US233138A - Telegraphy - Google Patents

Telegraphy Download PDF


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US233138A US233138DA US233138A US 233138 A US233138 A US 233138A US 233138D A US233138D A US 233138DA US 233138 A US233138 A US 233138A
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    • H04L25/00Baseband systems
    • H04L25/02Details ; arrangements for supplying electrical power along data transmission lines
    • H04L25/20Repeater circuits; Relay circuits
    • H04L25/207Repeater circuits; Relay circuits using electromagnetic switches


SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 233,138, dated October 12, 1880.
Application filed May 10, 1880.
To all whom it may concern Beit known that -I, WEsLEY S. BREWER, a citizen of the United States, residing at Richmond, Wayne county, Indiana, have invented new and useful Improvements in Telegraphy, of which the following is a specification.
My invention relates to an improved system or method and apparatus for operating branch lines of telegraph in connection with main lines; and its object is to remedy existing impediments and increase the facility of such inter-operation, and to increase the capacity of such branch lines by enabling main-line signals to be reproduced on the branch line and 1 branch-line signals on main line with equal facility.
To this end my invention consists in the system and method hereinafter described for operating branch lines of telegraph, and for the joint operation of branch and main lines, and for reproducing the signals of each upon the other, and also in the apparatus for the immediate connection and co-working of the two lines, whereby these results are produced.
The telegraph-lines in use in this country are operated on the break-circuit system, in which signals are produced in suitable instruments by the breaks in an otherwise continuously-flowing current over a closed metallic circuit. Branch lines operated in the same manner are connected therewith, over which main-line signals may be automatically sent; but a serious disadvantage exists in the arrangement as at present commercially in use, in the inability of branch-line receiving-operators to break the main line in return. In sending back, therefore, from branch to main line, the message is received by an operator at the junction and by him retransmitted, thereby causing delay and often serious inconvenience. In carrying out my invention the branch line is arranged to be operated either by reversin g the current or by breaking circuit, and is connected with the main line by relay-instruments and a pole-changer, hereinafter described, in such manner that the signals of one line are automatically transmitted to the other with equal facility in both directions. The mechanism employed in carrying out my invention is illustrated in the accompanying drawing, representing a plan or diagram of (No model.)
main and branch lines of telegraph, showing the relations and connections of the wires with the instruments employed, showing, also, certain of the instruments in detail.
In the drawing I have represented a main line of telegraph extending from stations (1) Cincinnati, through (2) Richmond, (3,) Indianapolis, (4,) TerreHaute, to (5) St. Louis.
From station (2) Richmond, a branch line extends through (6) Logansport, to (7) Chicago, and similar branch lines may extend from any station to other points; but for present purposes I confine myself to that mentioned.
The main line is operated on the break-cir- 6 cult system commonly in use, but the branch lines on the system of polarizing or reversing the currents.
Ain the drawing is the main battery, located at station 2, for working the branch line 2 6 7. 7o Bis a pole-changer at 2, for repeating main-line signals on branch line by reversing the currents of battery A.
The construction and mode of operation of this repeater will presently be described more in detail.
0 is an ordinary non-polarized relay in main line at Richmond, operated by the main-line circuit, and controls short circuit from local battery B to polarizer B.
D is a non-polarized relay, operated by branch-line circuit at 2, connected with the main line in such a way that when its armature falls off it leaves main line open. By it main line is made to respond to signals made 8 5 by keys in branch line. The arrangement of this relay between main battery A and polechanger B is important, as will appear hereinafter.
K, K K &c., are keys in main line. L L 850., are keys in branch line.
The function of the pole-changer B is to send a positive or negative current alternately to the branch line from the branch-line battery A. The instrument itself is operated by 5 a current from a local battery, B, which current is controlled by the relay-instrument O in the main line.
The pole-changer B'is constructed and operated as follows: A main lever or armature, L, 100 centrally pivoted, is oscillated in one direction by a magnet, H, in the local circuit of battery B, and ill the other by a spring, S. Insulated stops G (l limit its movement downward in either direction.
Operating in connection with lever L are two switch-bars, 1 l similarly mounted and electrically pivoted upon posts E E The bars are actuated in one direction by the main lever L, and in the other by springs S S The switch-bars are also provided with stops F F, which limit their downward movement in such manner that either switch-bar, when down, is out of contact with the main lever II- The bars l l are provided with contact-points to form electrical connection with the stops F F, and also with the main lever L, with one or the other of which they are alternately in connection. The stops F and F are ground-connections, while the posts E E connect with the positive and negative ends, respectively, of the main battery A. The branch line is connected with the central pivot of main lever L.
In the position of the parts shown in the drawings a positive current goes to line as follows: from battery A, by connecting-wires, through relay-coil I), to post E by lever I, to main lever It, thence to its center pivot and to line. The parts are held in this position, as will be observed, by the contact of the armature in relay 0 in main line, which maintains the local circuit from battery Bclosed. Should the current be broken in main line the armature in 0 falls 011', thus breaking the local circuit from battery B and allowing the main lever L in pole-changer B to be oscillated into its reverse position by its spring. It would then be out of connection with the switch-bar I and the positive end of the battery and its central pivot, and the branch line would be brought into connection with the negative pole of the battery and a negative current sent to line through switch-bar 1 It will be observed that when either of the switch-bars are out of contact with the main lever it forms a ground-connection with the respective ends of the battery through posts F or F.
The position and function of the relay-instrument 1) may now be noticed. The mainline circuit lies through its armature and contact-point, which are controlled by the branch line current from battery A to pole-changer B. Any cessation of the branch-line current allows the armature in relay U to fall oh, and thus break the current in main line, while a rever sal of the current produces no effect.
At each station or branch line are an ordinary key and a polarized relay, the latter being used to work a sounder bymeans of a local battery. Ordinarily the sounder and local battery are dispensed with, the relay being used as a sounder.
The branch line is operated manually by its keys, relays, and sounders in the ordinarymanher, the relays being all polarized and adjusted to the positive (or negative) current throughout the line to correspond with the adjustment of the pole-changer B and battery-connections.
As long as the keyson branch line are closed, the positive current is passing from battery A to branch line, and the armature in relay D in main line is held against its contact-point, and the main-line circuit therefore closed; but if a key in branch line is opened it instantly releases armature I), and thus produces a corresponding break in main line.
From the foregoing description it will readily be understood that currents, either positive or negative, are constantly passing over the branch line during the operation of the main line, excepting at extremely minute intervals ottime, when the circuit is broken between the pole-changer B and the branch terminus 7; but as the relay D is placed between battery A and pole-changer B, the current through its magnet is not broken at all, except by opening a key in branch line. This enables me to make the armature of relay D a key to mainline, as it does not fall as while main line is working; but by opening a key in branch line the armature D falls off and repeats the signal in mainline circuit. Any number of branch lines may thus be connected with and operated by the mainline circuit.
Instead of working such branch lines by batteries concentrated at one end, any number of batteries may be located at intervals along said lines to supply a given section of the line, each being furnished with a pole-changer such as described.
Having described my invention, I claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent- 1. The process or method for the automatic operation of a branch line of telegraph in connection with a main line, whereby a break in the main-line circuit is caused to polarize or reverse the branch-line current for the purpose of reproducing main line messages on said branch line, substantially as set forth.
2. The system or method of operating aline of telegraph for the purpose of reproducing and transmitting thereon messages passing over an independentline, by means of polarized currents automatically controlled by the operation of the independent line, substantially as set forth.
3. The system or method of working back from a branch line of telegraph operated by polarized currents to a main line operated by breaking circuit, by interrupting the normal branch-line current, and thus actuating a relay whose armature and contact-point are in the main-line circuit and ordinarily held closed by the branch-line current actuating its magnet, as set forth.
4. In combination with a main line of telegraph opcrated on LL16 break-circuit system, a branch-line pole-changer actuated by a localbattery circuit controlled by a relay in the main line, as set forth.
5. The pole-changerB,consisting,esscntially, of an oscillating armature, L, centrally pivoted on the line-post, and switch-bars I I,
pivoted on positive and negative battery-connections so arranged and operating that the switch-bar out of connection with the armature forms a ground-connection at the instant of severing such connection, While that in connection with the armature sends a battery-current to line, as set forth.
6. In a pole-changer, the combination of armature L, pivoted on the line-post and actuated by magnet H and spring, switch-bars I 1 secured to positive and negative battery posts, respectively, and ground-stops F F arranged and operating substantially as and for the purpose specified.
7. In combination with the pole-changer B in branch line, the relay 0 in main-line circuit, and controlling local battery B, and relay D in branch line controlling main-line circuit, as and for the purpose set forth.
8. In combination With the main line, branch line, and pole-changer B,the relay D, arranged in the positive-battery current between battery A and pole-changer B, for controlling the main line, as set forth.
9. The combination of a main and branch lines of telegraph with mechanism whereby a break in the main-line circuit causes a reversal of the branch-line current, and a break in the normal branch-line current causes a corresponding break in the main-line circuit, as set forth.
In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand in the presence of two subscribing witnesses.
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Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20040144395A1 (en) * 2002-08-02 2004-07-29 Evans Douglas G Self-anchoring sling and introducer system

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20040144395A1 (en) * 2002-08-02 2004-07-29 Evans Douglas G Self-anchoring sling and introducer system

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