US3316912A - Fecal impaction remover - Google Patents

Fecal impaction remover Download PDF

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US3316912A
US3316912A US310371A US31037163A US3316912A US 3316912 A US3316912 A US 3316912A US 310371 A US310371 A US 310371A US 31037163 A US31037163 A US 31037163A US 3316912 A US3316912 A US 3316912A
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body member
member
head
plunger
pivotally
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US310371A
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Elizabeth G Whitaker
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Gene C Wilkins
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Assigned to WHITAKER, ELIZABETH G. reassignment WHITAKER, ELIZABETH G. ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST. Assignors: WILKINS, G.C.,
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/22Implements for squeezing-off ulcers or the like on the inside of inner organs of the body; Implements for scraping-out cavities of body organs, e.g. bones; Calculus removers; Calculus smashing apparatus; Apparatus for removing obstructions in blood vessels, not otherwise provided for
    • A61B17/22031Gripping instruments, e.g. forceps, for removing or smashing calculi
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/22Implements for squeezing-off ulcers or the like on the inside of inner organs of the body; Implements for scraping-out cavities of body organs, e.g. bones; Calculus removers; Calculus smashing apparatus; Apparatus for removing obstructions in blood vessels, not otherwise provided for
    • A61B2017/22037Fecal impaction removal

Description

May 2, 1967 E. G. WHITAKER 3,316,912

FECAL IMPACTION REMOVER Filed Sept. 20, 1963 Fig. 5

INVENTOR.

ATTORNEY United States Patent C FECAL IMPACTION REMOVER Elizabeth G. Whitaker, Greeley, Colo., assignor of twenty-five percent to Gene C. Wilkins, M.D., York, Nebr., and twenty-five percent to Caryl L. Sorensen, Greeley,

Filed Sept. 20, 1963, Ser. No. 310,371 Claims. (Cl. 128-303) This invention relates to medical and surgical instruments and tools, and more particularly to impaction removertools in the case of blocked bowels and in certain child birth cases.

With relation to blocked bowels, it is quite common, in the case of the aged and infirm, and in certain other cases, to have a situation where the blocked bowel has existed so long as to become so impacted with fecal matter in the patients lower colon adjacent the rectum as to be impervious to conventional cathartics, lubricants and enemas, and in such cases it is necessary to apply an internal scraping-effect to loosen the fecal matter by a mechanical tool means inserted through the patients rectum. I have perfected my novel impaction removal tool for such use in such cases, having in mind the problem of the fecal matter in the patients lower colon having it substantially impacted and blocked and thereby preventing an instrument of any appreciable thickness being inserted through the patients rectum into the lower colon, and to avoid the danger of resultant injury to the colon. Having that situation in mind, I have perfected my novel shaped and constructed impaction remover tool, having a semitubular body member, with an end thereof pivotally operable in extension thereon and normally protruding in alignment therefrom, adapting it for insert, through the rectum of a patient having a blocked lower bowel, by virtue of its cross-sectional shape. As a result of said shape of my instrument, it may be worked into the blocked bowel, through the patients rectum, by substantially being inserted between the impacted fecal matter in the bowel and the adjacent inner periphery of said bowel. After such insert of my novel instrument into a blocked bowel, I provide operable means then on my instrument for effecting a pivoting of my pivotally operable extended end thereof into a position of that end at a right angle to the body member of the instrument, and for the holding of that end in such position as the instrument is withdrawn from the patient to effect removal of the impacted fecal matter therewith. I design my instrument also of so stantially rounded edges and preferably make it of semiflexible material, to avoid unnecessary irritation to the parts of the body with which it comes in contact upon use thereof.

It is a principal object of my invention to provide such an impaction remover instrument of semi-tubular body shape, and having a part thereof 'operably hinged thereto and adapted to be pivotallymoved at a right angle to the longitudinal axis thereof, after insert of the instrument through the patients rectum, and with provision operable for holding of such part at such right angle position as the instrument is withdrawn from the patient.

Another principal object of my invention is the provision of such an impaction remover surgical tool with a body portion of semi-tubular design, and having an end thereof operab'ly pivotally secured thereto and normally extending therefrom in prolongation thereof, and with said pivotal end thereof being pivotally operable thereon into a position transversely thereof, by suitable means carried thereby and after insert thereof into the opening of the human body.

Another object of my invention is the provision of such an impaction remover surgical tool having a partially enice closed elongated body member, with a pivotally operable blade portion pivotally secured thereto and operable by a suitably operable push-pull means carried thereby for extension thereof at substantially a right angle to the body member.

Another object is the provision of such an impaction remover surgical instrument at economical cost of manufacture, so that it will be practical upon use thereof to discard the instrument, rather than to have problems of cleanliness were reuse thereof to be attempted.

Another object is the provision of my novel impaction remover surgical tool of semi-flexible material and with reasonably rounded edge surfaces thereof.

Other objects will be apparent to those skilled in the art to which my invention pertains from the disclosure of a preferred embodiment of my invention explained in detail in this specification and the accompanying drawing, in which drawing:

FIGURE 1 is a plan view of the open side of my novel semi-tubular elongated and substantially cross-sectionally semi-circular impaction remover instrument 10; FIGURE 2, bein gof the opposite side to that shown in side as viewed in FIGURE 1;

FIGURE 3 is an enlarged partial longitudinal crosssectional view of my instrument taken on the dotted line 3 of FIGURE 1 and looking in the direction of the arrow at 3 thereof;

FIGURE 4 is an end view of my instrument, looking in the direction of the arrow 4 of FIGURE 3, showing how my extended and pivoted end 13 of the body member 10 is substantially normally in prolongation of the body 10;

FIGURE 5 is an enlarged fragmentary end view of my instrument, looking in the direction of the arrow 5 of FIGURE 2, being of the opposite side of that shown in FIGURE 1;

FIGURE 6 is a cross-sectional view taken on the line 6-6 of FIGURE 3 and looking in the direction of the arrows; and

FIGURE 7 is a cross-sectional end view taken on the ,line 7-7 of FIGURE 5 and looking in the direction of the arrows.

While I have shown only one preferred embodiment of my invention, it is to be understood that various changes and modifications may be made therein within the scope of the appended claims without departing from the teaching, spirit and scope of my invention.

In carrying out my invention, for a preferred embodiment shown in the drawings, I provide a semi-tubular elongated body member 10, of the shape as shown, having a central cut-out notch at one end thereof, 11, and a pair of finger grasping loop protrusions 18, at the other end thereof, as shown. Bearing extension tabs 12 are provided, at the end of the body member 10 opposite from the finger loops, each diametrically opposed to the other and each having an aligned opening therethrough, as illustrated. I provide a novel scoop-blade-shaped impaction remover head, 13, of configuration shown, and pivotally mount it to the end of 10 having the tabs 12 and to said tabs, by suitable conventional pivot pins 14, and so that the head 13 is adapted for free pivot movement on its pivot pins 14 into and out of the dotted line position thereof illustrated in FIGURE 3, for reason to be explained. Pivot pins 14 utilize the openings provided for the purpose in the opposing tabs 12, in conventional manner. It is to be noted that my impaction remover head 13, in the normal pivotal position thereof, on and with relation to the body member 10, illustrated in solid lines thereof, is substantially an extension of and in prolongation of the body member 10, for reason to be explained. Also, a cross-sectional contour 3 of the head 13 is substantially the same as that of the body member 10, as would be seen when viewing FIG- URES 4 and 6.

I provide manually operable friction means carried by the body member 10, for pivotally operating my novel impaction remover head 13, and in this embodiment I use a push-pull frictionally carried plunger rod 15 for the purpose, I provide for plunger rod 15 to be fric' tionally carried by body member 10 by suitable conventional journal strap members 17 secured to body 10 as illustrated. Rod 15 is purposely of the length, with relation to the body member 10 and its pivotal connection point with the head 13, as illustrated, to be distance x longer than the body 10, for reason to be explained. I secure a finger grasping ring 19 to the end of plunger rod 15 opposite from the head 13 of the instrument, where the plunger rod extends below the body 10, as illustrated in FIGURE 1 and in one operational extreme position of said plunger rod. The other end of the plunger rod 15, opposite finger ring 19, I suitably pivotally connect to the central lower edge of pivoted head 13, in conventional manner as illustrated. For that purpose I provide that edge of 13 centrally thereof with suitable spaced apart integral bearing journal tabs 20', each having an opening in alignment to receive a bearing pin 16, and that end of plunger rod 15 is provided at 15a with a bearing opening therethrough adapted to receive the pivot pin 16, as illustrated in FIGURES and 7. At FIGURE 3 it can be seen that pivot point 16 on 13, where plunger rod 15 is pivotally connected with the pivoted head 13, is purposely provided at the position thereof on 13 as shown and with relation to the pivotal connection point 14, pivotally securing head 13 to body 10, so that operation of the push-pull plunger 15, in the direction of the arrow, within ring 19 of FIG- URE 1, and with relation to body member 10, will thereby cause a pivoting of head 13 on its pivot bearings 14 into the dotted line position of 13 illustrated in FIG- URE 3, and as will be further explained. Notch 11 is provided to permit a slight flexing of rod 15 into notch 11 upon plunger operation of the head 13 on its pivots 14, due to the design and pivotal mounting of head 13 on 10, in this modification as illustrated in FIG- URE 3, and so as to eliminate unnecessary friction between the rod and the body 10. The rounded edges of the upper end of my instrument, as illustrated in FIG- URES 1, 2, 3 and 5, are to be noted, for reasons given.

From the construction of my novel impaction remover instrument just described, it will be seen that the operator will grasp the finger loops 18 by the two first in- Y dex finger of a hand and then will place the thumb of that hand in the finger ring 19, holding the entire instrument in the position of the plunger 15 and the head 13 thereof and with relation to the body thereof as shown in solid lines, of FIGURES 1 and 2, with the head 13 extended as there shown in solid lines. Then, the instrument is inserted into the rectum of the patient, by inserting end 13 first, and then, after full in sert the approximate full length of the body member 11) thereof, the operator exerts finger pressure, by said fingers of said hand, to cause operation of the push-pull plunger 15, with relation to the body member 10, by bringing those two index fingers and that thumb together or towards each other while having said fingers in said loops 18 and ring 19, which finger movement, in effect, will cause the body member 10 to remain stationary while the plunger is pushed by its ring 19 towards the lower end of 10, as illustrated in FIGURE 1, the distance indicated there as X, thereby, and by 15, pivotally pushing pivoted head 13 on its pivot into the dotted line position as shown in FIGURE 3. It will be noted that said dotted line pivotal position of the impaction remover head 13, on its pivots 14, as caused by push operation of the plunger 15 with relation to the body member 10, just explained, places said head 13 substantially at a right angle to the longitudinal axis of the body member 10, and for bringing impacted fecal matter up against the under side of 13. In that head position, as illustrated in dotted lines of FIGURE 3, the instrument is then ready to be withdrawn from the patient to thereby bring impacted fecal matter by head 13. In use, after insert of my instrument into the patients rectum, with the instrument in condition as shown in full lines of the drawings, and inserting the head 13 end first, then the plunger 15 is pushed or moved toward the body member 10 thereof, as illustrated in FIGURES l and 2, which pivotally moves the head 13, on its pivot 14 by the plunger force exerted on 13 at plunger pivot 16, into impaction remover position. That impaction remover position is the dotted line position, of head 13 as shown in FIGURE 3, when the instrument then is pulled out of the patient to effect impaction removal from the bowel by the head 13 and as the head 13 is held in such dotted line position or at a right angle to the body 10' of the instrument.

It is important that my entire instrument not be of too rigid construction, and so, for the reasonable comfort of the patient during use thereof, I preferably construct my instrument of semi-flexible plastic or other suitable material.

It will be seen that my novel instrument may be readily adapted for other impaction uses than the one just explained, Such another use would be in the case of certain child birth cases. In such cases, it often happens, in effect, that an impaction occurs in the delivery canal from the mothers womb, for various reasons, such as in the case of a breech delivery, when it is often difficult to get the head through the birth canal. In such a use the body member, 10 of the instrument, would be of slightly different elongated shape in order to accommodate the delivery canal of the mother or obstetrical use requirement.

Since many changes and modifications in my invention, as herein explained and disclosed, may be made without deviating from the spirit and scope of my invention, therefore, I wish to be bound only by the hereunto appended claims.

What I claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:

1. A fecal impaction remover t-ool comprising, in combination:

(A) an elongated semi-tubular substantially cross-sectionally semi-circular body member;

(B) a pivotally operable impaction remover head member pivotally secured to one end of said body member and designed to extend pivotally normally in prolongation alignment from and with said body member;

(a) said head being adapted to be pivotally moved into a right angular position thereof to the longitudinal axis of the body member;

(C) an operable push-pull plunger member frictionally carried by and operable longitudinally of the body member and having one end thereof pivotally connected with said head member at a position on the head member for effecting pivotal operation of the head member upon plunger operation and adapted for plunger operation for effecting such right angular pivotal movement of the head member with relation to the body member;

(D) a finger grasping loop on each of said body member end and said plunger member end remote from said head member;

whereby plunger movement in one direction with relation to the body member causes the head member to be pivotally operated to extend in prolongation of and from the body member, and a plunger movement in the other direction with relation to the body member causes the head member to be pivotally operated to extend in a right angular position thereof to the body member.

2. An impaction remover tool combination, as defined in claim 1, and characterized further by the body member and the plunger member each being of material of such tensile strength adapting each for a slight bending thereof upon use of the tool in an opening of the human body.

3. An impaction remover tool of the class described adapted to be inserted into an opening of the human body, comprising, in combination, a substantially crosssectionally semi-circular and semi-tubular body member having an impaction remover blade portion thereof operably hinged thereto and in normal extension thereof and adapted for operable positioning thereof at a right angle thereon and thereto, and manually operable friction means carried by the body member and being operably connected with the hinged blade portion and being adapted upon operation thereof to effect such right angular positioning of the blade portion on its hinge on and to the body member and also for effecting a holding of the blade portion thereby, means for so operably hinging the blade portion to the body member, and means for so operably connecting the friction means to the blade portion.

4. A surgical instrument adapted for removing an impaction in an opening of the human body, by being adapted to be pushed into said opening and then to be withdrawn therefrom, comprising, in combination, a partially enclosed substantially cross-sectionally semi-circular elongated body member having two ends and the plunger having an operable plunger and having two ends and being frictionally carried thereby and adapted for push-pull operation in two direction, a separate extension of the body member and of substantially the same cross-sectional configuration as ber and being pivotally operably secured to one end of the body member for normal pivotal alignment therewith and being adapted for pivotal movement on the body member into a plane substantially at a right angle to the longitudinal axis of the body member and being pivotally connected with one end of said plunger, means for effecting such operable pivotal connection of the separate extension of the one end of the body member thereto, one end of the plunger being pivotally secured to said separate extension of the body member at a point thereon for effecting pivoting of that extension upon push-pull plunger movement, means for effecting such pivotal connection of that end of the plunger to said separate extension of the body member, whereby operation of the plunger with relation to the body member in one direction will cause extension of the body member to be pivoted into substantial alignment prolongation thereof with the body member, and whereby operation of the plunger with relation to the body member in the other direction will cause said extension of the body member to be pivoted into substantially a right angular position thereof on and with relation to the that of the body membody member, and finger grasping means at the other end of each of said body member and of said plunger.

5. In combination, a one hand operable surgical impaction remover tool comprising, a semi-tubular and cross-sectionally substantially semi-circular body member having two ends, an operable push-pull plunger means also having two ends and being frictionally carried longitudinally of and by the body member, means on the body member for such frictional carrying of the plunger means by the body member, and a pivotally operable impaction remover head member pivotally secured to one end of the body member and being of a configuration adapting it to extend in substantial prolongation thereof with the body member in a certain pivotal position thereof thereon and also being adapted to be operably pivotally moved into a right angular position thereof on and with relation to the longitudinal axis of the body member, said plunger means having one end thereof pivotally connected to said head member at a position on the head member for effecting pivotal movement of the head member on its pivot on the body member upon pushpull plunger operation, means for so pivotally and operably securing the head member to the one end of the body member, means for so pivotally connecting the one end of the plunger means to and at said position on the head member, a finger grasping portion at the other end of the body member, another finger grasping portion at the other end of the plunger means, said plunger means being of a length adapting it for push-pull operation a sufiicient distance for thereby effecting such right-angular pivotal movement positioning of the head member thereby on and to the body member, whereby movement of the plunger means in one direction with relation to the body member, effected by the fingers of one hand of the operator, causes pivotal movement of the head member on the body member until said head member extends substantially at a right angle to the longitudinal axis of the body member, and whereby a movement of the plunger means in the opposite direction with relation to the body member, effected by the fingers of one hand of the operator, causes pivotal movement of the head member on the body member until said head member extends in substantial prolongation alignment thereof with the body member.

References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,397,732 11/1921 Goodloe 128-7 1,920,006 7/1933 Dozier 128-349 2,034,785 3/1936 Wappler 128-4 X 3,077,194 2/1963 Walden et al. 128-343 RICHARD A, GAUDET, Primary Examiner. G, E, MCNEILL, Assistant Examiner,

Claims (1)

1. A FECAL IMPACTION REMOVER TOOL COMPRISING, IN COMBINATION: (A) AN ELONGATED SEMI-TUBULAR SUBSTANTIOALLY CROSS-SECTIONALLY SEMI-CIRCULAR BODY MEMBER; (B) A PIVOTALLY OPERABLE IMPACTION REMOVER HEAD MEMBER PIVOTALLY SECURED TO ONE END OF SAID BODY MEMBER AND DESIGNED TO EXTEND PIVOTALLY NORMALLY IN PROLONGATION ALIGNMENT FROM AND WITH SAID BODY MEMBER; (A) SAID HEAD BEING ADAPTED TO BE PIVOTALLY MOVED INTO A RIGHT ANGULAR POSITION THEREOF TO THE LONGITUDINAL AXIS OF THE BODY MEMBER; (C) AN OPERABLE PUSH-PULL PLUNGER MEMBER FRICTIONALLY CARRIED BY AND OPERABLE LONGITUDINALLY OF THE BODY MEMBER AND HAVING ONE END THEREOF PIVOTALLY CONNECTED WITH SAID HEAD MEMBER AT A POSITION ON THE HEAD MEMBER FOR EFFECTING PIVOTAL OPERATION OF THE HEAD MEMBER UPON PLUNGER OPERATION AND ADAPTED FOR PLUNGER OPERATION FOR EFFECTING SUCH RIGHT ANGULAR PIVOTAL MOVEMENT OF THE HEAD MEMBER WITH RELATION TO THE BODY MEMBER; (D) A FINGER GRASPING LOOP ON EACH OF SAID BODY MEMBER END AND SAID PLUNGER MEMBER END REMOTE FROM SAID HEAD MEMBER; WHEREBY PLUNGER MOVEMENT IN ONE DIRECTION WITH RELATION TO THE BODY MEMBER CAUSES THE HEAD MEMBER TO BE PIVOTALLY OPERATED TO EXTEND IN PROLONGATION OF AND FROM THE BODY MEMBER, AND A PLUNGER MOVEMENT IN THE OTHER DIRECTION WITH RELATION TO THE BODY MEMBER CAUSES THE HEAD MEMBER TO BE PIVOTALLY OPERATED TO EXTEND IN A RIGHT ANGULAR POSITION THEREOF TO THE BODY MEMBER.
US310371A 1963-09-20 1963-09-20 Fecal impaction remover Expired - Lifetime US3316912A (en)

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Cited By (11)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4243037A (en) * 1979-07-02 1981-01-06 Smith Norma J Fecal impaction remover
US4632110A (en) * 1984-09-28 1986-12-30 Olympus Optical Co., Ltd. Medical operation instrument for endoscope
US5000750A (en) * 1988-12-14 1991-03-19 Device Developments, Inc. Device for the treatment of fecal impaction
US5195506A (en) * 1991-10-18 1993-03-23 Life Medical Products, Inc. Surgical retractor for puncture operation
US5289817A (en) * 1991-08-20 1994-03-01 Linvatec Corporation Endoscopic surgical retractor
US5293863A (en) * 1992-05-08 1994-03-15 Loma Linda University Medical Center Bladed endoscopic retractor
WO1997032529A1 (en) * 1996-03-04 1997-09-12 Ralph James Klingenstein Apparatus and method for removing fecal impaction
ES2288363A1 (en) * 2005-06-30 2008-01-01 Jose Antonio Arcos Aguayo Faecal extraction method, involves introducing straight in upper end of outer cannula and filling deposits formed by hollow interior of inner cannula, and turn of inner cannula on full deposition, and extraction of inner cannula
US20130317520A1 (en) * 2012-05-25 2013-11-28 Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. Surgical implement and manipulation system including the same
CN107595358A (en) * 2017-10-24 2018-01-19 无锡市人民医院 Claw-type single-cavity two-section constipation excrement extractor
WO2018210694A1 (en) * 2017-05-16 2018-11-22 Schauer Georg Fecal impaction removal device

Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1397732A (en) * 1920-04-13 1921-11-22 Aareiel E Goodloe Surgical instrument
US1920006A (en) * 1932-07-26 1933-07-25 Edward A Arnim Jr Prostatic catheter
US2034785A (en) * 1935-07-12 1936-03-24 Wappler Frederick Charles Endoscopic forceps
US3077194A (en) * 1960-06-09 1963-02-12 Henry W Walden Dilator

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1397732A (en) * 1920-04-13 1921-11-22 Aareiel E Goodloe Surgical instrument
US1920006A (en) * 1932-07-26 1933-07-25 Edward A Arnim Jr Prostatic catheter
US2034785A (en) * 1935-07-12 1936-03-24 Wappler Frederick Charles Endoscopic forceps
US3077194A (en) * 1960-06-09 1963-02-12 Henry W Walden Dilator

Cited By (13)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4243037A (en) * 1979-07-02 1981-01-06 Smith Norma J Fecal impaction remover
US4632110A (en) * 1984-09-28 1986-12-30 Olympus Optical Co., Ltd. Medical operation instrument for endoscope
US5000750A (en) * 1988-12-14 1991-03-19 Device Developments, Inc. Device for the treatment of fecal impaction
US5289817A (en) * 1991-08-20 1994-03-01 Linvatec Corporation Endoscopic surgical retractor
US5195506A (en) * 1991-10-18 1993-03-23 Life Medical Products, Inc. Surgical retractor for puncture operation
US5293863A (en) * 1992-05-08 1994-03-15 Loma Linda University Medical Center Bladed endoscopic retractor
US5730726A (en) * 1996-03-04 1998-03-24 Klingenstein; Ralph James Apparatus and method for removing fecal impaction
WO1997032529A1 (en) * 1996-03-04 1997-09-12 Ralph James Klingenstein Apparatus and method for removing fecal impaction
ES2288363A1 (en) * 2005-06-30 2008-01-01 Jose Antonio Arcos Aguayo Faecal extraction method, involves introducing straight in upper end of outer cannula and filling deposits formed by hollow interior of inner cannula, and turn of inner cannula on full deposition, and extraction of inner cannula
US20130317520A1 (en) * 2012-05-25 2013-11-28 Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. Surgical implement and manipulation system including the same
US10028795B2 (en) * 2012-05-25 2018-07-24 Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. Surgical implement and manipulation system including the same
WO2018210694A1 (en) * 2017-05-16 2018-11-22 Schauer Georg Fecal impaction removal device
CN107595358A (en) * 2017-10-24 2018-01-19 无锡市人民医院 Claw-type single-cavity two-section constipation excrement extractor

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AS Assignment

Owner name: WHITAKER, ELIZABETH G., 2241 13TH ST., GREELEY, CO

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST.;ASSIGNOR:WILKINS, G.C.,;REEL/FRAME:003926/0514

Effective date: 19810915