US236740A - Sewering and draining cities - Google Patents

Sewering and draining cities Download PDF

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US236740A
US236740A US236740DA US236740A US 236740 A US236740 A US 236740A US 236740D A US236740D A US 236740DA US 236740 A US236740 A US 236740A
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pipe
sewer
system
water
same
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F04POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT MACHINES FOR LIQUIDS; PUMPS FOR LIQUIDS OR ELASTIC FLUIDS
    • F04FPUMPING OF FLUID BY DIRECT CONTACT OF ANOTHER FLUID OR BY USING INERTIA OF FLUID TO BE PUMPED; SIPHONS
    • F04F10/00Siphons
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T137/00Fluid handling
    • Y10T137/2713Siphons
    • Y10T137/272Plural
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T137/00Fluid handling
    • Y10T137/402Distribution systems involving geographic features
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T137/00Fluid handling
    • Y10T137/6851With casing, support, protector or static constructional installations
    • Y10T137/6966Static constructional installations
    • Y10T137/6991Ground supporting enclosure
    • Y10T137/6995Valve and meter wells
    • Y10T137/6999With means to center well on valve
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T137/00Fluid handling
    • Y10T137/8593Systems
    • Y10T137/86292System with plural openings, one a gas vent or access opening
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T137/00Fluid handling
    • Y10T137/8593Systems
    • Y10T137/877With flow control means for branched passages
    • Y10T137/87788With valve or movable deflector at junction
    • Y10T137/87804Valve or deflector is tubular passageway

Description

(N odeI.) l- 6Sh`eets-.Sheet 1. G. E.,WARING, Jr.

' Sewering and Draining Cities.

No. 236,740; Patenfedan. 18,1881.

[ gN PM WIW..

Q YU L L. IL rL/f WITNESSES: Inn/ENTQR:

M 1m I rj@ f Y NW y XM faxing# N- ETERS, PHQTO-LITH-DGRAPNER. WASHINGTON, D. C.

(No Model.) 6 Sheets-Sheet 2.

G.'E. WARING,.J1. Sewering and Drainng Cities.

Patented Jan. 18,1881.

VEN'TQR:

(No Model.)

6 Sheats- Sheet 3.

G. E. WARING, Jr.,

Sewering and Draining Cities.

Patented Jan. 18, 188|.

Figi'.

(No Model.) GSheets-Sheet 4..

G. E. WAR'ING, J1'.

Sewering a'd Draining Cities.

No. 236,740. Patented Jan. 18,1881.

Fig. Y

ll s

l l e N, PErERS. FHoraumcGRAPHER, WASHINGTON. D C.

(No Model.) 6 Sheets-Sheet, 5,

G. E. WARING, Jr.

Sewering'and Draining'Cities.

N. 236,740. Pafented.1an.1s,|881.

q 4 ci. fl,

WHNSSES: INVET-QR: j; l//

(No Model.) l, 6 Sheets-Sheet 6.

G. E. WARING, Jr.

Sewering and Draining Gities.

No. 236,740. .A Patented lan. I8, |881.

Fgf.l4.

. PETERS, PKOTOLLITHOGRAPHER. WASHINGTDN. Dv C.

NITED STATES GEORGE E. WARING, JR.,

YPMN-nvr OFFICE.

OF NEWPORT, RHODE ISLAND, ASSIGNOR TO THE DRAINAGE CONSTRUCTION COMPANY, OF BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS.

SEWERING AND DRAINING ol'rnas.

SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 236,740, dated January 18, 1881.

Application filed July 17, 1880. (No model.)

To all lwhom it may concern Beit known that I, GEORGE E. WARING, J r., of Newport, in the county of Newport and State of Rhode Island, have invented a new and useful Improvement in Sewering and Draining of Cities; and I hereby declare that the following is a full, clear, and exact description of the same, reference being had tothe accompanying drawings, forming part of this specification.

This invention has reference to an improved system for removing the sewage-waste from houses, the drainage of the subsoil, and the ventilation of the sewers. The invention has nothing to do with storm-water, and the latter is left to other means for removal.

The object of the in vention is to provide for the removal of the waste from the houses of cities or towns in the shortest possible time, at the least costin the construction of the system.

Another object of this invention is to secure the perfect ventilation of the system, so as to prevent the formation of sewer-gas, to prevent the lodgment of solid matter in any part of the sewers, and to facilitate the construction of the system in wet or saturated soil and to drain the soil.

The invention consists in providing a system of sewerage for the collection and removal of housewaste and foul waters, and their removal-independent of the removal of stormwater-through one main pipe to each system, providing iiushing-tanks at the ends of the branch pipes,connecting the house-drains with the sewers by a branch as large at their junction as the sewer, and Ventilating the system by providing open gratings to admit air to the sewer, and connecting house-drains with the sewer without the use of traps, extending the same above the house, so as to insure a continuous circulation of air through all parts of the sewer.

The invention further consists in laying into the same trench with the sewer-pipe a drainpipe, and in the peculiar and novel devices,

more fully set forth hereinafter, by which the construction of the system is facilitated and its continuous and efficient operation secured.

Figure 1 is a plan view, showing the application of my improved system for sewering and draining a town or city, showing the main sewer-pipe with its branches, the ends of each being provided with iiushing-tanks. Fig. 2 is a plan view, and Fig. 3 a vertical sectional view, of one ot the flushing-tanks. Fig. 4 is a sectional view of the Ventilating man-hole and its section showing the trench for the sewer-pipe, the drainpipe, and the piles for supporting the sewer-pipe. Fig. 6 is a perspective view, showing the supports for the sewer-pipes in wet, marshy, or water-soaked filled-in ground. Fig. 7 is a sectional view, showing the switch-pipe used for directing the discharge of the sewage from the main pipe. Fig. 8 is a side View, and Fig. 9 an end view, ofthe branches by which the house-drains are connected with the sewerpipes and the branch sewers to the main sewer. Fig. 10 is a sectional view, and Fig. 1]. a perspective view, of a drain-pipe, showing the method for makin g the joint. Fi g. 12-is acrosssection, and Fig. 13 a longitudinal section,ofthe sewer-pipe, showing the device used to secure an absolutely true and smooth surface ofthe interior of the pipesV at-thejoints. Fig. 14 is a sectional view, showing the connection from the sewer to and through a house, and the arrangement of the drain-pipes.

Inasmuch as my invention has no relation to the draining ofstorm-water or the ventilation of the same, it will be understood that wherever in the speciiication I speak of a sewer I mean one which does not remove the stormwater. The removal of storm-water may be by any suitable means, but must be by means independent of those which constitute this invention.

In the drawings, ci a represent the squares of a town or city surrounded by the streets b b, and c represents a river or creek into which the sewage is to be discharged. d d are lines indicating corresponding levels and showing natural drainage of the surface. e represents an outlet ot' the sewer, and f an outlet farther down the stream. g is the main sewer, and h h are the branch sewers, on the ends of which, and therefore at their highest ends, the iiush-tanks it' are located, so that the ushing-water will periodically wash the branches and carry all matter therein contained into the main sewer, where, by the united effect of all the flushing-tanks, the sewage is rapidly swept to the outfall.

On examination of Fig. lit will be seen that connection with the sewer-pipe. Fig. 5 is a IOO wer-

i reasonably copious lushin g.

the two last lateral branches are each provided with ve flushing-tanks, so that not only are the branches frequently flushed, but, as all this water from the ten flushing-tanks is rushing into the highest end ofthe main sewerpipe, the same is frequently swept by a rush of water, earryin g all impurities contained therein to the outlet, and discharging the contents at frequent intervals.

In my improved system of sanitary sewerage no sewer should be used of a smaller diameter than six inches, iirst, because it will notbe safe to adopt a smaller size than four inch for house-drains, and the sewer must be large enough, surely, to remove whatever may be delivered by these; second, because a smaller pipe than six inches would be less ventilated than is desirable; and, third, because it is not necessary to adopt a smaller radius than three inches to secure cleansing of the channel by No sewer should be more than siX inches in diameter until it and its branches have accumulated a sufficient flow at the hour of greatest use to fill this size half-full, because the use of a larger size would be wasteful, and because, when a sufficient ventilating capacity is secured, as it is in the use of a six-inch pipe, the ventilation becomes less complete as the size increases, leaving a larger volume of contained air to be movedby the friction of the current or by extraneous influences, or to be acted upon by changes of temperature and of volumey of flow within the sewer. The size should be Vincreased gradually, and only so rapidly-as is made necessary by the filling of thesewer half-full at the hour of l greatcst'-iiow. Every point of the sewer should, bythe use of gaskets or otherwise, be protected against the least intrusion of cement, which, in spite of the greatest care, creates a roughness that is liable to accumulate obstructions. The upper end of each branch sewer should be provided with a hush-tank of sufficient capacity to secure the thorough daily cleansing of so much of the conduit as, from its limited How, is liable to deposit solid matters by the way. There should be sufficient man-holes, covered by open gratings, to admit air for ventilation. If the directions already given are adhered to, man-holes will not be necessary for cleansing. The use of the ilushtank will be a safeguard against deposit. With the system of ventilation about to be described it will sufice to place the man-holes at intervals of not less than one thousand feet.

For the complete ventilation of the sewers it should be made compulsory for every householder to make his street-connection without a trap, and to continue hissoil-pipe to a point above the roof of his housethat is, every house-connection should furnish an uninterrupted ventilation-channel four inches in diameter throughout its entire length. Vith the system of small pipes now described the flushing would be so constant and complete, and the amount of ventilation furnished,

. gradual.

as compared with the volume of" i changed, would be so great, that w popularly known as sewergas7 would nev K exist in any part of the public drains. Even the gases produced in the traps and pipes of the house itself` would be amply rectified, diluted, and removed by the constant movement of air through the latter. All house-connections with the sewers should be through inlets entering in the direction of the iiow, and these,V Y inlets should be funnel-shaped, so that their flow may be delivered at the bottom of the sewer, and so that they may withdraw the air from its crownthat is, the vertical diameter of the inlet at its point of junction should be the same as the diameter of the sewer. All changes of direction should be on gradual curves, and, as a mattei' of course, the fall from the head of each branch to the outlet should be continuous. Reductions of grade within this limit, if considerable, should always be Referring now to the special features by which the construction of such a system is facilitated and its efficient operation assured, the flushing-tank shown in Figs. 2 and 3 is what is known as Fields flush-tank.77A` It consists of the tank proper, provided with the inlet-pipe a', by which a small quantity of water is constantly flowing into the tank. b is the outlet-pipe, and c is a larger pipe, closed at the upper end and open near the bottom, set over the pipe b', and held by distan ce-pieces, so as to form an annular passage, which, with the pipe b', forms a siphon for the discharge ofthe water from the tank. The efciency of this tank depends on the pipe b', which must be set perfectly plumb, so that the first iiow of water into the pipe will establish a partial vacuum and cause the water in the tank to ilow quickly over into the pipe b', and to facilitate the accurate setting ofthe pipe b', I construct the plate d with a recess, into which the flange e of the pipe b' fits. I now place the plate d on the masonry and level the same with an ordinary level, and then set the flange e into the recess, and the pipe b will be in its proper position without the dificulty of adjusting the same heretofore experienced. To insure the prompt action of the siphon, the lower end of the pipe b' should be sealed with water at the beginning of the discharge, and to insure the permanent cessation of its action when the tank becomes emptied the lower end of the pipe b should be unsealed, which conditions are effected by the accessory siphon f. This siphon has hitherto been made separate from the other parts of the work. l have caused the same to be cast in one piece with theiron outlet-chamber f2, so that its just position will always be secured..

Referring now to Fig. 4, a2 represents an open grating forming an air-inlet to the sewer. b2 is a box constructed so as to prevent the entrance of solid matter into the sewer.A c2 is a grating, and d2 a connecting pipe er sleeve IOO extending above the 'bottom of the box b2, so that solid matter cannot enter the sewer. e2 is a covering-plate (shown in solid black) as protecting the entrance to the sewer. It is also shown in broken lines placed lower down, when the box b2 is being cleaned out, so as to prevent any matter entering the sewer, and also shown as placed against one side ot' the box b2 when the sewer. is to be inspected. By this peculiar construction the inspection and cleaning ot the man-holes or air-inlets is greatly facilitated and the entrance of gravel or sand preventeda most essential feature in this system.

To insure a healthy atmosphere in a city or town, the draining of the subsoil becomes a necessity. It is well known that valleys and low lands in cities or towns are subject to the charge of breeding fevers, refuse matter and surface-water being retained in such localities and slowly evaporated into the atmosphere. In carrying out my invention in such districts it is essential to support the sewer-pipes temporarily, and to drain the soil so that it shall become dry and solid, to prevent the settling ofthe pipes and leakage of sewage into this already unhealthy soil,

Fig. 5 represents a trench made into such made land, and shows the sewer-pipe A temporarily supported on a board pile and the drain-pipe B laid in the same trench close to the sewer-pi pe, but disconnected from the same. By this arrangement the sewer-pipe can be laid into any kind of swampy soil, and in a short space of time the earth near the sewer, and in fact for a considerable distance on each side of the same, will be found dry and solid. This pipe B is a subsoil-drain, and has nothing todo with the disposal of storm-water. Fig. 6 shows the manner of thus supporting the sewer-pipe in perspective view.

In sandy or in fact in any kind of soil the board piles D, which may be made short, will facilitate the laying of the sewer-pipes, as they can be more accurately lined to ,trne incline, and as they extend a little above the bottom of t-he trench the joints can be much more readily and better made, as the gasket can be driven into the socket more easily, and the cement can be allowed to set free from contact with-the bottom of the trench.

It becomes frequently desirable to secure two outlets to a system of sewerage, either for discharging the sewage to the best advantage at the varying stages of the water in the river, or for distributing the sewage.

When the direction of the dow of the sewage is to be changed from one outlet to another I provide the main sewer with the collar a?, and secure to this collar the tube b3, which is supported on the ways c3, and is hinged in the collar a3 by the pivotal bearing d3, the inner face ot' the ring a3 being curved, so as to form a tight bearing of the tube on the ring, the pivotal center ot' the ring d3 forming radii flor such curve. The tube b3 is covered by plates, one or more of which can be readily lifted, so as to swing the mouth or end of the tube in line with either ot' the dischargingsewers e3 e3, the ends of which form a curved lin'e of which the pivotal center is at d3 in the ring a3.

To prevent any accumulation ot' matter in the sewer, secure the full force of the flushing water throughout the whole length, and the rapid change of air or ventilation in the sewer, all the connections are made by specially-constructed lengths ofsewer-pipe havin g branches, which, at the junction with the sewer, are of the same diameter as the sewer-pipe; or the branch pipe maybe made oval at the junction with the main pipe, so that the air can bev withdrawn from the top of the main pipe.

Figs. 8 and 9 represent a connecting-piece of sewer-pipe. A is the sewer-pipe, and A the branch pipe.

Drain-pipes are usually laid with aringsurrounding the abutting ends of the pipe. This ring serves to hold the pipes in line until the trench is filled in andthe soil is settled around the pipe. This joint increases the cost ofthe drain-pipe without adding to its durability or usefulness, and it is desirable to dispense with the same.

In Figs. l0 and 11 my improved joint is shown. B B are two lengths of drain-pipe, and X is a strip oi' stout paper wrapped around the joint. This paper is sufficient to retain the joint in place until the drain-pipe issecurely laid. It is much cheaper than the older sleeve, and as in time it will be dissolved by the moisture, the open joint of the porous pipe becomes available for drainage.

The success of this improved system of sewerage and drainage depends on the rapid removal of the refuse. Anfy imperfection in the pipes becomes an obstacle on which solid matter is liable to lodge, and by collecting other matter is liable to build up such obstructions as will canse the complete stoppage of the sewer. The joints in the sewer-pipes are most liable to form the primary cause for such stoppage. It-isthereiore necessary to gua-rd against this defect.

In Figs. l2 and 13 a device is shown by means of which sewer-pipes can be laid more rapidly than heretofore* and so that theinner face of the pipe at the joint will present no obstruction. The device consists ot' the frame a4, provided with two elastic cushions, D404, a yielding bar, c4, provided with an elastic cushion, d4, a Wedge-shaped block, c4, provided with a nut in which a screw-threaded bolt secured to lthe crank f* is turned, so as to draw in the wedge-shaped block or push the same out. This device is set into the sewer-pipe, the cushions b4 and Z4 reaching beyond the joint, so as to bear partly on the interior ot' the xed and partly on the interior of the pipe to be secured, the cushions 114 b4 resting against the sides ofthe pipe. When now the Wedge e4 is drawn in by turning the crank f4 to the IOC right, the cushion Z4 is forced against the interior of the pipe, and the loose pipe to be secured is placed at the joint exactly on a line with the pipe already secured and is firmly held. If now a gasket is driven into the socket and the joint is made with cement, the two pipes will present a smooth surface on the joint without the slightest projection to form an obstacle to the ow ofthe sewage.

The above-described device for forming linejoints of two consecutive pipesections, as shown in Figs. 12 and 13 of the drawings, does not constitute part of this invention, and is hereby reserved as subject-matter for a separate application.

It will be seen that the system of sewerage here described is radically different from the usual practice. 1t is in all essential particulars much better adapted to the purposes of sanitary drainage. It is cleaner, is much more completely ventilated, and is more exactly suited to the work to be performed. It obviates the filthy accumulation of street-manure in catch-basins and sewers, and it discharges all that is delivered to it at the point of ultimate outlet outside the town before decomposition can even begin.

If the discharge is of domestic sewage only, its solid matter will be consumed by fishes, it' it is delivered into a water-course, and its dissolved material will be taken up by aquatic vegetation. The limited quantity and the uniform volume of the sewage, together with the absence of dilution by rain-fall, will make its disposal by agricultural or chemical processes easy and reliable.

The cost of construction, as compared with that of the most restricted storm-water sewers, will be so small as to bring the improvement within the reach of the smaller communities. In other words, while the system is the best for large cities, it is the only one that can be afforded in the case of small towns.

The various devices are essential to the success of the system and to its economical construction.

Havin g thus described my invention, I claim as new an d desire to secure by Letters Patent- 1. The improved system of sewerage herein described, the saine consisting in a main sewerpipe gradually diminishing in size and provided with branches, on the ends ot' which automatic hush-tanks are provided, constructed to iiush the branches and the main sewer, connecting-sewers extending from the sewer-pipe or branches into and through the houses, forming an open tlue from the sewer to the top, or practically to thc top, of the house, and airinlets constructed to ven tilate the sewers, substantially in the manner as described.

2. The improved system of sewerage and drainage, the same consisting in the combination, with a system of sewer-pipes and branches constructed to discharge the sewage independent of the storm-water, as described, of a system of subsoil -draius laid in the same trench with the sewer-pipe, as and for the purpose set forth.

3. The combination, with the main sewerpipes, ofthe branch pipes made at their junction of the same size as the main pipes, so as to discharge the liquid on a line with the bottom and withdraw the air on a line with the top ot' the pipe, as and for the purpose set forth.

4. The combination, with air-inlets to a system of sewers, of a house-drain connected with the sewer by a connection practically of the same height as the sewer, extending to and through the house, constructed to ventilate the sewer, as and for the purpose described.

5. The combination, with a system of sewerpipes constructed to discharge the sewage independent of the storm-water, of dash-tanks located at the heads of the branches, air-inlets and house-connections extending through to the house-top, without traps between the house and the sewer, constructed to clean the sewerpipes by the rush of water from-the ilushtanks, and ventilate the same by currents of air passing in by the air-inlet and out by the unobstructed house-connections, as described.

6. The improvement in the construction of the flush-tanks, the same consisting in providing the pipe b with the flange e', the plate d',

constructed to receive the ange, and the siphon f', cast in one piece with the outlet, as described.

7. In combination with the system of sewerage, as described, the box b2, provided with the grated or open cover a2, the grate c2, and the cover c2, constructed to operate as described.

8. In the herein-described system of sewerage, the combination, with a pipe, of the piles D, having their lower ends pointed and their upper ends respectively provided with recesses in which the pipe rests, substantially as set forth.

9. The combination, with a system of sewers constructed to discharge the sewage independent of the storm-water, ofthe tube b3, pivotally connected in the concaved collar or ring a3, and constructed to change the direction of the outflow ofthe sewage, as described.

l0. A Y branch pipe consisting of the main pipe A and the conical branch A', the interior of which is practically on a line with the top and bottom of the main pipe, as described.

11. The improved joint for drain-pipes, the same consisting in a strip of paper or similar material wrapped around the pipe at the joint, as described.

GEO. E. VVARING, JR.

Witnesses J osEPH A. MILLER, JOSEPH A. MILLER, Jr.

IOO

IIO

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Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2651318A (en) * 1947-08-11 1953-09-08 Herbert B Cates Flushing unit
US4578188A (en) * 1985-07-26 1986-03-25 Cousino Kenneth P Sewerage flow diverter
US20050103698A1 (en) * 2003-11-14 2005-05-19 Eberly Christopher N. System for stormwater environmental control

Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2651318A (en) * 1947-08-11 1953-09-08 Herbert B Cates Flushing unit
US4578188A (en) * 1985-07-26 1986-03-25 Cousino Kenneth P Sewerage flow diverter
US20050103698A1 (en) * 2003-11-14 2005-05-19 Eberly Christopher N. System for stormwater environmental control
US7470361B2 (en) 2003-11-14 2008-12-30 Eberly Christopher N System for stormwater environmental control
US7780855B2 (en) 2003-11-14 2010-08-24 Eberly Christopher N Method for pre-engineering a system for environmental control of storm water

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