US2102231A - Floor or ceiling structure - Google Patents

Floor or ceiling structure Download PDF

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Publication number
US2102231A
US2102231A US43617A US4361735A US2102231A US 2102231 A US2102231 A US 2102231A US 43617 A US43617 A US 43617A US 4361735 A US4361735 A US 4361735A US 2102231 A US2102231 A US 2102231A
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tiles
tile
lugs
beams
flanges
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US43617A
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Zoettl Robert
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Hans Knoll
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B5/00Floors; Floor construction with regard to insulation; Connections specially adapted therefor
    • E04B5/16Load-carrying floor structures wholly or partly cast or similarly formed in situ
    • E04B5/17Floor structures partly formed in situ
    • E04B5/23Floor structures partly formed in situ with stiffening ribs or other beam-like formations wholly or partly prefabricated
    • E04B5/26Floor structures partly formed in situ with stiffening ribs or other beam-like formations wholly or partly prefabricated with filling members between the beams
    • E04B5/261Monolithic filling members
    • E04B5/265Monolithic filling members with one or more hollow cores
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B5/00Floors; Floor construction with regard to insulation; Connections specially adapted therefor
    • E04B5/16Load-carrying floor structures wholly or partly cast or similarly formed in situ
    • E04B5/17Floor structures partly formed in situ
    • E04B5/23Floor structures partly formed in situ with stiffening ribs or other beam-like formations wholly or partly prefabricated
    • E04B5/29Floor structures partly formed in situ with stiffening ribs or other beam-like formations wholly or partly prefabricated the prefabricated parts of the beams consisting wholly of metal

Description

De.14,1937. l 'l RfZOETTL 2,102,231
` FLOOR CEILING STRUCTURE Filed oct. 4, 1955 :s sheets-Sheet 1V lNul/ETOR: I n I Z062? Z, M I I BypaMr-Zul' ATTORNEY R. ZOETTL Dec. 14, 1937.
FLOOR on CEILING STRUCTURE v Filed oct. 4j 1935 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR.
ATTORNEY A j Dec. 14, 1937;
R. zoETTL FLOOR OR CEILING STRUCTURE Filed Oct. 4, 1935 A 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 s i l?? INVENTOR.'
'ATTORNEY 'Patented De.14,1937
einer:
rLoon on comme. STRUCTURE I Robert Zoettl, Salzburg, Austria, assigner of one-half to Hans Knoll. Salzburg, Austria Application October 4, i935, lSerial No. 43,617
' In Germany October 8, 1934 1t claims.4 icl. "12F-cs) The 4present invention relates to an improved reinforced concrete ceiling or floor structure, the individual constructional elements of which, :for
the purpose of forming a monolithic structure,
can be assembled and monolithically combined without any form work.
Quick setting Portland cement is used and the constructional elements made in accordance with the present invention allow the construction work to advance very rapidly, since at rst, on running up thewalls, only the light4weight proled steel girders need be laid down. The constructional elements in the form of previously cast slabs or tiles of chambered character can be put in place 11:5V at a later period, even, if so desired, after the roof has been placed on, at which time the investing concrete is poured around the girders and about the slabs, which', obviously, is of great advantage during inclement weather.
The emplaced light-proles can be used in the course oi' the construction work as stage or scafiolding, and since such profiled girders can be had anywhere from standardized stock in length up to meters, .they can readily be procured as needed.
25 The fundamental difference between the old -style armored concrete ceiling and the new contime, after the walls, and if desired, after the' roof, have been erected.
-In previous constructions of this character each reinforced ceiling or oor' had to Vbe placed or poured as soon as the walls had reached the required height, and had then to be allowed to set before the work on the walls could be resumed. This, obviously, caused considerable loss of time. The present invention overcomes this objection. The new ceiling can readily be built into old buildings, since, `after 'taking out the old ceilings, only the supporting recesses for the light-weight prole girders need be cut into the walls.
In the accompanying drawings:- Fig. 1 is an isometric perspective view, partly in section, of two hollow blocks or tiles and a supporting I-beam, as arranged, inone manner toI form a portion of a floor or ceiling embodying.'
my inven'tionfY V Fig. 2 is a vertical transverse section through a portion of a completed floor -or ceiling formed in accordance with my invention.
l Fig. 3 is atop plan view of a complete -tile and portions oi? adjacent tiles of a row showing the 'manner in which the tiles are disposed in a longitudinal row in accordance with the arrangement shown in Figsl and 2.
Fig. 4 is a vertical longitudinal section line ll-d of Fig. 3. y
Fig. 5 is a view in end elevation of the tiles shown in Fie. 3.
Fig. 6 is an isometric perspective view of one ci the tiles looking toward one side thereof.-
Fig. 7 is asimilar view of the tile looking toward the opposite side thereof.
Fig. a is a view sirnilar to Fig. 3 showing a different arrangement of the tiles in a row.
Fig. 9 is a vertical transverse section on line t--Q of Fig. 8. Y
Fig. lo is a vertical longitudinal section on line on the 5 their ends'in suitablereceiving recesses provided in owpposed walls ofthe building. In the spaces between opposed sides of adjacent beams are ar. ranged rows 2 of hollow slabs or tiles 3 formed of any suitable material. Each of these tiles is of rectangular or oblong rectangular form, the tiles shown being of oblong rectangular form, and each i tile comprises a body portion having a straight or plane bottom wall 4, an arched'top wall 5, a straight or plane crown wall 6, end walls 'l and d and a side wall 9. In order to secure desired lightness in weight the Atile body and its crown wall are hollowed out by providing the same with sets of cavities I0 and Il, which cavities open to the exterior through one side of the tile and are closed at the opposite side of the tile by the straight or plane side wall 9. v f
.As shown, the crown wall 6 is shorter than the top wall 5 and has its ends i2 and I3 terminating short 'or inwardly of the end walls l and 8, thus forming transverse shoulders I4 and I5 between the ends of the crown wall andthe respective walls 1 `and t at the opposite ends of the tile. The
ends l2 yand i3 are undercut or beveled downward 1 and inwardly toward the inner edges ofthe shoulders M and i5, for an anchorage action in the binding cement or concreteas hereinafter described, and the shoulders i4 and I5 slope outwardly and downwardly from the ends I2 and I3 v to the walls l and 8 so as t'o form angular or substantially V-shaped recesses at the ends ofthe tile above the Vplane of the end walls 'l and 8. A feature of my invention consists in spacing the said ends I2 and I3 of the crown wall or portion 6 from the end walls 'I and 8, the end I2being placed at a somewhat greater distance inwardly from. the
lwail 'I than the recess formed by the end I3 from the wall 8, with the effect of making the end I2 and shoulder I4 deeper than the recess formed slope of the shoulders It and I5, the lug I6 thus being smaller or of less vertical extent than the lug Il. Each lug has its lower surface undercut or recessed or otherwise suitably shaped, as at I8, to receive and engage or rest upon a lower flange of a supporting beam I, and beneath the lugs I64 and II the walls E and 8 are undercut or recessed to provide supporting anges or ledges I 9. Similarly the closed side 9 of each tile is undercut at its base to form a V-shaped recess 20 and supporting-ledge or flange 2|. The longitudinal side edges of the crown wall 6 may also be undercut or rabbeted to form V-shaped recesses 22.
In Figs. -1 to 5, inclusive, I have shown a preferred manner of arranging the tiles to form a floor or ceiling in accordance with my invention. As shown,.pairs of tiles 3 in each row, at spaced intervals in the row, in which the tiles extend side by side between two adjacent I-bearns I, are arranged so that the closed sides of the tiles of each pair abut and so that the open sides of such tiles face outwardly or reversely and abut against the open sides of the next adjacent tiles in the row, the closed sides of which adjacent tiles face outwardly so as to abut against the closed sides of the next succeeding tiles in the row and so on throughout the row along the lengths of the I-beams and between the opposite walls of the building between which the I- beams extend. Thetiles of the row so disposed are supported by engagement of the notched lower faces of their lugs I6 and I'I with the edges of the-lower flanges of the I-beams. When the tiles of twoy contiguous rows are thus supported by the oppositely extending lower flanges of an intervening I-beam, a space or channel 23 is formed by the' opposed ends of the rows of tiles which embodies a relatively wide and deep upper portion disposed above the plane of the supporting lugs of the tiles and a relatively narrower anc' shallower portion below the plane of the supporting lugs of the tiles, which portions of the space or channel are connected by passages arranged between the lateral and outer faces of the supporting lugs In this channel or space the I-beam I is disposed so that its top and bottom anges lie wholly within the channel and respectively below and above the upper faces of the tiles. Bridge plates 24 are then placed in position toxclose the bottom portion of the channel, which plates are provided at their opposite side edges with flanges 2 5 to rest upon the flanges I9 of the tiles. Each bridge plate 24 is of a, length equal to the width. of a tile and of a width conforming substantially to the distance between the anges I9." Preferably each bridge plate 24 is provided with a concaved upper face and a plane or straight lower face, which latter lies, when the bridge plate is placed in position, in the plane of the faces of the bottom walls 4 of the tiles and forms therewith a flat and substantially smooth ceiling surface. After all the plates 24 are arranged to close the bottom ofthe channel 23, liquid grout or a fluid concrete mix is poured into the channel from the top. until the channel is completely filled up to the level of the top surfaces of the tiles. When this mix has set a monolithic structure is presented, since the beam I and lugs I6 and Il of the tiles are solidly invested in the concrete and the bridge plates 24 lsolidly bound in position. When the work of laying a floor in this manner is completed a strong and durable floor is provided, which may be used without any l additional cement or finishing coats for either its upper or floor surface or bottom or ceiling surface, unless it is desired to make these of finely finished character, and no further application of cement for strengthening purposes is required except under special conditions, as when specially heavy loads are to be supported or specially heavy shocks or strains sustained. It will, of course, be understood that as a final operation, grout or other sealing means may be introduced to close the spaces between the recesses 20 and 22 to unite the opposed surfaces of the tiles, and that where necessary joints or gaps between surfaces may be closed by a pointing up operation.
In practice, the lower portion of the channel i 23 is made of such depth and the bridge plates 24 and such portion of the channel of such width as to adapt the bridge plates 24 to be tted in place from below and between the lflanges I9, by inserting them upwardly in an inclined position or at an angle, which is permitted by the depth of the recess, until fully inserted, and then tilting thenrto a horizontal position so es to bring their flanges 25.1nto position to rest upon the flanges I9. This adapts the bridge plates to be placed in position after the rows of tiles have been set in place, and is a great convenience and saving in time and labor over any other method.
It will be observed that by the described construction and arrangement of the surfaces I2, I3, I4 and I5 and the supporting lugs I6 and I 'I of the tiles, flow passages are provided for the free downward ow of the concrete mix to all portions of the channel, the mix introduced into the top portion of the channel flowing downwardly to the lower portion of the channel through the passages between the lateral faces of the lugs and downwardly over the sloping surfaces of the shoulders I4 and I5 and through the passages between the outer faces of the lugs, whereby a complete and rapid filling of the channel with the mix and investment of all parts therein in the said mix is ensured. It will also be apparent that as the shoulders I4 and I5 and lugs I6 and 'Il are arranged alternately at different levels in the channel along each row of tiles, a. staggered arrangement of horizontal and vertical abutment surfaces is provided, whereby the tiles are mechanically interlocked in the said cement or concrete against any possibility of shifting inany direction. The construction decribed also ensures that the I-beams will be completely invested in the concrete and thus reinforced and protected frorrust.
In practice the concrete fillinggnay be armored or reinforced in any suitable manner, as by weldarca-aai ing to the lofwer flanges of the I-beam reinforcing rods or ribs 26, or placing steel wire loops or stirrups, 21 at intervals about the beams, whereby reinforcing elements will not only be provided for the concrete, but the lower ange of the beam will be additionally strengthened by suspension* from the upper flange thereof, and reinforcing rods 28 or the like .may be arranged in the channelso as to be invested in the concrete filling at points desired. Conducting pipes, electric cables and the like can be extended through a channel formedby the recesses 20 either by inserting them from an end of the row of set uptiles or by chiseling oil the flanges 2| after the tiles are laid, placing the conductor in position in the channel and then sealing the latter by means of concrete or other sealing material. Conductors of this character may also be extended through the channeleither below the bottom of the I-'beam or on opposite sides'of the upper portion thereof so as to be bound in place when the concrete is introduced.
-It will be seen from the foregoing that the tiles 3 have an asymmetrical conformation as to their supporting ends, the end faces and lugs at such ends differing in dimensions from each other. This construction of the tiles allows the tiles to be assembled so `that the differently dimensioned faces and the lugs i6 and l'i will alternate in arrangement at each side of the row of tiles, to stagger them for a more secure anchorage in the concrete filling. The closingv of each tile by a wall t at `one side allows the first and last tiles of a row to be placed with their closed sides toward the walls of the building so as to avoid the necessity of using extra `closing means-at the emplacement points to seal the Vtiles against entrance of moisture or to prevent the entrance of concrete into the cavities of the tiles. It will, of course, be understood that instead of profile tiles or fabricated tiles. ordinary rolled I-beams may be employed, in which event the engaging faces of the lugs i6 and i1 will be properly r period f erection of the building and this work left vin abeyance, if desired. until. the roof has been placed, thus' allowing the floor and ceiling work to be carried out while the interior of the building and workmen are protected from the action of the elements. The novel construction of these parts also obviously enables the other advantages previously. set forth herein to be 'gained in a' convenient, ready and economical manner.
- In Figs. 8, 9 and 10 I have shown a floor ror ceiling construction embodying a diderent arrangem'ent of tiles and bridge plates from that shown in Figs. 1 to 5 inclusive. With this arrangement shown in Figs. 8 to l0, inclusive, the tiles of a.v
row are arranged inspaced pairs, with the open sides of the tiles of each pair abutting and the closed sides of such tiles directed outwardly and facing the closed sides of the tiles of adjacent pairs on opposite sides thereof, this arrangement producing transverse chambers or spaces 29 between the pmrs of tiles. These spaces are closed at Vtheir bottom portions by bridge plates 24a of the same size and construction as the plates 24, which are also employed, as in Figs. l to 5, in-
Iciusive, to close the bottoms of the channels 23,
as shown in Fig. 9, the dimensions of the bridge plates adapting them to be employed for both purposes. These chambers or spaces 29, like the channels 23, may be closed by a filling of concrete or other sealing material if desired, or may be only partially filled to an extent sufficient to lock the bridge plates 24a in position.
It will, of course, be understood that the lugs i6 and I'I, instead of being arranged centrally of the ends of the tiles, may be disposed on the ends at any point between the sidesof the tiles. Fig. ll shows a modification in which, for example, a supporting-lug it is disposed on the end of a tile adjacent to one side thereof.
From the foregoing description, taken in connection with the drawings, the construction, mode of erection and advantages of my improved floor and ceiling structure will be readily understood without a further and extended description and it will be seen that a structure is provided which ailordsl substantial advantages in' point of simplicity, ease and economy of erection. strength and durability. While the structure disclosed is preferred, it will, of course, be understood that changes in the form, construction and arrangement of parts may be made within the scope of the appended claims, without departing from the spirit or sacrificing any of the advantages of the invention.
What I claim is:- j l. A tile of the character and for the purpose described comprising a body having asymmetrical end portions each provided with a lower face and an upper face longitudinally spaced from eachl Ysurfaces disposed at different horizontal levels.
2. A tile of the character and for the purpose described comprising a body having asymmetrical end portions, each provided with an upper face, a lower face anda transverseshculder .between said faces, the uppr'face at one end of the tile being spaced longitudinally from the lower face a greater distance than the upper face at 'the opposite end of the tile so as to vary the width of the shoulders at the opposite ends of the tile with respect to' each other, and supporting lugs projecting from the lower faces of the ends of the tile, said lugs being of less width than the ends of the tile and having their lower surfaces disposed at the same level and their upper sur- 'faces at different levels.
3. A tile of `the character and for the purpose described comprising a body having asymmetrical ends,V each provided with an upper transverse surface, a lower transverse surface and an outwardly and downwardly inclined shoulder between said sar-faces, said upper and lower surfaces at one end of ,the tile varying in depth'and longitudinal spacing with respect to the upper and lower faces at the opposite end of the tile, and the shoulders at the opposite ends of. the tile varying in width with respect to each other, and beam engaging supporting lugs of less length than the ends of the tile disposed upon the lower lower surfaces arranged at the same level, the
upper surfaces of said lugs being arranged at different levels and inclined to conform to and intersecting the upper inclined surfaces of the respective shoulders.
4. A tile of the character and for the purpose described comprising a body having asymmetrical ends, each provided with an upperl transverse surface, a lower transverse surface arranged in a plane outwardly beyond said upper transverse surface and an outwardly and downwardly inclined shoulder between said surfaces, said upper and lower surfaces at one end of the tile varying in depth and longitudinal spacing from the upper and lower faces at the opposite end of the tile, and the shoulders at the opposite ends of the tile corresponding varying in width with respect to each other, and beam engaging supporting lugs upon the lower faces of the ends of the tile of less length than the width of the ends of the tile and having upper surfaces inclined to correspond to and intersecting the inclined surfaces of the shoulders at their respective different horizontal levels.
5. A tile of the character and for the purpose described comprising a body having cavities therein opening through one side thereof, said cavities being closed by a wall at the opposite side of the body, the body being provided with asymmetrical end portions, each having an upper transverse face, a lower transverse face and an outwardly and downwardly inclined shoulder therebetween, the upper and lower faces at one end of the body being spaced longitudinally a different distance than the corresponding faces at the opposite end of the body and the shoulder at one end of the body being of greater width than the shoulder at the opposite end of the body, and beam engaging supporting lugs upon the lower faces of the ends of the body, said lugs being of less length than the ends of the body ,and having their upper surfaces outwardly and downwardly inclined to correspond to and intersecting the inclined upper surfaces of the shoulders at their respective different horizontal levels.
6. A tile of the character and for the purpose described comprising-a body having asymmetrical end portions, each provided with upper and lower undercut transverse faces and transverse shoulders between said faces, the upper face being arranged in a plane inwardly of the plane of the outer face, supporting lugs of a length less than the width of the ends of the tile formed upon the lower faces of the en ds of the tile, the lugs upon the opposite ends having their upper surfaces arranged in different horizontal planes and the said shoulders and upper faces of the lugs being inclined in an outward and downward direction, and flanges upon said lower faces of the ends of the tile disposed below the lugs.
l 7. In a floor or ceiling structure,the combination of spaced beams having supporting flanges at their lower edges, a row of tiles disposed between said beams, said tiles having asymmetrical end portions spaced from the beams, and lugs-of less length than the ends of the tiles projecting therefrom and engaging the flanges of the beams, the lugs at the ends of each tile having their upper surfaces arranged at the different levels and the tiles of the row being arranged so that their dissimilar lugs alternate in arrangement with each other at each side of the row and throughout the length of the row, and sealing material filling the spaces between the tiles and the beams. Y
8. In a oor or ceiling structure, the combinaaioaaai tion of spaced flanged supporting beams, a 1ongitudinai row of transversely arranged tiles disposed between the beams, said tilesrbeing provided with end portions spaced from the beams and having supporting lugs projecting therefrom and engaging the flanges of the beams, and flanges on the ends of the tiles below said lugs, the lugs of adjacent ends of the tiles being arranged in staggered order throughout the row with relation to each other, bridge plates-resting on the flanges of the tiles beneath the lugs and closing the space beneath the beam between adjacent rows of tiles,
and a binding and ,sealing material disposed in the space between the ends of the rows of tiles and the supporting beam.
9. In a floor or ceiling structure, the combination of spaced flanged supporting beams, a longitudinal row of tiles arranged side by side transversely., between the beams, said tiles having cavities therein opening through one side of the tile and closedat the opposite side of the tile, certain of said tiles having their closed sides in abutting relation, each of said tiles being provided with end portions spaced from the beams and provided with supporting lugs projecting therefrom and resting upon the flanges of the beams, lugs at opposite ends of each tile having their upper surfaces disposed at different levels and said tiles being arranged so as to have their dissimilar lugs arranged in alternation and staggered order at each side of the row, and a binding and sealing material between the beams and ends of the tiles.
10. In a floor or ceiling structure, the combination of spaced flanged supporting beams, a longitudinal row of tiles arranged side by side transversely between the beams, said tiles having cavities therein opening through one side of the tile and closed at the opposite side of the tile, certain of said tiles having their closed sides in abutting relation, each of said tiles being provided with end portions spaced from the beams and provided with supporting lugs projecting therefrom and resting upon the flanges of the beams, lugs at opposite ends of each tile having their upper surfaces disposed at different levels and said tiles being arranged so as to have their dissimilar lugs arranged in alternation and staggered order at each side of the row, bridge plates arranged beneath the bottoms of the I lower flanges of the I-beam and formed with I supporting flanges beneath said lugs, said flanges of the tiles being disposed below the bottom flanges of the beam and bridge plates adapted to be disposed to close the space between the rows of tiles beneath the beam and provided with flanges to rest upon said flanges of the tiles, said bridge plates being of such dimensions as to adapt them to be inserted at an angle upwardly from belowinto the space below the beam and between the flanges of the tiles and pivoted into supporting engagement with the latter.'
12.' In a floor or ceiling structure, spaced parallel I-beams, a row of tiles arranged side by side between the beams and having supporting lugs at their ends engaging the lower flanges of the beams and supporting flanges beneath said lugs, the bodies of the tiles being provided with .cavities opening through one side thereof and closed by a wall at the other side thereof, said tiles being arranged in spaced pairs with their open sides facing each other and their closed sides facing the closed sides of adjacent tiles of otherpairs at opposite sides thereof, said sides of the tiles being provided with base supporting flanges, bridge plates engaging said iianges and closing the bottom portions of the spaces between pairs of tiles, and bridge plates arranged between the ends of the tiles and beneath the lower iiange of the I-beam and resting on said iianges of the tiles beneath the supporting lugs.
13. In a oor or ceiling structure, an I-beam, rows of tiles disposed on opposite sides of the beam and having supporting lugs engaging the lower flanges of the beam and provided with supporting anges located below the plane of the bottom of the beam, bridge plates disposed to close the space between the rows ofltilesabeneath the beam and in spaced relation thereto, said plates having their upper surfaces recessed, a lling of binding material between each row of tiles and the adjacent side of the beam, and
vbinding' material between the bottom of the beam and rows of tiles and `the 'bridge plates, said material seating in the recessed upper surfaces of said plates.
'the sides of the beam and ends of the tiles of the rows and :filling said passages, bridge plates closing'the space between the rows of tiles beneath the beam and arranged in spaced relation to the bottom of the beam, -said plates having their upper surfaces recessed, and binding mate# rial between the bottom of the beam and rows o! tiles and the bridge plates, said material seating in the recessed upper surfaces of said plates.
' ROBERT ZOETTL.
US43617A 1934-10-08 1935-10-04 Floor or ceiling structure Expired - Lifetime US2102231A (en)

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Cited By (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2556878A (en) * 1944-04-11 1951-06-12 John V Kohlhaas Fireproofed flanged structural member and a precast shoe therefor
FR2416985A1 (en) * 1978-02-10 1979-09-07 Rech Etu Tech Suspended slab floor - has filler blocks with two tier cellular section, and lower cells opening out onto soffit via slots
FR2486985A1 (en) * 1980-07-18 1982-01-22 Lauragais Tuileries Briq Prefabricated packing for ribbed floor slab infill - has floor slab concrete penetration to increase shear resisting section
ES2153306A1 (en) * 1998-11-13 2001-02-16 Polisur 2000 S A Roof e.g. joist assembly system includes expanded polystyrene supports with bridges, for reinforced concrete construction
US20080148673A1 (en) * 2006-10-19 2008-06-26 James Keller Radiant heat flooring system
US20080164005A1 (en) * 2007-01-10 2008-07-10 James Keller Radiant heat wall covering system
US20100313504A1 (en) * 2009-06-11 2010-12-16 Xinfa Li Wood Board Connection with Heat Transfer Function
FR3057287A1 (en) * 2016-10-11 2018-04-13 Saft CONSTRUCTION ELEMENT HAVING A BATTERY

Cited By (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2556878A (en) * 1944-04-11 1951-06-12 John V Kohlhaas Fireproofed flanged structural member and a precast shoe therefor
FR2416985A1 (en) * 1978-02-10 1979-09-07 Rech Etu Tech Suspended slab floor - has filler blocks with two tier cellular section, and lower cells opening out onto soffit via slots
FR2486985A1 (en) * 1980-07-18 1982-01-22 Lauragais Tuileries Briq Prefabricated packing for ribbed floor slab infill - has floor slab concrete penetration to increase shear resisting section
ES2153306A1 (en) * 1998-11-13 2001-02-16 Polisur 2000 S A Roof e.g. joist assembly system includes expanded polystyrene supports with bridges, for reinforced concrete construction
US20080148673A1 (en) * 2006-10-19 2008-06-26 James Keller Radiant heat flooring system
US8025240B2 (en) * 2006-10-19 2011-09-27 Keller Komfort Radiant Systems, Inc. Radiant heat flooring system
US20080164005A1 (en) * 2007-01-10 2008-07-10 James Keller Radiant heat wall covering system
US7992623B2 (en) 2007-01-10 2011-08-09 Keller Komfort Radiant Systems, Inc. Radiant heat wall covering system
US20100313504A1 (en) * 2009-06-11 2010-12-16 Xinfa Li Wood Board Connection with Heat Transfer Function
FR3057287A1 (en) * 2016-10-11 2018-04-13 Saft CONSTRUCTION ELEMENT HAVING A BATTERY

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