US2217195A - Calculating machine - Google PatentsCalculating machine Download PDF
- Publication number
- US2217195A US2217195A US2217195DA US2217195A US 2217195 A US2217195 A US 2217195A US 2217195D A US2217195D A US 2217195DA US 2217195 A US2217195 A US 2217195A
- United States
- Prior art keywords
- Prior art date
- Expired - Lifetime
- 230000000994 depressed Effects 0.000 description 54
- 210000001331 Nose Anatomy 0.000 description 19
- 230000000694 effects Effects 0.000 description 14
- 210000003414 Extremities Anatomy 0.000 description 8
- 210000003141 Lower Extremity Anatomy 0.000 description 7
- 238000010276 construction Methods 0.000 description 7
- 230000001276 controlling effects Effects 0.000 description 5
- 230000000875 corresponding Effects 0.000 description 5
- 210000003128 Head Anatomy 0.000 description 4
- 230000000295 complement Effects 0.000 description 4
- 238000009877 rendering Methods 0.000 description 4
- 239000011435 rock Substances 0.000 description 4
- 238000007906 compression Methods 0.000 description 3
- 101000289634 human N(G),N(G)-dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase 1 Proteins 0.000 description 3
- 210000001364 Upper Extremity Anatomy 0.000 description 2
- 238000006073 displacement reactions Methods 0.000 description 2
- 230000000977 initiatory Effects 0.000 description 2
- 238000004519 manufacturing process Methods 0.000 description 2
- 230000037250 Clearance Effects 0.000 description 1
- 239000002585 bases Substances 0.000 description 1
- 238000005452 bending Methods 0.000 description 1
- 230000000903 blocking Effects 0.000 description 1
- 230000035512 clearance Effects 0.000 description 1
- 230000003028 elevating Effects 0.000 description 1
- 230000036633 rest Effects 0.000 description 1
- 230000000452 restraining Effects 0.000 description 1
- 230000002441 reversible Effects 0.000 description 1
- 230000035939 shock Effects 0.000 description 1
- G06—COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
- G06C—DIGITAL COMPUTERS IN WHICH ALL THE COMPUTATION IS EFFECTED MECHANICALLY
- G06C7/00—Input mechanisms
- G06C7/08—Keyboards with one set of keys for all denominations, e.g. ten-key board
- G06—COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
- G06C—DIGITAL COMPUTERS IN WHICH ALL THE COMPUTATION IS EFFECTED MECHANICALLY
- G06C21/00—Programming mechanisms for determining steps to be performed by the computing machine, e.g. when a key or certain keys are depressed
- G06C21/04—Conditional arrangements for controlling subsequent operating functions, e.g. control arrangement triggered by a function key and depending on the condition of the register
Oct. 8, 1940.
H. T. AVERY CALCULATING MACHINE Original Filed Sept. 4, 1931 8 Sheets-Sheet l INVENTOR. fia/"a/c/ Z five/y Y M Mum Q QNR 7/1471 VIII/l VIII/l 7111/. v8 %m mwv uwRA \w. w? Gm v m SS v3. mum um Oct. 8, 1940. H. T. AVERY CALCULATING MACHINE Original Filed Sept. 4, 1931 8 Sheets-Sheet 2 IN V EN TOR Hare/d 7. /4 very ATTORNEY 8 Sheets-Sheet 3 H T. AVERY CALCULATING MACHINE Original Filed Sept. 4, 1931 Oct. 8, 1940- mVE' N'IOR.
ATTORNEY NJ m A M F H m I um i Oct. 8, 1940. H. "r. AVERY CALCULATING MACHINE Original Filed Sept. -4, 1931 8 Sheets-Sheet 4 lNV ENTOR. Ham/a [five/ V ATTORNEY.
Oct. 8, 1940. H. "r. AVERY CALCULATING MACHINE Original Filed Sept. 4, 1931 8 Sheets-Sheet 5 IIIIIIIIIIIIIIINI m mHh lllll INVIENTOR. Haro/a 7T five/y ATTORNEY Oct. 8, 1940. H. r. AVERY 2,217,195
CALCULATING MACHINE Original Filed Sept. 4, 1931 8 Sheets-Sheet 7 INVENTOR. Harv/d T. A very A TTORNEY Oct. 8, 1940. 1-1. 'r. AVERY 2,217,195
CALCULATING MACHINE Original riled Sept. 4, 1931 8 Sheets-Sheet 8 7MB w 7658 765,1 r 762 w r FIE-3- 1.4;
I N V EN TOR. Harv/a T A very ATTORNEY Patented Oct. 8, 1940 UNITED STATES CALCULATING MACHINE Harold T. Avery, Oakland, Calif assignor to Marchant Calculating Machine Company, a corporation of California Application September 4, 1931, Serial No. 561,094 Renewed December 23, 1936 4 Claims.
The present invention relates to calculating machines adapted to perform the four cardinal calculations and combinations thereof, and particularly to the type embodying an actuator into which values may be set by a plurality of keys, and from which said values are transferred to the numeral wheels of an accumulator register to perform the calculation. 7
It is an object of the present invention to pro- 10 vide a V type selection bar that can be operated with the minimum of key resistance.
It is another object of the invention to provide means whereby a settable selecting mechanism is restored by power to zero position subsequent to the key releasing operation which is effected during one rotation of the actuator in either direction while the add key is maintained in its depressed position.
A further object of the invention is to provide means whereby said restoring mechanism is disabled upon depression of an automatic multiplier key during the performance of multiple addition during all but the last rotation of the actuator.
A further object of the invention is to provide means whereby depression of the clear key releases all keys of the keyboard and restores the selecting mechanism to zero. I
A further object of the invention is to provide means whereby the selecting mechanism is normally locked in zero position but is adapted for release upon depression of a key acting thereon.
A further object of the invention is to providean improved multiplier mechanism which is completely inoperative except in a multiplication operation and which is adapted for smooth and positive operation.
Other objects will appear as this description progresses.
The machine embodying the present invention is of the general type shown in the patent to Friden Number 1,643,710 dated September 27th, 1927, to which reference is herein made for disclosure of a complete calculating machine including mechanisms not specifically described herein. It is to be understood, however, that although the invention is shown applied to a machine of the general type shown in said patent, it is manifest that the invention is applicable in any machine having a difierentially set selecting mechanism or anyisuitable form of calculating mechanism. I
The invention possesses a plurality of advantageous features, some of which will be set forth in full in the following description, and while ing the add key and its associated mechanism. 16
Figure 5 is a front view of one of the drive shafts with the selecting bar power restoring cam shown in section.
Figure 6 is a perspective view of said power restoring cam shown in Figure 5. 20
Figure 7 is a longitudinal section looking from the right showing the keyboard release mechanism and controls therefor.
Figure 8 is a longitudinal section from the right showing the multiplier keys and their con- 25 trol over the selecting bar power restoring mechanism.
Figure 9 is a section taken on the line 9-9 of Figure 1.,
Figure 10 is a longitudinal right section show- 30 ing the settable selecting mechanism of the multiplier mechanism and the automatic control unit associated therewith.
Figure 11 is a longitudinal right section disclosing the connection between the multiplier 35 keys and the actuating clutch. v
Figure 12 is a right side elevation of the automatic control unit in the position the parts there- 'of assume at the end of the second actuation when the 3 multiplier key is depressed, a part 40 of the supporting plate being broken away to better disclose the actuating means for said unit.
Figure 13 is a left side elevation of the automatic control unit with the parts in the same 45 position as in Figure 12.
Figure 14 is a left side elevation of the automatic control unit showing the parts in the position assumed at the middle of the last actuation determined by a multiplier key, in this in- 5 stance the 3 key.
Calculating machines heretofore have been provided with V-type selection bars in which the angle under lying any one key is complementary to the distance of travel efiected to the bar by said key, and the key must necessarily move the bar against a spring tension sufficiently strong to restore the selecting mechanism to zero quickly enough to permit a speedy resetting from a key of a high denomination to a key of a low denomination. A selecting bar of this type is shown in the patent to Friden, Number 1,830,161, dated November 3, 1931, and in the Canadian Letters Patent to Friden, Number 286,771, dated January 29th, 1929. A study of this type of selecting bar will show that the frictional and mechanical contact between the bar and the several keys is also complementary which efiects an undesirable keyboard touch.
The present invention provides a positive action of the several keys on the selecting mechanism so that selection from one key to another may be made, regardless of denomination, without the provision of the heretofore necessary springs to obtain a quick restoration of the selecting mechanism to zero position at the end of a calculation, the same being effected through power from the machine during the final movement of the actuator from the end of digitation to its centralizing point. To add further to a lighter touch of the several keys, the selecting bar shown in connection with the present invention has identical angles underlying all keys with like angles provided on the lower extremity of the key stems contacting them, thereby obtaining a smooth frictional surface of identical area and coefiicient of friction in each case.
The present invention is also provided with means for latching the selecting bars in their zero posititon which also serve to prevent rebound when the selecting bars are quickly restored to zero position through the power control therefor. It will also be noted that the selecting bars of the present invention are supported on swinging links which also aid materially in obtaining lighter key depression.
Accumulator register and actuator therefor The accumulator register shown in connection with the present invention is identical in construction with that shown in the Friden Patent Number 1,643,710, in which a plurality of numeral wheels are mounted on a movable carriage which, for the purpose of making direct action of the selected values on the numeral wheels of highest value possible, is disposed in parallel displaceable relation with the value selecting mechanism axis. This register comprises a plurality of numeral wheels 40l (Figure 2) rotatably mounted adjacent each other on a shaft 402 which shaft is journaled in the movable carriage 400. Each of these numeral wheels is provided with a fixed gear 40|A continuously in mesh with an intermediate gear 403 through which it is driven by the actuator segment. A spring pressed pawl 404 which engages the fixed gear 40|A of each numeral wheel permits step-by-step movement of said numeral wheel and serves to maintain said numeral wheel in correct alignment o be engaged by the actuator segment. Each numeral wheel is also provided with the usual transfer lever 406 which is thrown out when said numeral wheel passes from zero to nine or from nine to zero to effect a transfer of one increment to the next higher numeral wheel. The manner in which this transfer is effected through the engagement of the transfer lever 406 with one of the transfer pins 300 of the actuator disc, is well known in the art and fully described in the above-mentioned patent.
The actuating mechanism shown in Figures 1 and 2 of the present drawings is an improvement over that shown in the patent to Friden Number 1,643,710, and is described in full in the copending application of Friden, Number 456,843, dated May 29th, 1930, issued as Patent No. 1,993,834. Instead of the sliding arcuate gear segment shown in said patent, the present invention comprises an actuator having a pivoted gear segment 30l (Figure 2) pivoted on the actuator disc 302 at 303 and provided with a roller 304 which is disposed between the sides of a continuous drum cam 305 (Figure 1) provided with an abrupt rise 305A which effects a quickly accelerated movement to the gear segment 30I from its retracted radial position to its extended radial position in one direction, and vice versa in the opposite direction during the time that gear segment 30I is being revolved about the-axis of the actuator shaft. It is obvious that the gear segment can be projected to or withdrawn from its extended radial position at any set. time relative to the intermediate gear 403 of the accumulator register, merely by rotating the abrupt rise 305A of the drum cam 305 to any one of a plurality of different positions where means are provided for locking the same during the course of a calculating operation, thus making it possible for any number of teeth of the gear segment 30! to act on the intermediate gear 403, thereby displacing said gear any predetermined number of circular pitch distances which is equivalent to a like number of digits of the numeral wheels.
Selecting mechanism As mentioned above, selection of values in the present machine is effected through counter-' clockwise rotation of the cam 305 (Figure 1), any predetermined number of increments from its original zero position. This is accomplished by means of a gear 306 which is fixed to the side of the cam and held constantly in mesh with an arcuate rack 30! provided on the upper end of a selection lever 308 which is journaled on ball bearings at 309 which in this case is a transverse shaft fixed in the machine. The selection lever 308 is connected with a selection bar 3|! by a link 3I0 which is journaled on the selecting lever at 308A and-on the bar at 3| l. The selection bar 3l2 is suspended from the key section frame 3 by means of two depending links 3I3 which are journaled at their upper ends to the key section frame 314 and journaled at their lower ends to the selection bar 3l2, so that said selection bar is adapted to swing from one extreme position to the other with the least amount of frictional resistance. The upper edge of the selecting bar 3" is provided with a plurality of equally spaced v-slots, the angled sides of which are identical throughout the length of the bar, the angle of said sides being 45 degrees in this case. The V-siots underlie a plurality of keys 3| 5 which are normally held in their elevated position by a series oi springs M6 and are adapted to be locked in their depressed position by a lock bar 3 which is forced to the rear against the compression of spring 3 l 8 by the angled side 'of the key projection 3|5A and urged forward to be disposed on top of the said projection by the spring3l8 when the key reaches its full depressed position, thereby locking the key in said position until another key is depressed, which moves the bar to effect release of the first depressed key, or until such bar is moved to the rear by other instrumentalities which will be described hereinafter. The spacing of these keys in their supporting frame 3 is proportionately greater than the spacing of the angled V-siots on the slide 3 I 2 underlying them so that depression of the 9 key will move said bar nine increments, and depression of the 3 key will move said bar three increments, and so forth. Since the selecting bars 312 then can be moved any predetermined number of longitudinal increments through the depression of the proper key, it is obvious that a like number of rotational increments will be transferred to the box cam 305 through the connection described above, and the abrupt rise 305A of said box cam will time the ejection and withdrawal relative to the carriage intermediate gear 403 so that the numeral delineated on said depressed key will be equal to the number of teeth of the gear segment SUI that will contact the intermediate gear 403, thereby rotating the numeral wheel an equal number of digits. I
Means are provided whereby the selection from one key to another is a positive action of smoothly matched surfaces in either direction, and any depressed key locks its selection against further movement or overthrow in either direction. This is accomplished through the provision of similarly angled sides 3l2A and 3l2B of each V slot, each of which is always contacted by an equally angled surface on the lower extremity of the key stem. The side M213 is always used for making selection from a lower to a higher denomination, while the side Si. is always used for making selection from a higher to a lower denomination. Upon depression of the key to its fullest extent, the lower extremity is disposed in a square-sided slot SIZC which blocks the slide from further movement in either direction and also affords a means for final adjustment in manufacture, due to accumulated errors in assembling, by slightly bending the lower extremity of said key stem in one direction or the other to rectify said errors. The fact that the depth of the slot 20 is not limited also does away with the necessity of holding said key stems to a precision length. It will be noted that since all angles in the V-slot of the slide 3|! are equal and all contacting surfaces between the key stems and sides of said angular slots are also equal, the only possible difference in resistance in depression of the several keys will be due to the different distances that the depression of said keys move the selecting bar 3i! and its associated selecting mechanism. Therefore, since key resistance during a selection from one to nine and from nine to one is practically identical, it is evident that considering the several keys as a whole, an average key resistance is distributed throughout the entire keyboard and this key resistance, due to the absence of springs and other counteracting devices, has been found to be approximately one-third that of similar selecting mechanism in prior calculating machines.
Means have been provided whereby the digit selected for registration on the accumulating register during the performance of a calculating operation is displayed to the operator. This is effected by provision of a segment I" (Figure 1) fixed to the drum cam ill and having the numerals from zero to nine inclusive delineated thereon. A window "I provided in the casing of the machine is of sufflcient width to display only one of said numerals at a time and the angular displacement of the segment "I, due to a similar displacement of the drum cam "I during selection, places a numeral corresponding to that delineated on the depressed key opposite the window 32 I and in view of the operator.
Means are provided whereby all selecting bars are automatically looked against rebound when returned to zero position and said lock is arranged to maintain its locking effectiveness until a new selection is made by depression of one of the keys 3l5 which is the only means by which said lock can be released. This lock is in the form of a bellcrank 322 (Figure 1) which is journaled on the key section frame at SHA, and which is provided on its vertical extremity with a lateral projection 822A which is disposed in a slot in the key locking bar 3 and provided on its horizontal extremity with a notch 322B which is adapted to engage a laterally extending portion 3l2D of the selection bar 8l2. It is evident that by depression of a key the projection SISA on said key will through the rearward movement of slide 3H, cause a clockwise oscillation of the bell crank 822, thereby lifting its horizontal extremity clear of the lateral projection 8ND, permitting the bar M2 to be moved to the rear upon further depression of said key. The construction of this mechanism is such that even though the horizontal extremity of the bell crank 822 is riding on top of the lateral projection ID of the slide, sufficient spare movement is permitted so that the key lock bar 8H will engage half of the top of the projection SISA on the depressed key, thereby locking the depressed key in its depressed position. It will be noted that in making selections from one key to another the horizontal arm of the bellcrank 322 will merely ride the top of the projection "2D and will not interfere with movement of the selecting bar 8l2. However, when all keys are released and the bar Si! is returned to its zero position where it is arrested by the projection 8088 of the box cam 30! contacting the upper end of the locking pawl "I, or the lower extremity 30GB of the selecting lever 808 contacting the zero stop 8000, the horizontal extremity of bell crank 822 is immediately forced down by the spring 3|lof the lock bar 8|! until the notch 322B engages the projection SIZD of the selection bar 8l2, thereby blocking any rearward movement of the selection bar Ii! caused by rebound of the several stopping means.
Add R781! A special key 2 (Figures 4 and 7) designated as the Add key" is provided to control the various mechanisms in the performance of addition. This key is pivoted at "I to a lever 282 pivoted at an and supported by spring I. The upper end of the key stem is provided with a notch 250A adapted to engage the cover plate upon depression of said key to retain it in depressed or operative position. The spring 254, in addition to holding the add key and the lever 252 in their elevated position, tends to rock the key into latching position due to the manner in which it is tensioned between the lower end of the key stem and a fixed portion of the machine.
The primary function performed by the add key while it is maintained in its depressed position is to effect release of the depressed selection keys of the keyboard during the first rotation of the actuator in either direction. All depressed keys of the keyboard may be released simultaneously by means of a gate "I (Figures 1. 3 and 7) extending the entire width of the machine upon the side frames of which it is pendulously supported at either end. The lower half of this gate the forward ends of the plurality of key locking bars 3I1 in such a manner that counter-clockwise oscillation of said gate will result in its moving all key locking bars 3l1 to the rear to effect release of any depressed key in each key section. The power necessary to effect this counter-clockwise oscillation of the gate 255 is provided by a pitman 256 journaled at its rearward end on an eccentric 251 fixed to one of the main drive shafts and slidably supported at its forward end on one end of the stud 25I fixed in the add key stem. The eccentric 251 makes one complete rotation for each rotation of the actuator, consequently effecting one complete oscillation of the pitman 256 to the rear and back. While the add key 250 is maintained in its elevated, inoperative position, the oscillation of the pitman 258 is rendered ineffective due to the fact that the add key holds the forward hooked end 256A of the pitman 258 out of contact with the gate 258. However, when the add key 258 is maintained in its depressed position, the hooked end 258A of the pitman is lowered a sufiicient distance to contact the gate 255 resulting in a rearward oscillation of said gate for each rotation of the actuator. Thus it is obvious that the entire keyboard is cleared, i. e., all depressed keys released, at the termination of each rotation of the actuator in either direction when the add key is depressed, which is the effect desired during addition and subtraction operations to permit a new keyboard setting at the end of each operation. Depression of the add key 258 also serves to connect the selecting bar power restoring means which is described hereinafter.
Power restoring means for selecting mechanism Means are provided whereby all selecting bars and their associated mechanism are restored to their zero position by a special mechanism actuated by the final movement of the calculating mechanism during a rotation of the actuator in either direction. This is accomplished by means of a gate 325 (Figures 1 and 3) pivoted at 328 on the base of the machine, which is of sufficient length to underlie all selecting bars 3I2, the upper end 325A of said gate being adapted to contact a vertical surface 3I2E formed in said selecting bars. The gate 325 is normally held in a position such that the contacting edge 325A is a sufiicient distance from the surface 3I2E of the selecting bars to permit a selection of nine increments to be set on any bar without interference from said gate. Subsequent to the automatic release of all depressed keys of the keyboard effected by the add key being maintained in its depressed position as described hereinbefore, the gate 325 is given a quickly accelerated oscillation in a counter-clockwise direction as shown in Figure 1 which, through the contact of the edge 325A against the surface 3| 2E of the selecting bars, quickly restores all displaced selection bars to their zero position. The oscillation of the gate 325 necessary to accomplish this result is obtained by means of a link 321 (Figure 3), the narrow rear end of which is disposed through an aperture in the gate 325 to be journaled at 328A on the lower end of a depending member 328 which is pendulously supported on a bracket to the top plate of the keyboard. The forward end of the link 321 is journaled at 329A on the lower extremity of the lever 329 which is journaled intermediate its end at 3293 to the supporting plate -2I8 fixed in the machine. The gate 325 is held against a shoulder 321A of the link 321 by a compression spring 338 disposed around the narrow end of the link 321 between said gate 325 and the depending member 328. The entire linkage arrangement described is held in its normal rearward position by a spring 33I tensioned between the lower extremity of the lever 329 and a stud fixed in the machine which holds the upper extremity of the lever 329 against a stop pin 332 which is fixed in a depending portion of the clear key, the operation of which will be described hereinafter.
It is understood, then, that the entire linkage system comprising the members 321, 328, and 329 are, therefore, oscillated forwardly to effect a similar oscillation of the gate 325 through the shock-absorbing compression spring 338 which functions normally as a substantially rigid m0- tion-transmitting member but is capable of yielding, as a safety device, to prevent damage to the mechanism from shocks due to locking re sulting from misoperation. The mechanism effecting this oscillation comprises a cam 333 (Figures 4, 5, and 6) loosely journaled on the drive shaft I88 which makes one rotation for each rotation of the actuator in either direction. This cam is provided on its periphery with an abrupt rise 333A adapted in the last part of the cycle to contact the horizontal arm of a bellcrank 334 which is journaled in the machine at 335 and is held against the periphery of the cam 333 by a spring 336 tensioned between the vertical extremity of said bellcrank and a stud in the machine. Journaled to the lower end of the vertical arm of the bellcrank 334 is a pushrod 331, a forward nose 338 of which is adapted to contact a transversely projecting portion 328B of the depending link 328 only during the performance of addition and subtraction. The positioning of the pushrod 331 is placed therefore undercontrol of the add key 258 which, as described hereinbefore, is maintained in its depressed position during the performance of these two operations. To accomplish this end a large headed stud 339 is arranged to slide between the bifurcated rear end 252A of the lever 252 which, upon depression of the add key, is raised to its elevated position, placing the nose 338 of the pushlink 331 into contacting alignment with the projection 3283 of the depending member 328, where it is held while the add key 258 is latched in depressed position. The pushrod 331 and its nose 338 are two separate pieces pivotally connected at 339 with a lateral stud projection 338A of the nose 338 being held against a forward portion of the push link 331 by a spring 348 tensioned between the-top edge of the pushlink 331 and an expediently positioned stud on the nose 339. The reason for the two-part construction will be disclosed as this specification progresses.
As mentioned hereinbefore, the selection restoring operation must necessarily occur during the latter part of the cycle after all depressed keys of the keyboard have been released regardless of the direction of rotation of the shaft I88 which is reversible with the actuator. This is accomplished by .meansof the cam 333 which is loosely journaled on the shaft I88 and provided with an extended portion333B (Figures 5 and 6) adapted upon rotation of the shaft to be contacted by a pin 3 which is securely riveted into the shaft I88, and composes the driving member for said cam. The full cycle position of the pin 3 is depending straight down from the under side of the shaft I88 as shown'in Figure 4, and
at the end of a rotation of the shaft I88, the
projection 33313 of the cam 333 will be disposed either on one side of said pin or the other, depending upon the direction of the last rotation. In Figure 4, it is shown disposed on the right side of the pin 34 I, which indicates that the last rotation of the shaft Hill was in a counter-clockwise direction, since the pin must necessarily have driven the cam rise 333A to the point where it contacts and trips the bellcrank 334. If the next rotation of the shaft I00 were now in a clockwise direction, the pin 34I would have to be revolved almost a full revolution before contacting the projection 33313 and driving the cam rise 333A through to trip the bellcrank 334 which, up to this time, has held the cam 333 against rotation due to the strength of the spring 336. And. at the end of this rotation, the cam rise 333A would be disposed on the left side of the pin 3, as viewed in Figure 4. However, if two consecutive counter-clockwise rotations should take place, the pin 3 would pick up the cam from the position in which it is now shown and carry it around for a full revolution during the latter part of which it would contact with the horizontal arm of the bell crank 334, thereby tripping the same.
It is obvious, then, that the clockwise oscillation imparted to the bellcrank 334 by the contact of the cam rise 333A during the latter part of a rotational cycle following the key release operation at half cycle position, will. through the pushrod 331 contacting the projection 3283, impart a forward oscillation to the gate 325, consequently effecting a quickly accelerated restoration to zero position of all displaced selecting bars. This oscillation of the bellcrank 334, it is understood, is effective on the selecting bars only during the time that the add key 250 is maintained in its depressed position, since the nose 338 of the pushrod 331 is out of contacting alignment with the projection 323B of the depending member 328 while the add key is held in its normal elevated position.
Automatic multiplication mechanism The multiplier mechanism disclosed herein is an improvement of the mechanisms disclosed in the patents to Friden Number 1,643,710, dated September 27th, 1927, and Number 1,651,882, dated December 6th, 1927. Said mechanism comprises a series of keys 130 (Figures 8 and 10), which serve to position means to automatically control the number of revolutions of the actuator. The stems 13I of the keys 130 are mounted on a plate 132 by pin and slot connections 134, and are normally held in elevated position by a spring 133 attached to the lower end of the key stem and the upper stud 134. Means are provided for latching the depressed keys in depressed position (Figures 8 and 10). Each key stem 13I is provided at its lower end with a hook 13IA which is adapted to engage under a complementary hook 135A on the key retaining slide 135. This slide is mounted on the plate 132 and is normally held in forward position by the spring131 (Figures 8 and 10). When a key is depressed, the slide is moved rearwardly, and then springs forwardly under the influence of a spring to bring the hook 135A over the hook 13IA on the key, thus retaining the key in depressed position. The key 133A at the forward end of the bank of keys 139 is a clearance key, and its function is to move the slide 135 to cause the release of any key 133 which may be held depressed.
notch in the differential bar 140 which is slidably mounted on the plate 132 (Figure 10). The slide 140 is moved longitudinally to different differential positions upon the depression of one of the keys 130, and is connected to a pin 125 (Figure 10) on the end of a lever by the link "I which is adjustably connected to the front end of the slide 140. By connecting the link 14! to the front end of the slide, angular variations in the position thereof due to the movement of the pin about the fulcrum of the lever 120 are reduced to a minimum, thereby preventing error in the machine. By adjustably connecting the link 1 to the slide 140, adjustment of the machine in assembly is rendered simple, and it is not necessary to work to extremely close limits in the manufacture of the parts associated with the slide 140.
The slide 140 is provided on its upper surface with a plurality of notches 142, there being one notch associated with each numeral key 130. The notches are provided at their bases with sockets adapted to receive the pins 138 to accurately position the slide 140, and the sides of the respective notches are inclined to different degrees to cause proper movement of the slide upon depression of a key, regardless of the prior position of the slide.
One side of each notch 142 is given an inclinetion corresponding to the value of the associated key, and the other side of the notch is given an inclination corresponding to the complement of the value of the associated key. Depression, therefore, of any key causes positive movement of the slide to the proper differential position from the prior differential position in which it is held by a depressed key, thereby eliminating the necessity of returning the slide 140 to zero position when a key is depressed after another key has already been depressed. The slide is therefore positively moved and the lever 120 associated with said slide and with the automatic control unit is also positively moved to a selected differential position upon the depression of any key 130.
Means are also provided which operate upon the depression of one of the numeral keys for moving the latch bar I2I (Figure 11) to disengage the clutch housing and permit rotation of the actuator. Arranged at the side of the slide and directly below pins 138 is a bar which is supported for parallel motion on the links 15I, and which is normally held in elevated position in contact with pins 138 by the spring 152. Due to the inclination of the links 15I, depression of a key 130 causes a backward and downward movement of the bar 150, and this backward and downward movement is employed to move the latch bar l2l. Mounted on the parallel motion bar 150 is a roller 153 (Figures 10 and 11), which bears against the front face of a lever 154 which is secured to the shaft I23 to which the latch bar I2l is connected by a suitable arm, as shown in Figure 11. Depression of a numeral key 133, therefore, causes the shaft I23 to be rocked in a clockwise direction, moving the latch bar I2I rearwardly to disengage the clutch control lever H5 from the clutch housing Means are provided whereby the differential positioning of the lever 120 is used to determine the number of actuatlons in accordance with the key depressed, and to control a stopping of the machine at the conclusion thereof. The lever 120 is provided at its forward end with a pin I2I (Figures 12-14) which rides in a slot II 2 of a slotted arm IIO, the said arm being adjusted angularly to correspond to the angular adjustment of lever I20. The slotted arm III! is pivoted to a rack II3 which is given a step-by-step movement upon successive rotations of the actuator by means to be later described. The arm III] and rack 'II3 are held in their normal retracted position by a spring I22 (Figures 10 and 12), which is tensioned between the rearward end of rack I I3 and the depending arm of lever I20 (Figures 10 and 12). Said spring also serves to return the lever I20 and the slotted arm I I 0 to their normal position after release thereof from a depressed key. The arm IIII is provided with a depending lug upon which is secured a pin III (Figures 1214), which is adapted to cooperate with a stepped plate I06.
The stepped plate or slide I00 is provided with nine notches on the inclined forward face thereof, and a zero position, said notches corresponding to the nine value keys I30. Upon depression of a value key I30, the arm I I0 through the lever I20 is raised to a position so that the pin I I I will be aligned horizontally with the step on the plate I00 corresponding to that value represented by the depressed key. As shown in Figures 12 to 14, the said pin is horizontally aligned with the third step of the slide I00, which position it occupies when the number 3 key is depressed. The stepby step movement imparted to the rack H3 and arm IIO caused by each rotation of the actuator by means hereinafter described, is such that the pin III is moved into engagement with the selected notch on the slide I00 during the next to the last rotation of said actuator, such position being illustrated in Figures 12 and 13. During the last step of movement imparted thereto, said pin moves the stepped slide I00 against the tension of spring IIlI (Figures 13 and 14) to effect a release of the depressed key, and a disengagement of the clutch, with subsequent stopping of the operation and a return of all parts to normal The parts are shown in Figure 14 in the position they occupy at mid-cycle of the last rotation determined.
Means are provided for imparting step-by-step movement to the rack H3 and arm III! upon successive rotations of the actuator. Secured to the shaft I00, which is given one rotation for each rotation of the actuator, is an eccentric I60, which is adapted to reciprocate an arm I6I once during each cycle of operation of said shaft, the first half of said cycle being used for the advancing movement, and the last half for the retracting movement. Said arm I6I is pivoted to the supporting plate at I62 and is held in engagement with the eccentric I60 by a spring I63 (Figures 13 and 14) tensioned between an ear on said lever and a stud on the supporting plate.
A pawl I64 is pivoted to the lever I6I intermediate its ends, said pawl being provided with a nose 164A (Figures 12-14) which is adapted to engage the teeth of rack II 3. A spring 1643 tensioned between an ear on the lever I6I and the rearward end of the pawl I64 tends to hold the nose of said pawl in engagement with said rack. Said pawl I64 is normally held out of engagement with the rack H3 by means of a rearward extension A of the lever I26 which engages beneath and raises a forward extension I640 of said pawl I64 when the lever I20 is in its normal or lowest position, as shown in Figure 10.
The means for retaining the rack H3 and arm III) in advanced position is a holding pawl I65 (Figures 12-14), said pawl being pivoted to the supporting plate, and being provided with a tooth A adapted to engage the teeth of the rack II3 as shown in Figure 13. Said pawl I65 is held in engagement with a rack II3 by means of a spring 16! tensioned between a stud on the supporting bracket and a stud on a depending arm I66 pivoted to said pawl (Figures 13 and 14). Thus pawls I64 and T65 provide a means for successively advancing the rack H3 and slide IIII until pin III moves the trip slide I00.
Means are provided for releasing the advancing and retaining pawls upon rearward movement of the trip slide I00. Pivotally mounted on the trip slide I00 is a lever I02 (Figures 13 and 14) having a lateral extension overlying the rearward end 165B of the pawl I65. The rearward edge of said lever I02 abuts an extension 103 of the supporting plate, so that upon rearward movement of the trip slide I00, to the left as viewed in Figures 13 and 14, the lever I02 is rocked to the right, and the lateral extension thereof, moving against the inclined tail 16513 of pawl I65, rocks said pawl to disengage the nose 165A thereof from the teeth of rack II3, such position being illustrated in Figure 14. The nose of the pawl I65 is provided with a camming extension 165C which underlies a pin 164D on the nose of the advancing pawl I64. As the pawl I64 is permitted to return to the right from the position shown in Figure 14, the pin 164D riding on the camming extension 1650 lifts the pawl I64 from engagement with the rack, thereby releasing said rack and the arm III! for return to normal position under the tension of spring I22 (Figures 10 and 12).
Means are provided for holding the pawl out of engagement with the rack until a complete return thereof. The pawls having been lifted from engagement with the rack by movement of the trip slide I00, are free, in the absence of other means, to again engage the same upon release of the slide I00 from the pin III. To provide for such contingency, the depending arm I66 (Figures 13 and 14) is notched to engage a pin 1663 on the supporting plate under the influence of the spring 161 when the retaining pawl I65 and arm I66 have been raised by the lever I02, as shown in Figure 14. Said arm I66 serves to hold the pawls I65 and I64 from engagement with the rack H3 until a pin II3A on said rack engages the said arm during the return of the rack to zero position, thus completing a release of all parts and a restoration thereof to normal position.
Means are provided for disengaging the clutch upon movement of the trip slide during the last rotation of said actuator. Said means comprises the inclined edge of the lever I02, which, upon forward movement thereof, is adapted to engage a pin I2IA 0n the latch bar I2I (Figure 11) raising the same and permitting the clutch bellcrank II5 to rock into engagement with the clutch housing under the influence of spring H6 to disengage the clutch, and lock the same in full cycle position in the manner described in the aforesaid patent.
Means are provided for releasing a depressed multiplier key upon movement of the trip slide during the last actuation determined by said key.
A link 184 (Figure 10) is secured to the trip slide 188 at 188A, said link being slotted at its forward end to receive a pin 135B secured to the slide 135. Said pin normally rests in the forward end of the slot, as shown in Figure 10, so that rearward movement of the trip slide 188 is imparted to the key latching slide 135 to move the same rearwardly to release a depressed key 138. However, rearward movement of the slide 135 upon depression of a key 138 imparts no movement to the link 184 and the trip slide 188. This release of a depressed key 138 occurs slightly before the middle of the last actuation or rotation of the actuator.
Means are provided to disable the power restoring mechanism for the selecting mechanism during multiple addition during all rotations of the actuator prior to the last determined by a depressed multiplier key.
Due to the construction and operation of the multiplying mechanism described above, a depressed multiplier key is locked down by the bar 135 until sometime during the first half of the last rotation of the actuator effected by said key,
1 when it is released due to instrumentalities moving the slide bar 135 to the rear. Thus it is evident that the parallel bar 158 will be depressed with the key and held in its depressed position until the first half of the last rotation of the calculating operation, when it will be released to return to its elevated position. This movement of the bar 158 is utilized during the performance of multiple addition, the operation in which a single item may be added a plurality of times to a previous sum by the depression of a multiplier key, to disconnect the selection power restoring mechanism during all multiplying rotations of the actuator except the last, during which it is again connected to effect power restoration of the selecting mechanism. This is accomplished through the provision of a lever 143 journaled at 143A to the plate 132, said lever being provided on its lower end with a laterally projecting pin 144 underlying the parallel bar 158 (Figure 8) and provided on an upward projecting arm with a similar pin 145 (Figures 6 and 8) overlying the nose 338 of the pushlink 331 with which it comes in contact upon depression of the add key 258 which, as described hereinbefore, elevates the pushlink 331 so that the nose 338 is in direct contacting alignment with the lateral projection 32813 of the member 328. It will be remembered that the nose 338 is so constructed that further upward movement relative to the pushlink 331 is impossible but that a downward movement on its pivot point 338 relative to the pushlink 331 is only restrained by the tension of the spring 348 which invariably holds its stopping projection 338A against the forward nose of the pushlink 331 unless the nose 338 is forced downwardly by other instrumentalities.
Thus it is obvious during the performance of addition, while the add key 258 is maintained in depressed position with the nose 338 in its elevated position to effect power restoration of the selecting mechanism during each rotation of the actuator, depression of a multiplier key and consequently the parallel bar 158, through the lever 143 and its extended pin 145, effects a downward movement of the nose 338 about the pivot 333 against the tension of the spring 348, thereby rendering a forward oscillation ineffective on the member 328 until the first half of the last rotation of the actuator when the depressed multiplier key and the parallel bar 138 will be released to permit return of the lever 143 by its elevating spring 148, thereby again rendering the nose 338 effective on the member 3283 so that the power restoration operation of the selecting mechanism may take place as usual in the last half of the final rotation of the actuator.
Clear key mechanism Means are provided under control of a key 358 (Figure 3), herein designated as the clear key, for releasing a-ll depressed keys of the keyboard and subsequently returning all selecting mechanisms to their zero position. The stem of this clear key is slidably supported on its upper portion by being disposed through an aperture in the keyboard plate, and is journaled on its lower end to a bellcrank 352 which in turn is pivotally mounted on the plate 218 at 353. The stem of the clear key is provided with a projection which serves as a stop to said key in its elevated position by said projection being held against the top key plate through the tension of the spring 354 tensioned between the vertical extremity of the bellcrank 352 and a suitable stud fixed in the plate 218. Journaled at an intermediate point on the vertical extremity of the bellcrank 352 on the stud 332 is a connecting link 355, the other end of which is disposed through a slot in the gate 255 where it is held by means of a cotter pin 355A looked through a suitable aperture in the forward end of the connecting link 355. The construction of this mechanism is such that the initial downward movement of the clear key 358 will result in a sufficient rearward movement of the gate 255 to effect release of all depressed keys of the keyboard in the manner described in connection with Figure 1.
Means are provided whereby the remainder of the movement of the clear key 358 immediately following the release of the depressed keys of the keyboard is utilized to effect the necessary movement of the selection restoring gate 325 to immediately restore all displaced selecting mechanisms to their zero position. This is accomplished through provision of a laterally extending pin 332 which, as described hereinbefore, lies immediately in front and in contact with upper extremity of the lever 329 and serves as a stop against further counter-clockwise movement thereof about its pivot point 3293 under the urge of the tension spring 33L It is evident that the counter-clockwise oscillation imparted to the bellcrank 352 by depression of the clear key 358 will, through the pin 332, imparts a clockwise oscillation to the lever 323 and consequently the necessary forward oscillation of the gate 325, to restore all the displaced selection bars to zero position, as described in connection with Figure 1. The construction of the several parts is such that a sufficient amount of lost motion is provided so that all depressed keys will be released before the edge 325A of the restoring gate 325 contacts the vertical surface 3I2E (Figure 1) of any displaced selecting bars.
Power control and interlocks The machine comprising the present invention is provided with a motor which is adapted to be intermittently connected to the calculating mechanism by manipulation of the several controlling members of the machine which also maintain this connection during the entire performance of the calculating operation represented by said manipulated controlling member. The
construction of the several working parts is such that even though said controlling members are restored to their normal, inoperative position during any part of a rotation of the actuator, that particular rotation will be completed and the actuator will invariably be arrested and locked in full cycle position at the end thereof.
Since all depressed keys of the keyboard are released during the first half of the rotation of the actuator and the selecting mechanism is not power returned until toward the latter part of the last half of the rotation, means are provided to rigidly lock the registered selection into the actuator until just before the power restoration operation of the selecting mechanism. The heads 80 I of a set of locking arms 800 (Figure 1), fixed on the shaft 802, are adapted to be forced into any one of the notches 3050 of the drum cam 305 where they are held during the time the actuator is out of full cycle position. This is accomplished by means of an arm 804 also fixed on the shaft 802, and adapted to be held in contact with the periphery of a cam 806 by a spring 805 tensioned between the supporting bracket for the shaft 802 and an arm 803 which is also fixed to said shaft. When the actuator nears full cycle position, the head of the arm 804 drops into a depression 806A of the cam 806, thereby releasing the selection, in which position it remains until further rotation of the actuator, when the head of the arm 804 is again forced to the outer radial surface of the cam 808, which again rocks the heads 80I of the locking arms 800 into one of the notches 305C.
Means are also provided for actuating this looking means whenever an operating bar or a multiplier key is depressed. A link 808 connects the lower end of the arm 803 with a gate 80! (Figures 1 and 8) pivoted at 801A, which gate carries an extension 809 (Figure 8) lying immediately to the rear of a roller 8|0 journaled on the rearward link 15L Thus it is seen that depression of any multiplier key which imparts a downward and rearward movement to the roller 8l0, will continuously lock the selection into the actuator, regardless of the number of rotations thereof, instead of the intermittent locking and releasing which would be afforded through the cam 806. Other machine controls that require more than one consecutive rotation of the actuator to perform their particular calculation are also provided with means for manipulating the gate 801.
1. In a calculating machine, actuating mechanism, a series of depressible numeral keys, latching means therefor, a differential member settable by said keys upon depression thereof, normally inactive means operable in timed relationship with said actuating mechanism for releasing said key latching means and restoring said differential member to normal position, and means responsive to such restoration of said member for retaining the same in normal position, said retaining means being releasable upon depression of any of said keys.
2. In a calculating machine, actuating mechanism, a series of depressible numeral keys, latching means therefor, a differential member settable by said keys upon depression thereof, normally inactive means operable in timed relationship with said actuating mechanism for releasing said key latching means and restoring said differential member to normal position, means responsive to such restoration of said member for retaining the same in normal position, said restraining means being releasable upon depression of any of said keys, and a settable device for enabling said key latching releasing and differential member restoring means.
3. In a calculating machine, actuating mechanism, settable selecting mechanism therefor, means operable in timed relationship with said actuating mechanism for positively driving said selecting mechanism to normal position, settable means for rendering said driving means effective, means including a manually operable member for initiating and controlling plural cycle operation of said actuating mechanism, and means controlled by said last named means for rendering said settable means ineffective.
4. In a calculating machine, actuating mecha- .nism, settable selecting mechanism therefor,
means selectively settable to effective or ineffective condition and operable in timed relationship with said actuating mechanism for positively driving said selecting mechanism to normal position, means including a manually operable member for initiating and controlling plural cycle operations of said actuating mechanism, and means controlled by said last named means for selectively setting said driving means.
HAROLD T. AVERY.
|Publication Number||Publication Date|
|US2217195A true US2217195A (en)||1940-10-08|
Family Applications (1)
|Application Number||Title||Priority Date||Filing Date|
|US2217195D Expired - Lifetime US2217195A (en)||Calculating machine|
Country Status (1)
|US (1)||US2217195A (en)|
Cited By (1)
|Publication number||Priority date||Publication date||Assignee||Title|
|US2467441A (en) *||1949-04-19||Early value setting mechanism|
- US US2217195D patent/US2217195A/en not_active Expired - Lifetime
Cited By (1)
|Publication number||Priority date||Publication date||Assignee||Title|
|US2467441A (en) *||1949-04-19||Early value setting mechanism|
|US2294948A (en)||Calculating machine|
|US2217195A (en)||Calculating machine|
|US2160361A (en)||Calculating machine|
|US1214886A (en)||Carrying-over and clearing mechanism for calculating-machines.|
|US2753111A (en)||L tancred|
|US2360615A (en)||Computing machine|
|US2533075A (en)||Cash register|
|US1899444A (en)||Adding and listing machine|
|US1203863A (en)||Mechanical calculator.|
|US2400244A (en)||Calculating machine|
|US1750565A (en)||Zero key mechanism for key set registers|
|US1813037A (en)||Rack controlling means for calculating machines|
|US2393019A (en)||Automatic counter reverse|
|US2459441A (en)||Computing machine|
|US2361714A (en)||Accounting machine|
|US3072329A (en)||Control for motor operated business machines|
|US3044697A (en)||Value selection and entering means for calculating machines|
|US2851217A (en)||L tancred|
|US2206141A (en)||Tens-transferring mechanism|