US2701099A - Degrees, minutes, and seconds machine - Google Patents

Degrees, minutes, and seconds machine Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US2701099A
US2701099A US190465A US19046550A US2701099A US 2701099 A US2701099 A US 2701099A US 190465 A US190465 A US 190465A US 19046550 A US19046550 A US 19046550A US 2701099 A US2701099 A US 2701099A
Authority
US
United States
Prior art keywords
order
transfer
orders
accumulator
machine
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
US190465A
Inventor
Grant C Ellerbeck
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Friden Calculating Machine Co Inc
Original Assignee
Friden Calculating Machine Co Inc
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Friden Calculating Machine Co Inc filed Critical Friden Calculating Machine Co Inc
Priority to US190465A priority Critical patent/US2701099A/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of US2701099A publication Critical patent/US2701099A/en
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical
Expired - Lifetime legal-status Critical Current

Links

Images

Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06CDIGITAL COMPUTERS IN WHICH ALL THE COMPUTATION IS EFFECTED MECHANICALLY
    • G06C15/00Computing mechanisms; Actuating devices therefor
    • G06C15/02Computing mechanisms; Actuating devices therefor operating on the binary scale

Description

1955 cs. c. ELLERBECK 2,70
DEGREES, MINUTES, AND SECONDS MACHINE Filed 001;. 17. 1950 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 I INVENTOR 1' 9' GRANT C. ELLERBEQK Feb. 1, 1955 G. c. ELLERBECK DEGREES, MINUTES, AND SECONDS MACHINE 5 Sheets-Sheet 3 Filed Oct. 17, 1950 INVENTOR. GANT C. ELLERBECK mH m-HINH Feb. 1, 1955 G. c. ELLERBECK 2,701,099
DEGREES, MINUTES, AND SECONDS MACHINE Filed Oct. 17, 1950 5 Sheets-Sheet 4 INVENTOR. GRANT C.ELLERBECK AWW Feb. 1, 1955 e. c. ELLERBECK DEGREES, MINUTES, AND SECONDS MACHINE 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 Filed Oct. 17, 1950 m mun-HI INVENTOR. Gmrr C. ELLERBECK United States Patent DEGREES, MINUTES, AND SECONDS MACHINE Grant C. Ellerbeck, San Leandro, Califi, assign0r to Friden Calculating Machine Co., Inc., a corporation of California Application October 17, 1950, Serial No. 190,465
12 Claims. (Cl. 235-73) This invention relates to calculating machines, and more particularly to an improved digitating mechanism therefor which enables such a machine to quickly and accurately perform computations involving decimally unrelated values, such as degrees, minutes, and seconds, by performing all transfer operations automatically and without requiring conscious effort on the part of the operator.
In performing computations involving values which are not decimally related, such as degrees, minutes, and seconds, it has been the practice heretofore either to perform the required tens-transfer operations mentally or to utilize prepared tables and charts for converting the values to their decimal equivalents before performing the computation. This practice very substantially limits the speed with which such calculations can be performed, and often results in a grand total or other computed value which is only a close approximation of the true answer, particularly in instances wherein it is necessary to dedecimalize the computed value before the same can be conveniently used in succeeding operations. Navigation instruments, for example, are often calibrated directly in degrees, minutes, and seconds, and whenever computations involving such angular values are required it is often desirable that the computed values also be expressed in degrees, minutes, and seconds in order that the results of each calculation may be conveniently used in subsequent computations or quickly and accurately transferred to angularly calibrated instrument scales. Whenever a calculating machine is thus adapted to add and subtract directly in sixtieths, it will be readily apparent to those skilled in the art that all other fractions of which sixty is the common denominator may also be rapidly and accurately totalized additively or subtractively. Such fractions as halves, thirds, quarters, fifths, sixth, tenths, twelfths, fifteenths, twentieths, and thirtieths, having 60 as a common denominator, may be added and subtracted by my invention. It will also be apparent that such a machine may be readily modified to comupute directly in other decimally unrelated values such as pounds and ounces, or in terms of a foreign currency whose units are not decimally related.
It is an important object of the present invention, therefore, to provide an improved tens-transfer mechanism for a calculating machine which is particularly adapted to receive a plurality of individual values expressed in terms of degrees, minutes, and seconds, and to rapidly and accurately totalize such values in their original form while performing all necessary transfer operations automatically and without conscious effort on the part of the operator.
It is another object of the invention to provide a calculating machine which is adapted to directly add and subtract angular values expressed in degrees, minutes, and seconds without first converting the minutes and seconds to their decimal equivalents and then reconverting the decimal portion of the computed answer back into minutes and seconds.
It is a further object of the invention to provide a calculating machine which is adapted to rapidly and accurately add or subtract Whole numbers having fractional values expressed in sixtieths, or in other fractional values wherein sixty is the common denominator, which machine is provided with novel means adapted to perform all necessary transfer operations automatically and without conscious effort on the part of the operator.
It is still another object of the invention to provide a calculating machine having means therein adapted to 2,701,099 Patented Feb. 1, 1955 quickly and accurately totalize both positive and negative values expressed in decimally related whole numbers and in fractional portions thereof which are not decimally related.
These and other objects of the invention will be apparent from the specification which follows and the drawings which constitute a part hereof. Such further objects, advantages and capabilities as will fully appear and as are inherently possessed by the device and the invention described herein, are intended to be included within the scope hereof.
While there is shown therein a preferred embodiment thereof, it is to be understood that the same is illustrative of the invention, and that the invention is capable of modification and change and comprehends other details of construction without departing from the spirit thereof or the scope of the appended claims.
Referring to the drawings:
Fig. l is a plan view of a calculating machine embodying the instant invention.
Fig. 2 is a fragmentary vertical longitudinal section through the rear part of the machine, showing the selection and actuating mechanisms thereof.
Fig. 3 is a transverse vertical section taken along a line 3-3 in Fig. 2, showing the main and auxiliary actuating drums and the selection gears associated therewith.
Fig. 4 is a fragmentary plan view taken along the lines 4-4 in Fig. 3 showing the selection and actuating mechanisms illustrated in Fig. 2.
Fig. 5 is a bottom view of the calculating machine register showing the transfer and auxiliary digitation control mechanisms of the machine.
Although the instant invention may be used in various types of calculating machines capable of performing the four cardinal rules of calculation, I prefer to employ my invention in connection with the type of calculating ma chine disclosed in Carl M. F. Friden Patent No. 2,229,889 dated January 28, 1941 and A. I. Richards Patent No. 2,229,901 dated January 28, 1941, which Thomas type machine preferably has been modified to incorporate a stationary type of register carriage fixedly mounted on the frame structure of the machine in lieu of the laterally shiftable register carriage shown and described in the above-mentioned patents.
General description As previously stated, the present invention is shown incorporated in a machine of the type shown and described in U. S. Patent No. 2,229,889. It will become evident, however, from a study of the present disclosure, that the invention is not limited'to use with machines of this type, but may also be applied to other types of computing devices with equally desirable results.
In order to provide a clear understanding of the relationship of the present machine to the structure shown in the above-mentioned patents, a brief description will be given of certain of the mechanisms shown and described in the said patents.
Referring now to Fig. 1 of the drawings, the machine is composed of a main body portion 10 in which the actuating, selecting and control mechanisms are mounted, and a stationary register section 11 which is fixedly mounted on the body portion 10 and which carries numeral wheels 21 and 61 of the accumulator and revolutions counter, respectively. Clearance of the accumulator wheels 21 may be efiected by manual or power-operated manipulation of the resetting knob 12, while the revolutions counter wheels 61 may be reset to zero by manipw lation of the knob 13.
Amounts to be entered into the accumulator wheels 21 may be set up on the amount keys 32, after which the amount may be entered positively or negatively into the accumulator wheels 21 by manipulation of the plus key 14 or the minus key 15. In case an erroneous setting is made on the amount keys 32, the incorrectly depressed key in any one of the individual key orders may be released by depression of the ordinal clear key 30 relating to that particular order. If it is desired to release all of the depressed keys of the keyboard, this may be accomplished by depression of the keyboard clear key 16. Since it is ordinarily desirable in adding and subtracting operations to cause all depressed amount keys to be released at the end of each machine cycle, an add" key 17 is provided which may be depressed and latched down in order to cause the automatic release of the depressed amount keys at the conclusion of each machine cycle. The machine is also provided with a register clear key 18 for causing the accumulator wheels 21, or revolutions counter wheels 61, or both, depending upon the angular setting of the knobs 12 and 13, to be reset to their positions by power obtained from the driving motor of the machine so as to prepare the same for the next operation to follow. A counter-control lever 20 (Fig. 1) preferably is adapted to be set selectively to any one of three predetermined adjusted positions so that the registration of the revolutions counter 61 is the same as or of opposite sign character with respect to the registration of the accumulator dials 21, or so that the counter 61 counts positively irrespective of the sign character of the registration of the accumulator 21. The counter-control mechanism is fully shown and described in A. I. Richards Patent No. 2,229,901, supra, and reference may be had to this patent for further information concerning the construction and mode of operation thereof.
It will be readily apparent that multiplying operations may be performed on such a machine by first placing the add key 17 in its fully raised or nonclearing posi tion, entering the multiplicand into the keyboard in the usual manner, and then depressing the plus key 14 until the desired multiplier is recorded in the revolutions counter 61, at which time the desired product will be registered in the accumulator wheels 21.
Selecting and actuating mechanism The values to be introduced into the accumulator wheels 21 are determined by means of a selecting mechanism associated with each order of numeral keys 32. As shown in Fig. 4, each order of keys cooperates with a pair of parallel selection slides 51 and 52 (Fig. 4) which are mounted for endwise movement by means of suitable parallel supporting links 54 (see Fig. 2) which are resiliently urged toward the rear of the machine. Each of the selection slides 51, 52 is provided with a series of inclined cam faces 34 (Fig. 2) which are adapted to be acted upon by pins 33 provided on the stems of the amount keys 32. The selection slide 51 is provided with five such cam faces which cooperate with the l to keys, while the slide 52 is provided with four cam faces which cooperate with the "6 to 9 keys. Each of the selection slides is provided at its rear end with a bent over forked extension 29 which embraces a groove provided in the hub 83 of an associated selector gear 28. In each order, a pair of these gears are slidably mounted on a longitudinally disposed square shaft 27 journalled in suitable bearing plates carried by the frame of the machine. The gear 28 which is controlled by the selection slide 51 for the 1 to 5 keys is adapted to cooperate with ditferentially staggered teeth 55 provided on the forward actuator drum 36 of each pair, while the gear 28 controlled by the selection slide 52 for the 6 to 9 keys is adapted to cooperate with teeth 56 provided on the rear actuator drum 35 which is associated therewith. Thus, when the 1 key is depressed, the gear 28 controlled by the slide 51 will be slid forward one step along the square shaft 27 so as to bring the associated gear 28 into the path of travel of the longest gear tooth of teeth 55 on actuator drum 36, thereby causing the shaft 27 to be given one increment of rotation. In a similar manner, depression of the "2, 3, 4 or 5 keys will cause the associated gear 28 to be brought into the path of travel of successive teeth 55 so as to cause the shaft 27 to receive additional increments of movement. Depression of the 6 key will cause the gear 28 controlled by the slide 52 to be moved one step so as to bring this gear into cooperative relationship with six of the teeth 56 on drum 35, whereas depression of the 7, 8 and 9 keys will cause the corresponding gear 28 to be moved into the path of travel of additional teeth 011 the associated rear actuator drum 35.
The drums 35 and 36 are secured to an actuator shaft 39 (Fig. 2) which is journalled at its forward end in bearing plate 57 and at its rearward end in cross bar 58 carried by the framework of the machine. Each such actuator shaft 39 is provided at its forward end with a bevel gear 40 which meshes with a corresponding bevel gear secured on drive shaft 41 suitably journalled in the side frames of the machine and adapted 19 b cyclically rotated by means of an electric motor which is provided for driving the machine. For all except certain preselected keyboard orders, such as the second and fourth orders, two sets of corresponding actuator drums are mounted on each such actuator shaft 39, one such shaft being interposed between and below each pair of two orders. In this manner the slides 51, 52 of one such order will cooperate with the rear pair of drums 35, 36 and the slides of the other such order will cooperate with the forward pair of drums.
As shown in Figs. 1 and 2, the selecting and actuating mechanisms for the second and fourth keyboard orders have been modified by removing the 6 to 9 bank of keys 32 in these two orders, with the result that the actuator drum 35 is not required to effect higher value digitation in these two preselected orders. An auxiliary gear 35a (Figs. 2 and 3) has been provided to replace the mutilated actuating gears 35 for these two orders, which auxiliary digitating gears coact with their associated selection gears 28:: to modify the digitation and ordinal transfer operation in these two orders in the novel manner to be hereinafter more fully described.
Slidably and nonrotatably mounted on the rear end of each such square shaft 27 is a spool 26 carrying an add gear 24 and a subtract gear 25. As shown in Fig. 2, these gears are normally located in a neutral position with respect to the associated pinion gears 23 which are secured to the lower ends of the accumulator drive shafts 22, which shafts are suitably journalled in the frame of the stationary register section 11 of the machine. These gears 24 and 25 may be selectively engaged with the pinion gears 23 by means of a strap or gate 46 extending transversely of the machine below the square shafts 27 and supported on either side of the machine by a pair of identical arms 47 secured to a shaft 48 which is suitably journalled between the side frames of the machine. The shaft 48 and gate 46 are normally held in the neutral position shown in Fig. 2 by means of a conventional spring-biased centralizer, not shown, so as to normally maintain the add-subtract gears 24, 25 in their neutral position. As is fully shown and described in Friden Patent No. 2,229,889, supra, partial depression of plus key 14 is adapted to move a plus-minus control slide rearwardly thereby rocking the shaft 48 clockwise so that the plus gears 24 are moved into engagement with their associated accumulator driving gears 23, and further depression of key 14 immediately thereafter closes the main cyclic clutch and also closes a pair of normally open switch contacts so as to start the electric motor which drives the machine. In like manner, depression of the minus key moves the associated control slide forwardly so as to engage the minus gears with the accumulator drive gears 23 (see also Fig. 2) before the main clutch and motor control switch are closed, thereby dfitermining substractive operation of the calculating mac me.
Secured to each accumulator dial shaft 22, in a position immediately above the pinion drive gear 23, is a transfer cam or 70a which is arranged to cooperate with a corresponding transfer lever 71, each of which is pivoted as at 69 on the lower portion of the frame of the register section 11, as shown in Fig. 5. Each such transfer lever is provided with a bent over car 72 (Fig. 2) which engages between the flanges of a coacting spool 73 or 73a which is slidably and nonrotatably mounted on the square shaft 27 of the next higher order of the machine. Secured to each such spool is a transfer gear 74 which normally lies out of the path of a transfer tooth or gear provided on its respective tens-transfer actuator disk 75 (Fig. 2) secured to the rear end of the associated actuator shaft 39. Except for the second and fourth or ders, the transfer cams carried by the accumulator dial shafts 22 are in the form of a single tooth gear '70 which coacts with its associated transfer lever 71 to effect a tens-transfer operation in the usual manner whenever the associated accumulator numeral wheel 21 passes from 9 to 0 or from 0 to 9, as is fully described in Friden Patent No. 2,229,889, supra. Hence, whenever an accumulator wheel 21 passes from 9 to 0 or from 0 to 9 in any order except the second and fourth orders of the machine, the associated transfer lever 71 will be rocked and thereby cause the transfer gear in the next higher order to be moved into the plane of its respective actuator disk 75 (Fig. 2) where it will be operated by the single tooth thereon and so cause an additional increment of movement to be given to the next higher order accumulator dial. However, the transfer earns 70a for the second and fourth orders, or other predetermined orders of the machine, are provided with a relatively long arcuate contact face as shown in Fig. 5, which cams 70a coact with their associated transfer levers 71 to control a tens-transfer operation into the next higher order of the machine, and to control an auxiliary digitation operation in the same order of the machine, as will be hereinafter more fully described.
The revolutions counter dials 61 are mounted on a series of horizontal dial shafts 62 which are suitably journalled in the frame of the stationary register section 11 of the machine. Also secured to each such dial shaft 62 is an actuator gear 63 (Fig. 2) which is arranged to be driven by a counter actuating device 64 so as to cause the counter dial located in the units order to be given one step of movement for each cycle of operation of the main actuator shaft 39. This mechanism is fully shown and described in the above-mentioned Patent No. 2,229,889, and reference may be had to this patent for further information concerning the construction and mode of operation of this part of the machine.
Auxiliary digitation mechanism Auxiliary digitating means is provided to enable preselected orders, such as the second and fourth orders of the machine, to automatically impart a predetermined angular rotation to shaft 27 in the same orders whenever the associated accumulator wheels move between predetermined values, as from 5 to 6, or from 6 to 5; and at the same time, and preferably as part of the same operation, to effect a tens-transfer into the next higher order. Although this form of auxiliary digitation arrangement is preferred in selected orders of a machine which is particularly adapted to perform calculations expressed in terms of degrees, minutes, and seconds, other arrangements of the auxiliary digitation mechanism may readily be made to adapt the machine to other specialized computations, such as calculations involving feet and inches, pounds and ounces, or foreign currency values expressed in monetary units which are not decimally related. Although the number and ordinal location in the machine of the auxiliary digitating device, or devices, will vary in accordance with the particular specialized type of calculation to be performed, the invention will now be described as applied to a machine adapted to quickly and accurately perform addition and subtraction of angular values expressed in terms of degrees, minutes, and seconds. As mentioned earlier herein, such a degree, minute, and second machine is provided with an auxiliary digitating device in the second and fourth orders thereof, the digitation and value entering mechanisms associated with the first, third, fifth, sixth and higher keyboard orders being of the usual type, such as is fully shown and described in the above-mentioned Friden Patent No. 2,229,889.
Referring now to Figs. 2 to 4, inclusive, there is shown generally at 76 an auxiliary value entering mechanism associated with the second and fourth orders of the accumulator, which mechanism includes a bar 77 supported for free endwise sliding movement on the cross frame 78 by a saddle 79 suitably secured to the upper surface of the cross frame. Each such bar 77 is of sufiicient length to form an operative connection between the selection gear 28a of the selected order (the 2nd and 4th in the embodiment shown herein) and the associated spool 73a which carries the transfer gear 74 in the next higher order. Bar 77 has secured to its rear end a shift fork 80 which is adapted to be interposed between the gear 74 and an adjacent flange on the coacting transfer spool 73a, of the higher order, which spool is slidably and non-rotatably mounted on square shaft 27. There is also affixed to the forward end of bar 77 an oppositely disposed yoke 81, the outer end of which is adapted to embrace an annular groove on the hub 93 which carries the auxiliary selection gear 28a, in the selected order, which gear is slidably mounted on the square shaft 27 for rotation therewith. Hence, forward movement which is imparted to one or more of the transfer levers 71 by the auxiliary transfer cams 70a of the selected (i. e., 2nd and 4th) orders operates through the associated transfer spool 73a, fork 80, bar 77, and fork 81 to move the auxiliary seleetion gear 28a of the selected order into the plane of the relatively fiat auxiliary actuating gear 35a at the beginning of an auxiliary digitating and value entering operation. Since each such auxiliary selection gear 28a, control bar 77, and the associated transfer spool 73a in the next higher order are coupled together by the forks Stl and 81 so as to form a unitary auxiliary digitation assembly 76, a rearward movement which is subsequently imparted to the transfer spool 73a by the restore actuator 37a (Fig. 2) returns the assemblies 76 to the normally inactive position shown in Figs. 2 and 4 upon completion of the tens-transfer operation, which restore action is more fully described in Friden Patent No. 2,229,889, supra.
Since the square shafts 27 are power driven, means must be provided for holding these shafts centralized except during digitation and tens-transfer. For this purpose, there is secured to each ordinal shaft 27 in the machine a Geneva wheel 85 having ten concave faces thereon adapted to coact with a notched disk 86 carried by the associated actuating shaft 39 (Fig. 2). As is fully shown and described in Friden Patent No. 2,229,889, supra, these notched disks 86 coact with the associated Geneva wheels 85 so as to free the corresponding square shafts 27 during normal or auxiliary digitation as well as during a tens-transfer operation therein, while also acting as a positive stop during the remainder of the machine operating cycle.
Operation The operation of the auxiliary digitation and value entering mechanism of the machine will now be explained by means of a typical computation in addition. An angular value such as 59, 59, 59" may, for example, be entered into the machine by depressing the 5 and 9 value keys in the sixth and fifth keyboard orders, the 5 value keys in the second and fourth orders, and the 9 value keys in the first and third orders of the keyboard. If the plus key 14 (Figs. 1 and 6) is then depressed while the add key 17 is in its down position, the machine will cycle once to enter the value 59, 59, 59" into the accumulator numeral wheels 21, while automatically clearing the keyboard immediately thereafter. Since the two lowest orders of the keyboard represent the seconds of the are, if 1" (one second) is to be added to the previously entered value, the 1 key in the first order is depressed and the plus key 14 is again given a single depression, with the result that the machine will again cycle once only and automatically rotate the accumulator wheels 21 so as to indicate the computed sum of 60, 00', 00", in the following manner.
As is shown and described in Friden Patent No. 2,229,889, supra, the normal tens-transfer does not occur simultaneously in all orders of the machine, but occurs progressively from right to left across the machine, as viewed in Fig. 1, so as to take into account transfer operations caused by a previous transfer. As shown in Fig. 3, the stepped teeth actuating drums 55 and 56 are angularly staggered or positioned on their respective actuating shafts 39 so that the digitation in the lowest orders of the machine will occur first. Hence, as 1" (one second) is added to the angular value 59, 59, 59" previously entered into the accumulator wheels 21, the 9 in the first, or units of seconds, order is changed to 0 in the usual manner at the beginning of digitation. This results in the transfer lever 71 between the first and second orders being moved to its active position by the single-tooth transfer cam 70 of the first, or units of seconds, order, so as to advance the second, or tens of seconds, order transfer gear 74 into the path of travel of single tooth gear 75, whereby the second accumulator dial advances from 5 to 6 in the normal manner. As the second order accumulator dial moves from 5 to 6, however, the arcuate cam surface of the auxiliary transfer cam 70a thereof engages the nose of the associated transfer lever 71, thereby rocking the associated lever 71 to its forward, or active, position and holds it in such a position while the dial passes through the 6 to the 0 positions. Simultaneously with the rocking of the associated transfer lever 71 by the second order transfer cam 70a, the transfer gear 74 of the third, or units of minutes, order is pushed forward to its operative position and the auxiliary digitation assembly 76 between the second and third orders is translated forwardly to bring selection gear 28a of the second order into its operative position in the plane of mutilated gear 350 of that order. The staggered relationship of the actuator drums 35 and 36, and the mutilated gears 35a permits the tens-carry from the first to the second order to be effective prior to the rotation of the mutilated gear 35a for the second order to the position in which it engages its selection gear 28a, and the transfer from the third to the fourth orders to occur before the engagement of actuator gear 35a of that order with its associated selection gear 2811. Thus it is impossible for the second order numeral wheel to register a 6, 7, 8, or 9," since, the auxiliary digitation assembly 76 operated by the second order transfer cam 70a, which assembly includes spool 73a of the third order, fork 80 embracing such spool, shaft 77 and fork 81 embracing selection gear 28a of the second order, has been moved forwardly so that the second order auxiliary gear 28a is positioned and retained in the plane of the four-tooth auxiliary actuating drum 35a as long as the coacting arm on the transfer lever 71 remains in contact with the arcuate cam 70:! (Fig. 5), i. e., until the second order dial passes to 0. These auxiliary actuating gears 35a are positioned on their supporting shafts 39 so as to be brought into play after normal digitation of the drum 36 for that order has terminated, as well as after the tens-transfer from the lower order, has occurred. The cyclic timing of the transfer restore earns 82 (Fig. 2), associated with the third and fifth order restore actuators 37a, is such as to delay the return of the as sociated transfer assemblies 76 to their normally inactive position until after the second and fourth order four-tooth gears 35a have passed engagement with their respective gears 28a, so as to move the associated accumulator wheels 21 from 6 to in the same operating cycle. In this manner, a value of 4, which is the tens-complement of 6, is automatically entered into one or more preselected orders of the machine during the auxiliary digitation operation, which auxiliary operation may be initiated either by a normal digitation increasing the value from to 6, or more, or from the transfer mechanism inserting a value in the preselected order from the next lower order. As the second order accumulator wheel moves from 5 to 6 to initiate operation of the auxiliary digitating mechanism, the transfer lever 71 moves the third order transfer spool 73a to its active position so as to effect a normal tens-transfer in the third, or units of minutes, order of. the machine. 21 is thus moved from 9 to 0, a similar transfer operation is initiated in the fourth, or tens of minutes. order of the machine, with the result that these two higher orders, following operation of the auxiliary digitation mechanism in the fourth order, read 00 along with the units and tens of seconds accumulator wheels as soon as the operating cycle has been concluded, at which time the auxiliary assemblies 76 have been restored to their normally inactive position as shown in Fig. 2.
At the time the value 59 previously entered into the third and fourth orders is thus changed to 60 during the transfer phase, by the transfer of 1 from the second order, 1 is transferred to the fifth order simultaneously with the setting of the auxiliary digitation mechanism 76 for the fourth order. so that in the auxiliary digitation phase the third and fourth orders are changed to a reading of 00. Simultaneously with the auxiliary digitation in the fourth order. the fifth and sixth order reading is changed to 60, by a conventional transfer operation and remains at that figure, since no auxiliary digitating mechanism 76 is associated with this portion of the keyboard.
It will be understood from what has preceded that in any addition or subtraction of values, normal digitation first takes place, followed by the tens-carry progressing from right to left across the keyboard, and following the tens-carry into the selected orders the auxiliary digitation mechanism is operated. Thus, if a value is entered that goes beyond 60 in minutes or seconds, the correct result is secured. For example, suppose that to the 59 59 59" previously mentioned, the value 21 21 21" is added. In the seconds orders the conventional actuator and cooperating selection gears would have added 21 to the value of 59. The first step As the third order accumulator wheel would have been to give a reading of with a tenscarry conditioned for the second order, which follows so closely behind digitation that for all practical purposes they are a single operation. Thus, the lowest two orders would have momentarily stood at a value of 80. However, the auxiliary transfer cam 70:: of the second order would have conditioned its transfer lever for a tens-carry into the third order, and simultaneously conditioned the auxiliary selection gear 28a for operation by the auxiliary actuator gear 35a. Thus 4 is added in the final phase of operation in the second order, giving the final reading of 20 for the seconds orders. Digitation in the minutes orders would have followed very closely behind digitation in the seconds orders, so that the first phase of digitation would have given a value of 70 immediately followed by the transfer of 1 from the second order to the third and from the third to the fourth orders, giving a momentary reading of 81. The rotation of the auxiliary transfer gear 70a in the fourth order would have conditioned the transfer mechanism for a transfer of 1 into the fifth order and simultaneously set the auxiliary mechanism for the addition of 4 in the fourth order, to give a final reading of 21. Operation in the fifth and sixth orders is conventional to enter a value of 81. Thus, at the end of the single cycle of operation the register would stand at 81, 21 and 20". All transfer earns 70, transfer levers 71, and transfer spools 73 in the fifth and all higher keyboard orders become active whenever the accumulator wheel in the next lower keyboard order moves from 9" to 0 or from 0 to 9 in the manner described in the aforementioned Patent No. 2,229,889. Hence, that portion of the keyboard which is represented by the fifth and higher orders may be readily utilized to add or subtract whole number values in the normal manner, whereas the first four orders of the keyboard are particularly adapted to receive fractional values such as minutes and seconds which are expressed in sixtieths or in units whose common denominator is 60. Subtractive operations may be similarly performed on such a calculating machine by entering the degrees, minutes, and seconds in the proper position on the keyboard and depressing the subtract key 15 while the add key 17 is also depressed so as to determine single cycle operation of the machine.
Although the construction and operation of the machine have been described in their preferred forms as applied to the addition and subtraction of angular values expressed in degrees, minutes, and seconds, the same may readily be used in rapidly and accurately making calculations involving other fractional values which are expressed in sixtieths, or in units whose common denominator is 60. It will thus be apparent that the ordinal location of the auxiliary digitation mechanism may be readily changed to conform to the requirements of various specialized computations, and that the shape of each arcuate cam 70a and the number of teeth on the associated auxiliary digitation gear 35a may be readily modified so as to automatically effect the entry of any desired tens-complement into that order of the accumulator whenever a tens-transfer operation is indicated in that particular order. These and other modifications of the machine may readily be made while still retaining decade numeral wheels in all orders of the accumulator 21, and without departing from the spirit of the instant invention or the scope of the appended claims.
I claim:
1. In a calculating machine having a keyboard and a plural order accumulator containing ordinally arranged dials with figures decimally arranged thereon, a transfer mechanism between the consecutive orders of the said accumulator, means for operating the trans fer mechanism controlled in a preselected higher order of the accumulator by movement of the numeral dial to a predetermined value other than 0," ordinally arranged actuating means, ordinally arranged positionable gears operative to transmit a value from the ordinally related actuating means to the respective order of the accumulator dependent on the position of the gears with respect to the actuating means, keyboard controlled means for positioning the positionable gears, a second positionable gear in the preselected order, a second actuating means in the preselected order operable to enter the tens-complement of the predetermined number through said second gear, and means operated by the transfer mechanism between said preselected order and the next higher order for positioning said second posttionable gear into operative relationship to said second actuating means.
2. In a calculating machine having a keyboard and a plural order accumulator containing ordinally arranged dials with figures decimally arranged thereon, a transfer mechanism between the consecutive orders of the said accumulator, means for operating the transfer mechanism controlled in a preselected order of the accumulator by movement of the numeral dial to a predetermined value other than 0, ordinally arranged actuating means, positionable gears operative to transmit a value from the actuating means to the respective order of the accumulator dependent on the position of the gears with respect to the actuating means, keyboard controlled means for positioning the positionable gears, and auxiliary digitating mechanism associated with the preselected order including a secondary actuating means in such order operable to transmit the tens-complement of said predetermined value, a secondary gear associated with each such secondary actuator, and means operated by the transfer mechanism between said preselected order and the next higher order for positioning the secondary gear in its operative position with respect to its associated actuating means, thereby causing automatic entry of sa1d tenscomplement into the said preselected order of the accumulator simultaneously with the transfer of a value to the next higher order.
3. In a calculating machine having a keyboard and a plural order accumulator containing ordinally arranged and decimally positionable wheels, a transfer mechanism between consecutive orders of the said accumulator, means in a preselected order for initiating operation of the transfer mechanism between such order and the next higher order by movement of the wheel to a predetermined value position other than 0, means in other orders for initiating operation of their respective transfer mechanisms by movement of the wheel to a value position of 0, cyclically operated actuating means, keyboard controlled selection gears selectively positioned with respect to said actuating means and operative to transmit values into the accumulator, a secondary actuating means and a secondary selection gear associated with the preselected order of the said accumulator, means operated by the transfer mechanism between such preselected order and the next higher order for moving sa1d secondary selection gear to its operative position with respect to said secondary actuating means, the sa1d secondary selection gear in its active position being set to cause the entry of the tens-complement of the predetermined value into the said preselected order of the accumulator.
4. In a calculating machine having a keyboard and an accumulator provided with a plurality of ordinally arranged numeral wheels rotatably mounted therein, a transfer mechanism between successive orders of the said accumulator, means in each order for invariably initiating operation of the associated transfer mechanismv upon movement of the numeral wheel to a predetermined value, said last-mentioned means in a selected higher order being operative to initiate a transfer upon movement of the numeral wheel to a predetermined value other than 0, cyclically operable power-operated actuating means, a value transmitting means between said actuating means and said accumulator wheels driven by said actuating means and controlled by said keyboard to transmit a value determined by the said keyboard into the said accumulator numeral wheels, a normally inoperative secondary operating means associated with said selected order including a second power-operated actuating means and a second value transmitting means cooperating therewith to insert the tens-complement of the predetermined value into said selected order, means for positioning said second value transmitting means in an operative position, and means controlled only by the transfer mechanism between said selected order and the next higher order thereof for operating said positioning means, said second transmitting means being operative after normal digitation in such selected order and the normal transfer thereinto from the next lower order has terminated.
5. In a calculating machine having a plural order keyboard adapted to receive angular values expressed in terms of degrees, minutes, and seconds, and a plural order accumulator having decimally figured dials, the combination which comprises a transfer mechanism between the consecutive orders of the said accumulator adapted to transfer a unit from the lower order to the adjacent higher order thereof, digitating means including differentially positionable gears controlled by said keyboard and drivers for said gears adapted to enter preselected values from the said keyboard into the said accumulator, and a secondary digitating means associated with the tensof-minutes and tens-of-seconds orders including a positionable gearin each such order and a driver therefor adapted to enter a value of 4 into the associated order of the accumulator, and means operated by the transfer mechanism between such orders and the next higher orders thereof for positioning said positionable gears in operative position.
6. In a calculating machine having a keyboard adapted to receive angular values expressed in terms of degrees, minutes, and seconds, the combination which comprises a plural order accumulator containing ordinally arranged dials with figures decimally arranged thereon, a transfer mechanism between consecutive orders of the said accumulator, means for operating the transfer mechanism controlled in the tens-of-minutes and tens-of-seconds orders of the accumulator by the values of 6 to 9, inclusive, digitating means adapted to enter angular values from the said keyboard into the said accumulator including ordinally arranged actuating means, positionable gears operative to transmit a value from the actuating means to the respective order of the accumulator dependent on the position of the gears with respect to the actuating means, keyboard controlled means for positioning the positionable gears, and auxiliary digitating means associated with the tens-of-minutes and tens-ofseconds orders including a second actuator in said orders operable to transmit a value of 4 and a second positionable gear associated with each such second actuator, and means operated by the transfer mechanisms of such tens-of-rninutes and tens-of-seconds orders for positioning said second gears in operative relationship to their respective second actuators, whereby the associated seconds and minutes numeral wheels move from 59 to 00 or from 00 to 59 simultaneously with the operation of the transfer mechanisms of such orders to transfer a value to the next higher order.
7. In a calculating machine having a keyboard adapted to receive and enter angular values expressed in terms of degrees, minutes, and seconds into a plural order accumulator having decimally figured dials, the combination which comprises a transfer mechanism between the consecutive orders of the said accumulator, a transfer initiating cam in each order of the said accumulator for conditioning the said transfer mechanism between it and the next higher order thereof to transfer a unit between the lower order and the next higher order, said transfer initiating cam in the tens-of-minutes and tens-of-seconds orders having an operating portion operative throughout the passage of the assocaited dials through the 6 to 9 positions, inclusive, and in the other orders having an operating portion operative only during the passage of the associated dials from 9 to 0, a cyclically operated actuating means, positionable gears operative to transmit a value from the actuating means to the respective order of the accumulator dependent on the position of the gears with respect to the actuating means, keyboard controlled means for positioning the positionable gears, a second positionable gear in the tens-of-minutes and tens-of-seconds orders, a second actuating means in said last-mentioned orders operative to enter the value of 4" in said orders, and means operated by the transfer mechanism between the tens-of-minutes and the tensof-seconds orders and the next higher order for positioning said second positionable gears in operative position with respect to the associated second actuating means.
8. In a calculating machine having a keyboard, an accumulator register provided with a plurality of ordinally arranged accumulator wheels rotatably mounted therein, said wheels having value positions for the values of 0 and 1 to "9, a transfer mechanism between successive orders of the said accumulator, means in each order for initiating operation of the associated transfer mechanism upon movement of the numeral wheel to a predetermined value position thereof, said last-mentioned means in a selected higher order being operative to initiate a transfer upon movement of the numeral wheel to a predetermined value position other than a cyclically operable drive shaft, a value transmitting means between said drive shaft and said accumulator wheels including ordinal drive gears driven by said drive shaft and intermediate gears selectively positionable with respect to their respective drive gears to enter the various values into the ordinally related accumulator wheel, means operated by said keyboard for positioning said intermediate gears, the combination which comprises a normally inoperative auxiliary value transmitting means associated with said selected order including a drive gear driven by said drive shaft operable to insert the tens-complement of the predetermined value in said selected order and an intermediate gear associated with said selected order, means for positioning said auxiliary drive gear and its associated gear in connecting relationship, and means controlled only by the transfer mechanism between said selected order and the next higher order thereof for operating said positioning means.
9. In a calculating machine having a keyboard, a plural order accumulator containing ordinally arranged accumulator wheels having value positions for the values of 0 and l to 9, inclusive, a transfer mechanism between the consecutive orders of the said accumulator, ordinally arranged driving gears, intermediate gears selectively positionable with respect to their drive gears to enter a value into the ordinally related accumulator wheel dependent on the position of the intermediate gears with respect to the driving gears, and keyboard controlled means for positioning the intermediate gears, the combination which comprises means for operating the transfer mechanism controlled in a preselected order of the accumulator by movement of the accumulator wheel throughout the positions between a predetermined value other than 0 and the 9 to 0 position, an auxiliary digitating mechanism associated with the preselected order including a secondary driving gear in such order operable to transmit the tens-complement of said predetermined value, a secondary gear associated with each such secondary driving gear, and means operated by the transfer mechanism between said preselected order and the next higher order for positioning the secondary gear in its operative position with respect to its associated driving gear, thereby causing automatic entry of said tens-complement into the said preselected order of the accumulator simultaneously with the transfer of a value to the next higher order.
10. In a calculating machine having an ordinally arranged selection mechanism, ordinally arranged rotary actuator gears, the actuator gears for the majority of orders having teeth of differential length adapted to enter a value of 1 to 9 and in selected orders having teeth adapted to enter values of from 1 to only, an accumulator having ordinally arranged accumulator dials, positionable selection gears for driving the respective orders of the accumulator, means for differentially positioning the selection gears with respect to their respective rotary actuators for entering selected values into the accumulator, a transfer cam associated with each accumulator dial, said cams in all orders except the selected orders being adapted to initiate a transfer as the dial passes between 9 and 0 and in the selected orders being adapted to initiate a transfer throughout the passage of the dial from 6 to 9, a transfer lever between the consecutive orders operated by the cam of the next lower order accumulator dial and operative to etfect the entry of a value of l in the next higher order, and means operatively connected to the transfer lever lying between the selected orders and the respective next higher order and operative to position the respective selection gear in a position to receive a value of 4 from the actuator in the selected order.
11. In a calculating machine having an ordinally arranged selection mechanism, ordinally arranged rotary actuator gears, the actuator gears for the majority of orders having teeth of differential length adapted to enter a value of l to 9 and in selected orders having teeth adapted to enter values of from 1 to 5 only, an auxiliary actuator in said selected orders having teeth adapted to enter 4 only, an accumulator having ordinally arranged accumulator dials, positionable selection gears for driving the respective orders of the accumulator, manually operated means for differentially positioning selection gears with respect to the rotary actuators for entering selected values into the accumulator, a transfer cam associated with each accumulator dial, said cams in all orders except the selected orders being adapted to initiate a transfer as the dial passes between 9 and 0 and in the selected orders being adapted to initiate a transfer throughout the passage of the dial from 6 to 0, a transfer lever between the consecutive orders operated by the cam of the next lower order accumulator dial and operative to etfect the entry of a value of 1 in the next higher order, and means operated by the transfer cam of the selected orders and operative to position the respective selection gears in operative position with respect to the auxiliary actuator in the selected order.
12. The apparatus of claim 11 characterized by the auxiliary actuator being so angularly positioned with respect to the actuator in the selected orders that the auxiliary actuator will engage its associated selection gear, when the latter is conditioned for operation, after the completion of engagement of the actuator and its associated selection gear and the transfer of a value from the next lower order into the selected order.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,053,687 Wheat Feb. 18, 1913 1,128,409 Cleal Feb. 16, 1915 1,468,992 Chase Sept. 25, 1923 2,463,594 Brigham Mar. 8, 1949 2,530,149 Britten Nov. 14, 1950 FOREIGN PATENTS 207,824 Great Britain Mar. 2, 1925
US190465A 1950-10-17 1950-10-17 Degrees, minutes, and seconds machine Expired - Lifetime US2701099A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US190465A US2701099A (en) 1950-10-17 1950-10-17 Degrees, minutes, and seconds machine

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US190465A US2701099A (en) 1950-10-17 1950-10-17 Degrees, minutes, and seconds machine

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US2701099A true US2701099A (en) 1955-02-01

Family

ID=22701454

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US190465A Expired - Lifetime US2701099A (en) 1950-10-17 1950-10-17 Degrees, minutes, and seconds machine

Country Status (1)

Country Link
US (1) US2701099A (en)

Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB207824A (en) *
US1053687A (en) * 1910-05-24 1913-02-18 Burroughs Adding Machine Co Adding-machine.
US1128409A (en) * 1909-02-03 1915-02-16 Ncr Co Cash-register.
US1468992A (en) * 1923-09-25 Calculating machine
US2463594A (en) * 1947-04-29 1949-03-08 Kearfott Company Inc Angle counter
US2530149A (en) * 1950-11-14 Calculating machine

Patent Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB207824A (en) *
US1468992A (en) * 1923-09-25 Calculating machine
US2530149A (en) * 1950-11-14 Calculating machine
US1128409A (en) * 1909-02-03 1915-02-16 Ncr Co Cash-register.
US1053687A (en) * 1910-05-24 1913-02-18 Burroughs Adding Machine Co Adding-machine.
US2463594A (en) * 1947-04-29 1949-03-08 Kearfott Company Inc Angle counter

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US2399170A (en) Calculating machine
US2325388A (en) Calculating machine
US1968201A (en) Calculating machine
US2160361A (en) Calculating machine
US2653765A (en) Dividend aligning mechanism
US2701099A (en) Degrees, minutes, and seconds machine
US2773646A (en) mathi
US2653763A (en) Dividend aligning mechanism
US2302422A (en) Calculating machine
US2665070A (en) Binary-octal-decimal computer
US1468992A (en) Calculating machine
US2653764A (en) Division aligner
US972360A (en) Calculating-machine.
US2389182A (en) Listing calculator
US2304329A (en) Calculating machine
US1288333A (en) Combined type-writing and computing machine.
US2531089A (en) Calculating machine
US1911796A (en) brown
US2206724A (en) Calculating machine
US2414027A (en) Partial
US2628778A (en) Tens carry mechanism fob
US1950183A (en) A kottmann
US2149338A (en) Calculating machine
US2736497A (en) Ellerbeck
US1974529A (en) Register