US2245575A - Hydraulic disruption of solids - Google Patents

Hydraulic disruption of solids Download PDF

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US2245575A
US2245575A US289955A US28995539A US2245575A US 2245575 A US2245575 A US 2245575A US 289955 A US289955 A US 289955A US 28995539 A US28995539 A US 28995539A US 2245575 A US2245575 A US 2245575A
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nozzle head
conduit
conduits
nozzles
water
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US289955A
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Court William Frederick
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Shell Development Co
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Shell Development Co
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10BDESTRUCTIVE DISTILLATION OF CARBONAGEOUS MATERIALS FOR PRODUCTION OF GAS, COKE, TAR, OR SIMILAR MATERIALS
    • C10B33/00Discharging devices; Coke guides
    • C10B33/006Decoking tools, e.g. hydraulic coke removing tools with boring or cutting nozzles

Description

June 17, 1941. w. F. COURT HYDRAUL IC DIS HIIBTI ON OF SOLIDS Filed Aug. 14, 1939 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Patented June 17, 1 941 HYDRAULIC DISRUPTION OF SOLIDS William Frederick Court, Chicago, 111., assignor to Shell Development Company, San Francisco, Calif., a corporation of Delaware Application August, 1939, Serial'No'. 289,955-
. 1'0 Claims. This invention relates to the hydraulic disruption of solid masses by means of water'jets" which are directed substantially radially outwardly from a. well in the mass, and is particularly concerned with an improved nozzle head which is suitable for that purpose; Such a nozzle head is useful in the removal of solids, such as coke, from vessels, but may be employed for other purposes.
In my copending application, Serial No. 191,685, filed February 21, 1938, I have described particularly a process for cleaning vessels which contain certain solids, like carbonaceous material, particularly deposits of coke produced by the carbonization of hydrocarbon oils, such as reaction and coking chambers employed in petroleum cracking plants and the like, and asphaltic materials, especially the solid, brittle kinds, by means of Water jets. According to one embodiment of the process the body of material to be removed, such as coke in a vertical cylindrical coking chamber, is acted upon in three operations:
In the first step, after opening the top and bottom manholes and cooling the coke by means of steam followed by water, the body of coke is cannulated vertically, eitherby drilling or by means of a, vertically, preferably downwardly, directed jet of water, such as, for example, a jet discharged from a spear nozzle with a A; or one inch diameter orifice, supported by and supplied through a vertical water feed pipe, and discharg- 'ing water at between 400 and 750 gallons per minute. When water is used, the fine particlesof coke displaced are diffusedinto the body of the cokebed, and the water drains through the.
coke, discharging through the lower manhole. In this step a vertical hole or well from one to several inches in diameter is formed through the coke bed at the axis of chamber. The purpose of this step is to provide a. tubular opening or well to permit a water feed pipe, which is suspended and supplied with water at its upper end, and supports the nozzle head employed in.
the subsequent steps, to be lowered through the body of the coke. 4
In the second step, the opening is reamed to increase the size of the initial opening to about 18 to 24 inches in diameter so that the nozzle head employed in the last step maybe used without fouling the coke bed. For this purpose the water feed pipe, which after the jetting in the first step is susepnded within the coke bed, is lowered to extend through the lower manhole, and a reaming nozzle head is attached to the lowerend in place of the spear nozzle. The assembly is then raised gradually or step-wise with the water pressure turnedon. The reaming nozzle head comprises a rotor, rotatable about the axis of the water feed pipe and is a relatively small radial dimension, having about twice or three times the diameter of the initial hole. It is provided with a plurality of reaction nozzles, which impart a relatively high rotary speed, such as about 1,000 revolutions per minute to the head, and with a scraper on top. The nozzles discharge jets of water directed upwardly andioutwardly which cut an enlarged well into the solid material. The second step is completed when the nozzle head has reached the top of the coke bed. Coke which is cut away or loosened by the nozzle head drops down through the opening into dump cars located beneath the coke chamber, and water is collected by means of apair of inclined aprons, which direct it into a trough, from which it flows into a settling basin,'.for recirculation through the water feed pipe.-
In the third step, (which may be begun before the completion of the second step) the main body of the coke is disrupted and completely removed from the chamber. The water feed pipe is again lowered to extend beneath the coking chamber, the remaining nozzle head is disconnected, and the main nozzle head is attached in its stead. Alternatively, the main nozzle head may be coupled beneath the reaming nozzle head, or, if desired, the reaming nozzle .may be connected to the spear nozzle and thgfirst and second steps combined. The main nozzle head is non-rotatable with respect to and connected to the water feed pipe, and is provided with a plurality of upwardly and with a plurality of outwardly or downwardly directed nozzles which direct jets of water radially outwardly to disrupt and completely remove the coke from the chamber when the water supply is turned on and the nozzle head is raised into the enlarged well. Some of the nozzles on the main nozzle head are arranged to impart a, rotary motion to the nozzle head, whereby the nozzles assume a plurality of successive planes, the rate of rotation being usually controlled. by adjustment of the reaction nozzles with respect to the water feed pipe. Alternatively, the speed of rotation may be controlled by means of a brake operating upon a now rotating portion; of the feed pipe. In any case, the rate of rotation is controlled preferably so as not to exceed 2 to 4 revolutions per minute. If desired, the rotation maybe efiected by applying an external rotating force on the feed pipe, it being in this case unnecessary to arrange the 1938, I have described particularly a nozzle head suitable for use according to the disclosure of the prior filed application. A specific object of the present invention is to provide an improved noz- I zle head for carrying out the third stepiof the process as outlined above.
While the' nozzle head described in the present application is particularly adapted for the removal of carbonaceous material by the process of the said parent applications, it may possibly be employed for any operation in which it is desired to form an opening through a mass of solid material, either continuous or packed, and irrespective of whether the operation results in the complete removal of the solid material from the container or merely in the cutting through of an opening.
Another object is to provide a means for controlling the rate of rotation of the nozzle head by adjustment of the reaction nozzles.
While it is preferred, for purposes of convenience, and to simplify the mechanical arrangement for guiding the water feed pipe, to eifect the above-described second and third steps by an upward movement of the nozzle head whtlch is suspended by the water feed pipe, whereby the rotor section functions as a reamer, it should be noted that it is not necessary to suspend the nozzle head, it being also possible to support it and to supply it with water from the bottom and push it upwardly, in which case the first or cannulating steps may, if desired, be omitted and no reaming action, but a direct hydraulic boring action is effected by the rotor; or the cannulating may-be effected simultaneously by a drill secured to the leading end of the rapidly rotating head. Finally, the nozzle may be moved downwardly, horizontally, orin an inclined position depending upon the material be ing worked upon or upon the shape and position of the container, with slight mechanical modifications, which will be obvious, to permit the nozzles on the second cutting section to be in the proper angular position when the nozzle head is inclined or inverted. I
The invention resides in the construction and combination of parts described and claimed herein, considered together with the accompanying drawings, in which:
Figure Iis an elevational view of the nozzle head.
Figure 11 is a horizontal sectional view, taken on line A-A of Figure I, showing the arrangement for adjusting the radial distance of the upper reaction nozzles in relation to the supply conduit.
Figure III is a horizontal sectional view, taken on the line BB of Figure I, showing the arrangement of the curved conduits and mounting of the reinforcing plates.
Figure IV is a schematic vertical sectional view, partly in elevation, illustrating one method of using the nozzle head of Figure I.
Figure V is an elevation view of a modified nozzle head.
Figure VI is an elevation view of the nozzle head shown in Figure V but taken at right angles to show an adjusting arrangement for the lower reaction nozzles.
desired. An enlargement 4 of the conduit 3 has a blind extension 5 mounted thereon which can be utilized as a support for the arcuated lower conduits 3 and 6a which are mounted on the supply conduit enlargement 4 and extend outwardly, downwardly and finally terminate in an upwardly directed position immediately adjacent the blind extension 5 of conduit I. These lower conduits are preferably fixedly mounted on 5.
Reaction nozzles I and la are mounted in the end of arcuated conduits 6 and 6a, the length of which is such that the ends of the reaction nozzles do not protrude beyond the conduits.
A second pair of conduits 8 and 8a are mounted on the conduitenlargement 4 and curve outwardly and upwardly to a position parallel to conduit 3 and finally terminate in the right angle bends 9 and 9a. Reaction nozzles I0 and Illa are mounted on the ends of the respective conduits.
Referring more particularly to Figures I and III, four reinforcing plates II, Ila, IIb and I I0 are mounted on the conduit enlargement 4 and conduit 3 and are immediately adjacent to the curved portions of conduits 8 and 8a. These plates extend beyond the sloping portion of conduitsfi. e. the portion most subject to damage by falling pieces of the material being cut, a distance suflicient to protect the conduits.
In Figures I and II, a flat horizontally positioned plate I2 is mounted on conduit 3 and plates I3 and I3a, fixedly mounted perpendicular thereto. Eyebolts I4 and Ma, encircling conduits 8 and 8a have their threaded shanks passed through holes provided in plates I3 and I3a and are held in the desired position by nuts I5, I511, I51), and I5c. The inherent flexibility of conduits 8 and 8a is amply suflicient to allow the desired adjustment of nozzles I0 and Illa in relation to conduit 3.
Figures V, VI and VII illustrate a modification of the nozzle head shown inFigure I wherein the rate of rotation is controlled by adjusting the radial spacement of the lower nozzles from the axis of the feed pipe. parts have been numbered as in Figure I. The general arrangement of the component elements of the nozzle head are similarly arranged, but I conduits 8 and 8a are rigidly mounted to horizontal plate I2. The blind extension 5 of conduit 3, shown in Figure I, has been replaced by a vertical plate I6 rigidly mounted beneath the enlarged housing 4. Bolt members I1 and Ila are threaded into tapped holes provided in vertical plate IS. The lower arcuated conduits 8 and 6a are provided with swing joint couplings at I8 and la and with vertically mounted ridged plates I9 and I9a, each having a hole therein sufiiciently large to allow the free passage of bolts I1 and l'la respectively. Locking nuts 20 and 20a are provided on the inner side of plates I9 and Illa. to
secure conduits 6 and 6a in the desired position.
In these drawings like 4 cut away to provide a vertical view of the adjustcific embodiments shown in the drawings are for illustrative purposes only, numerous variations thereof being possible and in many cases desirable. For example, the inclination of the various reaction nozzles may be varied according to the purposes in view; numerous variations of, the adjusting means shown will be obvious to those skilled in the art as will be divers arrangements of the reinforcing plates; the swing joints illustrated in Figures V and VI at I8 and l8a may be eliminated if the conduits 6 and 6a are suffi-ciently flexible to allow the desired adjustment.
The forementioned mechanical modificationsmay best be incorporated when the particular purpose for which the nozzle head is to be used is known.
Although the nozzle head may be used for other purposes, its use will be described in connection with the cleaning of a coke or reaction chamber. Referring to Figure IV, 2| represents a vertical cylindrical coke chamber of the usual cracking installation which may, for example, be 50 feet in height and 13 feet in diameter. represents a body of coke which has been deposited therein and which has been previously cannulated by forming a small vertical well 23 therein. The water feed pipe 24 is lowered through the well 23 and the bottom manhole 25,
and the nozzle head 26 and rotor 21 attached thereto. The water. feed pipe, rotor section and nozzle head are then raised through the bottom manhole 25 and full water pressure is supplied to pipe 24 from the top, causing upwardly directed jets of water to fiow from the nozzle of the rotor section and the rapid rotation of the rotor section, such as, for example, 1,000 revolutions per minute. These water jets cut away the coke from above the rotor, forming an enlarged well 28 into which the upper reaction nozzles of the nozzle head will pass without fouling.
The confined jets issuing from the reaction nozzles of the nozzle head will cause the nozzle chamber being cleaned; it being desirable to regulate the rotation so thatone complete circular cut into the body of the coke will be made in each rotation. The nozzle head and rotor is raised slowly, or step-Wise, as a unit, the water jets cutting the solid coke into lumps which fall to the bottom of the chamber and out' the bottom manhole.
The sizes of the nozzles and rates of discharge may be varied with the size of the installation and the particular purpose to be effected. By way of example, it may be stated that for cleaning a coke inches in diameter and 5 inches long.
chamber'of the type and size described above, it is desirable to use nozzles at 'I and la having 1 5 inches diameter orifices approximately 6 inches long; at Ill and Illa nozzles having orifices The feed pipe 3 may be 3 inches in diameter, the curved conduits 6, 6a, 8 and 8a 2 inches in diameter and the enlarged portion 4 of the feed pipe may be 11 inches in diameter, and in fact may be formed of two 10% inches outside diameter pipe caps. The dimensions of the rotor section may be substantially as indicated in my copending application Serial No. 208,711.
With respect to the design of the main cutting nozzles, 1, M, I 0 and Illa, particularly when working on porous or carbonaceous material, it may be stated that the disruption and removal of the solid matter is preferably brought about by the cutting actionof the jets. This cutting action is effected by directing the water jet so as to cause a great impact or reaction on the body of the solid material over as small an area as possible. In
this'manner the primary action of the water is to cut the solidmaterial into lumps, and erosion is minimized. For the main cutting action, water jets arepreferably employed having velocities of more than about 200 feet per second, best results being obtained with velocities of about 300 to 500 feet per second and higher, and which jets are substantially confined. By "confined jets reference is had to jets which do not break up or spread prior to impact. It is, moreover, desirable to employ jets of suflicient size to cause an impact of more than pounds, best results being obtained with jets having impacts between 200 and 300 pounds and greater.
When lower velocities are employed, or when the design of the nozzle is such as to cause the jet to break up or spread, the cutting action is materially reduced and erosion is increased. This materially increases the time required for the removal of the solid and is, moreover, often undesirable, since it is frequently advantageous to produce minimum lump and egg size coke. As an example a inch diameter nozzle employing water having a velocity of 380 feet per second will cause an impact of about 212 pounds over an area only slightly larger than 0.11 square inch, the
dimensions, orientations, inclinations and velocities, or to the use of the nozzles which produce confined jets, as heretofore described.
The present invention represents a distinct improvement over the nozzle head described in my copending application mentioned above. For example, with the improved nozzlehead I have found it possible to clean out a coking chamber, as described above, in one hour and twenty minutes, taken on an average of numerous runs] The average time with the prior nozzle head, for the same chambers, was four hours and seventeen minutes. This reduction in the time factor may be attributed directly to the improvements embodied in the present head, as for example, the arrangement provided for controlling the speed of rotation of the main cutting nozzles obviates the necessity of an external brake on the feed pipe;
the arrangement of the lower conduits whereby the lower reaction nozzles are protected from falling coke, thus eliminating time-taking interruptions for repairs; and the compactness of the nozzle head as a whole, whereby the nozzle head may pass directly into the lower manhole of a coking chamber without first enlarging the lower end of the cannulated well hole in order to admit the lowermost reaction nozzles.
I claim as my invention:
1. In a nozzle head for cutting into a body of solid material, the combination of a conduit means adapted for axial connection with a source of liquid under pressure, a plurality of arcuated conduits in flow communication with said conduit means, reaction nozzles mounted on and in flow communication with said arcuated conduits, said last named conduits being arranged and disposed to described an arc of substantially greater than 180 and terminate in a position immediately adjacent said first named conduit means whereby jets of liquid will be discharged from said reaction nozzles substantially outwardly and upwardly from said conduit means and means whereby the radialextent of said recationnozzles from the axis of said conduit means may be adjusted.
2. In a nozzle head for cutting into a body of solid material, the combination of a conduit means adapted for axial connection with a source. of liquid under pressure, comprising two axially juxtaposed sections, coupling means connecting said sections, a rotor on the first section rotatable with respect to the other section, reaction nozzle means on said rotor in flow communication with said conduit means and disposed to impart a turning motion-to said rotor, one or more first main cutting nozzles in flow communication with, mounted substantially perpendicular to the axis of and immediately adjacent the upper end of the second section constructed and adapted to discharge jets of liquid, each jet tending outwardly from the axis of the nozzle head, said nozzle means on the rotor being arranged to discharge water in jet form tending in a direction to cut a well into said material of sufiicient diameter to permit said first main cutting nozzles to enter the well without fouling when the nozzle head is moved axially into the body of solid material in the direction of said first end, one or more arcuately extending second main cutting nozzles in flow communication with and mounted towards the lower end of the second section, terminating in a position substantially below said first main cutting nozzles, disposed to discharge substantially confined jets of liquid, each jet tending outsaid second main cutting nozzles comprising reactionnozzles arranged and adapted to impart a turning movement to said second section.
3. The nozzle head according to claim 2 including means whereby the radial distance of said first main cutting nozzles from the axis of the said second section may be adjusted.
4. In a nozzle head for cutting through a body of solid material which contains avertical opening -therethrough,the combination of a conduit means adapted for axial connection with a liduid feed pipe suspended through said vertical opening, said conduit means comprising two axially juxtaposed sections, coupling means connecting said sections, a hollow rotor including reaction nozzles rotatably mounted on and housing a portion of the first and upper section; the second and lower section comprising an enlarged hollow housing in flow communication with and positioned at the lower end of said conduit means, a pair of curved conduits in flow communication with and extending from said enlargement and terminating substantially above said enlargement and adjacent said conduit means, said curved conduits being positioned diametrically to each other with respect to said wardly-and upwardly from the second section,
conduit means, reaction nozzles in flow communication with said curved conduits constructed and arranged to discharge confined jets of liquid in a direction substantially perpendicular to the axis of said conduit means whereby a turning moment is imparted to said conduit means by the fiow of liquid through said reaction nozzles, means for adjusting the radial distance of said curved conduits from said conduit means whereby the rate of rotation of said conduit means may be controlled, a second pair of conduits in flow communication with and extending arcuately from said enlarged housing and terminating substantially below said enlargement, reaction nozzles in flow communication with said arcuated conduits arranged and disposed to discharge substantially confined jets of liquid in a direction tending outwardly and upwardly from said enlargement, reinforcing plates mounted on said enlargement and immediately adjacent each of said curved conduits, and extending radially outwards and upwards at least as far as the radial extent of said aforementioned conduits and reaction nozzles.
5. In a nozzle head for cutting into a body of solid material which contains a vertical opening therethrough, the combination of a conduit meansadapted for axial connection with a source of liquid under pressure, an enlarged hollow housing mounted at the lower end in flow communication with said conduit means, a plurality of curved conduits in flow communication with said enlargement extending upwardly therefrom to a position parallel and immediately adjacent said conduit means, pairs of reinforcing plates mounted on said enlargement, extending upwardly and outwardly immediately adjacent said curved conduits at least as far as the radial extent of said conduits, reaction nozzles mounted on the ends of said curved conduits, in flow communication therewith, arranged and disposed to discharge liquid in jet form in a direction substantially perpendicular to the axis of said conduit means whereby a turning moment will be imparted to said conduit means and means whereby the radial distance of said curved conduits from said axis may be adjusted.
6. In a nozzle'head for cutting into a body of solid material, the combination ot a conduit means adapted for axial connection with a source of liquid under pressure, an enlarged hollow housing mounted near the lower end in flow communication with said conduit means, a blind extension of said conduit means beyond said enlargement, a pair of curved conduits in flow communication with said enlargement extending upwardly therefrom to a position parallel and immediately adjacent said conduit means, reaction nozzles mounted on the ends of said curved conduits, in flow communication therewith, ar-
ranged and disposed to discharge liquid in jet form in a direction tending away from the axis of said conduit means whereby a-turning moment will be imparted to said nozzle head, a second pair of conduits extending arcuately from the curved conduits from the axis of the conduit means may be adjusted.
8. The nozzle head according to claim 6 wherein the reaction nomles mclmted on the curved conduits and the reaction nozzles mounted on the arcuated conduits are disposed to cause their axes to lie respectively substantially in surfaces of revolutions which intersect in a closed curve spaced from and surrounding the axis of the nozzle head. a
9. In a nozzle head for cutting into a body or solid material, the combination 01' a conduit means adapted for axial connection with a source of liquid under pressure. a pair of arcuate conduits in flow communications with said conduit means, reaction nozzles mounted on and in flow communication with said arcuate conduits, said arcuate conduits connected to said conduit means on opposite sides thereto' and extending downwardly then transversely so as to cross each other 20 arcuate conduits connected to said conduit means on opposite sides thereto and extending downwardly then transversely so as to cross each other and terminating in an upward direction adjacent the axis of said conduit means, means for adjusting the radial extent of said reaction nozzles from the axis of said conduit means and guard means for protecting said reaction nozzles.
WILLIAM FREDERICK COURT.
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Cited By (18)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2658622A (en) * 1949-12-03 1953-11-10 Thornhill Craver Company Fluid cleaning apparatus
US3029613A (en) * 1960-08-18 1962-04-17 Morris M Lande Ice cream freezing apparatus
US3032044A (en) * 1958-05-12 1962-05-01 Andrew L Pansini Automatic swimming pool cleaner
US3312231A (en) * 1962-10-29 1967-04-04 Thiokol Chemical Corp Apparatus for the reclamation of solid propellant rocket motor cases
US3412012A (en) * 1967-02-17 1968-11-19 Union Oil Co Process for decoking a delayed coker
US3440096A (en) * 1962-07-16 1969-04-22 Byron Jackson Inc Method of removing solid propellant
US3646947A (en) * 1969-04-04 1972-03-07 Brown & Root Jacket pile cleanout apparatus
US3690730A (en) * 1971-02-17 1972-09-12 Mitsui Shipbuilding Eng Apparatus for unloading pulverized material in tank
US3836434A (en) * 1972-03-27 1974-09-17 Great Lakes Carbon Corp Process for decoking a delayed coker
US3880359A (en) * 1972-03-27 1975-04-29 Great Lakes Carbon Corp Apparatus for decoking a delayed coker
US3941537A (en) * 1975-03-24 1976-03-02 Caterpillar Tractor Co. Rotary spray cleaner for circular dies
US4225362A (en) * 1979-01-18 1980-09-30 Richard R. Paseman Method for cleaning the interior of tubes
US4275842A (en) * 1979-11-21 1981-06-30 Dresser Industries, Inc. Decoking nozzle assembly
US4344570A (en) * 1980-08-11 1982-08-17 Paseman Richard R Apparatus for cleaning the interior of tubes
US4518041A (en) * 1982-01-06 1985-05-21 Zublin Casper W Hydraulic jet well cleaning assembly using a non-rotating tubing string
US4611613A (en) * 1985-01-29 1986-09-16 Standard Oil Company (Indiana) Decoking apparatus
US4673442A (en) * 1985-01-29 1987-06-16 Standard Oil Company (Indiana) Decoking process
US4923021A (en) * 1988-12-30 1990-05-08 Conoco Inc. Combination bit for coking oven

Cited By (18)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2658622A (en) * 1949-12-03 1953-11-10 Thornhill Craver Company Fluid cleaning apparatus
US3032044A (en) * 1958-05-12 1962-05-01 Andrew L Pansini Automatic swimming pool cleaner
US3029613A (en) * 1960-08-18 1962-04-17 Morris M Lande Ice cream freezing apparatus
US3440096A (en) * 1962-07-16 1969-04-22 Byron Jackson Inc Method of removing solid propellant
US3312231A (en) * 1962-10-29 1967-04-04 Thiokol Chemical Corp Apparatus for the reclamation of solid propellant rocket motor cases
US3412012A (en) * 1967-02-17 1968-11-19 Union Oil Co Process for decoking a delayed coker
US3646947A (en) * 1969-04-04 1972-03-07 Brown & Root Jacket pile cleanout apparatus
US3690730A (en) * 1971-02-17 1972-09-12 Mitsui Shipbuilding Eng Apparatus for unloading pulverized material in tank
US3836434A (en) * 1972-03-27 1974-09-17 Great Lakes Carbon Corp Process for decoking a delayed coker
US3880359A (en) * 1972-03-27 1975-04-29 Great Lakes Carbon Corp Apparatus for decoking a delayed coker
US3941537A (en) * 1975-03-24 1976-03-02 Caterpillar Tractor Co. Rotary spray cleaner for circular dies
US4225362A (en) * 1979-01-18 1980-09-30 Richard R. Paseman Method for cleaning the interior of tubes
US4275842A (en) * 1979-11-21 1981-06-30 Dresser Industries, Inc. Decoking nozzle assembly
US4344570A (en) * 1980-08-11 1982-08-17 Paseman Richard R Apparatus for cleaning the interior of tubes
US4518041A (en) * 1982-01-06 1985-05-21 Zublin Casper W Hydraulic jet well cleaning assembly using a non-rotating tubing string
US4611613A (en) * 1985-01-29 1986-09-16 Standard Oil Company (Indiana) Decoking apparatus
US4673442A (en) * 1985-01-29 1987-06-16 Standard Oil Company (Indiana) Decoking process
US4923021A (en) * 1988-12-30 1990-05-08 Conoco Inc. Combination bit for coking oven

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