformative pressures, and those wherein the configuration to be imparted to a blank requires that its wall be deeply necked in or constricted relative to the original diameter of the blank However, I have evolved an improved spinning method wherein heavy gauge material and relatively deep necking in of the wall of a blank can be performed, and the manufacture of containers and the like effected with precision and accuracy. For example, large capacity, narrow mouth containers used in the dairy industry for the handling of milk are required to be formed with a sealing mouth accurately dimensioned for the reception of a closure and also are required to be of uniform wall thickness in order to give adequate strength and durability, and, in general, to be of such form to meet stringent and rigid sanitary requirements. Heretofore, it has been the practice to manufacture such containers by joining separately formed bottom,

. body, and mouth pieces by soldering or welding,

the spinning of such containers not being practical because of the need for employing internal formers or mandrels and the inability to maintain substantially a uniform wall thickness.

In Fig. of the drawings, I show a one-piece container of substantially uniform wall thickness that I am enabled to produce by spinning from a cup-like blank of relatively heavy gauge aluminum alloy having a tubular body closed at one end, and such container reproduced in commercial quantities. The container comprises a body portion I of a desired diameter, a tapered or sloping shoulder portion 2, configured as desired, leading from the body I to a constricted neck portion 3, and terminating in a beaded mouth I. It is to be observed that the diameter of the neck opening is greatly reduced relative to the body of the container, thus requiring considerable displacement or deformation of the wall of the blank to produce this reduction. The finished container is produced entirely by spinning operations capable of being carried out by a wide variety and form of apparatus by either automatically or manually manipulated tools, but it is preferably carried out in an improved automatic machine hereinafter described in detail.

In accordance with the present apparatus for producing these containers, the shaping of the body of a blank is first carried out by a series of progressive correlated deformative operations to form the shoulder 2 and the neck 3, after which the reduced mouth is curled back and beaded, the necessary shaping and heading operations to form the completed container being carried out in sequence.

For the purpose of referring to apparatus suitable for carrying out the method, attention is directed to the mechanism disclosed in Figs. 1 and 2 of the drawings, which will now be referred to without detailed description of the structure shown therein. It will be observed that the structure is essentially a lathe provided with a motor driven chuck head 5 adapted to receive and grip a, blank 6 therein. Adjacent the chuck head, and movable longitudinally with respect to the blank, is a carriage 1; and a second carriage 8 is provided at the other end of the machine in lieu of the usual tailstock. Means are provided for effecting traverse of each carriage. The carriages l and 8 carry tool slides, each equipped with suitable spinning tools, and the slides and tools of the carriage I are movable at right angles to the normal movement of the carriage. The respective tool slides on each carriage are disposed in angular relation about the spinning axis, and, in addition to the radial slides on the carriage 8, it also is provided with a central slide coaxial with the axis of the chuck 5. The carriage l is longitudinally movable with relation to a templet that is adapted to be brought into working position with respect to a cross slide carried by the carriage 1. One edge of the templet is c'onfigured, and the cross slide cooperates therewith to impart unitary in and out movements to the tool slides and their tools during longitudinal travel of the carriage 'l in conformity with the pattern or contour of the templet. The cam contour is translated into tool movements by means of a cam follower and suitable operating connections connecting each of the tool slides with the cross slide. Preferably, three spinning tools in the form of rollers having a rounded periphery are provided on the carriage l, and these tools are inter-connected for unitary movement. The wall of the blank is adapted to be progressively brought into final desired configuration, and for this purpose a series of progressively contoured templets is p1 J vided and are successively brought into working position one-by-one after each forward or backward movement of the carriage, the contour depth of one cam being so correlated to the contour depth of its preceding cam that the shaping of the blank will be effected in progressive stages of substantially equal increments.

With a blank fixed in the chuck and rotating at proper spinning speed, the carriage I is caused to travel from its normal position adjacent the chuck 5 toward the opposite end of the blank. Normally the tools ID are out of engagement with the periphery of the blank, but at a predetermined point determined by the contour of the first cam or templet, the tools' will be moved inwardly simultaneously to engage the periphery of the blank and apply deformative pressure against the same. This pressure is gradually increased and, of course, is of sufficient intensity to indent or force the wall of the blank inwardly and gradually form a groove therein due to the rotary movement of the blank. Concurrently the radial tool movement positively controlled by the first templet during the longitudinal carriage movement will cause the metal to fiow inwardly and longitudinally in a spiral curve ahead of the spinning tools. The deformative pressure exerted by the tools I0 being applied preferably at equal angular points around the periphery of the blank effectively maintains the blank constantly in normal spinning position, thereby overcoming any tendency to displace the blank as a unit laterally of the chuck 5, thereby permitting the employment of high pressure when necessary. The length of stroke for the carriage I is sufficient to carry the tools It! beyond the unsupported end of the blank, and just before the tools reach the end of the blank the deformative pressure exerted thereby is gradually increased so as to cause the end of the blank to move inwardly along a curved line. At the end of this first pass, the wall of the blank is deformed substantially to the shape indicated by the outermost dotted lines in Fig. 1, the amount or depth of such deformation being positively controlled by the templet.

Another cam or templet is then brought into working position and a second or return pass initiated. During this return pass, the wall of the blank is further deformed, but, due to the fact that the carriage is being moved in a reverse direction, the metal is caused to flow in a direction opposite to the direction of flow during the first pass so that the metal is redistributed along the working zone, thereby restoring the wall to substantially its initial thickness. The deformative pressure is gradually lessened as the tool reaches the starting point so as to blend the contour evolved during the second pass into the contour generated by the first pass adjacent the starting point.

These primary shaping passes are repeated as often as are required until the required shape has been imparted to the blank, as indicated by the innermost dotted lines in Fig. 1, the number of passes required therefor and the amount of reduction effected at each pass being dependent upon and coordinated with the gauge and working characteristics of the metal and the total amount of reduction in diameter required to produce a given configuration or contour. The wall of the blank thus can be progressively reduced to the desired shape without liability of creasing or folding the metal ahead of the tools, while the reversals of the direction of the successive spinning passes under uniform tool pressure produce such shape without materially changing the wall thickness of the blank, although the metal will become more dense and somewhat work hardened. However, by varying the tool pressure along a preselected area during successive passes, the wall thickness at such area can be substantially increased or decreased at will, in addition to deforming the wall to the desired shape.- Such pressure control, of course, is effected by suitably contouring the successive templets at the proper points.

The speed of travel of the carriage I is reduced for the last working pass, and the pressure on the work is maintained constant throughout in order to impart dimensional accuracy to the shoulder and neck portions 2 and 3, and the surface of the metal substantially burnished to eradicate the tool markings occasioned by the prior heavy tool pressure passes, thus imparting a pleasing finished appearance to the blank.

It has been found desirable to increase the tool pressure at the outer end of the blank, as above described, during each forward or odd numbered pass so as to turn the open end of the blank inwardly along curved lines, which facilitates rapid as to remove any crazed or scratched surface metal that would be liable to cause cracking during the beading operations. The scalping operation preferably is eflected at the beginning of the shaping operations and can be manually carried out.

To form the exterior bead, suitable beading, pressing, and trimming tools are carried by the radial slides on the second carriage 8 and, in

addition, a curling tool H and a neck supporting plug l2 are carried by the central slide thereof.

' retracted to bring the plug l2 into position underreduction of the wall and re-engagement of the is to be curled or turned back to form an exterior bead is scalped by any suitable cutting tool so lying the curled portion and successively the curl closing or heading tool, the pressing tool and the trimming tool are actuated in proper order to complete the formation of the beaded mouth 4, the internal diameter of the mouth being perfected and remaining fixed due to the support afforded by the plug.

After removal of the spun container, the point of juncture between the bead and the exterior periphery of the neck may be completely sealed in any suitable manner, as by soldering, to prevent the entry of bacterior or other foreign matter under the bead, thus rendering the container suitable for use in the dairy industry.

The improved automatic apparatus incorporating the process just described will now be described in detail.

As best seen in Fig. l, the supporting frame work of the machine, which may be of any suitable form, is shown as consisting of a headstock housing [5 and a horizontally extended bed I 6 having guideways H, on which the tool carriages l and 8 are mounted for traveling movement.

In the upper end of the housing IS, a hollow spindle shaft I8 is rotatably supported in roller bearings l9 and 20, as shown more clearly in Fig. 3. A V-belt pulley2l is rotatably mounted on the shaft and is connected with a pulley 22 that is secured to the shaft of an adjustable speed motor 23 by means of a number of driving belts 24, the pulley 2| being adapted to be constantly driven thereby. A pairof friction clutches 25 and 26, preferably of the multiple disc type, are secured to the shaft I8 and each is provided with a ring element 21 connected to the housing I 5 and to the hub of the pulley'2l, respectively. Clutch 25 serves as a,brake, while clutch 26 serves to transmit power from the pulley 2| to the shaft. The clutches are arranged to be actuated selectively by a common shifting fork 28 having connection with a group of slide fingers 29 disposed in circumferential spaced relation (one such finger being shown in Fig. 3) that are adapted at their ends to actuate locking dogs 30 associated with the respective clutches. The shifting fork is connected through suitable linkage 3| with a handle lever 32. With the handle in the position shown in Fig. 1, the brake clutch 25 is engaged and the shaft is held against rotation, while the pulley clutch 26 is disengaged and the pulley is running free on the shaft.

The work holder or chuck 5 is detachably secured to the forward end of the shaft l8 by means of a clamp collar 33-. By loosening the collar 33, the chuck can be readily removed and another chuck of a different size substituted when it is desired to work upon blanks of diameters exceedingthe adjustable limits of a given chuck. The blank 6 is inserted into the open face of the chuck and centered and firmly held in spinning position therein, the chuck necessarily being adapted to grip the blank with suflicient force to resist longitudinal movement of the blank under the drag or pull of the spinning tools.

While any suitable chuck may be employed, I prefer to use a hydraulically operated chuck having radially movable clamps 34 that are toggle actuated into and out of clamping position by a longitudinally shiftable operating rod 35 that extends axially through the hollow shaft l8. The rear end of the rodis secured to a piston 36 operating in a rotary cylinder 31 secured to the shaft I6. The cylinder is provided with a tapered plug seated on ground surfaces in a fluid distributor chamber 36 that is provided with axially spaced annular fluid passages cooperating with ports in the plug leading through separate ducts to the opposite ends of the cylinder, as shown in Fig. 3. A spool type reversing valve 39 is incorporated in the distributor block 36 to control flow and exhaust to and from opposite sides of the piston 36 alternately, thereby to actuate or release the chuck. The valve 39 is actuated by a conveniently located lever 40 which is connected through suitable connecting linkage to the stem of the valve.

The first tool carriage 1 comprises a base portion 4| and an upstanding frame or casing 42 encircling the chuck 5, the casing preferably being of channel form in cross section and closed by a cover plate 43. The central portion of the easing and plate is provided with a large diameter bore therethrough arranged coaxially of the blank 6 and the chuck 5. A'power cylinder 44 (Fig. 1) is supported within the headstock housing Is in parallelism with and below the shaft l8, and contains a piston operating therein which is secured to a piston rod 45. The piston rod 45 is secured to the carriage I, as shown in Figs. 1 and 8. Upon admitting fluid pressure to the head end of the power cylinder by operation of a starting valve 46, the carriage is moved forwardly along the ways l1 until a member or dog 41 on the base of the carriage actuates a reversing valve 48 secured to the bed IE to cause reverse travel of the carriage. A second dog 49 is provided on the carriage to actuate the valve 48 at the end of the return stroke of the carriage, the automatic control of the carriage being hereinafter more fully described. The dogs 4l49 are secured to plates 50 that are longitudinally adjustable on the carriage base so that by adjusting the plates 50 relative to each other the length of travel of the carriage can be controlled, as required. Also secured to each plate 50 is a cam block for depressing a control valve 52 against the pressure of a self-contained spring each time the reversing valve 48 is actuated, for a purpose to be hereinafter described.

The spinning tools In and their actuating mechanism are carried by the carriage 1 and a plurality of such tools arranged in equal angular relation are employed, as shown in Fig. 4. The tools and their slides are identical and each comprises a supporting bracket 54 secured to the plate 43 and provided with slideways, in which a tool slide 55 is mounted. The outer face of the slide is recessed throughout its length to form lateral guides for an adjusting plate 56. An'adjusting screw 51 has threaded engagement with the outer end of the plate 56 and is journalled in a fixed post or block 58 on the outer end of the slide 55. Rotation of the screw by means of a crank 59, or other suitable tool, effects longitudinal adjustment of the plate relative to the slide. The plate 56 carries a tool holder 60, which is bifurcated at its inner end, in which a spinning roller I0 is journalled. Clamping bolts 6| having their heads disposed in a longitudinal recess in the underside of the slide, extend outwardly through elongated slots in the slide and through the plate 56, the innermost bolt also extending through the tool holder 60. The clamping nuts on these bolts, of course, are loosened when it is desired to effect adjustment of the plate 56 on the slide 55. In addition to the innermost bolt 6|, the holder 60 is secured to the plate 56 by a stud bolt 62 extending through an arcuate slot in the holder, the said innermost bolt serving as a pivot about which the holder may be turned to position the roller ID at any desired angular position with respect to the longitudinal axis of the blank 6.

It is apparent that radial adjustment of the tools In in accordance with the diameter of the blank is effected by shifting the plates 56 relative to the slides 55 by means of the screws 51 without disturbing the angular adjustment of the tools, and it is unnecessary to change such radial adjustment until it is desired to operate upon blanks of different diameters. The slides 55, of course. are not disturbed by such preliminary adjustment of the tools.

Each slide 55 is provided with a rigidly attached or integral rack bar 64 which is meshed with a gear 65 secured to a suitable shaft 66 that is journalled in the rear wall of the casing 42 and in a bearing bracket 61 disposed within the casing (Figs. 7 and 8). A sprocket wheel 68 is secured to the shaft 66 around which a driving chain 69 extends, the chain when engaged around each of the sprocket wheels forming a triangular loop within the casing 42, as best seen in Fig. 7. The ends of the chain are affixed to attaching blocks 10 and 'II that are secured to a cross slide 12. The block 10 is adjustabl mounted so that the chain may be tightened and all slack removed therefrom, whereupon movement of a cross slide in either direction will be instantl transmitted through the chain to rotate the sprockets in unison and to the same degree. Such rotary movement is imparted through the gears 65 to the rack bars and the tool slides caused to reciprocate,

' thereby moving the spinning tools radially in and out relative to the axis of the blank. It is preferred to use chains of small pitch so that a greater number of sprocket teeth will be engaged by the chain and backlash or looseness eliminated. In this case, the chains preferably are doubled and double sprockets are used so as to permit transmission of suflicient power without overstrain and excessive wear, although a greater number of parallel sprockets and chains can be employed if necessary.

The cross slide 12 is mounted in a slideway 13 in the base 4| of the carriage and is arranged to be reciprocated by a double acting power piston 14 working in a relatively large hydraulic cylinder l5 rigidly secured to the carriage. The piston is normally centrally located in the cylinder so that it is adapted to be moved in either direction. Connected to the piston 14 is a, piston rod 16 and a stem 11, each of equal diameter or area and extending oppositely from the piston through suitable packing glands in the ends of the cylinder. The piston rod is connected to an upright angu- 2,888,546 lar post portion 18 on the cross slide "I2 to whichpost the chain attaching block II is secured. The piston rod is provided with a reduced end extending through the post and the adjustable chain block 18, the end of the rod being threaded for the reception of a clamping nut 18 and a lockins nut 80 (Fig. 9). The block I8 also is secured to the back leg of the angular post I8 by suitable bolts, as best seenin Fig. 9. By this construction the nuts I8 and 88 can be adjusted to move the block I8 toward the block II, thereby drawing the chain 58 taut and serving to prevent slippage of the block under the pulling forces transmitted therethrough.

Flow of fluid to the opposite ends of the cylinder 15 is controlled by a valve having a valve body 8I mounted on the cross slide I2 for move-' ment therewith (Fig. 10). The valve body is bored for the reception of an axially shiftable control member or valve spool 82 that extends through the ends of the valve body. Along the bore in the valve body ill a series of five annular ports are formed, the outer or end ports 83 being connected through a passage 84 and constituting exhaust ports, the central port 85 forming a high pressure inlet, and the two intermediate ports constituting outlet ports 88 and 81, respectively. The outlet ports are connected through conduits 88 and 88 (Fig. 7) with the inner or rod end of the cylinder 15 and with'the outer or stem end thereof, respectively.

The spool 82 is formed with a pair. of cut-oil. portions 88 that are arranged to control the outlet ports 88 and 81 simultaneously, the width of the portions 88 being just sufiiclent to cut oil flow through the outlet ports. At either side of the portions 88 the spool is of reduced diameter. Thus, with the spool in neutral cut-oil or closed position, the reduced portions thereof will be disposed opposite the ports 83 and 85, while the portions 88 will be in position to just close oil the outlet ports from communication with the pressure and exhaust ports.

It will be apparent that the valve is in complete hydraulic balance, and so long as the valve spool remains stationary in its neutral position relative to the valve body, no liquid will flow through the outlet ports to the cylinder 15. The conduits 88 and 88 and the cylinder 15 are constantly maintained filled with liquid which is entrapped therein in the neutral'position of the valve. Any leakage past the low pressure side of the cut-01f portions 88 to exhaust ports 83 is replaced by flow of equal amounts of liquid past the high pressure side of the portions 88. However, upon shifting of the valve spool to the right, for example, (Fig. 10) the ports 88 and 81 will be opened to exhaust and pressure, respectively, so that fluid under pressure will flow through the port 81, through the conduit 88, to the outer end of the cylinder 15. Simultaneously fluid will be exhausted from the inner end of the cylinder through conduit 88 and port 88 to exhaust port 83. Consequently, the power piston will move to th right, thereby moving the slide I2 and the valve body 8| until the ports 86 and 81 again register with the cut-offs 88, whereupon flow ceases and piston travel stops by entrapment of liquid in the cylinder and connecting conduits. Obviously, shifting the valve spool to the left will effect the same cycle of movements but in the opposite direction. Such cross slide movements are imparted to the driving chain 68, and the tool slides are reciprocated thereby through the connections heretofore described.

For shifting the valve spool 82 manually, its inner end is connected to one leg of an angle arm 8| whose otherleg is adiustably clamped to a rod 82 that is slidably supported in extensions of the bars II and II. At its other end the rod is provided with a head 83 slidably disposed in a hollow sleeve 88 that extends through a boss handwheel or crank 88, by-means of which it may be rotated. With the head 83 of the rod in engagement with the end wall of the sleeve 84.

. the valve spool'82 is restrained thereby against outward movement under the influence of a loading spring 81 interposed between the end wall of a cap 88 on the inner end of the valve body 8| and a shoulder 88 on the valve spool. Movement of the valve body under the spring pressure is prevented by the liquid trapped in the cylinder I5, the spring serving to prevent valve chatter at the point of cut-oil. The crank may be utilized to screw the sleeve in or out of the boss '85 and through the rod 82 to shift the valve spool, thus manually controlling the operation of the spinning tool I8. The sleeve is screwed inwardly to its innermost position when the valve is to be cam controlled so as to allow the rod to slide freely relative to the sleeve.

The outer end of the spool 82 abuts an aligned push rod or plunger I88 that is slidably supported in a bracket I8I secured to the valve body 8|. A light spring I82 interposed between the bracket IM and a stop or washer on the plunger I88 serves to maintain abutting engagement between the spool and the plunger at all times. A cam follower or roller I83 is carried by the plunger I88 and is held in contact with the configured edge of one of the cams or templets of a rotary pattern controlling device I84 by the action of the valve spring 81.

The pattern device I8! is carried by a shaft I85 that is supported at its ends in brackets I86 and I8! in parallelism with the spinning axis of the blank and laterally in fixed spaced relation thereto (Fig. 2). The valve spool 82 and the shaft I85 are disposed with their axes in a common horizontal plane and in right angle relation so" that during travel of the carriage 'I the roller I 83 will ride on the interposed horizontal templet of the pattern device.

The pattern device I84 comprises a series of elongated templets I88 radially disposed edgewise about a common axis and secured at their ends in radial slots formed in the inner faces of circular end blocks or plates I88 and H8. The templets are equally spaced and are adapted to be brought into interposed operative position oneby-one by a step-by-step movement of equal increments imparted to the shaft I85 by the operation of suitable indexing mechanism to which the shaft is operatively connected at one end. During indexing movement, the carriage I will be stationary and the roller I83 will be positioned against the periphery of either of the end plates I 88 or H8. All of the templets of one set are brought successively into working position during one full revolution of the shaft.

The outer edges of the templets, which all together constitute a cooperative series or set, are contoured or configured in accordance with a predetermined pattern or shape which it is desired to impart to the blank, but on successive templets of a set the depth of such desired pattern is progressively increased, as diagrammatically illustrated in Fig. 16, so that there will be effected a progressive deformation of the wall of the blank into final desired shape by a series of working passes. The number of templets required to make up a given set depends somewhat upon the working characteristics of the I metal of the blank, the ratio or amount of deformation required to produce a given shape without collapsing or creasing the wall, the compressive resistance of the material, etc., all of which factors are determinative. Also, the contouring of the successive .cams will be coordinated with respect to the shape to be produced, since, if the shape desired-in outline has shallow and deep portions, the shallow portions thereof can be completely formed during early working passes and subsequent working passes utilized to complete the formation of the 'deep portions.

The templets may bemade of any suitable material and can be either a fibrous or metallic material because they are subject only to a very w working pressure. It will be seen that the cam follower pressure is that exerted by the spring 81 and tool moving pressures are generated hydraulically. Thus, the cams and the cam follower are not subject to excessive wear,

nor is there a possiblility of the templets being deflected laterally, since very low cam follower pressures are employed. Consequently, the cam contours are hydraulically translated into corresponding tool movments very accurately and undesirable variations in such translation are eliminated.

Referring to Figs. 11 to 14, inclusive, the indexing mechanism comprises a jack shaft II2 journalled in suitable spaced bearings on the bracket I01 and has an enlarged end II3 formed with a socket therein for the reception of the end of the shaft I05. Driving connection between the two shafts may be established in any suitable manner, as by means of a spline or key, or the socket and end of the shaft I05 may be of non-circular cross section. A drum H4 is secured to the enlarged end of the shaft II2,'and encircling the drum is a split brake band II5 carried by a pivoted arm H6. The band I I5 carries friction elements or shoes that are pressed against the periphery of the drum under adjustable tension by a spring II1 mounted on an arm carried by ears on the split ends of the band.

The friction device is provided to subject the jack shaft to sufllcient resistance to prevent free turning and overrunning when the shaft is indexed.

A clutch of the one-way roller type is mounted on the shaft II2, the driving element II8 thereof being adapted to impart rotary movement in one direction only to the driven element II9 thereof, the latter element being fixed to the shaft. Secured to a hub portion I of the clutch element H8 is a gear I2I that meshes with a segmental gear I22 that is secured to a rock shaft I23. The rock shaft is supported in suitable bearings on the bracket I01 and carries a depending arm I24 whose lower end is slotted and engages opposite sides of a pin I25.

The pin I25 is carried by a cross head I26 which is slidably supported in guideways I21 formed in the side wall of the bracket I01. At one end the cross head I26 is provided with a tongue I28 having a slightly elongated slot I28 therein through which extends a pin I30 carried by spaced arms of a clevis I3I, the tongue I28 lying between the arms of the clevis. The clevis is secured to a piston rod I32 which is connected to a piston working in a cylinder I33 for effecting reciprocation of the cross head and oscillation of the gear segment I22, the shaft II2 being advanced one step by outward movement of the cross head.

The guideway I21 for the cross head I26 is provided with a cover plate I34 on which is mounted guides I36, slidably supporting a cam bar I36 for movement perpendicular to the movement of the cross head. The cam bar carries on its inner face an inclined double faced cam lug I31 normally positioned in the path of movement of an extended portion of the pin I30. The plate I34 is cut away sufficiently to accommodate the respective movements of the cam lug I31 and the extension of the pin I30.

It will be seen that when the piston of the indexing cylinder moves outwardly, the clevis I3I and the pin I30 will be advanced without moving the cross head due to the lost motion provided by the elongated slot I28. During this free movement, the pin I30 engages the inclined underside of the cam lug I31 and forces the bar I36 upwardly and raises an arm I38 that is secured at one end to a shaft I39 journalled on the bracket I01, the arm I38 being yieldably urged downwardly by a spring I40. The rocking movement thus imparted to the shaft I88 swings an arm I4I that is slidably clamped thereon outwardly and withdraws a tapered centering and locking pin I42 carried on its outer end out of one of an annular series of equally spaced holes in the periphery'of a selector drum I43 that is secured to the shaft. Initial release of the drum and the shaft H2 is thus effected as the pin I30 slides under the cam lug I 31 and engages the end wall of the slot I29, after which the cross head I26 is moved outwardly and through the pin I25 and arm I24 turns the shaft I23, thereby moving the gear sector I22 and driving the gear I2I in a clockwise direction, as viewed in Fig. 11. The one-way clutch is arranged to transmit power from the driving element 8 to the driven element I I9 when rotated clockwise, and thus the shaft H2 and all the elements connected thereto are indexed one step.

As the pin I30 moves past the cam lug I31, the spring I40 moves the arms I38 and MI in the reverse direction, so that the locking pin I42 bears against the drum I43 for movement into the next hole of the series at the end of the indexing stroke. -To terminate the indexing movement, a nose I44 is provided on the outer end of the cross head I26 to engage one of the stepped portions I45 (Fig. 13) of a transverse abutment member I46 that is slidably supported adjacent its ends in suitable guides formed in the bracket I01. The depth of the steps I45 is graduated relative to each other so that by shifting the member I46 longitudinally to position a given step opposite the nose I44 the length of forward travel of the cross head is controlled, the selection of the proper step giving a length of travel sufllcient to move the shaft II2 through an angular distance equal to the spacing between the holes in the drum I43 of one annular series thereof. Of course, the number of holes provided in the annular series corresponds to the number of templets I 08 provided in the pattern controlling device I04, whereupon at each indexing operation the succeeding templetwill be brought into working position and centered in alignment with the path of travel of the valve roller I03 by entry of the pin I42 into the next hole in the drum. The walls of the holes preferably are tapered to facilitate entry of the pin and centering 0f the templets thereby.

Indexing operations are effected at the end of I turns idly with respect to the shaft 2 and the pin I engages the upper side of the cam lug I01, thereby camming the bar I06 downwardly against the tension of a spring I41, which spring snaps the bar into engagement with the arm I36 after passag .of the pin I60. The locking pin I42, theref is not disturbed during such restoration of the,)indexing mechanism. A lug I40 on one side of the sector I22 engages a boss on the bracket I01 and arrests retractive movement of the various parts in completely retracted position, the frictional device II4-II5 assuring that the lost motion between the clevis I2I and the cross head I26 is taken .up preparatory to the next indexing operation.

The selector drum I43 is provided with a number of sets of an annular series of holes spaced apart axially of the drum, as shown in Figs. 12 and 14. The number of holes in each set and, therefore, their angular spacing are preselected, and it is preferred to use an even number of holes in each set so that the carriage 1 can be reciprocated through a spinningcycle and the cycle initiated and terminated from the same point, preferably with the carriage in its retracted position. Of course, when apattem device having a greater or lesser number of templet's than the one shown is employed, the arm I will be shifted along the rock shaft I23 to register the pin I42 thereof with the set of holes in the drum having a number of holes that corresponds with the number of templets of the substituted pattern device.

In order to chan e the length of stroke of the cross head automatically into conformity with the requirements of the hole-spacing of the selected annular set, the arm I 4I is provided with a depending iinger I50 engaged in a kerf or slot in the upper side of the member I46, and shifting of the arm "I results also in shifting the abutment I46. The axial spacing between the sets of holes in the drum I43 is the same as the width or spacing of the stepped portions I45 of the abutment I46, whereupon; regardless of which set of holes is selected and the arm I moved into registry therewith, the member I46 also will be moved to position the proper step I45 opposite the nose I44 of the cross head I26. For each set of holes having a given spacing the depth of the stepped portion therefor .will allow sufllcient cross head travel as to effect the required angular movement of the drum I43.

As shown, the drum is provided with six sets of holes, but, of course, the indexing mechanism can be designed to provide for any desired number of sets of holes as desired. Also, the number of holes in each set progressively increases by two, beginning at the right side of the drum. Consequently, the depth of the abutment member increases in steps from its outer end inwardly so that maximum cross head movement is permitted when the selector arm I is in registry with the right-hand set of holes.

As beforestated, the shaft I05 has driving connection with the socket of the jack shaft, which connection is established merely by inserting the shaft I05 endwise into the socket. At its other end, the shaft I05 slidably extends through its bearing in the bracket I06, which construction facilitates withdrawal of the shaft I05 for removal and replacement of the pattern controlling flanges formed on supporting 7' device I04 as desired. The pattern device is fixed in operative position against axial movement by suitable stop collars I52, and it has driving connection with the shaft, as by means of a suitable ,key or the like.

- Control cams I50, I54, and I55 are carried by the shaft I05 (Fig. 2), cams I50 and I54 being adapted to actuate directly control valves I50 and I51, respectively, for controlling certain operations, as hereinafter described. Each of the cams is angularly adjustable relative to the shaft, for which purpose they may be secured by bolts I50 (Fig. .15) extending through circumferentially elongated slots in the cam discs and through members I56 that are secured to the shaft I05. The cams I54 and I are disposed on opposite sides of the shaft bearing on the bracket I06 so as to secure the shaft I05 against endwise movement (Fig. 2).

As best seen in Figs. 1, 2,-and 7, a lever I60 is pivoted at I6I on the bracket I06 and carries a roller I62 at its upper end which is urged toward the periphery of the cam I55 by a spring I60 connected to the lever below the pivot I6I, a stop bar I64 serving to limit movement of the lever in one direction. The lower end of the lever I60 is connected by a link I65 to an arm I66 that is secured to a rod I61 supported along the side of the bed I6, and which carries another arm I66 to the lower end of which is connected one end of a telescoping pull rod that extends across the bed I6. The pull rod comprises a tube section I 66 and a headed rod section I10 which is slidable in the tube, a spring "I interposed between the head ofthe rod and the opposite end wall of the tube normally maintaining the parts in contracted position.

The outer end of the rod I10 is connected to an arm I12 clamped to the stem of a metering valve I14. The valve I14 is of a well known type and is connected in the hydraulic circuit of the power cylinder 44 to control the rate of flow of fluid therethrough. The valve is initially adjusted, as by means of a handle I15 on the valve stem, to such a rate of flow as to effect a predetermined fast rate of travel for the carriage 1. After adlusting the valve to the desired open position, the clamp for the arm I12 is tightened and thereafter the valve is moved toward its closed position under control of the cam I55. The throw of the lever I 60 transmitted through the pull rod is suflicient to effect complete closure of the valve. However, a thumb screw I16 is adjustably disposed in the path of the handle I15 to stop closing movement and the flow through the valve so limited as to impart a predetermined slow speed to the carriage. It is apparent that when the screw is set to limit closure of the valve and is engaged by the handle I15, the spring I 'II will be compressed and the tube I69 and rod I10 merely extended to accommodate for the full throw of the lever I60. After the slow speed traverse of the carriage 1, the lobe of the cam I55 is indexed past the roller I62 and the valve I14 is moved to its initial open position by the springs I63 and HI.

Referring now to Figs. 1, 2, and 17 showing the second carriage 6 hereinabove referred to, it is disposed at the rear end of the bed I6 and is movable toward the open end of the blank 6 -by a piston connected thereto and working in a cylinder I80. The cylinder I60 is mounted on a centrally disposed slide plate I6I supported on slideways at the top of the bed I6. Secured to the underside of the plate I6I is a nut member I62 having screw threaded engagement with a screw shaft I83 that is journalled at its ends in fixed bearings I84. The 'screw carries a handwheel I85 by means of which it may be rotated to move the slide plate I 8|, its cylinder I88, and the carriage 8 as a unit along the bed I6. The cylinder I88 and its piston are provided to advance the carriage 8 into operative position adjacent the open end of the blank 6 by movement of the piston from the rear end of the cylinder to the other end thereof, the beading tools disposed at the front face of the carriage thereby being properly located with respect to the open end of the blank. Initial adjustment of the carriage to accommodate blanks of a given length is effected by manual operation of the handwheel I85, and this adjustment need not be changed until blanks of a different length are to be operated upon.

The coaxial slide on the carriage 8 comprises a non-rotatable slide bar I86 having the plug I2 rotatably mounted thereon in position to enter the neck opening. The plug I2 is provided with a beveled leading edge to facilitate entry thereof, the diameter of the plug corresponding to the inside diameter of the neck 3. The other end of the bar I86 is connected to a piston working in the cylinder I81 by means of which the bar is reciprocated relative to the carriage. Behind the plug, two diametrically opposed curling rolls I I are disposed to engage the edge of the neck wall, the periphery of the rolls being suitably shaped to curl the neck wall outwardly and backwardly during forward movement of the slide I86. Each roller is journalled in a block I88 that is supported for radial adjustment on a guide plate I89 secured to an annular flange I98 integral with the bar I86. After curling the neck wall, the slide I86 is retracted by the piston in the cylinder I81, in which retracted position the flange I98 abuts the face of the carriage 8 and the plug I2 will be in substantially the neck supporting position shown in Fig. 18. The curling rolls II and their supports will not, therefore, interfere with the subsequent operation of the radial beading tools that are carried by radial tool slides on the face of the carriage.

The tool slides are substantially similar to the tool slides on the carriage 1, but their supporting brackets I8I are U-shaped to overlie operating cylinders I92 supported in suitable recesses in the face of the upright portion of the carriage, as shown more clearly in Figs. 18 and 19. The piston in each cylinder I92 is connected to a depending lug I93 0n the underside of the slide I94 on which slide a bracket I95 is adjustably mounted. A tool holder I98 is secured to the bracket I95 by means of clamping bolts extending through elongated slots in an upstanding portion of the bracket, by which means a tool I91 journalled in the inner end of the holder can be adjusted to desired perpendicular or angular position with respect to the longitudinal axis of the blank. One of the slides I94 carries a suitable knife I98 for trimming the beaded edge of the blank, and the other slides carry suitable bead closing and pressing rollers, respectively. A stop block I99 is provided to limit the inward movement of the knife slide, the other slides being moved the full length of the piston stroke. I

Each slide I94 carries a cam bar 288 for actuating a valve 28I associated therewith for initiating the operation of the slide successivethereto. Preferably the tools are so arranged around the periphery of the blank that the beading and trimming operations are performed sequentially by operation of substantially diametrically opposite tools so as to eliminate any possibility of interference with each other. A valve 282 (Fig. 2) is associated with the central slide I86, and this valve is arranged .to be actuated during retraction of the slide by a cam 283 pivotally mounted on a plate 284 that is secured to the bar I88, the cam being spring biased against a stop 285 on the plate 284. During advance of the slide I86 the cam 283 is turned away from the stop 285 until it can be snapped past the valve stem by the biasing spring, but during retractive movement, the stop 285 prevents such turning and the cam, therefore, depresses the valve to initiate the next bead forming operation.

While the two carriages 1 and 8 and the indexing mechanism may be actuated by any suitable means and their movements correlated with respect to each other by hand control or suitable mechanical control mechanism, I prefer to employ a hydraulic control system therefor in the interest of simplicity and economy of operation. The operation of the machine in a manner to carry out the process as heretofore described for producing completely spun receptacles or containers of substantially uniform wall thickness will now be described in conjunction with the hydraulic control system, as shown diagrammatically in Fig. 21. The system is arranged to effect automatic operation of the first carriage I and its tools to spin the body of the blank to the desired shape by repeated working passes effected in opposite directions, the indexing mechanism being indexed one step at the end of each traverse of the carriage. Thereafter the beaded mouth is formed by the automatic sequential operation of the beading tools of the second carriage.

Referring now to Fig. 21, high pressure operating fluid, preferably oil or other inelastic fluid,

is supplied from a suitable source to a pressure conduit 286 which is connected to the inlet ports of the various control valves. A common discharge or exhaust conduit 281 is connected to the exhaust ports of such valves for returning liquid to a suitable tank or sump for reuse. A separate source of high pressure fluid is supplied to a conduit 288 that is connected to the inlet port of a transfer valve 289 for supplying operating fluid of constant pressure to the inlet port of the cross slide valve 8I-82. It is essential to provide this separate source of fluid for actuating the piston 14 in the cylinder 15 in order that movement of the cross slide 12 and the tools I8 will not be affected by fluctuations in fluid pressure. The valve 289 is a manually operated four-way spool valve, and normally its spool is in its left-hand position with the inlet port open to an outlet port 2I8 and with its exhaust port open to an outlet port 2I I. The port 2I8 is connected to the inlet port 85 and also to the rod end of the cylinder I88. The outlet 2 is connected to the head end of the cylinder I88. Thus, fluid pressure is supplied to the valve 8I-82 for actuating the cross slide 12 and also for maintaining the carriage 8 in its retracted position during operation of the carriage 1.

For the purpose of controlling the advancing speed of the carriage 1 and maintainin it in retracted position, fluid pressure is applied constantly to the rod end of the power cylinder 44. This pressure is supplied from the conduit 286 through the metering valve I14 whose outlet 2I2 is connected directly to the rod end of the cylinder 44. The outlet 2I2 is also connected to one of the spool controlled pressure ports 2I3 of the cam actuated valve I86, the other pressure port being connected to the inlet port of a hydraulically actuated four-way spool valve 2. The valve I56 also is provided with a pair of exhaust ports 2I6 that are connected to the conduit 201 and the exhaust port of the valve 2, respectively. The valve I56 is provided with a spring for moving the spool 2I6 into its extended position, the spool being held in .depressed position by the cam I53, as shown during forward travel of the carriage I. In this position of the spool the pres- I .sure ports 2I3 are open but the exhaust ports 2I5 are blocked. Fluid pressure is thus supplied from the conduit 206 through the metering valve I14, through the pressure ports 2I3 of the valve I56, to the inlet port of the valve 2I4, but the spool thereof is in its position blocking flow from the inlet port to outlet port 2|! which is now open to the exhaust port. The outlet port 2|! is connected to the head or rear end of the power cylinder 44,

Actuation of the valve 2 is controlled by the four-way reversing valve 48 whose outlets F and R are connected to the opposite ends of the valve 2 I4 to shift the spool alternately in opposite directions. In the retracted position of the carriage 1 the outlet port R is open to the exhaust port, while the outlet F is open to the inlet port which is connected to the outlet port 2I8 of the starting valve 46. Valve 46 also is of the four-way spool type whose spool is manually shifted in one direction into its starting position and hydraulically shifted in the other direction into its ofi position.

With the carriages I and 8 retracted (Fig. 1), a cup-like blank is inserted into the stationary chuck head'5 and the leve 40 depressed to actuate the valve 38, whereupon the fluid pressure connections leading to opposite ends of the rotary cylinder 31 are reversed and the piston 36 moved therein to shift the rod 35 and actuate the centering and clamping members in the chuck head into gripping engagement with the blank adjacent its bottom wall. The lever 32 is then moved to its running position whereby the clutch 25 is disengaged and the clutch 26 engaged and the blank rotated, the spinning speed of the blank being regulated as desired by adjustment of the motor 23. It will be seen that the cross slide roller I03 engages the periphery of the end plate IIO of the pattern controlling device I04, and the spinning rollers I are thereby held out of engagement with the side wall of theblank. Also, the first templet I08 is in interposed working position for movement of the roller I03 along its contoured edge.

The starting valve 46 is then manually actuated to shift its spool to the left to initiate the automatic cycle of operation for spinning the body of the blank to the desired shape. Shifting of the valve spool results in supplying operating pressure from the conduit 206 to the inlet port of the reversing valve 48 and thence through the port F to the right hand end of the pilot valve 2, whereupon the spool thereof is shifted to the left to block the exhaust port and to establish communication between the inlet port and the outlet 2H. Fluid pressure is thus admitted to the head end of the cylinder 44 behind the piston therein in opposition to the pressure constantly applied at the rod end of the cylinder. Due to the presence of the piston rod 45, the area of the piston at the head side is greater than its area at the rod side, and, therefore, the carriage moves forwardly 'with respect to the longitudinally fixed blank 6 and the pattern controlling device l04. However. the area of the piston rod is so selected as to provide a 2 to 1 ratio in piston areas, whereupon it will be apparent that advancing and retracting movements of the carriage. will be effected at the same rate by reason of themanner of admitting fluid to the I opposite ends of the cylinder.

, Obviously, during movement of the carriage I longitudinally of the blank 6 and the pattern device I04 with the roller I03 riding on the contoured edge of the first templet I08, the valve spool 82 will be shifted axially in and out relative to the valve body 8I in accordance with the elevations and depressions present on the templet. As heretofore described, whenever the valve spool 82 is shifted relative to the valve body 8|, the flow of fiuid pressure to and from opposite ends of the cylinder 15 is controlled at the ports 86 and 81, the piston I4, the cross slide I2, and the valve body 8| moving as a unit in the direction of movement of the spool 82. In other words, the valve body is caused to follow substantially instantaneously the movements of the valve spool in an endeavor to bring the ports 86 and 81 into registry with the cut-off portions 90 of the spool.

The movements of the cross slide are transmitted through the chains 69 to the sprockets 68 and their shafts 66, and such movements are imparted through the gears 65 and rack bars 64 to reciprocate the tool slides and their tools I0 simultaneously, the extent of movement of the cross slide and the tools I0 being substantially equal. In this manner the contour of the cam is translated into too] movements with precision and accuracy and at any desired operating pressure independently of the pressure exerted against the templet. Thus, very light templets of any suitable material may be employed without introducing a characteristic which might tend 40 to impair the accuracy of the tool movements.

Referring to Fig. 16, as the carriage 1 travels between the points indicated by the letter X, the roller I03 passes off the end plate IIO onto the contoured edge of the templet I08 which is gradually sloped inwardly. As the roller moves along the sloping portion of the templet, the spring 91 causes the valve spool 82 to shift outwardly relative to the body 8|, and this movement is transmitted to the spinning tools I0 by movement of the cross slide. The tools I0, therefore, are brought into engagement withvthe outer surface of the wall of the blank at the desired point hehind the open end of the blank. As the carriage moves between the points indicated by the letter Y, further movement of the roller I03 is efiected and, consequently, commensurate movement is hydraulically imparted to the spinning tools I0. The wall of the blank is rolled inwardly under the hydraulically applied tools pressure and displaced longitudinally in a spiral direction. The amount of bite or reduction in diameter taken during the first working pass, and also during subsequent working passes, is coordinated with the working characteristics of the metal and preferably is such as not to cause creasing o folding of the annular wall at points ahead of the spinning tools. As the tools approach the outer end of the blank, the contour of the templet is such that the tools are forced inwardly to cause the end of the blank to be turned inwardly along an arcuate line. Thereafter, the carriage ismoved between the pointsindicated by the letter Z to carry the tools beyond the end of the blank and move the roller I03 onto the periphery of theend plate I08. In order to facilitate indexing operations wherein the end plate I09 is rotated relative to the roller I03, the diameter of the plate I09 is made equal to a mean diameter that is equal to approximately one-half the difference between the maximum and minimum diameters of the blank between its unreduced body portion and the reduced neck portion 3 thereof.

Forward movement of the carriage is terminated when the dog 41 actuates the valve 48 to its other position to open the inlet and exhaust ports thereof to the ports R and F, respectively. Thus, fluid pressure is admitted to the left-hand end of the valve 2I4, and its spool is shifted to the right to block the inlet port thereof and open the port 2I'I to the exhaust port. However, the carriage does not begin to retract immediately because exhaust from the rear end of the cylinder is prevented by the valve I56 which maintains the exhaust ports 2I5 closed until after completion of an indexing operation. During advancing movement of the carriage the forward cam block 5| is moved past the indexing valve 52, and its spool is extended by the spring contained therein to reverse the fluid pressure connections to the opposite ends of the indexing cylinder I33, whereupon the cross slide I26 is retracted and the indexing mechanism thereby prepared for an indexing operation.

Substantially simultaneously with the operation of the reversing valve 48, the rearmost cam block 5I depresses the spool of the valve 52, thereupon admitting fluid pressure to the head end of the cylinder I33. Thereby the indexing mechanism is actuated in the manner heretofore described to move the shaft I05 and pattern device I-04 one step to bring the next templet into interposed working position, the templet being cen tered and locked in this position by entry of the locking pin I42 into the hole in the locking drum I43. As the shaft I05 is turned, the cam I53 moves past the stem of the valve I56 and presents thereto a depressed portion which permits the spring in the valve to move the spool 2I6 into position to block the pressure ports 2 I 3 and open the exhaust ports 2I5. Exhaust of fluid pressure from the rear end of the cylinder 44 is thereby permitted, and the constantly applied fluid pressure at the front end of this cylinder causes the piston to be moved rearwardly and the carriage is retracted thereby.

During the retractive movement the rollers I are brought into engagement with the inturned outer end of the blank and the blank subjected to a second shaping operation. But in this pass the metal is caused to flow longitudinally in the reverse direction. The metal is thereby redistributed along the working zone and the gauge or thickness of the wall of the blank maintained substantially uniform. As the tools near the starting point of the first pass, the cam contour is such as to effect lessening of the deformative pressure so as to blend the second pass contour into the contour of the first pass. Also, during this retractive movement, the indexing valye 52 is extended to restore the indexing mechanism into position for another indexing operation,

The retractive movement is terminated when the dog 49 and cam I actuate the reversing valve 48 and the indexing valve 52, respectively, the spool of the valve 2I4 being shifted into its lefthand position.

The shaft I05 is moved one step to bring the next cam or templet into working position and the cam I53 thereon depresses the valve I56 to initiate another forward movement of the carriage. This inter-related indexing and carriage traverse movement is carried out until all of the templets of the pattern controlling device I04 have been successively brought into working position and their contours translated into radial tool movements 'to work the blank into the desired final contour.

Upon indexing of the lastshaping templet into working position, the cam I55 actuates the lever I00, and through the telescopic pull rod I69--II0 actuates themetering valve I14 for slow speed operation of the carriage, as heretofore described, whereupon during this final shaping pass the carriage is moved at a slow rate of speed and the tool markings on the work substantially eliminated due to the imposition of substantially uniform pressure throughout the entire length of the worked or shaped portion of the blank. This last finishing pass also results in imparting exact shape to the blank with extreme dimensional accuracy. The flnal working pass ends with'the carriage I in advanced position and the indexing mechanism is actuated to bring the last templet into working position. The shape of this last templet is such that the rollers I0 are maintained out of engagement with the shaped blank during retraction of the carriage.

The indexing step preceding the final retractive stroke of the carriage moves the cam I55 out of engagement with the lever I60, thereby permitting the metering valve I14 to move to its open position. The indexing step also results in operation of the valve I51 by the cam I54, thereby closing the exhaust circuit through the valve and opening the inlet port 220 to the outlet port thereof. The outlet port is connected to the lefthand end of the starting valve 46, while the inlet port 220 is connected to the outlet of the indexing valve 52 in series with the circuit leading to the rod end of the cylinder I33.

During flnal movement of the carriage to retracted position, the spool of the valve 52, of course, is permitted to move to its extended position, whereupon fluid pressure is admitted to the rod end of the cylinder I33 to retract the indexing mechanism and also supply pressure through the open ports of the valve I51 to move the spool of the starting valve 46 to the right into its normal off position. As a result of this operation, it will be seen that fluid pressure to the outlet 2 I8 is blocked and that this port is opened to exhaust. Thus, the supply of fluid pressure to the inlet port of the reversing valve 48 is interrupted. Consequently, when the carriage again actuates the reversing valve 48 at the end of its retractive stroke, there will be no pressure supplied to shift the spool of the valve 2I4, and this valve remains in position blocking pressure flow to the rear end of the cylinder 44 so that the carriage will be retained in its retracted position. However, the-indexing valve 52 is moved to depressed position, whereupon fluid pressure is admitted to the outer end of the cylinder I33 and the indexin mechanism actuated to move the first templet of the pattern controlling device I04 into working position. The indexing movement also results in depression of the spool 2I6 by the cam I53, thereby to open the pressure ports M3 and to close the exhaust ports 2I5, thus preparing the hydraulic system for a repeated cycle of operations.

In order to form the bead on the mouth of the container, the transfer valve 209 is manually actuated to supply pressure to the outlet 2I I and to connect the'outlet 2I0 to exhaust. This results in removing pressure from the inlet port 85 of the cross slide valve, and also effects -advancement of the carriage 8 by admitting fluid pressure to the head end of'the cylinder I80 and connecting the rod end thereof to the exhaust line 201. Fluid pressure from the outlet 2 is alsosupplied to a series of metering valves 22I, 222,

228, and 224 in the circuit of each of the slides on the carriage 8 for individually controlling the speed of operation thereof. This pressure also is supplied to the inlet ports of various of the control valves associated with each tool slide.

With the carriage 8 in advanced position, the slide carrying the trimming tool I98 is moved inwardly into engagement with the outer edge of the neck portion of the blank momentarily to trim the neck and form an inclined edge thereon. The trimming operation is effected by manually operating a valve 225 to supply fluid pressure through the valve 22I to the right-hand end of a valve 228, thereby shifting its spool to the left-whereupon fluid pressure from the metering valve 22I is admitted to the head end of the cylinder associated with the knife slide. The knife slide, therefore, moves inwardly to engage the blank with the trimming tool I98, inward movement of the slide being limited by the stop I99. The cam 200, associated with the knife slide, is arranged to actuate the impulse valve 20I to initiate actuation of the next tool slide.

A valv 228 of a sequential by-pass type well known in the art is interposed in the circuit leading from the valve 226 to the head end of the knife slide cylinder. When the knife slide engages the stop I 99, pressure in the sequence valve builds up to a point sufficient to actuate a spring tool II is pressed against the edge of the neck wall and curls it outwardly and backwardly. Due to the functioning of the pivoted cam 203, associated with the central slide I88, the-impulse valve 202 is actuated upon the retractive movement of the central slide, which retraction is effected upon operation of the sequence valve 232 and the operation of the valves 230 and 23I to pressed by-pass that is incorporated therein to permit pressure fluid to flow to the left-hand end of the valve 225 to shift its spool to the right into normal off position. This results in reversing the fluid connections and supplies pressure to the left-hand end of valve 226 and its spool is moved to the right to reverse the connections to the opposite ends of the knife slide cylinder. This results in supplying pressure to the rod end of this cylinder, while its other end is connected to the exhaust line, whereupon the knife slide is retracted.

It will be apparent that due to the rapid rate of rotation of the blank, the knife need be main tained in contact with the blank only momentarily. Thus, substantially simultaneously with the initiation of the reversing impulse at the sequence valve 228, a pressure impulse can be transmitted through the valve 20I to initiate the operation of the next tool slide, and advancing movement of such successive slide efiected during retractive movement of the preceding tool slide.

Associated with each tool slide is a group of valves'230, 23I, and 232 corresponding to the valves 225, 228, and 228 except that valve 230 is actuated in both directions hydraulically, and the operation of each group of valves is adapted to be initiated by the preceding impulse valve 20I. Thus. when the valve 20I associated with the knife slide is depressed by its cam 200, a pressure impulse is transmitted therethrough to shift the spool of the pilot valve 230 of the groupof valves associated with the central slide I86. In turn, the main control valve 23I is actuated and fluid pressure supplied past the sequential valve 232 to the rear or head end of the cylinder I81. The central slide I86 is advanced and the plug I2- forced into the neck opening, and the:.curlin'g reverse their fluid connections, respectively, and cause retractive movement.

'Upon depression of the valve 202, the operation of the group of valves associated with the next slide is initiated. This slide may carry a bead closing tool to bend the open end of the curled back portion inwardly into engagement with the wall of the neck. The operation of the succeeding slide is effected in the same manner and in proper sequence. This slide carries a pressing tool I91 to complete the closure of the bead. At the completion of the beading operations, the operator again actuatesthe transfer valve 209, thereby causing retraction of the carriage 8 and again applying pressure to the inlet port 85.

Only so many of the radial tool slides and their tools as are necessary to efiect formation of the bead need be employed, and, of course, the curling tools II may be dispensed with and other tools substituted if it is desired to form mouth portions of other shapes.

It will be apparent that the forcing of the plug II into the neck opening not only results in affording support to the neck wall during formation of the bead thereon, but will assure the formation of a truly circular mouth of a diameter corresponding to the diameter of the cylindrical portion of the plug,

While I have shown only one shape that may be imparted to an article, it, of course, will be apparent that any other desired shape may be readily imparted to a blank merely by providing a pattern controlling device having its templets properly contoured. The number of templets employed for a, given pattern device is, of course, predicated upon the amount of reduction that is to be made in the diameter of the blank, together with the working characteristics of the material, and in all cases the rate of linear movement of the carriage and the spinning rate will be controlled in accordance with these factors. Also, it is to be understood that the shaping of a blank can be effected at any desired portion along its length or along substantially its entire length in the production of many shapes of articles or the ornamentation thereof, and, furthermore, that regardless of the size and shape of the article to be produced, duplication of such articles of identical shape and uniformity of dimensional characteristics can be effected. The production of shaped articles of such characteristics from blanks composed of material having a high compressive resistance to deformative pressures is possible with precision and accuracy due to the improved mode of generating and controlling high working pressures and the shaping of the blank under a series of progressive shaping operations.

I have illustrated and described a present preferred embodiment of the invention, but it will be understood that the same is not limited thereto but may be otherwise embodied or practiced within the scope of the appended claims.

I claim:

1. In a metal spinning machine, the combination with a spinning tool, of means for imparting feeding movements thereto in directions extending lengthwise of the wall of a blank to be acted upon thereby, and operating mechanism movable lengthwise with the tool for imparting feeding movements thereto at will in directions extending crosswise of said wall, said mechanism comprising fluid pressure actuated means for moving the tool, valve means for controlling the operation of said pressure actuated means, a movable control member associated with said valve means and selectively operable in opposite directions from a neutral position with respect thereto for effecting fluid flow through said valve means and actuation of said pressure actuating means in a corresponding direction, and means movable in unison with said pressure actuated means for moving said valve means in the direction of move ment of said member until fluid flow is interrupted.

2. In a metal spinning machine, the combination with a spinning tool, of means for imparting feeding movements thereto in directions extending lengthwise of the wall of a blank to be acted upon thereby, fluid pressure actuated means operatively connected to said tool for moving the same transversely of said wall, valve means for controlling the operation of said pressure actu ated means, a movable control member associated with said valve means and selectively operable in opposite directions from a neutral position with respect thereto for effecting fluid flow through said valve means and actuation of said pressure actuating means in a corresponding direction, means movable in unison with said pressure actuated means for moving said valve means in the direction of movement of said member until iiuid flow is interrupted, and cam means operable during the said lengthwise movement of the tool for imparting predetermined control movements to said control member, whereby corresponding transverse feeding movements are imparted to said tool.

3. In a metal spinning machine, the combination with a spinning tool, of means for imparting feeding movements thereto in directions extending lengthwise of the wall of a blank to be acted upon thereby, an operating mechanism movable lengthwise with the tool for moving said tools transversely of said wall, said mechanism comprising fluid pressure actuated means connected to the tool for moving the same, valve means for controlling the operation of said fluid pressure actuated means, a movable control member associated with said valve means and selectively operable in opposite directions from a neutral position with respect thereto for effecting fluid flow through said valve means and actuation of said pressure actuated means in a corresponding direction, means connecting said pressure actuated means to said valve means for bodily moving the same in the direction of movement of said member until fluid fiow is interrupted, an elongated templet having a contoured edge in fixed position for movement of said control member therealong during lengthwise movement of said tool, and means for yieldably pressing the control member against said edge, whereby said member is moved relative to said valve means in conformity with the contour of said edge and corresponding 7 transverse movements are imparted to said tool.

4. In apparatus for spinning tubular blanks, the combination with a chuck for receiving and gripping a blank therein, means for rotating the chuck and the blank, a tool carriage, a spinning tool mounted on the carriage for radial movements relative to the wall of the blank, means for advancing and retracting the carriage in directions parallel to the axis of said blank, a pattern device arranged parallel to said axis in longitudinally fixed position with respect to the movement of the carriage, said device including a series of elongated and progressively contoured templets adapted to be moved into operating position one-by-one, means operatively connected to said tool and cooperating with said pattern device for translating the contours of said templets thereof into radial tool movements durin traverse of the carriage along said blank, and means for moving each of said templets successively into operating position for translation of its contour into tool movements by said last named means, to impart a corresponding contour to said wall.

5. In apparatus for spinning tubular blanks, the combination with a chuck for receiving and gripping a blank therein, means for rotating the chuck and the blank, a tool carriage, a spinning tool carried by the carriage and mounted thereon for radial movements relative to the wall of the blank, means for advancing and retracting the carriage in directions parallel to the axis of said blank, a pattern device arranged parallel to said axis in longitudinally fixed position with respect to the movement of the carriage, said device including a series of elongated and progressively contoured templets adapted to be moved into operating position one-by-one, means operatively connected to said tool and cooperating with said pattern device for translating the contours of said templets thereof into radial tool movements during traverse of the carriage along said blank, means for moving each of said templets successively into operating position for translation of its contour into tool movements by said last named means, to impart a corresponding contour to said wall, said templets being moved into operating position upon termination of each traverse of said carriage.

6. In a metal spinning machine, the combination with a reciprocable carriage and a spinning tool mounted thereon for feeding movements crosswise of the path of travel thereof, of hydraulically-actuated piston and cylinder means for imparting said feeding movements to said tool, said cylinder means being fixed to the carriage and said piston means being movable therein in opposite directions, means connecting said piston means-to said tool for moving said tool in conformity with the movement of said piston means, a control valve movably supported on the carriage and comprising a valve body having outlet ports, an axially shiftable valve spool in said body and cooperating with said ports for controlling fluid fiow therethrough, conduits connecting said outlet ports to opposite ends of said cylinder means, said spool being selectively operable in opposite directions with respect to said ports for simultaneously effecting pressure and exhaust fiow therethrough and actuation of said piston means in a corresponding direction, means operatively connecting said valve body to said piston means for movement bodily therewith in the direction of movement of said spool until fluid flow is cut off, a spring for loading said valve, and means for shifting said spool relative to said valve body to effect correspondin movement of said tool.

7. In a metal spinning machine, the combination with a reciprocable carriage and a spinning tool mounted thereon for feeding movements crosswise of the path of travel thereof, ,of hydraulically-actuated piston and cylinder means

US347418A 1940-07-25 1940-07-25 Apparatus for spinning tubular articles Expired - Lifetime US2388545A (en)

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Cited By (16)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2634644A (en) * 1946-11-16 1953-04-14 Bailey Meter Co Machine tool control
US2902963A (en) * 1953-10-26 1959-09-08 Melvin F Roberts Automatic spinning machine
US2975743A (en) * 1956-05-18 1961-03-21 Lake Erie Machinery Corp Metal forming machine
US3104640A (en) * 1954-09-09 1963-09-24 Lodge & Shipley Co Metal working
US3104565A (en) * 1959-05-22 1963-09-24 Lodge & Shipley Co Metal working
DE1168379B (en) * 1959-09-16 1964-04-23 Oreste Flavio Alfredo Biginell Copy press for shaping hollow bodies
US3137259A (en) * 1958-10-07 1964-06-16 Lodge & Shipley Co Metal working
DE1173864B (en) * 1959-08-22 1964-07-16 Metallindustrie Richter A G Device for the deformation of hollow bodies
US3144845A (en) * 1959-11-13 1964-08-18 Lodge & Shipley Co Metal working
US3195491A (en) * 1960-09-26 1965-07-20 Firestone Tire & Rubber Co Equipment for producing tapered disk wheels
DE1197425B (en) * 1954-09-09 1965-07-29 Lodge And Shipley Company Copying device for Drueckbaenke
US3905158A (en) * 1974-03-05 1975-09-16 Toshiba Machine Co Ltd Machine tools
US5235837A (en) * 1991-04-19 1993-08-17 Compression Technologies, Inc. Fabrication of pressure vessels
US5598729A (en) * 1994-10-26 1997-02-04 Tandem Systems, Inc. System and method for constructing wall of a tube
US6212926B1 (en) 1999-04-21 2001-04-10 Tandem Systems, Inc. Method for spin forming a tube
WO2010114492A1 (en) * 2009-03-31 2010-10-07 Agency For Science, Technology And Research Flow forming apparatus

Cited By (18)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2634644A (en) * 1946-11-16 1953-04-14 Bailey Meter Co Machine tool control
US2902963A (en) * 1953-10-26 1959-09-08 Melvin F Roberts Automatic spinning machine
DE1197425B (en) * 1954-09-09 1965-07-29 Lodge And Shipley Company Copying device for Drueckbaenke
US3104640A (en) * 1954-09-09 1963-09-24 Lodge & Shipley Co Metal working
US2975743A (en) * 1956-05-18 1961-03-21 Lake Erie Machinery Corp Metal forming machine
US3137259A (en) * 1958-10-07 1964-06-16 Lodge & Shipley Co Metal working
US3104565A (en) * 1959-05-22 1963-09-24 Lodge & Shipley Co Metal working
DE1173864B (en) * 1959-08-22 1964-07-16 Metallindustrie Richter A G Device for the deformation of hollow bodies
DE1168379B (en) * 1959-09-16 1964-04-23 Oreste Flavio Alfredo Biginell Copy press for shaping hollow bodies
US3144845A (en) * 1959-11-13 1964-08-18 Lodge & Shipley Co Metal working
US3195491A (en) * 1960-09-26 1965-07-20 Firestone Tire & Rubber Co Equipment for producing tapered disk wheels
US3905158A (en) * 1974-03-05 1975-09-16 Toshiba Machine Co Ltd Machine tools
US5235837A (en) * 1991-04-19 1993-08-17 Compression Technologies, Inc. Fabrication of pressure vessels
US5598729A (en) * 1994-10-26 1997-02-04 Tandem Systems, Inc. System and method for constructing wall of a tube
US5845527A (en) * 1994-10-26 1998-12-08 Tandem Systems, Inc. System and method for constricting wall of a tube
US6212926B1 (en) 1999-04-21 2001-04-10 Tandem Systems, Inc. Method for spin forming a tube
WO2010114492A1 (en) * 2009-03-31 2010-10-07 Agency For Science, Technology And Research Flow forming apparatus
CN102481633A (en) * 2009-03-31 2012-05-30 新加坡科技研究局 Flow forming apparatus

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