US2170406A - Calculating machine - Google Patents

Calculating machine Download PDF

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US2170406A
US2170406A US2170406DA US2170406A US 2170406 A US2170406 A US 2170406A US 2170406D A US2170406D A US 2170406DA US 2170406 A US2170406 A US 2170406A
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carriage
counter
stop
multiplication
wheels
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06CDIGITAL COMPUTERS IN WHICH ALL THE COMPUTATION IS EFFECTED MECHANICALLY
    • G06C7/00Input mechanisms
    • G06C7/02Keyboards
    • G06C7/08Keyboards with one set of keys for all denominations, e.g. ten-key board
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06CDIGITAL COMPUTERS IN WHICH ALL THE COMPUTATION IS EFFECTED MECHANICALLY
    • G06C15/00Computing mechanisms; Actuating devices therefor
    • G06C15/26Devices for transfer between orders, e.g. tens transfer device
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T74/00Machine element or mechanism
    • Y10T74/15Intermittent grip type mechanical movement
    • Y10T74/1503Rotary to intermittent unidirectional motion
    • Y10T74/1508Rotary crank or eccentric drive

Description

Aug` 22, 1939. c. HAMANN CALCULATING MACHINE 3 Sheets-Sheet l Filed Dec. 29, 1933 /l/llllI/lvllllllllllll/IA vlllll/lll//lllll/Il 4 n, s hm u mm WH 5M JM @j .5
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A`ug.z?,1939.v QHAMANN 2,170,406
' I CALCULATING MACHINE Filed Deo. 29, 1955 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 11| Illl lll lllllll jforngys,
Aug. 22, 1939.
c` HAMANN CALCULATING MACHINE Filed Deo. 29, 1933 @3 Sheets-Sheet 3 Patented Aug. 22, 1939 UNITED sTATEs CALUULATING MACHINE A Christel Hamann, Neu-Babelsberg, near'Berlin, Germany, assigner to Deutsche Telephonwerke und Kabelindustrie Aktieng eselllclln, Berlin,
Germany, a corporation Application December 29, 1933, Serial No. 704,376 In Germany October 30, 1933 This invention relates to calculating machines for performing automatic multiplication and division comprising an actuator, and a carriage -traversalzile beside it on which are a revolution counter and a totalizer. In particular it relates to machines of this class such as described in Letters Patent of the United States No. 1,968,201
A dated July 1, 1934, wherein multiplication is carried out in shortened iorm by the aid of adjustl0 able stop members associated with the several digit elements of the revolution counter upon the carriage. Said -stop members are set in different positions according to the digit set up when the multiplier is transferred to the numeral drums of the revolution counter. vDuring the carriage movement involved in multiplication said stop members co-operate successively with the stepped face of a carriage stop mounted in the frame of the machine to arrest the carriage for each digit 2-0 either in a positive, or adding, position, or-in case the digit exceeds 5-in sa negative, or subtracting, position displaced laterally from the positive position. In the positive position the numeral drums of the totalizer are turned forward to add; in the negative position, owing to the interposition oi' an idle pinion they are turned backward to subtract. It is by the aid oi' this backwardor subtracting drive that the multiplication is shortened, inasmuch as for digits over 5 the machine in eiiect multiplies not by the digit but by the difference between 10 and the digit; e. g.. instead of multiplying by 6, it multiplies by 4 and subtracts the product instead Aot adding it, meanwhile adding 1 to the next higher digit. A
The shaft of theinachine always turns in the same directiom'and the numeral drums of the revolution counter are turned backward for ordinary multiplication and forward for division 40 and shortened multiplication. The direction ofA rotation of the revolution counter is determined by two oscillating counter lingers which move in opposite directions, one or the other of them engaging in the pinion of whichever numeral roll is in register with it.
The. present invention is a further development ofthis construction for the pui-poseo! enabling the machine to make calculations of the form (lz-bc) in such a manner that the product bc does not have to be separately calculated nor does it appear on the numeral drums".` but during its production is simultaneously subtracted from the number a. To this end the carriage stop mounted in the machine frame, .with which the adjustable stop members ot the revolution (CI. S-79) counter co-operate, is made adjustable relatively Yto said-members, so as to cause them to co-operate in different ways with the steps on the face of said carriage stop. Means are also provided for correspondingly shifting the counter lingers, so that the direction of their movements will be reversed.v This enables negative multiplicati'ons, i. e., those the products of which are to be subtract-ed from another number, to be carried out in shortened form.
The drawings illustrate one form of construction of the new calculating machine. Fig. 1 is a section through the machine, taken on line I-I of Fig. 4. Figs. 2, 2a, 3 and 3a show different positions of the stop members. Fig. 4 is a plan view of a part-of the machine showing the counter ilngers, while Figs. 5 to 'I show the adjustable carriage stop which is mounted on the machine frame and en -operates with the stop members.
. Most parts of the machine not necessary to the understanding of the present invention have been omitted; they may be taken to be like what is described in my above-mentioned Letters Patent.
Upon the shaft 42 (Figs. 1, 2, 3 and 4) which is driven as required by a motor, always in the same direction, are mounted side by Aside the toothed wheels 6a of the actuating mechanism unit or .actuator S2, which in performing a multiplication transfer the digit values of the multiplicand to the accumulator wheels or numeral drums 58 of the totalizer Z2 on the carriage I3, all as in my above-mentioned patent. Transfer from a toothed wheel 6a to that numeral drum 5l of the totalizer which at the particular time is in operative relation to such wheel is effected as disclosed in said prior patent by double pinions 56 (Fig. 4) which are all loose upon a common spindle 56a, there being one double pinion I6 to each gear wheelja. The left-hand member of each pinion Il is permanently in meshwith the respective gear wheel ia. (The wheels B appearing in Fig. 4 are not part of the actuator S2 but of the separate similar actuator Si.) To each numeral drum Il is fastened a pinion 9a (Fig. 4) which engages with a wheel I1. The latter may either engage with a wheel 6a, or by a lateral movement of the carriage the wheel 51 may be brought into mesh with theright hand part of pinion 5I.. In the latter position the numeral drum 58 is turned in the opposite direction, and this occurs in subtraction, division, and short cut multiplication, while the former position is that for addition and ordinary multiplication. The wheels 5l are carried loosely on aspindle or axle 51h. v'lhis spindle or axle lib is mounted on the carriage so as tiplication a lateral shift of the carriage (to the right in Fig. 4) to the extent of the width of the double pinion 56 is required to bring the carriage from the positive or adding position to the negasteps 63, 66a is made variable in such. a mannerl tive or subtracting position. This shift is less than the step which the carriage takes from one ordinal position to another. (In multiplication the carriage moves step by step to the right in known manner.)
These lesser and greater steps of carriage movement are determined by the depending stop members E6 (Figs. 1 to 3a) and the cams 62 in the manner described in my said prior patent. There is a stop member 86 extending through an opening in the carriage base plate 62 and a cam 62 associated .with each toothed wheel 51a, pinion 9,
and numeral drum or counter wheel 58a of the revolution counter Ziv mounted in the carriage, and they therefore travel with the carriage. After being displaced by the cams d2, each of which turns with the corresponding numeral drum '56a of the revolution counter, the stop members 66 are in positions for striking against the portion 63 or 63a of a carriage stop situated in the machine frame, the carriage moving from left to right in front of the actuator S2. As shown in Figs. 5, 6 and 7, the portion 63 projects beyond the portion 63a, and these two portions together constitute abutments or steps forming a stepped face on the carriage stop. For the purmse of the invention the relative position of the faces or ative position as in my said prior patent, as
therein described with reference to Fig. 4; that is to say, the longerlpart or farther projecting step 63 arrests the carriage in its movement to the right in the positive or adding position in which ordinary multiplication by the digits l to 5 is eected, and in which the counter finger 90 (Fig. d, and see the counter nger 26m Figs. 2v and 5a ofmysaid prior patent) turns the numeral drums of the revolution counter backwards. When a drum is turned back to zero the carriage is released and makes a further step to the right. By way of example Fig. 5 shows the positions of the stop members corresponding to a multiplier 10928 (see Fig. '4 of my said prior patent). At the digit 0 the carriage is not arrested, because the stop member 66 for this digit is displaced-by the cam 82 so as to clear both steps 63 and 63a of the carriage stop, as will at once be seen from the drawings. When the movable step 63 is in the position shown in Fig. 5 the shorter step 63a of the carriage stop arrests the carriage in the negative or subtracting position in whichshort cut multiplication by the numerals 6 to 9 is eifected. and in which the counter iinger 9| (Fig. 4 see the counter nger 26 in Figs. 2 and 5a of my said prior patent) brings the numeral drum to zero by turning it forward to the extent of the difference between 10 and the numeral set up on it. The lower part of Fig. 3 shows the position of the parts 86, 63 and afor positive multiplication. The lower part of Fig. 2 shows these parts in position for positive short cut multiplication. The carriage stop 63, 63a is located at any suitable point of the machine frame, for instance at a point corresponding to the position of the parts 35, 36 in Figs. 5a and 'la of my prior patent above referred to, or at a point corresponding to the position of the left-hand end of the lever d in Fig. 3 of Letters Patent of the United States No. 2,081,008, of May 18, 1937.
When the step 63 is inthe position shown in Fig. 6 the co-operation is reversed, that is to say, the longer step 63 is operative for the numerals 6 -9and the shorter'step63a for the numerals 1-5. The relative positions of the parts 86, 63, and 63a for negative multiplication are shown in Fig. 3a and for negative short cut multiplication in Fig. 2a. With the parts 86, 63, 63a in this position, the totalizer on the carriage performs subtractions (and not additions) in the case of the digits 1 to 5, while in the case of the digits 6 to 9 the totalizer will under said conditions perform additions (and not subtractions). Or one may say the totalizer adds a negative product corresponding to the expression (a-l-(bc)), the
mulitplier c being less than 6. The result is (a-bc) as desired. Ordinary positive multiplication corresponds with the expression (a-i(+bc)), c again being 6. Short cut multiplication by the numerals 6-9 corresponds to the expression (a+lob)b(10-c), where c 5; and so short cut negative multiplication is expressed by (-a+(-10b))+b(10-c), which gives the desired result (a1-bc).
When the step 63 is shifted the drive of the numeral drums of the revolution counter must be reversed. The invention provides for this purpose a lever 92 (Figs. 1 and 4) which' turns about the pivot 93. A pin in its tail 6l engages a slotted shoe 96 upon the push rod sib which shifts the step 63 of the carriage stop. The alternative position of the lever 92 is indicated in dotted lines in Fig. l, the neighboring signs and corresponding with the two positions of the step 63. In Fig. 7, I haveshown the bar will as pivotally connected wtih a lever 38 fulcrumed at d6, this lever being part of a mechanism which need not be described here; a full description thereof is found in the above-mentioned Patent No. 2,081,008, particularly in connection with Fig. 9. The, parts i6 and i9 shown in Fig. 4 of the instant case correspond to the parts 49 and 50, 5l respectively shown in Figs. 2 and 9 of Patent 1,968,201 hereinbefore referred to and described in said patent` on page 2, lines 116 to 128. That is to say, in the present application, after each step the carriage I3 is held automatically, in the position reached, by means of the lever 'i9 suitably fulcrumed on the frame of the ma chine and adapted to engage the notches 80n cam I6 mounted on the shaft 42, and thus causes the lever to be rocked into holding engagement with the carriage while the shaft rotates, as described in the aforesaid patent. A
The means by which the movements of the counter ngers are reversed appears in'Figs. l and.4. Upon the shaft" l2 of the machine there A behind the other. Each'counter finger has slots Sla, Sib respectively running lengthwise of it, and in these slots pins 95, 9B can enter laterally. When the pin 96 engages theslot Sib located between the eccentric 23 and the nose of one nger, the pin enters the slot Sia of the other finger. The consequence of this is that the noses of the two counter lingers rock in opposite directions as the eccentric 23 rotates, so that if the one is acting upon a numeral drum 58a of the revolution counter ZI (through the respective wheels 51a and 9) it will turn the drum forward, while if the other finger actuates the drum it will turn the drum backward. The two pins 95, 96 are fastened in an arcuate member 91, which is mounted between the two counter fingers upon a pivot 98 journaled in supports 98a, 98h projecting from the frame 98o of the machine. Ears 10, 10a projecting laterally from the arcuate member 91 embrace the lever 92, so that when the lever is shifted fromthe fun une position to' the dotted line position of Fig. 1 the engage-v ment of the pins with the counterflngers is reversed, and therefore the direction in which the fingers rock is reversed as required for short cut negative multiplication.
The carriage is stopped in the position illustrated in Fig. 4 by devices such asshown at i0 and Isa in Figs. 1 and 2 of Patent 2,081,008 mentioned above.
I claim:
1. In a calculating machine having an actuating mechanism, a driving shaft therefor, an eccentric upon said shaft, counter-actuating fingers embracing said eccentric and projecting on either side of it, and a carriage movable along said mechanism and provided with accumulator wheels and counter-wheels adapted to be brought into co-operative relation to said mechanism and to said fingers respectively; that improvement which comprises two pivot pins movable to engage and pivotally mount said lingers', means carrying said pins on opposite sides of said eccentric and adjust- I able to engage one pin with a finger and the other pin with .the other nger so that rotation of said eccentric will causesaid fingers to oscillate lin opposite directions, land means shiftable to one position for adjusting said carrying-means to en- .gage each pin with its finger and shiftable to a second position to engage each pin with the other finger. I
2. In a calculating machine having an actuating mechanism, a carriage movable along said mechanism, a revolution counter mounted on said ed on said carriage and having denominationally ordered accumulator wheels, means, operated by said actuating mechanism, for driving said totalizer in one direction when the carriage is in one of its said positions, and in the opposite direction when the carriageisin theotherof its said positions, and means, operatively connected with said actuating fortulningthewillmlr wheels to zero position in one direction or the other; that improvement according tovwhich one of the said steps of the carriage stop is movable relatively to the other so as to reverse the manner in which they co-operate with the stop members of the revolution counter, means for effecting such relative movement, and' means for reversing the movement of the means for turning the counter wheels to zero position.
3. In a calculating machine having an actuating mechanism, a carriage movable along said mechanism, a revolution counter mounted on said carriage and having denominationally orderedv counter wheels, and also provided with stop members, one for each of said counter wheels, a carriage stop having steps vadapted to co-operate with said stop members to arrest the carriage, for each denominational order, in one or the other of two positions, a totalizer likewise mounted on said carriage and having denominationally ordered accumulator wheels, means, operated by said actuating mechanism, for driving said totalizer in one direction when the carriage is in one of its said positions, and in the opposite direction when the carriage is in the other of its said positions, and means, operatively connected with said actuating mechanism, for turning the counter wheels to zero position in one direction or the A other; that improvement according to which one of the said steps of the carriage stop is movable relatively to the other so as to reverse the manner in which they co-operate with the stop meming mechanism, a carriage movable along said mechanism, a revolution counter mounted on said carriage and having denominationally ordered counter wheels, and also provided with stop members, one for each of said counter wheels, a carriage stop having steps adapted to co-operate with said stop members to arrest the carriage, for each denominational order, in one or the other of two positions, a totalizer likewise mounted on said carriage and having denominationally ordered accumulator wheels, means, operated by said actuating mechanism, for driving said totalizerin one direction when the carriage is in one voi.' its said positions, and in the opposite direction when the carriage is in the other of its said positions, and means, operatively connected-with said actuating mechanism, for turning the counter wheels to zero position in one direction or the other; that improvement according to which one of the said steps of the carriage stop is shiftable relatively to its neighboring step transversely of the carriage path so as to reverse the manner in which. said -steps co-operate with the stop members of the revolution counter, means for effecting such relative shift of said stop member, and means for reversing the movement of the means for turning the counter wheels to zero
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Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2706082A (en) * 1955-04-12 Lydfors
US2872115A (en) * 1959-02-03 ellerbeck
US2933247A (en) * 1960-04-19 ellerbeck
US3001701A (en) * 1961-09-26 Frobel
US3228601A (en) * 1964-02-20 1966-01-11 Monarch Marking Systems Inc Controls for marking machine

Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2706082A (en) * 1955-04-12 Lydfors
US2872115A (en) * 1959-02-03 ellerbeck
US2933247A (en) * 1960-04-19 ellerbeck
US3001701A (en) * 1961-09-26 Frobel
US3228601A (en) * 1964-02-20 1966-01-11 Monarch Marking Systems Inc Controls for marking machine

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