US2287804A - Device for recovery of minerals - Google Patents

Device for recovery of minerals Download PDF

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US2287804A
US2287804A US22080738A US2287804A US 2287804 A US2287804 A US 2287804A US 22080738 A US22080738 A US 22080738A US 2287804 A US2287804 A US 2287804A
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shell
ore
particles
values
plates
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Henry L Johnson
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CARL S HALVERSON
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CARL S HALVERSON
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22BPRODUCTION AND REFINING OF METALS; PRETREATMENT OF RAW MATERIALS
    • C22B11/00Obtaining noble metals
    • C22B11/10Obtaining noble metals by amalgamating

Description

June 30, 1942. H. L. JOHNSON DEVICE FOR RECOVERY OF MINERALS 6 Sheets$heet 1 Filed July 22, 1938 r attorney H. L. JOHNSON I DEVICE FOR RECOVERY OF MINERALS Jun 30, 1942.

Filed Ju1 22, 1938 e sheets-.5115 2 v Jfimntqr I Henry L; Johnson atto meg June 30, 1942. H. L. JOHNSON 2,287,804

' DEVICE FOR RECOVERY OF MINERALS Filed July 22, 1938 e Sheets-Sheet 3 Zimaentpr Hery L; Jbhnson v June 30, 1942.

H. L. JOHNSON DEVICE FOR RECOVERY OF MINERALS 6 Sheets-Sheet 4 Filed July 22, i938 r M n e v n 3 Gttdmeg H. L. JOHNSON DEVICE FOR RECOVERY or MINERALS June 30, 1942 Filed'July 22, 1938 6.Sheets-Sheet 5 June 30, 1942 H. L. JOHNSON DEVICE FOR- RECOVERY OF MINERALS I 6 Sheets-Sheet 6 Filed July 22, 1938 Henry L. Johnson A (Ittomeg Patented 'June 30, 104 2 DEVICE FOR RECOVERY OF MINERALS Henry L. Johnson, Bremerton, Wash, asslgnor of fifteen per cent to Carl S. Halverson, Bremerton, Wash.

Application July 22, 1938, Serial No. 220,807

34 Claims.

My invention relates to the recovery of values from ore. While it was primarily designed for the recovery of such values as gold in a finely divided state, commonly called fiour gold, from ores such as magnetite or black sand, or placer deposits such as sea sand, river or upland deposits, still the principles of this invention can be used for the recovery of other values, as for instance gold from crushed ores, or platinum or other metal from ores of ,various types, so that the term values as herein used is intended to mean such metallic values as it is desired to recover, and the term "ores" is intended to, include ores of various types, whether of the types mentioned or of some other type, or where the metal is found in the form of a'salt.

The present application is a substitute for my application Serial No. 168,412, filed October 11, 1937, of which it is in part a continuation.

The, present invention is primarily concerned with the deposition of values from ore, but it has to do also with the preparation of the -ore to facilitate proper deposition of the values, including, if necessary, the crushing and/or the grinding of the ore.

I have found that such ores as magnetite, containing values, in a finely divided state and normally considered commercially impracticable to separate, can be handled at comparatively high. speed when the ore is electrically charged or ionized, and the deposition takes place within the infiuence of a magnetic field. With or without. the magnetic field, by proper charging of the depositingsurfaces and of the ore with electricity of opposite sign'rela-tivel-y to each other, and

' is used,- as for instance common sea water or water containing salt or other sodium compounds,

it would appear that'proper current flow causes the liberation of metallic sodium on the mercury amalgam plates used, thereby creating metallic sodium amalgam, which has a great affinity for platinum. Water, of course, destroys metallic sodium, changing it to sodium hydroxide, so that we have in this instance a continuous deposition and destruction of sodium.. By using zinc amalgam the same or similar results are accomplished. 55 what results are secured.

While I cannot explain the action that occurs,

and do not desire to be bound by any particular theory of operation,'it appears that the magnetic ore is held, by magnetic attraction or otherwise, in the grinding or abrading chamber until any surface film or accumulation of foreign matter is abradedfrom the values to be recovered. This gives them a clean surface with which to amalgamate with the amalgam plates. This appears to be necessary in order to obtain an adherence to the amalgam on the depositing plates. At the same time that this operation is taking place the particles are being polarized or ionized, that is,

7 given an electric charge, oran electric charge plates upon which is impressed an electric charge which they may have is being intensified, let us say positively, giving them a greater tendency to travel or to be deflected to the amalgam-coated of opposite sign, as negative.

,The ore is continuously working through the abrading chamber towards and passing through certain screeningmeans which insure that it is ground finely enough. Arrived in the depositing chamber, by reason of the magnetic fields therein and the control of these fields, including their destruction and creation intermittently, and 'by reason of certain other magnetic agencies and of the electric'difference of potential, deposition of the particles which constitute the values is enhanced, the abrasive action of the magnetic particles on the depositing plates is minimized, and the movement of the ore through the depositing chamber is controlled (hastened or retarded),- to

the end that the largest degree of separation and I deposition of the values is achieved, with the minimum of difliculty and with the minimum of wear on all parts, and with a minimum of loss of values.

Whether the action in the deposition chamber is an electrolytic action, an electro-deposition, an electro-chemical action, or an electromagnetic action, any one to the exclusion of others or one or morein conjunction, I do not know. It appears to be in some measure a complex of all. Different materials have a slightly better to a considerably greater degree of reaction. They all work with the mechanism and electromagneticfield in operation, and some without the magnetic field, but not without the current fiow or ionization ofthe particles oppositely with respect to the depositing plates. -.All work better with the complete system, so far as I have been able to observe. It follows that I cannot state the exact theory of operation, but I do know from trial By suitable arrangement of baflling means, preferably amalgam-coated, within the deposition chamber, and which baflles are given an electric potential negative from that of the'positive potential of the charged particles passing through the machine, the values are deposited and the gangue material, whether magnetic or otherwise, passes through the depositing chamher and is discharged. From time to time the values are removed from the amalgam plates in the usual way. The ionization ofthe particles with respect to the plates appears to cause these particles to force their way through materials a loose mass of which would oppose such migraand in part through the depositing or value-collecting plates, on the line H of Figure 3.

Figure 7 is a perspective view, diagrammatically arranged, to show the relationship of the lelectrical connections, especially in the depositing chamber.

Figure 8 is an electrical diagram to show the relationship of the magnetic arrangement, particularly in the depositing chamber.

Figure 9 is an axial section through the depositing chamber and the plate assembly. I

Figure 10 is an enlarged detafl section showing the securing means and the electrical conducting means for the plate assembly.

The rotative shell preferably consists of two parts, I and 2, axially aligned and mechanically connected, but electrically insulated, so that in effect they form an integral whole. mechanically considered. These two parts are conveniently separated from each other by means of a grizzly, sometimes supplemented by a screen or screens.

' While screen means are not shown, the grizzly is ly impede such migration. To facilitate the passage of the magnetic ores, such as magnetite, through the abrading chamber I provide a means of shorting out the coil which creates the mag: netic field in the abrading chamber. Similarly the magnetic field in and about the depositing chamber is formed of a number of coils soarranged that the lines of magnetic force extend axially, and with arrangements for reversing these coils or of deenergizing them from time toshown as composed of two parts 3 and 30, and screen means, employed if needed for finer grinding, would be held substantially fiat against the face of this composite grizzly on the side toward the shell part 2. By such means the machine is divided into an abrading chamber A and a depositing chamber D. The abrading chamber may also be divided further by a grizzly 3| to define a feed chamber F.

The shell part .i is preferably of nonmagnetic material, bronze for instance, but in order to which can be operated either by a batch process or as a continuous process, preferably the latter. My invention therefore comprises the novel apparatus and the novel method, which will be hereinafter disclosed more fully and as specified in the claims, and which is illustrated in the accompanying drawings.

In the accompanying drawings the mechanical, electrical and magnetic characteristics of my invention are shown in a form which is at present preferred by me, it being understood that various changes may be made therein in accordance with machine on the line 55 of Figure 3, showing the depositing chamber.

Figure 6 is a section through the depositing provide it with a wearing surface it is provided with a manganese steel liner I 0. might indeed be solid cast manganese steel. Within it are received abrading members, such as the balls ll of magnetic or nonmagnetic material, such as flint rock, but rods or similar abrading elements may be substituted for the balls. The entire shell is suitably supported for rotation, being, in the form shown, cradled upon rollers l and 40, preferably of brass or-cast iron, rubber-tired, rolling upon the steel tracks l2 and 22, respectively, which encircle the shell part I. Either of these sets of rollers may be a driving set, or the shell as a whole may be rotated by a chain (not shown) engaging the teeth of the bull gear I9,surrounding the shell I. The feed end of the shell is provided with a bearing at H, which is preferably universal in type, so

that proper alignment and distribution of stress may be achieved. It 'will be understood that the rollers, the bearing l8, and the like are supported from suitable framework which has been omitted I for clearer illustration.

chamber, in part looking towards the grizzly I separating the brading chamber from the deposit- The discharge end of the chamber D may be closed by an end plate or bell 20 of brass, bronze or. like nonmagnetic material, hingedly mounted at 2| and secured by suitable clamping means 23. The end bell 20 is formed with a circumferential channel 24 to serve as a mercury or .amalgam trap, and an inwardly directed flange 25 surrounding its discharge opening, for which there may be substituted a flange of greater or less inside diameter, serves also to prevent loss of mercury and amalgam and of values, while permitting discharge of gangue when the machine is operated with continuous run-through, as is customary,

The feed end of the machine is provided with a feed spout or chute l3, shown in the form of an elbow, having a close fit with the rotative neck constituting the bearing l8. Within the feed chamber, as indicated above, there may bepro- The shell I vided suitable advancing or feeding means, such as the inclined or screw-like plates ll. to advance the material away from the chute l3 and through the grizzly 3| into the abrading chamber A.

Withinthechamber D is received an assembly consisting primarily of outer baiile plates 5 and inner plates 50, 'While these might be continuous from end to end, it' is much preferred that they be composedof a series of individual plates, separadiall outward from acentral core 5| of brass v or like nonmagnetic material, disposed axially within the chamber. Rigidly supported upon this core are spiders 52 and 53, forming part of the assembly, of conductive but nonmagnetic material, as bronze. The plates 5 and 50 are provided at their longitudinal edges with binding or marginal plates 54, which may be brass rails, slit to receive the edges of the plates, and these marof thechamber D which lie in acommon plane,

' for slidably removing or replacing them. Each such baflle is supported in the spiders 52 and 53, properly aligned andspaced lengthwise of the chamber, the spiders having guides receiving the edging strips 54. The whole assembly is received within the open end of the chamber, the and bell 20' having been swung .aside. When it is desired to remove the baifles, they are individually slid endwise out of their supporting frame, for it is scarcely practicable to remove the entire'assembly as an .unit. The plates must be removed from time to time, since,'being amalgamcoated plates, they must be scraped to remove the values collected or deposited thereon from time to time. The core 5] is partof the assembly of which the plates 5 and 50 are also a part. All are electrically connected to a common source, to be given a negative charge, for example. The entire'assembl may be considered as an electrode,

charged negatively by a connection adjacent the discharge end. This core is preferably hollow,

and within it is a magnetic core surroundedby electromagnet windings I. Preferably there are a number of such windings, independently energizable in the direction of the axis of the chamber D. Within the core [0 is a brass pipe rounded by electromagnet windings 6, and preferably, considering zones defined by axially spaced transverse planes, there is in each zone a winding 1 and a winding 6 which cooperate with each other, but which are differently con- .trolled or energized fromother such pairs of windings.

For the supply of current to the core windings 1 I provide a plurality of contact rings. 12, preferably arranged in pairs, one for each-end of each s such winding 1, and for the supplyof current to the corresponding windings 6 I provide pairs of contact rings 62, These are connected by suitable conductors (not shown) to the respective windings by which they are energized, andcurrent is conducted to these contact rings by suitable brushes diagrammatically illustrated in Fig- 'ure 7, and lay-switching arrangements "diagrammatically shown in Figure 8. It is suflicient to 'ginal rails support all of the plates lengthwise to the shell I and connected to the positive side jup transformer whichmay convertit into a cur-' rent of, let us say, 2000 volts and a few milli- J9 for a purpose which will appear hereafter. ,It is preferred that the chamber D be also sur state that the coils I are controlled by reversing switches "which maybe manually, or which are preferably automatically, controlled in any suitable manner to deenergize' the coils periodically and to 'reversetheir polarity when again they are energized, repeating this deenergization' and reversal periodically. Similarly the coils 6 are controlled by reversing switches to accomplish the same result for these coils,,and the switches 66 and H are preferably sooperated or connected for operation that the'cooperating coils 6 and "I are simultaneously energized and deenergized and reversed. The operation is also so arranged that in the direction of movement of the sludge the first pair of cooperating. coils is energized,

then the next, then the next, and so on, to the discharge end, so that, mo'yement of the sludge containing magnetic material is controlled through the depositing chamber. In similar fashion the abrading chamber is surrounded by a coil-63, energized through collector rings 64, for use under some circumstances, and this may be deenergized, when used, periodically or from time to time, to permit advance of the ore.

As has been suggested, the particles are ionized, and are preferably given a positive charge while still inthe abrading chamber. Any suitable means to this end may be employed. For instance, a contact ring 8 is'provided, grounded of a high-voltage, low-amperage current source.

As shown in the electrical diagram, current is supplied from a -volt main through a stepamperes, and it is then conducted through a rectifying tube, and the positive side of this cur- Y rent source is connected to the contact ring 0, The negative side of the same source is connected to the plate assembly, and'this may be accomplished by providing a special contact ring 80, which is connected by the screw 0!, insulated from the shell 2, but extending through it to contact with that spider 52 ,nearest the discharge end. Each spider is in electrical contact with .the edge rails 54 of the respective plates, and 'each plate is in electrical contact with these binding or edging strips or rai1s,'and consequently all the plates are charged negatively relative to the shell I. The shell 2, however, is coated on its inside with rubber, and is thereby insulated .from the plates 5 and 50, and as a result the values, charged positively within the abrading chamber by contact with the chamber wall or with the abrading elements in contact with the -latter, are attracted to the negatively charged plates when they enter the depositing chamber, as will appear hereafter. Allparts and all sur faces within the shell 2, except the amalgamcoated baflles, and perhaps the combs hereafter referred to, are coated with rubber or otherwise insulated. This serves the dual purpose of avoiding electrical contact with the material of the shell 2, and of avoiding quick wearing away of the shell or of its liner by abrasion. The amalgam-coated plates are not rubber-coated, since the amalgam surfaces must'be exposed to the material, but substantially all other parts are so covered or coated with rubber, as is made clear in the drawings.

' .Spaced lengthwise of the depositing chambe plained hereafter.

appear hereafter, it'is desirable to permit the combs to be positively electrically charged, when this is desirable (as when an electrolytic action is desired or required), and to. that end I provide contact rings 90 which are electrically connected to the combs, and to the positive side of a current source. One of the contact rings 9|! may be connected to every other comb, and the other contact ring '80 to the altematecombs.

It is desired to refer to certain details here. For instance, the shells I and 2 are not directly connected, but'rather through a spacer and coupling element consisting of the annular channellike element l4, l5, made in two parts which are hingml together at I, and held together by suit-' able clamping means IE, and each is held by suitable clamping bolts (not shown) seated in the radial slots l of .the flanges of the coupling ring, to flanges formed upon the abutting ends of the respective shells l and 2, and having registering slots II and 29" wherein the clamping bolts seat. By swinging aside one or the other of the halves I4 or l5 the grizzly element 30, l

- which is smaller ,than a diametenmay be removed and ballsmay be taken out or replaced therein. Also by swinging aside one or the other of these halves H or IS a screen element may be removed or replaced on the side towards the depositing chamber D.

It is also desired to point out that water may be supplied at the elbow It by a suitable water supply valve and inlet, indicated at I00, and the pipe 19, enclosed within the iron core 10, is also a water supply pipe, and may be connected through the depositing chamber and core to discharge at the feed end of that chamber, but preferably water is supplied by a swingspout nozzle IM, swiveled at I02 to a supply pipe I I3.

Ore, alone or accompanied by water or by an i electrolyte, as conditions may-require, or by mer-.

cury, is fed into the shell, while the latter is rotating, through the spout I3. or any equivalent means. The electrolyte may be natural sea water or other saline solution. Mercury in small amounts would normally accompany the ore, with or without the water or electrolyte. Current is normally supplied to the contact ring 8 and to the contact ring 80, thus applying charges of opposite sign to the material as it passes through the machine and to the plates. Current is also supplied, normally, to the coils O and I, in the manner explained above. It may be pointed out also that the shell I may likewise be surrounded by an electromagnet c'oil, if desired,

but this in practice has not been found to be necessary, except when operating upon magnetizable material, such as magnetite, or upon an extremely hard-grinding ore with magnetizable grinding elements I I. In such cases a coil about the shell I creates a powerful crushing effect on the grinding elements, and greater force with less weight of such elements.

- As the material passes through the abrading chamber A it is acted upon by the abrading elements therein, and the materials are ground or polished. The grinding surfaces being positively charged, this positive charge is impressedupon all the material as it comes-into contact with such surfaces, and the materials are thereby ionized. I

Assuming proper abrasion of the ores to reduce them to a sufliciently fine degree, and to remove surrounding or clinging material or film, they pass through the grizzly 3, I0, and through any screening means adjacent the same, into the depositing chamber D. Here the values, being ionized and charged of one sign, are attracted to the oppositely charged plates, and are caused to migrate through the sludge towards these plates. This action is-assisted by the magnetization of thecomb fingers 0, for they form magnetic fields between them,'parallel to the plates 8 and 50,

and these magnetic fields tend-to project all the ionized particles at right angles, and therefore towards-the face of the plates. By such means, as well as byxthe aflinity of particles of value for the amalgam plates, and as well by the mechanical stirring and interaction of the plates upon the sludge, the shell rotating at 28 to 45 R. P. M., the values are attracted to and deposited upon the plates, but whereas the values immediately amalgamate and stick to the'plates, the remainder are washed oil. and pass out the end bell 20. The magnetic particles of the sludge are ionized, but these are not projected by the magnetic field as are the particles of values, since the magnetic attraction of the combs is greater than the repulsion of charged particles under these conditions. Thus there is a positive separation occurring in this chamber by reason of the magnetic fields and the arrangement of the parts, and by reason of the ionization oppositely of the plates and of the particles of values, and by reason of the water, or, in proper cases, of electrolytic action.-

Progress of the sludge through the depositing chamber is controlled by the alternate energization, deenergization and reversal of the axially successive windings 6 and 1, for progress of the magnetic material. is not-facilitated while any given magnetic field is in operation, tending to hold it back, but upon destruction of that mag magnets, the particles'in that particular zone of the depositing chamber are free to be attracted into the next successive zone by the energization of the magnets'in that particular zone, to' be propelled by the-baflies and by rotation of the shell.

It may be also that a certain electrolytic action takes place, by breaking down of sodium chloride; for instance, and by replacement of other metals in ores by the freed sodium which has been amalgamated onto the plates, and the deposition, of the metals thus freed. However, the strength of the current is so small that it is more probable that the action is, asdescribed above, an electro-deposition because of the opposite'sign of the particles and of the plates. Goldfplatinum, silver and the "like are of the electro-chemical series and positively charged elements, and are attracted or ,drawn by negatively charged elements or parts. Such tendencies are greatly activated or increased'in passing through the magnetic fields, accompanied by the high-voltage direct current, and under this condition. the particles of the values are inore.

, 2,287,804. strongly drawn to the negatively charged amalgam baflles, and thereon are readily deposited. By reason of. the. combination of forces acting upon them the values are deposited as indicated above," and the ore passesout as gangue at a. high rate ofspeed. A little mercury maybe added with the incoming ore from time to time to supplementthat which is absorbed or filled by the values being deposited thereon, or to replacethat upon the plates- To assist in moving the gangue through the chamber, for lubrication as it were, more or less water may be suppliedjthrough the nozzle IM' and the pipe 19, or past the supply interfering natural chemical combinations are caused to separate and recombine with the free chlorine as in the case of sodium chloride, where'- as the sodium generally combines with the mercury. As gold is most diiiicult to keep in chemical combination, this disturbing electronic or electrolytic eflfect gives it the impetus to separate, and its aflinity for mercury causes it to valve at I00, depending onwhether it is neces-' sary to have more water in the abrading chamher or in the depositing chamber, or both. From time to time, as the valuesare collected upon the plates, the shell is'stopped and opened, and the theore or'rock, thereby freeing the particlesof metal confined therein. While it islbeing ground to a fine mesh in the tube or rod mill, it is sometimes customary to feed mercuryin small quantities periodically in order to force amalgamation or a coating of the mercury on the particles of gold, thereby causing or attempting to cause a quicker and more positive adherence to the amalgam plates situated in such a position that these said particles come in contact with them with as great an impact as possible. By grinding mercury and cm together, the mercury is floured, thereby creating a dimcult problem of again consolidating the extremely fine particles of amalgam (gold, silver, etc., coated or amalgamated with mercury) on the plates.

It appears that theso-called sulphide oresof combine therewith. 3 Since the abrading elements are the positively charged terminal it follows that all materials passing through or coming in contact therewith become positively charged also. It is known that a positively charged or ionized particle will travel or be attracted to' a body of the opposite polarity, such as the depositing plates, wnich are of negative polarity or sign.

It is tobe remembered that all matter orsubstance is composed orelectrons and protons,

. which probably is electricity itself. A proper application of given forces (electrical, chemical, me-

chanical, etc.) to the matter to be treated, as in the case of the recovery of precious metals from their ores or the substance with which they are mixed, will cause certain reactions totake place and put them in a condition to be recovered or gold; especially, contain the gold in an extremely finely-divided state inthe iron pyrite in the said ore, and not in combination. It all depends upon what other elements are associated in a free or combined state as to whether an ionic charge can be depended upon to separate the values or whether a chemical electrolyte must be used or added to the water in the abrading chamber to breakdown the metal to be recovered. For instance',-there may be used, in addition to the metallic mercury, a sodium compound such as NaQI-I which. has a cleansing e'iiect when the device is operated for ionic charging of the particles to be recovered, and such a compound de stroys many interfering substances in the ore.

At the same time, NaOI-I keeps the platesin a clean, activated state. In the case of recovering of platinum, the process is reversed; that is, a heavier current flow with lower voltage is used.

In this case, the current flow is of such an intensity as to momentarily deposit metallic sodium in the amalgam upon the depositing plates',: thereby causing an aflinity for platinum. As waterdestroys metallic sodium there isa continual deposition and destruction of the metallic'sodium. By this action the mercury is maintained in such an activated state that it has an afiinity for the platinum or like metals.

Referring to the so-called sulphide ores, I have found that by using diflerent sodium compounds besides sodium hydroxide, as for instance sodium refined." This being true it follows from the novel arrangement of force in the various combinations possible with this mill that many operations are eliminated and recoveries made possible that were heretofore not economically possible. combinations are too numerous to mention here. Breaking down NaCl with electric energy, to activate mercury, is not a new discovery, but the present application of this known process is new in that it is of a nature to be economically applicable. In cases where the metal-to be recovered (gold, for instance) is in the free state and combined with tellurium, by using metallic mercury, NaCl, and bichloride of mercury and grindmg these with the ore upon a charged plate or charged media which also acts as the positive terminal, a chemical action is caused to take place, breaking down the-NaCl, mercury bichloride gold telluride and free gold to tellurium chloride, and thegold, mercury and sodium combine in minute particles in themetallic state, whereas the sodium, chlorine and tellurium chloride are washed out of the amalgam leaving some sodium and the metallic mercury-gold amalgam upon the depositing plates to be removed and refined in the usual way. Metallic sodium uponany amalgam plate increases the aiiinity of the mercury for the salts or metals that it will combine with.

Referring to the eiiect of magnetic influences upon matter, I might say that it depends upon whether the matter is dormant or in motion. ,In

this particular instance, the lines of force are axially otthe cylinder and the flow of material is also axially, but in a whirling movement that cuts throu h the lines of force. Owing 'to'the presence of an electrical charge upon the particles thus moved within the magnetic field, a. force will be set up which tends to move the particles at right angles to the magnetic field, away from the strongest portion of the field, and said charged material acted upon by such force, is pro.- lected towards and tends to hit the depositing plates and there to adhere. Once stuck tothe plates, they no longer cut the lines of force and are therefore no longer under the; influence of the inductive action for the reason, that they no chloride, and anelectric current passing from longer cut the lines oi force but'are traveling with the abrading media tothe depositing plates, the

These it. The'magnetite being of a nature to be magnetizable to a strong degree is held to the combschine.

and gets very little induced electrical energy because they do not cut the lines of force to any great extent in their passage through the field, as is readily seen from a' close study of the ma- The only electrolysis that takes place is in the breaking down of the chemicals used and the breaking down of the chemicals found in the ore, if any. The deposition of the metallic metals is not electro-plating, but enforced amalgamatlon.

What I claim as my invention is:

1. Mechanism for recovering values, as gold, from ore, comprising a rotative shell, a plurality of amalgam-coated baflies therein, rotative with the shell and contacted by the ore as the shell rotates, insulating means between the baffles and the shell, and means including an external cur-' rent source having one terminal connected to the baiiies to impress a charge of one sign thereupon, and itsother terminal arranged to impress a static electric charge of opposite sign upon the ore particles, to charge the ore particlesand the baffles with a difference of electric potential, thereby to assist deposition of the values upon the baiiies.

2. A device for recovering values, as gold, from ore, comprising a rotative shell, a plurality of amalgam-coated baflies disposed generally radially about and lengthwise of the shell, means to charge the ore particles and the baflles with a difference of electric potential, magnetizable combs disposed in generally radial planes between the battles, and means to create magnetic fields adjacent said combs and-disposed generally coplanar therewith.

3.- A device for recovering values, as gold, from ore, as magnetite, comprising a rotative metal shell, an assembly removably received therein and comprising a hollow nonmagnetic core, an electromagnet axially disposed therein, a plurality of angularly spaced amalgam-coated baiiles, said baflies being all electrically connected, insuiating means supporting said assembly from the shell, and means to producea diiference of electric potential between the baflles and theore particles within the shell.

4. A device for recovering values, as gold, from ore, as magnetite, comprising a rotative metal shell, an assembly removably received therein and comprising a hollow nonmagnetic core, an electromagnet axially disposed therein. a plurality of angularly spaced amalgam-coated bafiles, part thereof extending inward from the shell, but not to the core, and part thereof interposed between the first-mentioned baflles and extending outward from the core, but not to the shell, said baffles being all electrically connected, insulating means supporting said assembly from the shell, and means to produce .a difference of electric potential between the baflies and the ore particles within the shell.

l 5. A device for use in recovering values fromore, comprising a rotative shell of conductive material, screening means within the shell, between having its opposite terminal connected to the baftheshell and slidably received in said guides,

ing two substantially half-round sections and means to removably connect them at their adjoining ends, whereby access may be had to the smaller sizing plate for its removal, and to the two chambers.

7. Mechanism for recovering values from ore, comprising a rotative cylindrical shell having two axially adjoining but electrically insulated parts, an apertured plate at their junction to divide the shell into an abrading chamber and a depositing chamber, value-attractive surfaces with-v in and electrically insulated from the abrading chamber, anda current source having a terminal grounded to the a'nrading chamber to charge -ore particles therein, and its other terminal elect'rically connected to the value-attractive surfaces, to charge the 'latter oppositely 'to the particles.

8; Mechanism for recovering values from ore, comprising a rotative cylindrical shell having two axially adjoining but electrically insulated parts, an apertured plate at their junction to divide the shell into an abrading chamber and a depositing chamber, value-attractive surfaces within and electrically insulated from the abrading chamber, a current source having a terminal grounded to the abrading chamber to charge ore particles therein, and its other terminal electrically connected to the value-attractive surfaces, to chargethe latter oppositely to the particles, and means to create magnetic fields within'the depositing chamber-disposed generally parallel to such surfaces.

v9. Mechanism for recovering values from ore, comprising a self-sustaining rotative cylindrical shell, guide means therein including spiders spaced axially of the shell, and having aligned guides, value-attractive baiiles received in said guides for axial sliding movement relative to the shell, and disposed in two series; the baflies of one series extending radially of the axis, but not tothe shell, and the baflies of the other series being interposed between baflles of the first series and extending radiall inwardly from the shell 7 but not to the axis.

comprising a self-sustaining rotative cylindrical shell, a framework therein comprising an axial core and spiders rigid therewith and spaced therealong, said framework defining a plurality of axial, radiating guides, and value-attractive 'baiiles of less width than the radial distance between the core and the shell, separate from one such baflie extending from the core towards but not to the shell and the next one from the shell but not to the core, and so on alternately about the'framework. v

11. Mechanism as in claim'9, the shell having a plurality of recesses inits inner wall opening away from its discharge end, wherein, by lengthwise movement of the framework. are received the ends of the spiders, and means to secure 12. Mechanism'as in claim 9, the bailies being formed of a plurality of plates spaced lengthwise, and binding strips engaging the inner and outer edges of the several plates constituting a single bafiie, to hold them in spaced relation, the binding strips cooperating with the guides for handling and slidably removing and replacing the baffles.

. 13. Mechanism as in claim 9, the baffles being formed of a plurality of plates spacedlengthwise, and binding strips engaging the inner and outer edges of the several plates constituting a single bailie, to hold them in spaced relation, the binding strips cooperating with the guides for handling and slidably removing and. replacing the baffles, and the edges of the individual plates which are distant from the discharge end of the shell being angularly disposed shells axis.

l l. Mechanism for recovering values from ore, comprising a rotative shell, a plurality of valueattractive bafiies arranged therein in radial planes, for rotation with the shell and for conrelative to the tact with the ore during such rotation, means to produce a, plurality of electromagnetic fields "within'the'shell, extending generally in radial means within the shell, between its ends, dividing the shell into an abrading chamber and a depositing chamber, dielectric means insulating the abrading chamber from the depositing chamber, abrading means within the abrading chamvalue-attractive baffies within and electrically. in-

sulated from the depositing chamber, and rotative with the shell to be contacted by the ore as the shell rotates, and an electric current source having its opposite terminals electrically connected to the ba'fiies and to the ore, whereby ,the particles of values, within the, depositing chamber, are attracted by the oppositely charged baffles.

v 16. Mechanism for use in recovering values from ore, comprising a rotative shell, screening 7 means within-the shell, between its ends, dividing theshell into an abradingchamber and a depositingchamber insulatedtherefrom, abrading means within the abrading chamber, valueattractive baiiies within and electrically insulated from the depositing chamber, androtative with the shell to be contacted by the ore as the shell rotates. an electric current source having its opposite terminals electrically connected to the bafiies and to the ore, whereby the particles of values, within'the depositing chamber, are attracted by the oppositely charged baffles, and means to create a plurality of magnetic fields within the depositing chamber, each disposed as a screen athwart the path of movement of the ore particles, as the shell rotates, whereby the charged particles, cutting the lines of force, are impelled towards the oppositely charged bafiles,

17. Mechanism for recovering values from ore, comprising a rotative cylindrical shell, valueattractive baffles separate from and disposed within the shell in planes which lie generally radially of the shell, and axial guide means including spiders disposedtransversely of the shell, organized and arranged to permit individual baflies to be withdrawn endwise from the shell.

18. Method of recovering values'from ore in finely divided state which comprises impressing a static electric charge upon the particles, impressing an electric charge of opposite sign upon value-attractive surfaces, and in producing relative movement between the charged surfaces and particles, whereby the values migrate to and are held upon the surfaces. 7 v

19. Method of recovering values from orein finely divided state, in the presence of an electrolyte, which comprises impressing a static electric charge upon the particles, impressing an electric charge of opposite sign upon valueattractive surfaces, and in producing relative movement between the charged surfaces and the particles, whereby the values migrate to and are the ore, while in intimate associatiomto a magnetic field, andin producing movement of the particlesrelative to the charged surfaces and transversely of the magnetic field, whereby the values, under the influence of such movement and of the magnetic field, migrate to and are held upon the surfaces.

21. Method of recoveringvalues from ore in finely divided state which comprises impressing a static electric chargeupon the particles, impressing an electric charge of opposite sign upon surfaces in intimate association with the particles, applying a value-attractivecoating to the surfaces to hold values attracted thereto, and producing relative movement between the surfaces and the particles, whereby the values migrate to the surfaces, to be held thereupon by the coating.

22. Method of recovering values from magnetic ore in finely divided state which comprises impressing an electric chargeupon the ore par netic field between other surfaces spaced from v the value attractive Surfaces, and which are within the ore, to repulse electrically charged non-magnetic values, "moving relative to the magnetic field, towards thevalue-attractive surcomprising a value-attractive surface disposed to a contact ore particles, means to impress an elecand upon the amalgam-coated surface, of opposite sign. means to produce a magnetic field wherein the lines or force define, in general, a plane which is generally parallel to said amalgam-coated surface, and means to produce relative movement between such field and the mass including in its circuit the electrodes and the electrolyte, means to effect advance of the particles from one electrode towards the other, and

' means to create a magnetic field embracing the of charged particles, in a direction transverse to as the charged particles cut the lines of force the plane defined by the lines of force, whereby they are repelled from such-plane, and are im- 'pelled towards the -coated surface.

25. Mechanism-for recovering values from particles of ore, comprising a value-attractive surjiace, means to impress a static electric charge upon the ore particles, differing from the electric potential of said surface, and means to bring the surface and the charged ore particles into contact, whereby the statically charged values in the ore are attracted to the surface by the difference in electric potential.

advancing particles, and through which they advance,'of such polarity as to alter the normal rate of advance of the magnetic particles.

, 30. Mechanism for recovering values from particles of magnetic ore, comprising a value-attractive surface, means to effect advance of' the particles in the direction of the plane of and in contact with said surface,- .and means to create a magnetic field embracing the advancing particles, and through which they advance, of such polarity as to alter the normal rate of advance of themagnetic particles, means to impress static electric charges of opposite sign upon the surface and upon the ore particles, respectively, and means to create a second magnetic field, trans- 26. Mechanism-for recovering values from particles of ore, comprising a rotative shell, a plurality of baiiies therein. rotative with the shell and contacting the ore as the shell rotates, means to impress a static electric charge of one sign upon the ore particles, and means to impress an electric charge of pposite sign upon the bames,

whereby the statically charged values in the ore are attracted to the bailies by the difference in electric potential; l

, 27. Mechanism for recovering values from particles of magnetic ore, comprising a valueattractive surface, means to impress a static electric charge upon the ore particles, differing in electric potential from said surface, means to bring the surface and the charged ore particles into contact, whereby the statically charged values in the ore are attracted to the surface by the difference in electric potential, and means to verse to the direction of the ores advance, and generally parallel to the value-attractive surface, to impel electrically charged. values, by repulsion, towards the oppositely charged surface.

31. Mechanism for recovering values from ore,

comprising a self-sustaining rotative cylindrical shell, a plurality of radially disposed bailles projecting from the shells 'wall inwardly towardsbut not to its axis, means supported within the shell and guiding each baflie for independent endwise removal, a second series of bafiies disposed radially, intermediate the first baflies, and projecting from the shells axis outwardly towards but not to the circumferential wall, and similar guide means supporting each bafiie of the second tive surfaces generally radially disposed within produce a magnetic field acting upon the magnetlc particles of the ore-to restrain their movement, by electro-potential attraction, towards the surface.

28. Mechanism for recovering values from particles of ore, comprising an amalgam-coated surface, means to impress a static electric charge upon the ore particles, differing from the electric potential of said surface, and means to bring the surface and the chargedore particles into contact, whereby the statically charged values in the ore are attracted to the surface by the difference of potential, and are held 'there by the value-attractive characteristics of the amalgam coating thereon.

. 29. Mechanism for recovering values from particles of magnetic ore, comprising two opposite electrodes disposed in'contact with the ore particles, a saline electrolyte including the electrodes and the ore particles-an external current source therewith.

33. Mechanism forrecovering values from ores. comprising a rotative cylindrical shell, a set of amalgam-coated bailles generally radially disposed within the shell, means supporting each of said battles for rotation with the'shell, and for individual removal lengthwise from the shell, and comb-like fingers defining planes which argenerally radially disposed within the shell, intermediate adjoining baiiies, and supported from the shell for'rotation therewith.

'34. Mechanism for recovering values from ores comprising a rotative cylindrical shell, a set of amalgam-coated baiiies generally radially disposed within the shell, and each formed as a series of coplanar, longitudinally spaced plates, means supporting. said baiiles removably within the shell, for rotatlontherewith, and a plurality of sets of comb-like fingers, radially directed and disposed within the shell for' rotation therewith,

and disposed intermediate adj'oiningbaflles.

HENRY L. JOHZNSON.

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Cited By (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2452220A (en) * 1942-05-19 1948-10-26 Bower William Leslie Magnetic separator
US3438495A (en) * 1966-10-19 1969-04-15 Electromagnets Ltd Drum magnetic separators
US3510068A (en) * 1966-12-12 1970-05-05 David Weston Grinding of magnetic ores
US4144163A (en) * 1975-06-05 1979-03-13 Sala Magnetics, Inc. Magnetodensity separation method and apparatus
US4343695A (en) * 1977-11-28 1982-08-10 Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. System for non-magnetic metal selection
US4533053A (en) * 1983-01-13 1985-08-06 Magnetic Separation Systems, Inc. Rotary drum magnetic separator

Cited By (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2452220A (en) * 1942-05-19 1948-10-26 Bower William Leslie Magnetic separator
US3438495A (en) * 1966-10-19 1969-04-15 Electromagnets Ltd Drum magnetic separators
US3510068A (en) * 1966-12-12 1970-05-05 David Weston Grinding of magnetic ores
US4144163A (en) * 1975-06-05 1979-03-13 Sala Magnetics, Inc. Magnetodensity separation method and apparatus
US4343695A (en) * 1977-11-28 1982-08-10 Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. System for non-magnetic metal selection
US4533053A (en) * 1983-01-13 1985-08-06 Magnetic Separation Systems, Inc. Rotary drum magnetic separator

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