US2138157A - Removable packer for wells - Google Patents

Removable packer for wells Download PDF

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Publication number
US2138157A
US2138157A US129205A US12920537A US2138157A US 2138157 A US2138157 A US 2138157A US 129205 A US129205 A US 129205A US 12920537 A US12920537 A US 12920537A US 2138157 A US2138157 A US 2138157A
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United States
Prior art keywords
well
packer
cement
casing
tubing
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Expired - Lifetime
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US129205A
Inventor
Erle P Halliburton
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Halliburton Oil Well Cementing Co
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Halliburton Oil Well Cementing Co
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Priority to US129205A priority Critical patent/US2138157A/en
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B33/00Sealing or packing boreholes or wells
    • E21B33/10Sealing or packing boreholes or wells in the borehole
    • E21B33/12Packers; Plugs
    • E21B33/129Packers; Plugs with mechanical slips for hooking into the casing
    • E21B33/1294Packers; Plugs with mechanical slips for hooking into the casing characterised by a valve, e.g. a by-pass valve

Description

Nov. 29, 1938. E. P, HALLIBURTON REMOVABLE PACKER FOR WELLS 2 sheets-sheet 1 Filed March 5, 1937` A TTORNEY Nov. 29, 1938. E. P. HALLlBUR'ToN 2,138,157
Y REMOVBLE PACKER FOR WELLS 2 sheets-sheet 2 Filed March 5, 1957 INVENTOR. Erle F. Halv/burfon. BVM a l L ATTORNEY vPatented Nov. l29, 1.938
UNITED- STATES PATENT oFl-ICE to Halliburton Oil W Duncan, Okla.
ell Cementing Company Application March s, 1931, serial No. 129,205
11 Claims.
'I'his invention relates to apparatus adapted for use in oil wells or the like and more particularly to packers and means for removably secur- -ing the same to the casing of a well.
It is often desirable to flx and seal a valve or other structure to the casing of an oil well. If it is known prior to the time the casing is placed in the well that a valve is to be needed or used therein, a collar or a shoe may be made up with the casing and may contain the valve, but many occasions arise where it is necessary to fix a valve or the like to the casing while the'casing is in the well.
lI'he present invention relates to apparatus and methods for xing and sealing structures in wells and is particularly suitable for use in certain classes of cementing operations.
A well is sometimes cemented by forcing the slurry down into the well through tubing and into. 20 the formation ofthe well under extremely high pressure. in the trade, this is called a squeeze job.
Because the pressure -is extremely high, it is desirable and often necessary to secure the bottom of the tubing to the-casing, for otherwise the tubing would move upwardly and corkscrew or collapse.
it is also desirable to maintain an emcient seal between the bottom of the tubing and the casing to prevent the slurry, under high pressure, from passing upwardly therebetween instead of into the formation.
In the structure at the bottom of the tubing also has a back-pressure valve therein, pressure can be maintained on the cement slurry until it hardens, even though the pressure on the pumps at the surface is relieved.
The apparatus of the present invention is so constructed and arranged that it can function to effectively meet the above mentioned requirements. In addition, the apparatus presents many features of novelty and utility which will now be explained.
Prior to the present invention it has been pro- 55 are made of iron or other metal and some of posed to secure packers in wells and cement .l
which (the slips, for example) are usually case hardened. The drilling of this material is so difficult that the drills sometimes go through the casing rather than through the cement retaining assembly left in the well. Even where successfully drilled out, the practice is troublesome, time-consuming and expensive, the cement retaining assembly being destroyed.
It is an important object of the present invention, therefore, to devise means for retaining cement or other fluid in place in a Well and to so construct and arrange the same that it can readily be removed from the well after the cement has hardened or at any-other time. The cement retaining assembly or at least some parts thereof may then be used again in another well.
It is a further object of the invention to devise a novel packer-for sealing tubing to the casing of a well and to devise novel and practical means for setting the packer and for releasing and removing it from the well.
It is another object of the invention to devise a packer assembly particularly adapted for squeeze jobs of well cementing or other types of cementing where tubing is used, `and in which the tubing and casing may be Washed out above the packer after the cement is in place.
It is another object of the invention to devise means, controllable at will, for setting slips in a casing and for subsequently disconnecting the same from the casing.
It is still another object of the invention to devise a novel method of cementing and conditioning an oil well or the like.
Other objects and advantages reside in certain novel features of the arrangement and method as will be more apparent from the following description taken in connection with the accompanying drawings, in which:
Fig. 1 is a vertical cross-sectional view of the upper portion of a packer assembly constructed in accordance with the principles of the present invention.
Fig. 2 is a vertical cross-sectional View of the lower portion of the same apparatus;
Fig. 3 is a vertical cross-sectional view of a portion of the apparatus shown in Fig. 2, but illustrating a different relative position of the parts; and
Figs. 4 to '7, inclusive, are diagrammatic showings of the apparatus of Figs. 1 and 2 illustrating the operation thereof.
In the drawings it is to be understood that Figs. 1 and 2 show complementary or adjacent portions of the same apparatus, the upper por- 55 tion of Fig. 2 being contiguous to the lower portion of Fig. l.
The arrangement shown in the drawings includes a portion of the casing II of an oil well, the apparatus of the present invention being mounted therein.
The apparatus shown is intended to be mounted on the lower end of drill stem or tubing (not shown) by means of a suitable mandrel I2 which is hollow and provides a conduit from the tubing through a major portion of the packer assembly. For supporting the packer assembly the mandrel carries one or more pins I3 of any suitable size and shape which are adapted to cooperate with a J-slot or bayonet joint structure I4 formed in a sleeve I5 mounted for longitudinal movement on the mandrel I2.
Integral with the sleeve I5 is a cone or wedgeshaped member I6 a lower or tapered portion of which is dovetailed to a number of slip segments I1 as shown at I8. It will be noted that the slips I'I have their inner-faces inclined to correspond with the inclination on the cone or wedge member I6 so that the cone may ride up and down therein. If the cone moves downwardly the slips are expanded radially. and press against the casing I I. If the cone is pulled upwardly the slips are removed from the casing, being pulled inwardly by the dovetails I8.
The slips are provided with teeth I9 which may be of known construction as, for example, case hardened steel, so as to bite into'the casing. It is to be noted that the teeth are so formed as to extend upwardly, thus preventing upward movement of the apparatus beneath the slips when the teeth are set.
By means of a dovetailed connection 20, the lower end of the slips I'I are secured for sliding radial movement to the upper shoe 2| of the packer I2. The upper shoe 2| may be of usual construction and consist of a cylindrical metallic body having a groove 23 therein so that it may be secured to the upper end of the packer.
Radially extending wash out ports 4I may be provided in the shoe 2I or the water used in washing out may becaused to ilow upwardly through the shoe 2l after flowing through the ports 38, and then outwardly between the slip segments I1.
The packer 22 may be made of rubber or other material and is normally of the shape shown in Fig. 2. Within the packer there is a sleeve 24 the upper end of which has an inwardly extending ange 25 and the lower end of which is screwthreaded, as shown at 26, to cooperate with screw-threads 2'!I on the lower shoe 28 of the packer. The lower shoe 28 carries a valve seat member 29 to which the valve 80 is secured. The valve 30 is of such a nature that the spring 3l thereof tends to close the same upwardly. 'I'hus iluid can flow downwardly through the sleeve 24 but not upwardly. The valve 30 closes whenever the pressure beneath the shoe 28 is substantially equal to or greater than that inside of the sleeve 24.
While the main body of the packer may be of known construction, it is preferably provided with a thin sleeve 40 around its lower portion.
'This sleeve 40 is of tough elastic rubber and covers not only the lower portion of the packer 22 but also the lower shoe 28 and a portion of the valve seat member 29, as shown in Fig. 2.
The purpose of the sleeve 40 is twofold. It helps to prevent the creepage of cement slurry up around the packer (which would tend to cevalve 30 immediately closes.
ment the packer to the casing) and it covers the lower shoe 2I thus making it easier to pull that tion shown in Fig. 2. Suitable packing 34 may also be provided on the mandrel as shown. The packing may be compressed by means of the gland nut 35. Just beneath the flange 25 the sleeve 24 is provided with a number of ports 38, the purpose of which will be explained hereinafter.
'I'he parts are maintained in the relative positions shown in Figs. 1 and 2 while the apparatus is being lowered into the well. This is accomplished in part by means of the coil spring 36 resting on the top of the cone I6 and heldin place by means of a collar 31 xed to the mandrel I2. I'he cone I6 also has drag springs 38 of usual construction integral therewith.
It is to be noted that except for the latching means (pins I3 and slot I4) the cone I6 is free to move downwardly on the mandrel I2 under" the inuence of the spring 36.
The mandrel is also free to move downwardly through the sleeve 24 and the 4packer 22, the parts then taking the relative positions shown in Fig. 3.
The operation of the apparatus for cementing a well is as follows:
With the parts in the relative positions shown in Figs. 1, 2 and 4, the packer assembly is lowered to the desired point in the well. The drill stem and mandrel I 2 are then rotated to the left a sufcient amount to bring the pin I3 into the longitudinally extending portion of the J-slot I4. The cone I6 is prevented from rotating at this time. by the drag springs 38. As soon as the pin I3 is in the longitudinal portion of the J-slot the spring 36 acts to throw the cone I6 downwardly and this causes the slips I1 to engage the casing and take an initial set therein. The drill stem and mandrel I2 are then lifted. The pin I3 moves farther up in the slot I4 at this time and the packer is compressed to maintainan effective seal with the casing, the upward movement of the mandrel I2 being transmitted to the lower shoe 28 by the sleeve 24. Both the lower shoe 28 and the sleeve 24 thus move upwardly with respect to the upper shoe 2I when the packer is set. The slips having taken their initial set, the upper shoe 2I cannot move upwardly at this time and as the lower shoe is lifted not only is the packer set but the slips are caused to be rmly pressed in place on the casing, the lifting force being transmitted from the lower shoe to the upper shoe and slips by the packer, the parts then taking the position shown in Fig. 5.
The slips and packer now having been set, tension is maintained on the drill stem or tubing and cement is pumped down therethrough. The cement flows through mandrel I2 and outwardly through the valve 30 (shown open in Fig. 5). After a sumcient quantity of cement has been pumped into the well in this manner, the uid pressure in the drill stem is removed and the The drill stem is now lowered slightly to the position shown in Fig. 6. 'I'he mandrel I2 moves downwardly a.
suicient amount to bring it into the position.
shown in Figs. 3 and 6.
As previously mentioned, when the mandrel I2 is lifted up to set the packer, the sleeve 24 rides upwardly with respect to the upper shoe 2| thus moving the ports 39 therein up suiliciently to bring the ports 39 and 4I into alignment to 4allow fluid to flow from inside 4the sleeve 24 to the outside of the shoe 2|. Therefore, when the mandrel I2 is moved down to the position shown in Figs. 3 and 6, water may be pumped downwardly through the mandrel and ow upwardly between the lower end thereof and the sleeve 24 outwardly through the ports 39. The water may then iiow either outwardly through the ports 4I or upwardly between the sleeve 24 and the upper shoe 2| and outwardly between the slip segments I'I and thence back to the surface between the drill stem and the casing II. This water will wash out any cement winch may have found its way up around the slips.
After the cement has hardened the drill stem will be lowered further (if necessary) and rotated to the right to bring the pin I3 back into the horizontal portion of the J-slot I4 as shown in Fig. '7. Then by lifting up on the drill stem the cone I6 will be pulled upwardly. This will cause the slips I1 to disengage from the casing il and move inwardly, this action being due to the dovetail I8. The dovetail I8 has a stop atits lower end so that after the slips have been disengaged further upward movement of the cone i6 will move the upper shoe 2I upwardly, this pull being transmitted through the slips I1 and dovetail 20. The packer 22 will thus be contracted and the entire apparatus may then be removed from the well, leaving only the hardened cement and perhaps some or all vof the rubber sleeve til in the well.
While only one embodiment of the invention has been shown herein and the description has been limited to the use of the apparatus in a particular kind of cementing operation, it is obvious that both the apparatus and method are adaptable to a wide variety of application, and that various changes may be made without departing from the spirit of the invention 0r the scope of the annexed claims.
I claim:
1. Apparatus adapted for use in the cementing of cased oil wells or the like and comprising a mandrel adapted to be secured to the lower end of drill pipe or tubing, a one-Way valve structure carried by said mandrel for preventing theiiow of iluid upwardly therethrough, a packer for sealing the valve structure. to the casing of the well, slips for gripping the casing to prevent upward movement of the packer and. Valve structure and means controllable from the surface of the well for setting the slips and packer and then releasing the slips and packer whereby the slips, packer, valve structure and mandrel may be removed rom the well after the same have been used therein to supply and hold cement in place in the well.
2. Apparatus for cementing -wells comprising means for securing a conduit to the casing of the well, means for sealing the conduit to the casing, means for supplying cement to the Well at a point beneath the sealing means, a one-way valve structure associated with said conduit to hold the cement in place until it hardens and means for releasing said securing means and said sealing means from the casing after the cement has hardened, whereby the conduit, securing means,
sealing means and valve structure may be re' moved from the well.
3. The combinationwith the casing and tubing of an oil well or the like of an arrangement for releasablysecuring conduit means associated with the tubingA against upward movement with respect to the casing, said arrangement including slips having upwardly directed teeth, spring meansfor setting the slips and means operable in response to an upward pull on the tubing for releasing said slips.
4. Apparatus adapted for use in the cementing of a casedI oil Well, said apparatus `including a string of tubing, a mandrel carried by the tubing,
one-way valve means carried by the mandrel for preventing the now of iiuid upwardly therethrough when the securing and packing means is set, securing and packing means carried by the mandrel for fastening and sealing the mandrel to the casing of the well, and control means operable by movement of the tubing and mandrel to either set or release said packing and securing to either set or release said packing andsecuring means, said control means being operable to release saidlsecuring and packing means in response to an upward pull on the tubing.
6. Apparatus adapted for use in thecementing of a cased oil well or the like, said apparatus including tubing for supplying cement to the well under pressure, means for holding the tubing against upward movement with -respect to the casing during the period of time the cement is being supplied to the well and until the cement has hardened, packing meansfor sealing the tubing to the casing during the same period and means for removing the holding means and the packing means from the well after the cement has hardened.
7. Apparatus adapted for use in the cementing of a cased oil well or the like, said apparatus including tubing for supplying cement to the well under pressure, means for holding the tubing against upward movement with respect to the casing during the period of time the cement is being supplied to the well and until the cement has hardened, packing means for sealing the tubing to the casing during the same period, back-pressure valve means associated with said tubing for holding pressure on the cement until it hardens, means for washing out the casing and tubing above said packing means during the time the cement is hardening and means for removing the holding and packingmeans from the well after the cement has hardened.
j 8. Apparatus adapted for use in the cementing of a cased oil well or the like, said apparatus including tubing for supplying cement to the well under pressure, means for holding the tubing against upward movement with respect to the casing during the period of time the cement is being supplied to the well and until the cement has hardened, packing means for sealing the tubing to the casing during the same period, said holding means being located above said packing means, means for washing ouil around said holding means during the time that the cement is hardening and means for removing the holding means from the well after the cement has hardened.
9. A removable packer adapted for use in the cementing of oil wells or the like, said packer having a main body portion adapted to be expan'ded to effect a seal with the casing of the well and a sleeve of flexible material surroundlng said main body portion to protect the main body portion from cement.r
10. The method of sealing a portion of a. well with cement by the use of tubing carryinga back-pressure valve, securing means and a packer on its lower portion, which method includes the` steps of lowering the tubing into the well, setting the securing means to hold the tubing against upward movement in the well, setting the packer to seal the tubing to the well, pumping the cement at high pressure into the well beneath the sealing means while the tubing is secured, relieving the pressure in the tubing to allow the back-pressure valve to close, washing the tubing and securing means above the back-pressure valve and packer to prevent cement from sticking the same, allowing the cement to harden and subsequently removing the tubing, the securing means, the packer and the back-pressure valve ERLE P. HAILIBURTON.
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Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2416842A (en) * 1941-07-01 1947-03-04 Herbert C Otis Well cementing apparatus
US2539353A (en) * 1946-08-12 1951-01-23 Ira T Minyard Paraffin scraper stop
US2769499A (en) * 1951-04-30 1956-11-06 William H Mckissick Tubing anchor
US3003565A (en) * 1958-03-28 1961-10-10 Completion Tools Inc Apparatus for equalizing the pressure differential between the interior and exterior of a plugged tubing string
WO2015034143A1 (en) * 2013-09-05 2015-03-12 주식회사 지앤지테크놀러지 Shielding device and shielding method for preventing inflow of polluted upper groundwater and for blocking section

Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2416842A (en) * 1941-07-01 1947-03-04 Herbert C Otis Well cementing apparatus
US2539353A (en) * 1946-08-12 1951-01-23 Ira T Minyard Paraffin scraper stop
US2769499A (en) * 1951-04-30 1956-11-06 William H Mckissick Tubing anchor
US3003565A (en) * 1958-03-28 1961-10-10 Completion Tools Inc Apparatus for equalizing the pressure differential between the interior and exterior of a plugged tubing string
WO2015034143A1 (en) * 2013-09-05 2015-03-12 주식회사 지앤지테크놀러지 Shielding device and shielding method for preventing inflow of polluted upper groundwater and for blocking section

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