US2230447A - Well plug - Google Patents

Well plug Download PDF

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US2230447A
US2230447A US292029A US29202939A US2230447A US 2230447 A US2230447 A US 2230447A US 292029 A US292029 A US 292029A US 29202939 A US29202939 A US 29202939A US 2230447 A US2230447 A US 2230447A
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shoe
device
mandrel
packing
well
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US292029A
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Bassinger Ross
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ROSS BASSINGER
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ROSS BASSINGER
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B33/00Sealing or packing boreholes or wells
    • E21B33/10Sealing or packing boreholes or wells in the borehole
    • E21B33/13Methods or devices for cementing, for plugging holes, crevices, or the like
    • E21B33/134Bridging plugs

Description

3 Sheets-Sheet 1 Ros; Bass/'afer R. BASSRNGER WELL PLUG Filed Aug.` 26, 1959' Teb. 4, 1941,

Feb. 4, 1941.y R, BASSMGER 2,230,447

WELL PLUG Filed Aug. 26, 1959' 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 Feb. 4, 1941. R BAsslNGE-R 2,230,447

wrmA PLUG Filed Aug. 2e, 1959 s shuts-sheet 3 Patented Feb. 1941 UNITED STATES PATENTy OFFICE WELL PLUG Ross Bassinger, Houston, Tex. Application August 26, 1939, Serial No. 292,029 13 Claims. l(Cl. 166-13) This invention relates to new and useful improvements in a well plug.

One object of the invention is to provide an improved plugl wherein a single operation compresses the packing and sets the slips, and also the use of shear pins to hold the plug from setting are eliminated.

A particular object of this invention is to proy vide an improved device for retaining cement which is preferably retractable after the cement has set, and which constitutes a plug easily set, and through which cement or other material may be pumped; the device being capable of repeated uses.

An important object of the invention is to provide a device of the character described having improved means for anchoring andi` packing it off, at the desired location in thewell, together with latching means arranged to be'operated by an overshot, whereby the anchoring and packing means are released so the device may be removed from the well.

A further object of the invention is to provide a plug having a shoe and a mandrel co-acting with other elements together with anchoring and packing means, whereby rotation of the mandrel raises the shoe, distorts the packing to seal olf the casing, and anchors the device in place.

A still further object of the invention is to provide an improved device, wherein accidental packing oi of said device, while being lowered into the well, is eliminated.

A construction designed to carry out the invention will be hereinafter described, together with other features of the invention.

The invention will be more readily understood from a reading of the following specification and by reference to the accompanying drawings, in which an example of the invention is shown, and

wherein:

Figure 1 is a vertical, transverse, sectional view of a device constructed in accordance with the invention, before it is anchored in the well.

Figure 2 is a similar view of the same device in its set or anchored position.

Figure 3 is a similar view of the same device in its retractable position.

Figure 4 is a horizontal, cross-sectional view.

Figure 8 is a similar view taken on the line 8-8 of Figure 3.

Figure 9 is a transverse, vertical, sectional view of another form of the invention.

Figure 10 is a horizontal. cross-sectional view 5 taken on the line lli-I0 of Figure 9.

Figure 11 is a transverse, vertical, sectional view of another form of the invention.

Figure l2 is a horizontal, cross-sectional view taken on the line l2-I2 of Figure 11. l0

Figure 13 is a similar view taken on the line I3-I3 of Figure 11.

Figure 14 is a similar view taken on the line III-I4 of Figure 11.

Figure 15 is asimilar view taken on the line 15 I5-I5 of Figure 11.

In the drawings the numeral Ill designates a -well tubing or casing which has been previously set in the well bore. A plug A is constructed so as to be lowered into the casing to the desired 20 location and anchored. This device includes a central or axial tubular mandrel I I, having an internally screw-threaded (preferably left-handed) box I2 at its upper end, which is provided with a smooth bore I3 below its internal screw-threads, 25 communicating with the bore of the mandrel. A bull-nose shoe I5 is carried by the lower end of the manlrel and includes an upstanding central nipple I6, which is internally screw-threaded to receive the externally screw-'threaded lower end 30 I4 of the mandrel. The shoe has an annular well Il surrounding the nipple, and the nipple is provided with vertical keyways I8 in its outer surface.

The shoe is formed with an axial valve chamber 35 I9, which is preferably cylindrical. A valve seat spider`2I (Figures 1 and 7) is held at the upper end of the chamber and receives a valve ball 20, which is held up against the seat of said spider by a helical coiled spring 22. The spring is sup- 40 ported and confined in the chamber by an annular nut 23 screwed into Ythe bottom of the shoe and having a comparatively large central opening 24.

An elongated sleeve 25 surrounds the mandrel 4.54

Vdrical elastic packing 29, conned in the counter- 5f;

bore 25', snugly embraces the mandrel and packs off the same at this point. The packing is confined by a follower nut 30, screwed into the lower end of the counterbore. The sleeve has an internally screw-threaded box 28 at its upper end, shaped to receive a tapered screw-threaded pin 3|', depending from the lower end of a tubular core 3|, surrounding the mandrel II. The mandrel is rotatably disposed in the sleeve 25 and core 3|, and when saidmandrel is rotated, the parts I5, 25, and 3| are held against rotation, as will be hereinafter described. Upon rotation of the mandrel, its screw-threaded lower end I4 is moved downwardly into the nipple i6, from the position shown in Figure 1 to the position shown in Figures 2 and A3, whereby the ball valve 20 is dislodged from its seat. The upper end of the core 3| is externally reduced to form an elongate collar 32. Ball bearings 33 are confined between the upper end of the collar and the bottom of the box I2, so as to take the longitudinal thrust of the elements.

Below the lower end of the collar 32, the core is provided with outwardly directed lugs 34 (Figure 1), each having an undercut bottom 35. The box I2 and the collar 32 have substantially the same 'outer diameter, and are slidably received within a latching and setting head 36, which has an annular shoulder 36a that rests upon an annular shoulder 38, provided on the core 3|. Shoulder 38 is flush with the: top faces of the lugs 34. Head 36 is counter-bored below the shoulder 36a to t around the core. The head also has vertical slots 43' into which the lugs 34 extend and vertical inner grooves 46 in the lower shank portion 36' of the head 36, said grooves extending from the lower ends of slots 43' downwardly to the lower end of the head.` This head has an upwardly extending neck 31, the major external portion of -which is screw-threaded. Pivotally mounted within the slots 43' on pins 42, which extend transversely of slots 43', are a plurality of latches 43 which engage beneath the lugs 34 on the core 3| below the collar 32 and hold the lugs in this position until said latches are swung outwardly, as will be hereinafter explained. The head 36 is provided with external equally-spacedvertical recesses 4|), flared outwardly to the outer surface of said head (Figures 1 and 4). Upright dogs' 4I are confined in said recesses so as to swing transversely with sufiicient eccentricity rthat its outer upright serrated edges 4|' will engage the inner wall of the casing I0. The dogs are urged into this engagement by coiled springs 42'. By this engagement of said dogs with the inner surface of the casing, the entire device will A .be held against rotation, so that the mandrel may be rotated Without rotating the rest of the structure.

A setting collar 41, having its lower portion 48 reduced and tapered, overhangs the box 28 and abuts a shoulder 49 on the sleeve 25. This collar is screwed on to the shank 36'. A split-ring type slip 50 surrounds the lower end of the tapered portion 48. A plurality of elastic packing rings 5| are confined on the sleeve 25 between a packing retainer ring 52, underlying 4the slip 50 and the top of the shoe I5. When the mandrel II is rotated, and the shoe I5 is moved up due to its threaded engagement with the mandrel, the top of said shoe will move the packing rings upwardly. The slip 50 will be moved upwardly on the taper 48 and thereby be expanded, which will cause the teeth of said slip to bite into the inner surface of the casing I0 and thereby anchor said device. The packing rings 5| will undergo farther distortion, as they are confined between the said slips and the upwardly moving shoe, which will result in packing off said device.

For lowering the device into the well, the lower screw-threaded end of a section of tubing 53 is screwed into the box I2 and fastened by a shear -pin 54, as indicated in Figures 1 and 2. The device and the lower tubing section being locked together, the device may be run into the well by making up the tubing string in the usual manner. When the device is lowered to the proper location, the shoe I5 being above the sand which is to be sealed, it is ready to operate. It will be noted that the dogs 4I will be in engagement with the inner surface of the walls of the pipe I0, and as said dogs are elongated, they will pass and bridge over a joint which may have a gap therein, thus, preventing the device from being caught or hung therein. The operation is as follows:

When the device has been lowered to the predetermined level, the pipe 53 is rotated in clockwise direction, and the dogs 4|, already in slight engagement with the inner surface of the casing I0, will be forced into further engagement, due

to the right-handed rotation. Thus, the head 36, together with the core 3| and sleeve 25, will be held against further rotation due to the keys 21, located in the lower end 26 of the sleeve 25 and in the nipple I8 of the shoe I5; also, said shoe will be held against rotation. However, the mandrel II will be rotated, and as the tubing 53 and mandrel II are rotated to the right, the shoe I5, through the medium of the screw-threaded connection I4 with the nipple I6 of the shoe I5, will move the shoe upwardly, thereby sliding the packing 5I upwardly, which in turn will move the slip ring 50 up the tapered surface 48 of the collar 41 whereby said slip ring will be expanded and engage the inner surface of the casing I0 (Figure 2). As the rotation of the mandrel II is continued, the packing'rings 5| will be distorted, thereby sealing and packing oi between the device and i'. .ner wall of the casing.

The slip rings 50, due to their positive engagement, will anchor the device in place. 'I'he lower I end of the mandrel II will pass' through the spider 2|, engaging the valve ball 20 and pushing it downwardly against the tension of the spring 22. The lower end of the mandrel |I is milled so as to form a valve seat for the ball. Thus, it can be seen that as the device is lowered into the well, fluid within the well may flow upwardly through the device; however, after the device has been set, iluid may be pumped downwardly through the mandrel II, unseating the ball 20 and flowing out through the opening 24 into the sands or formation.

The operation of forcing a fluid such as cement into the. sands through the device may now be started. After a suflicient amount of cement has been forced into the well, the operator is now desirous of removing the tubing. This is accomplished by further rotation of said tubing in a clockwise direction, 'thus breaking the shear pin 54 and allowing the tubing to be unscrewed and pulled out of the well. The device is left as it was originally set until the cement has had sufllcient time to harden, and the operator is then desirous of-retrieving said retainer.

This is accomplished by attaching an ordinary overshot B to a string of tubing, said overshot having its lower end B internally tapered: The overshot is provided with the usual internal is provided with substantially the same type dogs screW-threads-B". The overshot may be screwed on the head 36 by the screw-threads B" and 31 and by rotation of the tubing as the overshot is screwed on tothe head the tapered portion B will strike the upper ends of the latches 43. As the overshot is screwed down tightly, the lower ends of the latches will move away from the body, thereby being disengaged from under the lugs 34 of the core 3|. When said latches become disengaged, it can be seen that the head 36 and the collar 41 are no longer retained in a locked relation and are free to slide upwardly. The elastic packing rings 5|, having been distorted in packing off said device, are now free to act on the unlocked mer'nbers and will act to move the collar 41 upwardly, allowing said rings to resume their original undistorted position. The slip ring will also be attempting to resume its unexpanded position, which will act to force the collar 41 farther upwardly and allow said slip ring to resume itsv normal position. The grooves 4B allow the collar 41 to pass overthe lugs 34 until said lugs strike the lower end of the grooves. moving up to that position shown in Figure 3, and allowing the device to resume its relatively original positions so that the same may be removed from the well.

In Figure 9, there is illustrated another form or modification of the packing assembly, embodying the same principle as in the rst form. In

this particular form, the device cannot be retrieved. It is used for entirely plugging a well. The numeral 60 designates a mandrel, similar to the mandrel in Figure 1. The lower construction of this device. is substantially the same as that shown in Figures l, 2, and 3, and operates in the same manner, however the upper construction is slightlydiierent. In place of the head 36, this form has a head 6| which extends downwardly from the top of the device and is reduced to provide a taper or collar 62. Below the taper 62 the head is formed with a shank 62', from which depends an annular apron 63 similar in structure and operation to the apron 26.

The screw-threaded pin 80, of a tubing 8|, is screwed into the screw-threaded socket 82 of a box 64 on the upper end of the mandrel and is fastened by a shear pin 65. In this form it is often-times desirous to pump a uid through the plug after the same has been set in the well bore. When the device is set in the well bore, the lower end 66 of the mandrel will engage the valve ball 20 and will prevent any upper flow through said device. For closing the upper end of the mandrel 60, there is provided in the box 64. valve chamber 68 having a valve seat 10 at its lower end. Extending'into the chamber 68, are a plurality of frangible pins 1|, whichv are arranged to support a valve ball 12. The chamber 68 is enlarged at the point of suspension of said ball, thus allowing fluid to pass around the ball and down through the mandrel 60. After the device has been set, it can be seen that fluid may be pumped through said mandrel and below the device.

Alter any iluid, which may be desired, has been pumped through the device, it is then desirable to close the upper end of the mandrel 60. To accomplish this, it is only necessary to drop into the tubing a suitable tool, or weight, which will strike the ball 12 and bend or break the pins 1|, and thus force said-ball down upon the valve seat 10, located in the lowerend of the chamber 68. It is pointed out that the plug Thus, the collar 41 is capable of 4| as are shown in Figures 1, 2, and 3 (Figure 10) In operation, the plug is lowered to a predetermined depth, and the running means rotated to the right, thus engaging the dogs 4| rmly on the inner surface of the casing Il). By continued rotation, the shoe I5, at the lower end of the device, will travel upwardly, distorting the packing rings 5| and engaging the slip ring 50, the same as was done in Figures 1, 2, and 3. Thus, thedevice is set, and the lower end 66 oi' the mandrel 60' will engage the valve ball 20.

Novuid can ow upwardly through the device, but the operator may pump any desired fluid downwardly through said device. Often-times in plugging a well, the operator will want to cement beneath the plug, and this may be done while the ball 12 issuspended within the chamber 68. Aftervthe operator has pumped the iluid through the device, he inserts Within the casing a tool,-or weight, which shears the pins 1|, whereby the ball 12 will be seated on the valve seat 10. Thus, he has completely plugged the bottom of the well. He then rotates his running means, shears the pin 65, thus allowing him to disengage his running means from. the plug. With this type of plug, it can be seen that the plug cannot be set until the operator intentionally sets the same, as there is no way of the device setting until it is rotated by the tubing to the right.

In'Figure 11, there is illustrated another form or modification of the packing assembly, embodying the same principles as that shown in the- 85 designates a mandrel similar to the mandrel in Figure 1. The lower construction of the mandrel and the shoe 86 is substantially the same as that shown in Figures 1, 2, 3,` and 9, except a plurality of dogs 81, substantially the same as the dogs 4| of Figures 1, 2, 3, and 9, are mounted within said shoe. y

A sleeve 88 surrounds the intermediate portion of the mandrel and is formed at its lower end with a downwardly tapered collar 39. An upwardly tapered collar 9|! is fastened around the upper end of said sleeve. A plurality of slips 92 surround the lower portion of the collar 89 and rest upon the upper portion of the shoe 86. Each slip is loosely connected to the shoe by a ball pin 93, having its head confined in a radial groove 93', key shape in cross-section, whereby the slip may move radially of the shoe. As can be seen, the construction of the rest of the device is substantially the same as that shown in the rst two forms. Thus, as the shoe 86 is moved upwardly by the screw-threaded engagement with the mandrel 85, the slips 92 will be carried upwardly on the tapered surface of the collar 89, and due to radial connections will be allowed to move outwardly and grip the side wall of the casing. At the same time the packing, together with the collar` 90, -are moved upwardly, whereby the slip ring 9| will be expanded and bite into the casing.

Thus, it can be seen that with this type of plug, it is anchored by two sets of slips and will be positively prevented from undergoing any movement after it has been anchored. By connecting the slips 92 to the top of the shoe by the ball pins 93; it can be seen that 'said slips are free t0 undergo any such movement that they would ordinarily undergo but will prevent them from becoming accidentally set while running said tool in the well and will not become set until the operator is desirous of setting them.

The box 94 and the ball $5 are constructed identically as the box 64 and ball l2 shown in Figure 9, so that the operation of this; form will be substantially the same as that shown in Figure 9; except as the shoe I6 moves upwardly, it will set two sets of slips, instead of the split ring slip as shown in Figure 9.

Various changes, alterations and-modifications may be made in the size, shape and arrangement of the herein described elements, within the scope oi' the appended claims.

What I claim and desire to secure by Letters Patents is:

1. A cementing device including, a packer. means for distorting the packer to seal oi! a well casing' including a tubular conductor, means for anchoring the packer in said well casing, said tubular conductor extending through the packer and open when the packer is -in unexpanded position, whereby the cementing device may be lowered into the well, an initially open valve arranged to close the conductor against upstream ow when the packer is expanded, whereupon the valve is downwardly openable and an opening in the shoe below the valve to permit cement to flow down through said conductor and discharge below the cementing device, and means operable from the top of the well for releasing the cementing device, whereby it may be 'removed from the well after the cementing is completed.

2. A device of the character described including, an axial rotatable mandrel, a shoe provided with an initially open flow passage and having means for holding the shoe against rotation when the mandrel is rotated, co-acting means between the mandrel and the shoe operable for elevating said shoe relatively of the mandrel when said mandrel is rotated, elastic packing means surrounding the mandrel, and anchoring means expanded to anchoring position when the shoe is elevated and then co-acting with the shoe to distort the elastic packing.l

3. In a device of the character described, the combination of an axial tubular mandrel, a shoe connected with the lower end of the mandrel so as to be elevated when said mandrel is rotated, a setting member, means for holding the setting member. against rotation in the well casing, an expansible anchor connected with the setting member, packing means connected with the shoe so as to elevate and cause the expansion oi the vanchor to set the device in the casing and to distort said packing when said shoe is elevated; and a valve below the mandrel and initially open, said valve being positioned to be engaged by said mandrel to shut oil? upward ilow through said mandrel.

4. A well packing device including. an elongate core member extending longitudinally of the device, a mandrel rotatably mounted within said member, a shoe at the lower end oi the device. means interconnecting said shoe and core member in non-rotatable slidable relationship, a connection between the lower end of the mandrel and shoe for moving the shoe longitudinally oi' the device when the mandrel is rotated, casingengaging dogs for holding the device against rotation, a settingv member disposed around the core member, an expansible anchor mounted on the sell-ing member for expansion and having connection whereby it is moved to anchoring position when the shoe is elevated, and external packing disposed around the core member and mounted to be distorted, said packing being distorted when the shoe is moved longitudinally of the mandrel.

5. A well packing device including, a longitudinal` support, a shoe member mounted on the support, a setting member, an expansible anchor mounted on the setting member, a packing carried by the support, a connection between the support and one of the said members for moving said shoe -member longitudinally on the support to expand the anchor and set the packing, and casing engaging dogs carried by said setting member and having means for positively gripping the well casing to hold said setting member against rotation when the support is rotated, the shoe member, setting member and anchor being interconnected so as to be held against rotation when said element is so held.

6. A well packing device including, a longitudinal support, a shoe member mounted on the support, a setting member, an expansible anchor mounted on the setting member, a packing carried by the support, a connection between the support and one of the said members for moving said shoe member longitudinally on the support to expand the anchor and set the packing, and casing engaging dogs carried by said setting member and having projections for gripping a well casing and holding the device against rotation when the support is rotated, the shoe member, setting member and anchor being interconnected so as to be held against rotation when said setting member is so held.

1. The combination in a well packing device. of a rotatable tubular support, an actuating member at the lower endof the support, a packing above said member, an anchor above said member, means for setting the anchor, a connection between the actuating member and the support i'or elevating the said member on the support to set the anchor and the packing when the support is rotated, and means on the device oil'set longitudinally from the packer actuable for gripping a well casing and holding the device against rotation when the support is rotated.

8. The combinationin a well packing device, o! a rotatable tubular support, an actuating member at the lower end of the support, a packing above said member, an anchor above said member, means for setting the anchor, a connection between the actuating member and the support for elevating the said member on the support to set the anchor and the packing when the support is rotated, and means having teeth for gripping a well casing and holding the device against rotation when the support is rotated.

9. A plug for a well casing, including a rotatable tubular support, a shoe, means to connect the shoe to the lower end of the support so as to elevate the shoe upon rotation of the support, setting means, means for holding the setting means against rotation, anchoring means connected to the setting means, packing means operable by the shoe to actuate the anchoring means to set the plugin the well casing and to causedistortion of the packing means when the shoe is elevated, and an vinitially open valve at the lower end of the support engageable by the latter to shut-oi! upward iiow through the support upon predetermined elevation of the shoe.

l0. A well plug in accordance with claim 9, wherein there is a normally open second valve for closing the bore of the upper end of the support, and wherein there is means for supporting the second valve in open position, the supporting means being distortable whereby upon subjecting the second valve to pressure, the supporting means will be distorted so as to enable the second valve to move to a position closing the up'- per end of the bore of the support.

1l. A plug for a Well casing, including a body, a packer carried by the body and movable to seal a well casing, means carried by the body to anchor same in the well casing, a tubular conductor in the body open when said packer is in unexpanded position, an initially open valve for closing the conductor against the ingress of fluid thereinto, and means operable from the top of the well to actuate said conductor to close the valve when the packer is being simultaneously moved into sealing position.

12. A plug for a well casing, including a rotatable tubular support, a shoe, means to connect the shoe to the lower end of the support so as to elevate the shoe upon rotation of the support, anchoring means, packing means operable by the shoe to actuate the anchoring means to set the plug in the well casing and to cause distortion of the packing means when the shoe is elevated,

- and an initially open valve at the lower end of the support engageable by the latter to shut off upward flow through the support upon predetermined elevation of the shoe.

' 13. A plug for a well casing including, a body,- a packer carried by the body and movable to seal a Well casing, means carried by the body to anchor the same' in a well casing, a tubular conductor in the body open when said packer is in an unexpanded position, a valve having an open seat, whereby uid may enter the body and flow upwardly through the conductor when said valve is seated on said open seat, means operable from the top of the well to move said conductor into engagement with said valve and unseat said valve, whereby said valve closes said conductor against the ingress of fluid thereinto, and means coacting with the conductor for moving the packer into its sealing position.

ROSS BASSINGER.

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Cited By (41)

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US2822874A (en) * 1954-02-25 1958-02-11 Cicero C Brown Combination packer and well control device
US2994381A (en) * 1958-10-24 1961-08-01 Cicero C Brown Liner setting assembly
US3066738A (en) * 1958-09-08 1962-12-04 Baker Oil Tools Inc Well packer and setting device therefor
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US3361207A (en) * 1964-09-04 1968-01-02 Baker Oil Tools Inc Retrievable subsurface well tools
US3454088A (en) * 1967-07-19 1969-07-08 Shell Oil Co Casing hanger
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US20070261863A1 (en) * 2004-06-11 2007-11-15 Iain Macleod Sealing system
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US20080156500A1 (en) * 2005-04-09 2008-07-03 Iain Macleod Packer
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US20110114332A1 (en) * 2008-02-21 2011-05-19 Petrowell Limited Tubing section
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US9587475B2 (en) 2008-12-23 2017-03-07 Frazier Ball Invention, LLC Downhole tools having non-toxic degradable elements and their methods of use
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