US2295352A - Wall structure - Google Patents

Wall structure Download PDF

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Publication number
US2295352A
US2295352A US413616A US41361641A US2295352A US 2295352 A US2295352 A US 2295352A US 413616 A US413616 A US 413616A US 41361641 A US41361641 A US 41361641A US 2295352 A US2295352 A US 2295352A
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bricks
arch
brick
furnace
edge
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US413616A
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James E Macdonald
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Mcfeely Brick Co
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Mcfeely Brick Co
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F27FURNACES; KILNS; OVENS; RETORTS
    • F27DDETAILS OR ACCESSORIES OF FURNACES, KILNS, OVENS, OR RETORTS, IN SO FAR AS THEY ARE OF KINDS OCCURRING IN MORE THAN ONE KIND OF FURNACE
    • F27D1/00Casings; Linings; Walls; Roofs
    • F27D1/0003Linings or walls
    • F27D1/004Linings or walls comprising means for securing bricks

Description

P 1942- J. E. M DONALD WALL STRUCTURE Filed 001;. 4, 1941 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 a 1 l w 1 II!!! 1 .lllll m M ,3 0 ewe I I IIIIIFI J Sept. 1942- J. E. M DONALD 2,295,352
WALL STRUCTURE Filed Oct. 4, 1941 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 iNvENToR' 6, WW z zm P J. E. M DONALD WALL STRUCTURE Filed 'Oct. 4, 1941 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 INVEN TOR P 1942- J. E. M DONAL D 2,295,352
WALL STRUCTURE I Filed Oct. 4, 1941 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 Patented Sept. 8, 1942 WALL STRUCTURE James E. MacDonald, Latrobe, Pa, assignorto McFeely-Brick Company, Latrobe, Pa, a corporationof Pennsylvania Application October 4-, 1941, Serial No. 413,616
4 Claims.
lviy invention relates more particularly to furnace wall structures, such as open hearth furnaces, billet heating furnaces, etc., but it will be understood that it may be employed in constructing the walls of other structures.
In furnaces having brick arches which are subfor the purpose of supporting the upper bricks and thus relieving the arch of their weight.
- In the first instance, the spalling away of the arch in service causes the other bricks to fall into the furnace or slag pockets, as the case may be, thus requiring rebuilding of the entire Wall. There is also danger of the arch failing, and allowing the wall to fall on workmen who may have entered the slag-pockets of an open hearth furnace, for example, for the purpose of cleaning them or making repairs.
Metal hangers are not entirely satisfactory, because it is always necessary to have the iron framework of thefurnace in perfect alignment to fitthe hangers, and the hangers themselves must. have proper alignment relative to the bricks. These conditions of alignment, even when corrected to furnace irregularities, will not remain so.
One object of my invention is to provide a furnace wall of such form that the bricks above an arch will be largely self-sustaining, thus not only preventing buckling down thereof when the arch is removed for repairs or becomes worn away, but avoidimposing on the arch a stress or weight that tends to cause spalling thereof.
Another object of my invention is to provide a wall of such form that it will in itself serve as. an arch, although the. bricks are laid in straight courses.
Still another object is to provide a wall of such form that certain coursesmay be made selfsustaining by the use of specially formed bricks and which will serve to also support upper courses of bricks of standard shape, so that the entire wall above an arch or in. a blast furnace need not be formed of the special bricks.
Some of the forms which my invention may take are shown in the accompanying drawings wherein Figure 1 is a perspective View of a portion of a furnace wall embodying my invention; Fig.2 is a view showing oneof the bricks of this structure; Fig. 3 shows one of the side marginal bricks of Fig. 1; Fig. 4-is a sectional view through a portion of an open hearth-furnace wherein my invention'is incorporated; Fig. 5- is a longitudinal sectional viewof a portion-of a billet heating furnace or the like, showing' my invention embodied in the wall'above the door arch; Fig. 6 shows a modification of the structure of Fig. 1; Fig. 7 shows a modification of the form of brick shown in Fig. 2; Fig. 8 shows a wall formed of bricks of somewhat different form than those shown in Figs. 2 and 3i Fig. 9 is a perspective view of one of the bricks of Fig. 8, and Fig. 10 is a perspective view 'ofmy improved form of bricks as shaped to form a'circularwall.
Referring first to Figs. 1 to 4, the structure comprises the conventional form of brickwork Id and arch l5, which, in this instance," is shown as forming theupper portion of a port leading from an air slag pocket IE to anair regenerator chamber l1 and checkerwork l8, thisbrickwork being placed between .buckstays l9 placed atopposite sides of the port walls. These various parts may be of any Well known form and-fidetailed description thereof is unnecessary, the brickwork in Fig. 4 being shownon areduced scale relative to Fig. 1.
.In order to make thebrickwork above the arch l5 self-sustaining, I employ .brickslill'and 2i of the forms shown in Figs. 2 andv 3, respectively. The bricks 29. have edge surfaces 122 sloping upwardly from the mid plane thereof and edge surfaces 23 sloping downwardly fromsaid plane, While the bricks 2| have a vertical edge face for abutting the buckstays and upwardly and downwardly sloping surfaces 24 and 25 that engage the surfaces 22 and 23 of adjacentbricks 28. Conventional filler. bricks 26 are employed between the arch l5 and the .upper brickwork.
It will be seen that the bricks .of each .Veitical row are staggered or oifset.withrespectotdthe bricks of the adjacent rows, sothat .th u-ppermost surface ofeach .brick will-be at the median planes of the bricks in the adjacent vertical-rows. Each brick is therefore supported by itssloping surfaces 22 upon the sloping surfacesl?- 'of.adjacent bricks, the marginal bricks2l havingltheir sloping surfaces 24 fitting. against the. sloping surfaces 23 of adjacent bricks and their surfaces 25 fitting against the surfaces 22 .ofnadjacent bricks. In the present instance, the brickwork is shown as bonded in a direction transversely of the arch by making the wall thickness equal to the combined lengths of two bricks .andemploying half-length bricks v2'1 at theendsofeach full-length brick which overlaps one-half ofeach two adjacent full-length bricks. The spaces at the top and bottom of the wall which result from the vertical offsetting of the bricks 20 and 21 are filled by bricks 28 and 29 which are of onehalf the thickness of the other bricks.
Where economy of construction is desired, that portion of the wall above the bricks 20 may be built with bricks of standard form as indicated at 3| in Fig. 4, although it will be understood that the entire furnace wall abOVe the arch may be constructed of my specially formed bricks. The brickwork at 20 is not only self-sustaining, but will be of sufficient strength to withstand the weight of the entire wall above the arch l5, even though the arch be worn away or removed, because of the wedging force set up at the surfaces 22 and 23. The brickwork therefore cannot buckle. Furthermore, the arch I is relieved of the major portion of the weight, so that it will not be subjected to spalling through the crushing force of the brickwork above the arch, as frequently occurs. Also, workmen can enter the furnace to clean out the slag pocket without danger of the brickwork caving in on them through failure of the arch. Again, when the arch becomes worn through erosion, workmen can safely enter the slag pocket IE to install a new arch, without the necessity of tearing down and rebuilding the entire wall. In former structures, while the furnace is in operation, badlyworn arches may remain intact by means of a fused bond with adjacent bricks. However, when the furnace is cooled during repairs, the brick work contracts and breaks this fused bond-allowing the arch to cave in.
As shown in Fig. 4, my improved wall structure may be employed above the arch 32 that extends over the air slag pocket, my special brick structure being shown at 33 and the conventional brickwork at 34 for completing the wall. Sim larly, the improved wall arrangement can be employed above the arch 35 that extends over -the bulk-head 36, in this case the brickwork as shown above the arch in Fig. 1 being indicated generally by the numeral 31.
In Fig. 5 I show my invention applied to the side wall of an ordinary heating furnace such as a slab or billet heating furnace, which has a low arch 38 at the discharge door, and arches 39 at the check doors. These low arches 38 are usually 5 formed of fire clay brick which tend to shrink and let the bricks fall out and, furthermore, are sometimes dislodged by the material or tongs being inserted into or removed from the furnace. in place when the arch fails, and the arch will not have to support the weight of the bricks 20.
Referring now to Fig. 6 I show a structure wherein the bricks 2i] and 2| can be incorporated in a wall without the use of a conventional form of arch, the bricks being in themselves arranged to form a contour of generally arch form as indi cated at 45. It will be seen that the bricks to each side of the vertical center line of the arch are in stepped relation to one another and that that side surface of each brick which is nearest to said center line is vertical instead of sloped, so as to provide ledges at 4|. While these ledges are not essential to maintain the arch shape, they are desirable because they not only facilitate the building of the wall, but maintain the brickwork against slight sagging until the bricks have been expanded by the furnace heat, in the case of silica bricks, for example. Also, they prevent slight sagging or settling upon shrinkage of the In any event, the bricks 2i.) will remain bricks when the furnace cools. The bricks 2| at each end of the wall are supported on an angle 4 la that is bolted to the buckstays 19.
In Fig. '7 I show a brick 42 having the elongated shape of the bricks to extend throughout any desired wall, but of a type known as metal case brick. It comprises a metal shell 43 filled with magnesite 44, the shell being open at its front and back. The magnesite filler will usually be in granular form chemically bonded and the bond increased in strength by the heat to which the brick is subjected in use.
These metal-clad bricks will be of particular utility when there are very high temperatures, as for example in the ports and downtakes of open hearth furnaces. Highly refractory material is required to withstand these high temperatures, but the more refractory materials such as magnesite do not have sufficient mechanical strength. In walls of bricks having the conventional metal shell for magnesite, at those ends of the bricks which are exposed to the heat there forms a fused or monolithic bonding of the metal, which gives increased mechanical strength. However, the fusing is not to a very great depth. By the use of metal case bricks of the special cross-sectional forms shown in my drawings, there is not only fusing of the metal at the inner ends of the bricks, but greatly increased mechanical strength throughout the entire length of the bricks and for the full thickness of the wall. My wall will, therefore, have much greater strength than walls constructed of the metalfaced bricks of conventional form.
In Fig. 8 I show a self-sustaining brick structure formed of bricks 45 and 45, which may be substituted for the bricks 2i] and 2|. A wall structure formed of these bricks is self-sustaining by reason of the fact that the edge surfaces thereof slope upwardly from the median plane of the brick, as shown at 41 and 48, and slope downwardly from such plane as shown at 49 and 50. The sloping surface 49 of each brick will fit against the sloping surface 41 of an adjacent brick, as indicated at 5|, while the sloping surface 48 of each brick will fit against the sloping surface 50 of an adjacent brick, as shown at 52. The bricks are thereby firmly held or wedged in place with respect to one another, so that the wall is self-sustaining.
Referring now to Fig. 10, I show bricks 53 of cross-sectional form similar to that of the bricks 20, but so shaped that they can be employed in laying up a circular or curved wall. The bricks are of generally keystone shape (viewed in plan), in that they taper from their outer ends toward their inner ends. Their sloping surfaces 54 and 55 correspond to the surfaces 22 and 23 of the bricks 20.
I claim as my invention:
1. A wall structure having an upper portion comprising bricks each having its opposite edge surfaces above its median plane sloped upwardly in relatively flared planes and having the edge surfaces below its median plane sloped downwardly in relatively flared planes, the upwardlysloped surfaces of each brick fitting between the downwardly-sloping edge surfaces of two adjacent bricks, and means for supporting the ends of said upper wall portion, an arch being formed intermediate the end supports by omitting bricks at the lower edge of the wall structure, at progressively higher planes, so that onehalf of each of certain bricks at the arch projects below the adjacent brick next nearer to the vertical center line of the arch.
2. A wall structure having an upper portion comprising bricks each having its opposite edge surfaces above its median plane sloped upwardly in relatively flared planes and having the edge surfaces below its median plane sloped downwardly in relatively flared planes, the upwardlysloped surfaces of each brick fitting between the downwardly-sloping edge surfaces of two adjacent bricks, and means for supporting the ends of said upper wall portion, an arch being formed intermediate the end supports by omitting bricks at the lower edge of the wall structure, at progressively higher planes, so that one-half of each of certain bricks at the arch projects below the adjacent brick next nearer to the vertical center line f the arch, the said downwardly-projecting bricks at the arch each having a ledge formed thereon for supporting the adjacent corner of the said adjacent brick.
3. A wall structure having an upper portion comprising bricks each having its opposite edge surfaces above its median plane sloped upwardly in relatively flared planes and having the edge surfaces below its median plane sloped downwardly in relatively'flared planes, the upwardlysloped surfaces of each brick fitting between the downwardly-sloping edge surfaces of two adjacent bricks, means for supporting the ends of said upper wall portion, an arch being formed intermediate the end supports by omitting bricks at the lower edge of the wall structure, at progressively higher planes, so that one-half of each of certain bricks at the arch projects below the adjacent brick next nearer to the vertical center line of the arch, a curved arch positioned beneath the said upper portion of the wall, means for supporting the curved arch at its ends, and filler elements interposed between the top surface of the arch and the said upper wall portion, to provide a continuous face above the curved arch.
4. A wall structure having an upper portion comprising bricks each having its opposite edge surfaces above its median plane sloped upwardly in relatively flared planes and having the edge surfaces below its median plane sloped downwardly in relatively flared planes, the upwardlysloped surfaces of each brick fitting between the downwardly-sloping edge surfaces of two adjacent bricks, means for supporting the ends of said upper wall portion, a curved arch positioned beneath said upper portion of the wall, means for supporting a curved arch at its ends, and filler elements interposed between the top surface of the arch and the said upper wall portion, to provide a continuous face above the curved arch.
JAMES E. MACDONALD.
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Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2418742A (en) * 1944-01-05 1947-04-08 Albert B Agnew Blast furnace bottom
US2585552A (en) * 1947-09-02 1952-02-12 Detrick M H Co Refractory curtain
US3010888A (en) * 1957-01-25 1961-11-28 Rolls Royce Blocks for building purposes and structure formed therefrom
FR2207991A1 (en) * 1972-11-25 1974-06-21 Nippon Kokan Kk Refractory blast furnace lining bricks - avoid detaching of bottom lining bricks from the furnace wall
US4219961A (en) * 1978-09-25 1980-09-02 Palmer Stiles Arch block building system
US4253410A (en) * 1978-09-12 1981-03-03 Didier-Werke Ag Relief brickwork over opening in refractory brick wall
US6705241B2 (en) * 2002-03-11 2004-03-16 Weyerhaeuser Company Torispherical dome for refractory vessel

Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2418742A (en) * 1944-01-05 1947-04-08 Albert B Agnew Blast furnace bottom
US2585552A (en) * 1947-09-02 1952-02-12 Detrick M H Co Refractory curtain
US3010888A (en) * 1957-01-25 1961-11-28 Rolls Royce Blocks for building purposes and structure formed therefrom
FR2207991A1 (en) * 1972-11-25 1974-06-21 Nippon Kokan Kk Refractory blast furnace lining bricks - avoid detaching of bottom lining bricks from the furnace wall
US4253410A (en) * 1978-09-12 1981-03-03 Didier-Werke Ag Relief brickwork over opening in refractory brick wall
US4219961A (en) * 1978-09-25 1980-09-02 Palmer Stiles Arch block building system
US6705241B2 (en) * 2002-03-11 2004-03-16 Weyerhaeuser Company Torispherical dome for refractory vessel

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