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Manufacture and production of artificial threads, filaments, and the like

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Publication number
US2372622A
US2372622A US51081643A US2372622A US 2372622 A US2372622 A US 2372622A US 51081643 A US51081643 A US 51081643A US 2372622 A US2372622 A US 2372622A
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Prior art keywords
threads
grams
acid
containing
sulphuric
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Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
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Inventor
Wormell Robert Louis
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Courtaulds Ltd
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Courtaulds Ltd
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Publication date
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    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D01NATURAL OR ARTIFICIAL THREADS OR FIBRES; SPINNING
    • D01FCHEMICAL FEATURES IN THE MANUFACTURE OF ARTIFICIAL FILAMENTS, THREADS, FIBRES, BRISTLES OR RIBBONS; APPARATUS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR THE MANUFACTURE OF CARBON FILAMENTS
    • D01F4/00Monocomponent artificial filaments or the like of proteins; Manufacture thereof

Description

Patented Mar. 27, 1945 MANUFACTURE ARTIFICIAL THE LIKE Robert Louis a British company No Drawing.

rial No. 1943 2 Claims.

This invention relates to the manufacture and production of artificial threads, filaments, fibres and the like, hereinafter referred to as threads, from solutions of proteins, for example milk casein or vegetable seed caseins such as those obtained from soya beans or peanuts.

It is well known to produce threads from proteins by extruding an alkaline solution of the protein into a coagulating bath containing for example sulphuric acid, and subjecting the resultant thread toa treatment known as hardening, which comprises passing the thread through one or more baths comprising aqueous solutions of one or more suitable substances such as formaldehyde and metallic salts such as aluminium salts. The threads obtained are insoluble in cold water but in boiling water or hot dilute acid the AND PRODUCTION OF 'rnnnsns, FILAMENTS, AND

Wormell, Coventry, England, assignor to Courtanlds Limited, London, England,

Application November 18, 1943, Se- 510,818. In Great Britain January 28,

, solution. To the hardening solution employed before carrying threads become plastic and tend to sticktogether,

or even to dissolve.

Processes are already known for improving the resistance of casein and like protein threads to attack by boiling water or hot dilute acids by treating the threads with hardening baths containing formaldehyde and sulphuric acid. The specification of U. S. Serial No. 440,116 in the names of the present applicant and C. L. Knight,

describes and claims a process for this purpose which comprises treating the threads for a considerable time during or after the hardening treatment in a bath containing formaldehyde and an alkali, metal bisulphate or analkali metal sulphate and sufficient sulphuric acid to convert at least a large proportion of the sulphate into bisulphate. In U. S. specification No. 2;293,986 a process for improving the water-resistance, of protein fibres is described which comprises subjecting the fibres to the action of an aldehyde and an acid such as sulphuric acid in concentrations of up to 10 per cent, and thereupon drying and heating the fibres without previous washing.

British specification No. 512,640 describes hardening baths for casein fibres which baths contain formaldehyde, 'a water-soluble salt and about 2 per cent of sulphuric acid.

I have now found that casein or other protein threads of improved resistance to attack by boiling water or hot dilute acid are obtained by treating the threads with a strong sulphuric acid solution containing formaldehdye.

According to the present invention, a process for improving the resistance to attack by boiling water and hot dilute acid of artificial threads a basis of casein or other protein comprises treating the threads with an aqueous solution containing formaldehyde and from 350 in the present invention there is preferably added sodium sulphate in an amount considerably less than that necessary to react with all the sulphuric acid in the bath with the formation of sodium bisulphate. If desired, aluminium salts may also be added to the treating bath although it is preferred to harden the threads to some extent by means of baths containing aluminium salts out the process of the present invention. I

Thetime of reaction required to obtani the benefit of this invention depends on the temperature of the treatment bath and on the concentration of the sulphuric acid in the bath. The concentration of the sulphuric acid in the bath must be chosen sons to improve the resistance of the casein threads to boiling water without deleteriously affecting their physical properties or appearance. For example, if the treatment is carried out at room temperature it is inadvisable to have the concentration of the sulphuric acid above about 600 grams per litre of solution (corresponding to about 45 per cent by weight of sulphuric acid) and if the treatment is carried out at a temperature higher than room temperature the concentration of sulphuric acid present should be lower than this value, but if the treatment or higher with a concentration of acid much above 600 grams per litre of solution a yellowing of the threads is liable to take place.

The following examples illustrate the present invention, although the invention is not restricted to these examples:

Example An 18 per cent solution'of milk-casein in dilute caustic soda solution is extruded through fine orifices into a bathcontain'ing in each litre grams of sulphuric acid and 360 grams of sodium sulphate. After passing for a few minutes first through an aqueous solution containing 230 grams of sodium chloride per litre, and-then through an aqueous bath containing in each litre 190 grams of aluminium sulphate and grams of sodium chloride, the resultant threads are given a preliminary hardening treatment for 10 hours at 28 oentigrade in'a solution containing in each litre 250 grams of sodium sulphate and 40 grams of formaldehyde. The threads are then immersed for 8 hours at 25 centigrade in a bath containing in each litre 400 grams of sulphuric acid, 300

Casein threads which have been obtained by extrusion and coagulation, as described in the foregoing Example 1, are passed for a few minutes, first through an aqueous solution containmg 230 grams of sodium chloride per litre and then through an aqueous bath containing in each litre 190 grams of aluminium sulphate and 140 grams of sodium chloride. The threads are then cut into short lengths and hardened for 10 hours at 28 centigrade in a solution containing in each litre 250 grams of sodium sulphate and 40 grams of formaldehyde. The threads are then immersed for 1 hour at 25 centrigrade in a bath containing in each litre 496 grams of sulphuric acid, 271 grams of sodium sulphate and 28.5 grams of formaldehyde. After washing the threads with water and drying, they show an increased resistance to boiling water.

Example 3 Casein threads which have been obtained by extrusion and coagulation, as describedin the foregoing Example 1, are passed for a few minutes, first through an aqueous solution containing 230 grams of sodium chloride per litre and then through an aqueous bath containing in each litre 190 grams of aluminium sulphate and 140 grams of sodium chloride. The threads are then cut into short lengths and hardened for 10 hours at centigrade in a solution containing in each litre 250 grams of sodium sulphate and 40 grams of formaldehyde. The threads are then immersed for 1 hour at centigrade in a bath containing in each litre 607 grams of sulphuric acid and 40 grams of formaldehyde. After washing the threads with water and drying, they show an increased resistance to boilin water.

What I claim is:

1. A process for improving the resistance to attack by boiling water or hot dilute acid of artificial threads having a basis of casein or other protein and which have been at least partially hardened which comprises treating the threads with an aqueous solution containing formaldehyde and from 350 grams to 750 grams of sulphuric acid per litre of solution, washing the thus-treated threads acid-free and drying the threads.

2. A process as claimed in claim 1 wherein sodium sulphate is added to the treating bath in an amount considerably less than that necessary to react with all the sulphuric acid in the bath with the formation of sodium bisulphate.

ROBERT LOUIS WORMELL.

US2372622A 1943-01-28 1943-11-18 Manufacture and production of artificial threads, filaments, and the like Expired - Lifetime US2372622A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GB145143A GB564591A (en) 1943-01-28 1943-01-28 Improvements in the manufacture and production of artificial threads, filaments and the like

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US2372622A true US2372622A (en) 1945-03-27

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ID=9722223

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US2372622A Expired - Lifetime US2372622A (en) 1943-01-28 1943-11-18 Manufacture and production of artificial threads, filaments, and the like

Country Status (4)

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US (1) US2372622A (en)
DE (1) DE811983C (en)
FR (1) FR941115A (en)
GB (1) GB564591A (en)

Cited By (22)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2506253A (en) * 1944-09-06 1950-05-02 Ici Ltd Process of increasing the strength of insolubilized artificial protein filamets
US2532350A (en) * 1945-07-30 1950-12-05 Ici Ltd Production of insolubilized protein artificial filamentary products
US2533297A (en) * 1945-08-22 1950-12-12 Ici Ltd Production of insolubilized protein artificial filamentary products
US2565908A (en) * 1947-10-06 1951-08-28 Ici Ltd Method of insolubilizing artificial filaments of vegetable protein
WO1996027345A2 (en) 1988-06-13 1996-09-12 Michelson Gary K Appartus and method of inserting spinal implants
US5741253A (en) * 1988-06-13 1998-04-21 Michelson; Gary Karlin Method for inserting spinal implants
US5772661A (en) * 1988-06-13 1998-06-30 Michelson; Gary Karlin Methods and instrumentation for the surgical correction of human thoracic and lumbar spinal disease from the antero-lateral aspect of the spine
US6096038A (en) * 1988-06-13 2000-08-01 Michelson; Gary Karlin Apparatus for inserting spinal implants
US6120502A (en) * 1988-06-13 2000-09-19 Michelson; Gary Karlin Apparatus and method for the delivery of electrical current for interbody spinal arthrodesis
US6123705A (en) * 1988-06-13 2000-09-26 Sdgi Holdings, Inc. Interbody spinal fusion implants
US6149650A (en) * 1988-06-13 2000-11-21 Michelson; Gary Karlin Threaded spinal implant
US6210412B1 (en) 1988-06-13 2001-04-03 Gary Karlin Michelson Method for inserting frusto-conical interbody spinal fusion implants
EP1092395A2 (en) 1993-06-10 2001-04-18 Karlin Technology, Inc. Guard having first and second passages for disc space surgery
US6224595B1 (en) 1995-02-17 2001-05-01 Sofamor Danek Holdings, Inc. Method for inserting a spinal implant
US20020138144A1 (en) * 1995-02-17 2002-09-26 Michelson Gary Karlin Threaded frusto-conical interbody spinal fusion implants
US20030158553A1 (en) * 1988-06-13 2003-08-21 Michelson Gary Karlin Instrumentation for the surgical correction of spinal disease
US6758849B1 (en) 1995-02-17 2004-07-06 Sdgi Holdings, Inc. Interbody spinal fusion implants
US6770074B2 (en) 1988-06-13 2004-08-03 Gary Karlin Michelson Apparatus for use in inserting spinal implants
US20050165399A1 (en) * 1995-06-07 2005-07-28 Michelson Gary K. Frusto-conical spinal implant
US20060084992A1 (en) * 1988-06-13 2006-04-20 Michelson Gary K Tubular member having a passage and opposed bone contacting extensions
US7291149B1 (en) 1995-06-07 2007-11-06 Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc. Method for inserting interbody spinal fusion implants
US8021430B2 (en) 1995-06-07 2011-09-20 Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc. Anatomic spinal implant having anatomic bearing surfaces

Cited By (77)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2506253A (en) * 1944-09-06 1950-05-02 Ici Ltd Process of increasing the strength of insolubilized artificial protein filamets
US2532350A (en) * 1945-07-30 1950-12-05 Ici Ltd Production of insolubilized protein artificial filamentary products
US2533297A (en) * 1945-08-22 1950-12-12 Ici Ltd Production of insolubilized protein artificial filamentary products
US2565908A (en) * 1947-10-06 1951-08-28 Ici Ltd Method of insolubilizing artificial filaments of vegetable protein
US6770074B2 (en) 1988-06-13 2004-08-03 Gary Karlin Michelson Apparatus for use in inserting spinal implants
US5741253A (en) * 1988-06-13 1998-04-21 Michelson; Gary Karlin Method for inserting spinal implants
US5772661A (en) * 1988-06-13 1998-06-30 Michelson; Gary Karlin Methods and instrumentation for the surgical correction of human thoracic and lumbar spinal disease from the antero-lateral aspect of the spine
US5797909A (en) * 1988-06-13 1998-08-25 Michelson; Gary Karlin Apparatus for inserting spinal implants
US6096038A (en) * 1988-06-13 2000-08-01 Michelson; Gary Karlin Apparatus for inserting spinal implants
WO1996027345A2 (en) 1988-06-13 1996-09-12 Michelson Gary K Appartus and method of inserting spinal implants
US6123705A (en) * 1988-06-13 2000-09-26 Sdgi Holdings, Inc. Interbody spinal fusion implants
US6149650A (en) * 1988-06-13 2000-11-21 Michelson; Gary Karlin Threaded spinal implant
US7491205B1 (en) 1988-06-13 2009-02-17 Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc. Instrumentation for the surgical correction of human thoracic and lumbar spinal disease from the lateral aspect of the spine
US7534254B1 (en) 1988-06-13 2009-05-19 Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc. Threaded frusto-conical interbody spinal fusion implants
US7569054B2 (en) 1988-06-13 2009-08-04 Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc. Tubular member having a passage and opposed bone contacting extensions
US8353909B2 (en) 1988-06-13 2013-01-15 Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc. Surgical instrument for distracting a spinal disc space
US6264656B1 (en) 1988-06-13 2001-07-24 Gary Karlin Michelson Threaded spinal implant
US6270498B1 (en) 1988-06-13 2001-08-07 Gary Karlin Michelson Apparatus for inserting spinal implants
EP1129668A1 (en) 1988-06-13 2001-09-05 MICHELSON, Gary Karlin A spinal distractor
EP1153574A2 (en) 1988-06-13 2001-11-14 MICHELSON, Gary Karlin Apparatus for use in spinal surgery
EP1219248A2 (en) 1988-06-13 2002-07-03 MICHELSON, Gary Karlin Cap for artificial spinal fusion implant
EP1219268A2 (en) 1988-06-13 2002-07-03 MICHELSON, Gary Karlin Apparatus for compressively loading a spinal implant
US8066705B2 (en) 1988-06-13 2011-11-29 Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc. Instrumentation for the endoscopic correction of spinal disease
US8734447B1 (en) 1988-06-13 2014-05-27 Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc. Apparatus and method of inserting spinal implants
US7686805B2 (en) 1988-06-13 2010-03-30 Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc. Methods for distraction of a disc space
US6210412B1 (en) 1988-06-13 2001-04-03 Gary Karlin Michelson Method for inserting frusto-conical interbody spinal fusion implants
US20060200138A1 (en) * 1988-06-13 2006-09-07 Sdgi Holdings, Inc. Surgical instrument for distracting a spinal disc space
US20030158553A1 (en) * 1988-06-13 2003-08-21 Michelson Gary Karlin Instrumentation for the surgical correction of spinal disease
EP1346695A1 (en) 1988-06-13 2003-09-24 Karlin Michelson Gary Apparatus and method of inserting spinal implants
US6923810B1 (en) 1988-06-13 2005-08-02 Gary Karlin Michelson Frusto-conical interbody spinal fusion implants
US20060084992A1 (en) * 1988-06-13 2006-04-20 Michelson Gary K Tubular member having a passage and opposed bone contacting extensions
US6120502A (en) * 1988-06-13 2000-09-19 Michelson; Gary Karlin Apparatus and method for the delivery of electrical current for interbody spinal arthrodesis
US7722619B2 (en) 1988-06-13 2010-05-25 Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc. Method of maintaining distraction of a spinal disc space
US7914530B2 (en) 1988-06-13 2011-03-29 Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc. Tissue dilator and method for performing a spinal procedure
US7452359B1 (en) 1988-06-13 2008-11-18 Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc. Apparatus for inserting spinal implants
US6875213B2 (en) 1993-06-10 2005-04-05 Sdgi Holdings, Inc. Method of inserting spinal implants with the use of imaging
US7887565B2 (en) 1993-06-10 2011-02-15 Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc. Apparatus and method for sequential distraction
US20040073217A1 (en) * 1993-06-10 2004-04-15 Karlin Technology, Inc. Osteogenic packing device and method
US20040068259A1 (en) * 1993-06-10 2004-04-08 Karlin Technology, Inc. Distractor for use in spinal surgery
US20060036247A1 (en) * 1993-06-10 2006-02-16 Karlin Technology, Inc. Distractor for use in spinal surgery
US20060058793A1 (en) * 1993-06-10 2006-03-16 Karlin Technology, Inc. Distractor for use in spinal surgery
US20040034358A1 (en) * 1993-06-10 2004-02-19 Sofamor Danek Holdings, Inc. Bone cutting device and method for use thereof
US20060142762A1 (en) * 1993-06-10 2006-06-29 Michelson Gary K Apparatus and method for sequential distraction
US20030153916A1 (en) * 1993-06-10 2003-08-14 Sofamor Danek Holdings, Inc. Method of inserting spinal implants with the use of imaging
US20020198532A1 (en) * 1993-06-10 2002-12-26 Sofamor Danek Holdings, Inc. Apparatus and method of inserting spinal implants
US7264622B2 (en) 1993-06-10 2007-09-04 Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc. System for radial bone displacement
EP1093760A2 (en) 1993-06-10 2001-04-25 Karlin Technology, Inc. Spinal distractor
EP1092395A2 (en) 1993-06-10 2001-04-18 Karlin Technology, Inc. Guard having first and second passages for disc space surgery
US7399303B2 (en) 1993-06-10 2008-07-15 Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc. Bone cutting device and method for use thereof
US20080287955A1 (en) * 1993-06-10 2008-11-20 Karlin Technology, Inc. Distractor for use in spinal surgery and method of use thereof
US7993347B1 (en) 1993-06-10 2011-08-09 Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc. Guard for use in performing human interbody spinal surgery
US7326214B2 (en) 1993-06-10 2008-02-05 Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc. Bone cutting device having a cutting edge with a non-extending center
US7935116B2 (en) 1994-05-27 2011-05-03 Gary Karlin Michelson Implant for the delivery of electrical current to promote bone growth between adjacent bone masses
US8206387B2 (en) 1994-05-27 2012-06-26 Michelson Gary K Interbody spinal implant inductively coupled to an external power supply
US20090088857A1 (en) * 1994-05-27 2009-04-02 Gary Karlin Michelson Implant for the delivery of electrical current to promote bone growth between adjacent bone masses
US20040024400A1 (en) * 1994-05-27 2004-02-05 Michelson Gary Karlin Method for the delivery of electrical current to promote bone growth between adjacent bone masses
US6605089B1 (en) 1994-05-27 2003-08-12 Gary Karlin Michelson Apparatus and method for the delivery of electrical current for interbody spinal arthrodesis
US7455672B2 (en) 1994-05-27 2008-11-25 Gary Karlin Michelson Method for the delivery of electrical current to promote bone growth between adjacent bone masses
US6224595B1 (en) 1995-02-17 2001-05-01 Sofamor Danek Holdings, Inc. Method for inserting a spinal implant
US20020138144A1 (en) * 1995-02-17 2002-09-26 Michelson Gary Karlin Threaded frusto-conical interbody spinal fusion implants
US6758849B1 (en) 1995-02-17 2004-07-06 Sdgi Holdings, Inc. Interbody spinal fusion implants
US7207991B2 (en) 1995-02-27 2007-04-24 Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc. Method for the endoscopic correction of spinal disease
US7431722B1 (en) 1995-02-27 2008-10-07 Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc. Apparatus including a guard member having a passage with a non-circular cross section for providing protected access to the spine
US20020091390A1 (en) * 1995-02-27 2002-07-11 Michelson Gary Karlin Methods and instrumentation for the surgical correction of human thoracic and lumbar spinal disease from the lateral aspect of the spine
US7691148B2 (en) 1995-06-07 2010-04-06 Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc. Frusto-conical spinal implant
US7942933B2 (en) 1995-06-07 2011-05-17 Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc. Frusto-conical spinal implant
US7291149B1 (en) 1995-06-07 2007-11-06 Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc. Method for inserting interbody spinal fusion implants
US20110054529A1 (en) * 1995-06-07 2011-03-03 Gary Karlin Michelson Threaded interbody spinal fusion implant
US8057475B2 (en) 1995-06-07 2011-11-15 Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc. Threaded interbody spinal fusion implant
US20050165399A1 (en) * 1995-06-07 2005-07-28 Michelson Gary K. Frusto-conical spinal implant
US7828800B2 (en) 1995-06-07 2010-11-09 Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc. Threaded frusto-conical interbody spinal fusion implants
US8226652B2 (en) 1995-06-07 2012-07-24 Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc. Threaded frusto-conical spinal implants
US20050165489A1 (en) * 1995-06-07 2005-07-28 Michelson Gary K. Frusto-conical spinal implant
US8409292B2 (en) 1995-06-07 2013-04-02 Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc. Spinal fusion implant
US8444696B2 (en) 1995-06-07 2013-05-21 Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc. Anatomic spinal implant having anatomic bearing surfaces
US8679118B2 (en) 1995-06-07 2014-03-25 Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc. Spinal implants
US8021430B2 (en) 1995-06-07 2011-09-20 Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc. Anatomic spinal implant having anatomic bearing surfaces

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
FR941115A (en) 1949-01-03 grant
GB564591A (en) 1944-10-04 application
DE811983C (en) 1951-08-27 grant

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