US2083573A - Speculum - Google Patents

Speculum Download PDF

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Publication number
US2083573A
US2083573A US75197A US7519736A US2083573A US 2083573 A US2083573 A US 2083573A US 75197 A US75197 A US 75197A US 7519736 A US7519736 A US 7519736A US 2083573 A US2083573 A US 2083573A
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Prior art keywords
blades
levers
speculum
handles
adapted
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Expired - Lifetime
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US75197A
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Clifford V Morgan
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Clifford V Morgan
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B1/00Instruments for performing medical examinations of the interior of cavities or tubes of the body by visual or photographical inspection, e.g. endoscopes; Illuminating arrangements therefor
    • A61B1/32Devices for opening or enlarging the visual field, e.g. of a tube of the body

Description

June 15, 1937. v, M AN 2,083,573

SPECULUM Filed April 1.8, 1936 fly. 2.. @8144, 97. g,

. flifo'r/z y Patented June 15, 1937 t UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE Claims.

(Granted under the act of March 3, 1883, as amended April 30, 1928; 370 0. G. 757) This invention described herein may be manufactured and used by or for the Government for governmental purposes, without the payment to me of any royalty thereon.

This invention generally relates to a speculum used for the investigation of body cavities, but more particularly it relates to an improvement in specula of the vaginal type.

One object of the invention is to provide a speculum in which the blades remain parallel during both divergence and convergence thereof.

Another object is to provide an instrument which will not occlude the orifice of the cavity in which it is placed, and which may be conveniently used by a single operator as it is designed to retain itself within the orifice.

Still another object is to provide an instrument which is of light weight, simple in construction, efiicient in operation and one which may be easily sterilized.

With these and other objects in view, the invention consists in a novel combination and arrangement of parts to be hereinafter more fully described and specifically pointed out in the claims.

In describing the invention in detail reference is had to the accompanying drawing, forming a part of this specification, and wherein like numerals of references indicate corresponding parts throughout the several views, in which- 1 Fig. 1 is a perspective view of the assembled speculum;

Fig. 2 is an end elevation of one of the blades, showing a lever arm and a portion of the inner and outer rings;

Fig. 3 is a top plan view of the blades in converged position, and

Fig. 4 shows a section of a blade taken on the line 4-4 of Fig. 2.

Briefly stated, the device which forms the subject matter of this invention consists of a plu rality of blades having smooth curved external surfaces and adapted to be converged about a central axis for insertion within a body cavity and then separated from each other by levers which are controlled by the movement of rotatable concentric rings.

Referring to the drawing the numeral (ill) indicates the blades which as shown are identical in shape and size, but which may be varied in both size and contour to accommodate them to special usage. These blades are formed with enlarged proximal ends as indicated by the numeral (I I), and taper inwardly to about one third their length from their distal extremity as indicated at (If). At their distal extremity the blades are preferably formed integral with levers or bell cranks (it) which project radially in a perpendicular plane.

The inner surface of the blades is formed by two converging longitudinal plane surfaces, as indicated at (It), and (it) in Fig. l. These surfaces are at right angles to each other and extend from the distal extremity of the blades to within a short distance from the proximal extremity, where the inner surface gradually becomes arcuate in shape and retains this contour up to the rounded proximal end, as shown in Fig. 2. This inner contour is to provide for assembling the blades closely about a central axis when they are in converged position. The same result could be obtained by forming the inner surface of the blades with an arcuate contour.

The outer contour of the blades is arcuate throughout their entire length, as shown in Fig. 2, so that when the blades are converged about their central axis the outer contour will be circular in form. When the blades are converged the proximal ends thereof present a hemispherical contour which greatly facilitates insertion, and the arcuate contour of the exterior surfaces prevents undue frictional resistance against the mucous membrane of the vagina during divergence of the blades. The enlargement of the blades toward their proximal ends as indicated by the numeral (ll) presents a bulbous contour when the blades are converged as shown in Fig. 1. These enlarged portions of the blades provide greater frontal area about the cervix of the uterus when the blades are in diverged position.

The levers (Iii) which are formed integrally with the blades (l0) comprise strips of comparatively little thicknessbut of sufiicient strength and durability to withstand the usage to which they are subjected. These levers (iii) are preferably formed with a comparatively long curved arm (ll) and a short straight arm (i8) and are each provided with a fulcrum, the pivot (l9), located at the juncture of the arms. The external extremity of each short arm (I8) is provided with a pin (20), the function of which will be described in conjunction with the description of the operating rings.

In the design of this instrument due consideration has been given to the diameter of the fetal head and/or the internal diameter of the pelvic outlet has been selected as a basis for mensuration, the inner ring (2!) has been given a diameter of twelve centimeters, and other measurements of the device are figured with respect to the functions of the various parts but might be altered to meet design and purpose.

The outer ring (22) is moved in the same plane about the inner ring. In the latter are holes at prescribed distances for the fulcrum pivots (l9) and upon the outer margins thereof are contact lugs (23), to keep the rings at equal distance and to prevent binding. On the outer margin of the outer ring (22) are lugs (24) which are provided with radially disposed slots (25) into which the pins (20) located at the ends of the short lever arms (18) are slidably fitted. The fixed and sliding points of the levers could just as well be reversed, but the design as shown is believed to be easier to clean.

Upon each ring is provided a handle (26) and (El) which may be either formed integral therewith or be welded or otherwise suitably? attached thereto. When the blades of the specuhim are in converged position or closed, the

handles should be close enough together to be compressed with one hand, yet far enough apart to allow convergence of the handles when the blades are to be diverged or opened.

In order to retain the handles in converged position during divergence of the blades, a ratchet (28) and pawl (29) are provided as shown in Fig. 1. The ratchet may be formed integral with or attached to the handle (2'!) and the pawl pivotally mounted on the handle (26) A screw or any other suitable form of locking mechanism may be used for this purpose.

The lever arms should be constructed for maximum strength with respect to the functions that it is necessary for them to perform and their design should be such that they give maximum leverage and yet remain away from the orifice to provide unobstructed view and passage for manipulation of the operator.

The blades attached to the lever-arms should be perpendicular or nearly perpendicular to the latter and curved so that the lateral edges will meet when approximated and provide maximum mucosal contact surface. Upon the linear curve depends the instruments retention within the vagina. An inward curve at the tip reduces the trauna on insertion and while in place. Obviously the blades like the other parts should be as light and strong as practicable. The size is arbitrary, but since this instrument is designed to produce the maximum dilation, the surface area should not be sacrificed or damage to the tissue will result.

In the operation of the improved speculum it will be noted that rotation of the handle of the inner ring only in a counter-clockwise direction will move the blades outward along arcuate paths. In actual practice however, the blades are actuated along radii as both handles are moved in a counter-clockwise direction as they are compressed by the operator.

In the design it will also be noticed that the operating rings are of perfectly fiat construction, there are no flanges or overlying of parts where dirt might collect or which would prevent perfect sterilization,

Having described my invention, what I claim as new and wish to secure by Letters Patent is:

l. A speculum comprising a plurality of radially movable blades, a radially diverging lever formed integral with each of said blades, an inner ring to which said levers are fulcrumed and an outer ring having circumferential lugs provided with radially extending slots, pins projecting from the outward extremity of said levers slidably engaged in said slots, control handles attached to each of said rings and locking means comprising a ratchet and pawl adapted to lock said handles in a fixed relative position.

2. In a surgical instrument of the type described, a multiplicity of parallel blades radially movable with respect to a central axis, means comprising levers adapted to move said blades in unison, and additional means comprising r0- tatable concentric circular members lying in a single plane at right angles to said axis, said circular member being provided with operating handles and adapted to transmit uniform motion to each of said levers.

3. In a surgical instrument of the type described, a multiplicity of parallel radially movable blades encircling a central axis, a lever arm connected to each of said blades, the plane of said lever arms being disposed at right angles to said axis, and means comprising concentric circular rotatable members provided with operating handles and lying in a single plane parallel to the plane of said levers, adapted to impart movement to said lever arms to retract and diverge the blades uniformly with respect to their central axis.

4. A speculum comprising a rotatable inner ring and a concentrically rotatable outer ring provided with radially extending slots, both rings lying within a single plane, a handle projecting from each of said rings adapted to impart rotation thereto, a multiplicity of radially movable parallel blades formed with rectangularly extending levers, said levers being pivotally mounted on said inner ring and provided with a pin at their outer extremities, adapted for slidable engagement within the slots of said outer ring, and a locking means comprising a ratchet and pawl adapted to retain said handles in predetermined relative positions.

5. A speculum comprising a rotatable inner ring provided with circumferentially located contact lugs, and a concentrically rotatable outer ring provided with radially extending slots, both rings lying within a single plane, a handle projecting from each of said rings adapted to impart rotation thereto, a multiplicity of radially movable parallel blades formed with rectangularly extending levers, said levers being pivotally mounted on said inner ring and provided with a pin at their outer extremities, adapted for slidable engagement with the slots of said outer ring, and a locking means comprising a ratchet and pawl adapted to retain said handles in predetermined relative positions.

CLIFFORD V. MORGAN.

US75197A 1936-04-18 1936-04-18 Speculum Expired - Lifetime US2083573A (en)

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Cited By (45)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3030947A (en) * 1960-05-16 1962-04-24 Richard M Engelbert Speculum
US3766910A (en) * 1970-10-09 1973-10-23 P Lake Disposable delicate tissue retractor
US4130113A (en) * 1976-12-15 1978-12-19 Richards Manufacturing Co., Inc. Retractor
US4202324A (en) * 1978-03-30 1980-05-13 Alison W Evans Equine vaginal speculum
US5125396A (en) * 1990-10-05 1992-06-30 Ray R Charles Surgical retractor
WO1992021279A1 (en) * 1991-06-06 1992-12-10 Meditech International Pty Ltd Speculum
US5377667A (en) * 1992-12-03 1995-01-03 Michael T. Patton Speculum for dilating a body cavity
AU666310B2 (en) * 1991-06-06 1996-02-08 Meditech International Pty Ltd. Speculum
WO1996027323A1 (en) * 1995-03-07 1996-09-12 John Dumergue Charters Apparatus for dilating a body cavity
WO1996028083A1 (en) * 1995-03-09 1996-09-19 Mca Medical Products Pty. Ltd. A speculum
AU712272B2 (en) * 1995-03-07 1999-11-04 John Dumergue Charters Apparatus for dilating a body cavity
US6024697A (en) * 1999-01-11 2000-02-15 Pisarik; Paul Multi-bladed speculum for dilating a body cavity
DE19915062C1 (en) * 1999-04-01 2001-02-08 Erbe Elektromedizin A surgical instrument
WO2001041627A2 (en) * 1999-12-02 2001-06-14 Scott Resnick Speculum
US6354995B1 (en) * 1998-04-24 2002-03-12 Moshe Hoftman Rotational lateral expander device
US6428474B1 (en) * 2000-05-24 2002-08-06 Sol Weiss Surgical instrument
US6436033B2 (en) * 1997-09-09 2002-08-20 Mca Medical Products Pty Ltd. Speculum
US20030153927A1 (en) * 2001-05-15 2003-08-14 Endius Incorporated Structure for receiving surgical instruments
US20040230100A1 (en) * 2003-05-16 2004-11-18 Shluzas Alan E. Access device for minimally invasive surgery
US20050070765A1 (en) * 2003-09-18 2005-03-31 Howmedica Osteonics Corp. Surgical retractor with removable scissor arms
US20050075540A1 (en) * 2003-08-26 2005-04-07 Shluzas Alan E. Minimally invasive access device and method
US20050084355A1 (en) * 2003-10-17 2005-04-21 Don Zoran Apparatus and method for damping vibration in a machine tool
EP1574163A1 (en) * 2004-03-12 2005-09-14 Fehling AG Anal retractor
US20050215863A1 (en) * 2004-01-27 2005-09-29 Sundaram Ravikumar Surgical retractor apparatus for use with a surgical port
US20050245942A1 (en) * 2003-08-26 2005-11-03 Dipoto Gene P Adjustable height access device for treating the spine of a patient
US20050251192A1 (en) * 2004-03-31 2005-11-10 Shluzas Alan E Access device having discrete visualization locations
US20060142643A1 (en) * 2004-12-23 2006-06-29 Brad Parker Radially expanding surgical retractor
US20060195017A1 (en) * 2004-11-22 2006-08-31 Shluzas Alan E Expandable device for providing access to the spine
US20070010716A1 (en) * 2005-07-11 2007-01-11 Malandain Hugues F Surgical access device, system, and methods of use
US20070021656A1 (en) * 2005-01-07 2007-01-25 Stryker Spine Three-prong retractor with elastomeric sheath
US20070073112A1 (en) * 2005-09-28 2007-03-29 Holmes Russell P Spreader insert for a retractor system
US20070198025A1 (en) * 2000-08-30 2007-08-23 Trieu Hai H Method and apparatus for delivering an intervertebral disc implant
US20080319268A1 (en) * 2005-12-15 2008-12-25 David Michaeli Radial Expansible Retractor For Minimally Invasive Surgery
US7481766B2 (en) 2003-08-14 2009-01-27 Synthes (U.S.A.) Multiple-blade retractor
US20100076344A1 (en) * 2005-06-22 2010-03-25 Maja Kecman Speculum
US20100274094A1 (en) * 2009-04-23 2010-10-28 Custom Spine, Inc. Tissue Retraction Apparatus
US20100286485A1 (en) * 2009-05-05 2010-11-11 Valerio Valentini Adaptable tissue retractor with plurality of movable blades
US20110208005A1 (en) * 2010-02-24 2011-08-25 David Michaeli Surgical retractor
US8192463B2 (en) 2007-05-24 2012-06-05 Mcloughlin Joseph Surgical retractor and related methods
CN102639182A (en) * 2009-10-13 2012-08-15 玛特纳医疗公司 Methods and apparatus for preventing vaginal lacerations during childbirth
US20140114139A1 (en) * 2012-10-24 2014-04-24 Blackstone Medical, Inc. Retractor device and method
US8727975B1 (en) 2013-05-10 2014-05-20 Spine Wave, Inc. Retractor for use in spinal surgery
US8821394B2 (en) 2012-03-30 2014-09-02 DePuy Synthes Products, LLC Methods and devices for tissue retraction
US9693761B2 (en) * 2012-10-24 2017-07-04 Blackstone Medical, Inc. Retractor device and method
US10456016B2 (en) 2017-05-05 2019-10-29 CEEK Enterprises Applicator for a speculum accessory sleeve and use thereof

Cited By (97)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3030947A (en) * 1960-05-16 1962-04-24 Richard M Engelbert Speculum
US3766910A (en) * 1970-10-09 1973-10-23 P Lake Disposable delicate tissue retractor
US4130113A (en) * 1976-12-15 1978-12-19 Richards Manufacturing Co., Inc. Retractor
US4202324A (en) * 1978-03-30 1980-05-13 Alison W Evans Equine vaginal speculum
US5125396A (en) * 1990-10-05 1992-06-30 Ray R Charles Surgical retractor
WO1992021279A1 (en) * 1991-06-06 1992-12-10 Meditech International Pty Ltd Speculum
AU666310B2 (en) * 1991-06-06 1996-02-08 Meditech International Pty Ltd. Speculum
US5509893A (en) * 1991-06-06 1996-04-23 Meditech International Pty Ltd. Speculum
US5377667A (en) * 1992-12-03 1995-01-03 Michael T. Patton Speculum for dilating a body cavity
US5505690A (en) * 1992-12-03 1996-04-09 Michael T. Patton Speculum for dilating a body cavity
AU712272B2 (en) * 1995-03-07 1999-11-04 John Dumergue Charters Apparatus for dilating a body cavity
WO1996027323A1 (en) * 1995-03-07 1996-09-12 John Dumergue Charters Apparatus for dilating a body cavity
US5916151A (en) * 1995-03-07 1999-06-29 Charters; John Dumergue Apparatus for dilating a body cavity
WO1996028083A1 (en) * 1995-03-09 1996-09-19 Mca Medical Products Pty. Ltd. A speculum
US6436033B2 (en) * 1997-09-09 2002-08-20 Mca Medical Products Pty Ltd. Speculum
US6354995B1 (en) * 1998-04-24 2002-03-12 Moshe Hoftman Rotational lateral expander device
US6024697A (en) * 1999-01-11 2000-02-15 Pisarik; Paul Multi-bladed speculum for dilating a body cavity
DE19915062C1 (en) * 1999-04-01 2001-02-08 Erbe Elektromedizin A surgical instrument
WO2001041627A2 (en) * 1999-12-02 2001-06-14 Scott Resnick Speculum
US6280379B1 (en) * 1999-12-02 2001-08-28 Scott Resnick Speculum
WO2001041627A3 (en) * 1999-12-02 2002-01-24 Scott Resnick Speculum
US6428474B1 (en) * 2000-05-24 2002-08-06 Sol Weiss Surgical instrument
US20070198025A1 (en) * 2000-08-30 2007-08-23 Trieu Hai H Method and apparatus for delivering an intervertebral disc implant
US7857818B2 (en) * 2000-08-30 2010-12-28 Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc. Method and apparatus for delivering an intervertebral disc implant
US20110040342A1 (en) * 2000-08-30 2011-02-17 Trieu Hai H Method and apparatus for delivering an intervertebral disc implant
US7144393B2 (en) 2001-05-15 2006-12-05 Dipoto Gene P Structure for receiving surgical instruments
US20030153927A1 (en) * 2001-05-15 2003-08-14 Endius Incorporated Structure for receiving surgical instruments
US20050149106A1 (en) * 2001-05-15 2005-07-07 Dipoto Gene P. Cannula for receiving surgical instruments
US20070142857A1 (en) * 2001-05-15 2007-06-21 Dipoto Gene P Structure for receiving surgical instruments
US7985218B2 (en) 2001-05-15 2011-07-26 Zimmer Spine, Inc. Structure for receiving surgical instruments
US7766930B2 (en) 2001-05-15 2010-08-03 Zimmer Spine, Inc. Cannula for receiving surgical instruments
US8007492B2 (en) 2001-05-15 2011-08-30 Zimmer Spine, Inc. Cannula for receiving surgical instruments
US20040230100A1 (en) * 2003-05-16 2004-11-18 Shluzas Alan E. Access device for minimally invasive surgery
US7645232B2 (en) 2003-05-16 2010-01-12 Zimmer Spine, Inc. Access device for minimally invasive surgery
US7481766B2 (en) 2003-08-14 2009-01-27 Synthes (U.S.A.) Multiple-blade retractor
US20050273131A1 (en) * 2003-08-26 2005-12-08 Shluzas Alan E Access systems and methods for minimally invasive surgery
US7736305B2 (en) 2003-08-26 2010-06-15 Zimmer Spine, Inc. Adjustable height access device for treating the spine of a patient
US20050273133A1 (en) * 2003-08-26 2005-12-08 Shluzas Alan E Access systems and methods for minimally invasive surgery
US20050245942A1 (en) * 2003-08-26 2005-11-03 Dipoto Gene P Adjustable height access device for treating the spine of a patient
US20060271057A1 (en) * 2003-08-26 2006-11-30 Shluzas Alan E Minimally invasive access device and method
US7226451B2 (en) 2003-08-26 2007-06-05 Shluzas Alan E Minimally invasive access device and method
US7691120B2 (en) 2003-08-26 2010-04-06 Zimmer Spine, Inc. Access systems and methods for minimally invasive surgery
US20050075540A1 (en) * 2003-08-26 2005-04-07 Shluzas Alan E. Minimally invasive access device and method
US7179225B2 (en) 2003-08-26 2007-02-20 Shluzas Alan E Access systems and methods for minimally invasive surgery
US20050273132A1 (en) * 2003-08-26 2005-12-08 Shluzas Alan E Access systems and methods for minimally invasive surgery
US7976464B2 (en) 2003-08-26 2011-07-12 Zimmer Spine, Inc. Access systems and methods for minimally invasive surgery
US7182729B2 (en) 2003-09-18 2007-02-27 Stryker Spine Surgical retractor with removable scissor arms
US7988625B2 (en) 2003-09-18 2011-08-02 Stryker Spine Surgical retractor with removable scissor arms
US20050070765A1 (en) * 2003-09-18 2005-03-31 Howmedica Osteonics Corp. Surgical retractor with removable scissor arms
US20070123753A1 (en) * 2003-09-18 2007-05-31 Stryker Spine Surgical retractor with removable scissor arms
US20050084355A1 (en) * 2003-10-17 2005-04-21 Don Zoran Apparatus and method for damping vibration in a machine tool
US7344495B2 (en) * 2004-01-27 2008-03-18 Arvik Enterprises, Llc Surgical retractor apparatus for use with a surgical port
US20050215863A1 (en) * 2004-01-27 2005-09-29 Sundaram Ravikumar Surgical retractor apparatus for use with a surgical port
US7182730B2 (en) 2004-03-12 2007-02-27 Fehling Ag Anal retractor
EP1574163A1 (en) * 2004-03-12 2005-09-14 Fehling AG Anal retractor
US20050203347A1 (en) * 2004-03-12 2005-09-15 Guido Fehling Anal retractor
US20060069404A1 (en) * 2004-03-31 2006-03-30 Shluzas Alan E Access device having discrete visualization locations
US20050251192A1 (en) * 2004-03-31 2005-11-10 Shluzas Alan E Access device having discrete visualization locations
US20060195017A1 (en) * 2004-11-22 2006-08-31 Shluzas Alan E Expandable device for providing access to the spine
US20060142643A1 (en) * 2004-12-23 2006-06-29 Brad Parker Radially expanding surgical retractor
US8579809B2 (en) * 2004-12-23 2013-11-12 Symmetry Medical Manufacturing, Inc. Radially expanding surgical retractor
US20070021656A1 (en) * 2005-01-07 2007-01-25 Stryker Spine Three-prong retractor with elastomeric sheath
US7618367B2 (en) 2005-01-07 2009-11-17 Stryker Spine Three-prong retractor with elastomeric sheath
US8690767B2 (en) * 2005-06-22 2014-04-08 Speculus (Uk) Limited Speculum
US20100076344A1 (en) * 2005-06-22 2010-03-25 Maja Kecman Speculum
US8105236B2 (en) * 2005-07-11 2012-01-31 Kyphon Sarl Surgical access device, system, and methods of use
US20070010716A1 (en) * 2005-07-11 2007-01-11 Malandain Hugues F Surgical access device, system, and methods of use
US8267859B2 (en) 2005-09-28 2012-09-18 Holmed Corporation Spreader insert for a retractor system
WO2007038461A2 (en) * 2005-09-28 2007-04-05 Hol-Med Corporation Spreader insert for a retractor system
WO2007038461A3 (en) * 2005-09-28 2007-08-30 Hol Med Corp Spreader insert for a retractor system
US20070073112A1 (en) * 2005-09-28 2007-03-29 Holmes Russell P Spreader insert for a retractor system
US20080319268A1 (en) * 2005-12-15 2008-12-25 David Michaeli Radial Expansible Retractor For Minimally Invasive Surgery
US8152721B2 (en) * 2005-12-15 2012-04-10 Microdel Idea Center Ltd. Radial expansible retractor for minimally invasive surgery
US8523770B2 (en) 2007-05-24 2013-09-03 Joseph McLoughlin Surgical retractor and related methods
US8192463B2 (en) 2007-05-24 2012-06-05 Mcloughlin Joseph Surgical retractor and related methods
US20100274094A1 (en) * 2009-04-23 2010-10-28 Custom Spine, Inc. Tissue Retraction Apparatus
US20100286485A1 (en) * 2009-05-05 2010-11-11 Valerio Valentini Adaptable tissue retractor with plurality of movable blades
EP3053626A1 (en) * 2009-10-13 2016-08-10 Materna Medical, Inc. Apparatus for preventing vaginal lacerations during childbirth
EP2488244A4 (en) * 2009-10-13 2013-07-31 Materna Medical Inc Methods and apparatus for preventing vaginal lacerations during childbirth
EP3326680A1 (en) * 2009-10-13 2018-05-30 Materna Medical, Inc. Apparatus for preventing vaginal lacerations during childbirth
CN102639182B (en) * 2009-10-13 2015-04-15 玛特纳医疗公司 Apparatus for preventing vaginal lacerations during childbirth
EP2488244A2 (en) * 2009-10-13 2012-08-22 Materna Medical, Inc. Methods and apparatus for preventing vaginal lacerations during childbirth
JP2015107379A (en) * 2009-10-13 2015-06-11 マテルナ・メディカル・インコーポレイテッド Methods and apparatus for preventing vaginal lacerations during labor
US9492197B2 (en) 2009-10-13 2016-11-15 Materna Medical, Inc. Methods and apparatus for preventing vaginal lacerations during childbirth
CN102639182A (en) * 2009-10-13 2012-08-15 玛特纳医疗公司 Methods and apparatus for preventing vaginal lacerations during childbirth
AU2010306841B2 (en) * 2009-10-13 2016-03-03 Materna Medical, Inc. Methods and apparatus for preventing vaginal lacerations during childbirth
US20110208005A1 (en) * 2010-02-24 2011-08-25 David Michaeli Surgical retractor
US8409089B2 (en) * 2010-02-24 2013-04-02 Meni-Med Ltd. Surgical retractor
US8821394B2 (en) 2012-03-30 2014-09-02 DePuy Synthes Products, LLC Methods and devices for tissue retraction
US9521997B2 (en) 2012-03-30 2016-12-20 DePuy Synthes Products, Inc. Methods and devices for tissue retraction
US20140114139A1 (en) * 2012-10-24 2014-04-24 Blackstone Medical, Inc. Retractor device and method
US9693761B2 (en) * 2012-10-24 2017-07-04 Blackstone Medical, Inc. Retractor device and method
US9855027B2 (en) * 2012-10-24 2018-01-02 Blackstone Medical, Inc. Retractor device and method
US8727975B1 (en) 2013-05-10 2014-05-20 Spine Wave, Inc. Retractor for use in spinal surgery
US9545250B2 (en) 2013-05-10 2017-01-17 Spine Wave, Inc Kit of parts for use in retracting body tissue
US9498200B2 (en) 2013-05-10 2016-11-22 Spine Wave, Inc. Method of retracting body tissue during surgery
US10456016B2 (en) 2017-05-05 2019-10-29 CEEK Enterprises Applicator for a speculum accessory sleeve and use thereof

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