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US20150230973A1 - Fluid cassette with tensioned polymeric membranes for patient heat exchange system - Google Patents

Fluid cassette with tensioned polymeric membranes for patient heat exchange system Download PDF

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Publication number
US20150230973A1
US20150230973A1 US14180613 US201414180613A US2015230973A1 US 20150230973 A1 US20150230973 A1 US 20150230973A1 US 14180613 US14180613 US 14180613 US 201414180613 A US201414180613 A US 201414180613A US 2015230973 A1 US2015230973 A1 US 2015230973A1
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US
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Patent type
Prior art keywords
fluid
frame
membranes
working
cold
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Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Pending
Application number
US14180613
Inventor
Jeremy Thomas Dabrowiak
Christoph Matthias Pistor
Craig Wendell Pendry
Christo Pamichev
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Zoll Cirulation Inc
Zoll Circulation Inc
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Zoll Cirulation, Inc.
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F7/00Heating or cooling appliances for medical or therapeutic treatment of the human body
    • A61F7/0085Devices for generating hot or cold treatment fluids
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M5/00Devices for bringing media into the body in a subcutaneous, intra-vascular or intramuscular way; Accessories therefor, e.g. filling or cleaning devices, arm-rests
    • A61M5/44Devices for bringing media into the body in a subcutaneous, intra-vascular or intramuscular way; Accessories therefor, e.g. filling or cleaning devices, arm-rests having means for cooling or heating the devices or media
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F7/00Heating or cooling appliances for medical or therapeutic treatment of the human body
    • A61F2007/0001Body part
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F7/00Heating or cooling appliances for medical or therapeutic treatment of the human body
    • A61F2007/0054Heating or cooling appliances for medical or therapeutic treatment of the human body with a closed fluid circuit, e.g. hot water
    • A61F2007/0056Heating or cooling appliances for medical or therapeutic treatment of the human body with a closed fluid circuit, e.g. hot water for cooling
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F7/00Heating or cooling appliances for medical or therapeutic treatment of the human body
    • A61F7/12Devices for heating or cooling internal body cavities
    • A61F2007/126Devices for heating or cooling internal body cavities for invasive application, e.g. for introducing into blood vessels
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F7/00Heating or cooling appliances for medical or therapeutic treatment of the human body
    • A61F7/10Cooling bags, e.g. ice-bags
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M2205/00General characteristics of the apparatus
    • A61M2205/12General characteristics of the apparatus with interchangeable cassettes forming partially or totally the fluid circuit
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M2205/00General characteristics of the apparatus
    • A61M2205/12General characteristics of the apparatus with interchangeable cassettes forming partially or totally the fluid circuit
    • A61M2205/127General characteristics of the apparatus with interchangeable cassettes forming partially or totally the fluid circuit with provisions for heating or cooling
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M2205/00General characteristics of the apparatus
    • A61M2205/36General characteristics of the apparatus related to heating or cooling
    • A61M2205/366General characteristics of the apparatus related to heating or cooling by liquid heat exchangers
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T29/00Metal working
    • Y10T29/49Method of mechanical manufacture
    • Y10T29/4935Heat exchanger or boiler making

Abstract

A working fluid cassette for an intravascular heat exchange catheter includes a frame holding two closely spaced, square polymeric membranes in tension. Working fluid from the catheter is directed between the membranes. The cassette is closely received between two refrigerant cold plates to exchange heat with the working fluid, which is circulated back to the catheter.

Description

    FIELD OF THE INVENTION
  • [0001]
    The present application relates generally to fluid cassettes with tensioned polymeric membranes for patient heat exchange systems.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • [0002]
    Patient temperature control systems have been introduced to prevent fever in patients in the neuro ICU due to suffering from sub-arachnoid hemorrhage or other neurologic malady such as stroke. Also, such systems have been used to induce mild or moderate hypothermia to improve the outcomes of patients suffering from such maladies as stroke, cardiac arrest, myocardial infarction, traumatic brain injury, and high intracranial pressure. Examples of intravascular heat exchange catheters are disclosed in U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,419,643, 6,416,533, 6,409,747, 6,405,080, 6,393,320, 6,368,304, 6,338,727, 6,299,599, 6,290,717, 6,287,326, 6,165,207, 6,149,670, 6,146,411, 6,126,684, 6,306,161, 6,264,679, 6,231,594, 6,149,676, 6,149,673, 6,110,168, 5,989,238, 5,879,329, 5,837,003, 6,383,210, 6,379,378, 6,364,899, 6,325,818, 6,312,452, 6,261,312, 6,254,626, 6,251,130, 6,251,129, 6,245,095, 6,238,428, 6,235,048, 6,231,595, 6,224,624, 6,149,677, 6,096,068, 6,042,559, all of which are incorporated herein by reference.
  • [0003]
    External patient temperature control systems may be used. Such systems are disclosed in U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,827,728, 6,818,012, 6,802,855, 6,799,063, 6,764,391, 6,692,518, 6,669,715, 6,660,027, 6,648,905, 6,645,232, 6,620,187, 6,461,379, 6,375,674, 6,197,045, and 6,188,930 (collectively, “the external pad patents”), all of which are incorporated herein by reference.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • [0004]
    A device includes a frame defining a periphery and an opening, preferably rectilinear and more preferably substantially square, bounded on at least three sides by the periphery. The frame is configured for being closely received between two plates, referred to herein as “cold plates” because in cooling mode they are cold, and has at least a fluid inlet and a fluid outlet both establishing respective fluid passageways through the frame into the opening. The fluid inlet and outlet are configured for fluid communication with respective fluid return and supply lines associated with a patient-engageable heat exchange member. A polymeric membrane assembly is connected to the frame in tension, preferably in biaxial tension (tension in both an x-direction and a y-direction). The membrane assembly blocks the opening and includes a first membrane parallel to a second membrane with a space therebetween. The fluid inlet and fluid outlet of the frame communicate with the space between the membranes.
  • [0005]
    Without limitation, the heat exchange member can include an intravascular heat exchange catheter or a heat exchange pad externally engageable with a patient or a peritoneal lavage device.
  • [0006]
    In example embodiments the space between the membranes is expandable when filled with working fluid circulating from the heat exchange member. Each membrane may be no more than two mils (0.002″) thick and may be between one mil and two mils in thickness (0.001″-0.002″).
  • [0007]
    The opening may be substantially square in that it defines a top, a bottom edge spaced from and parallel to the top, a left side extending between the top and bottom, and a right side extending between the top and bottom and parallel to the left side, with the left and right sides defining a first length, the top and bottom defining a second length, and the first length being equal to the second length±ten percent of the second length. Indeed, the first length can be approximately equal to the second length. However, other shapes such as trapezoidal may be used, in particular with a bottom edge slightly longer than the top edge.
  • [0008]
    Both membranes of the membrane assembly may be disposed in tension within the opening. Plural posts may be arranged on the frame, and at least portions of the membrane assembly can be stretched over the posts and engaged with the posts to hold the membrane assembly in tension within the opening.
  • [0009]
    In example implementations the membrane assembly defines a rectilinear border juxtaposed with the frame. The border includes the first and second membranes and at least one reinforcing layer engaged with the first and second membranes and preferably not extending radially inwardly past the border. The membranes may be stretchable to at least 25% elongation. The device may be used in combination with the cold plates and/or the heat exchange member.
  • [0010]
    In another aspect, an apparatus includes a working fluid chamber defined by two and only two membranes closely spaced from each other, and a hollow frame bordering at least portions of the working fluid chamber and holding the membranes in tension. The hollow frame defines at least one fluid passageway through which fluid can pass into and/or out of the working fluid chamber. When the apparatus is disposed between heat exchange surfaces of a heat exchanger and working fluid fills the working fluid chamber, the working fluid chamber expands against the heat exchange surfaces to facilitate heat exchange with the working fluid.
  • [0011]
    In another aspect, a method includes stretching first and second polymeric membranes over supports on a first frame half, and engaging the first frame half with a second frame half to establish a cassette receivable between two cold plates. The frame has fluid passageways into a space between the membranes such that the frame is configured for fluid communication with fluid return and supply lines associated with a patient-engageable heat exchange member.
  • [0012]
    The details of the present invention, both as to its structure and operation, can best be understood in reference to the accompanying drawings, in which like reference numerals refer to like parts, and in which:
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • [0013]
    FIG. 1 is a schematic view of a non-limiting system in accordance with the present invention;
  • [0014]
    FIG. 2 is a perspective view of an example working fluid cassette holder portion of a heat exchange system;
  • [0015]
    FIG. 3 is a perspective view of one half of the cassette holder shown in FIG. 2, with the opaque metal inner surface shown in transparency to reveal the serpentine refrigerant passageway;
  • [0016]
    FIG. 4 is a perspective view of an example working fluid cassette configured to engage the cassette holder shown in FIGS. 2 and 3;
  • [0017]
    FIG. 4A is similar to FIG. 4, showing the inlet and outlet tubes extending from the top to the bottom of the membrane assembly;
  • [0018]
    FIG. 5 is a close up perspective view of the cassette shown in FIG. 4, illustrating an inlet tube extending partially down into the stretched membrane chamber, it being understood that an opposed outlet tube may be similarly disposed on the opposite side of the cartridge and that both the inlet and outlet tubes may extend any length down their respective sides in the cassette;
  • [0019]
    FIG. 6 is a perspective view of an alternate cassette in which the inlet and outlet tubes are formed in the frame of the cassette, with portions broken away for clarity; and
  • [0020]
    FIG. 7 is a view in partial cross-section as seen along the line 7-7 in FIG. 6, with portions broken away for clarity, and assuming the cassette is engaged between the cold plates.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT
  • [0021]
    Referring initially to FIG. 1, in accordance with present principles, a system 10 may include an intravascular heat exchange catheter 12 controlled by a control system 14 to control patient temperature, e.g., to prevent the patient 16 from becoming febrile or to induce therapeutic hypothermia in the patient 16. In the catheter, working fluid (also referred to as “coolant”) such as but not limited to saline circulates (typically under the influence of a pump in the controller) in a closed loop from the control system 14, through a fluid supply line L1, through the catheter 12, and back to the system 14 through a fluid return line L2, such that no coolant enters the body. While certain preferred catheters are disclosed below, it is to be understood that other catheters can be used in accordance with present principles, including, without limitation, any of the catheters disclosed above or in the following U.S. patents, all incorporated herein by reference: U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,486,208, 5,837,003, 6,110,168, 6,149,673, 6,149,676, 6,231,594, 6,264,679, 6,306,161, 6,235,048, 6,238,428, 6,245,095, 6,251,129, 6,251,130, 6,254,626, 6,261,312, 6,312,452, 6,325,818, 6,409,747, 6,368,304, 6,338,727, 6,299,599, 6,287,326, 6,126,684. The catheter 12 may be placed in the venous system, e.g., in the superior or inferior vena cava.
  • [0022]
    Instead of or in addition to the catheter 12, the system 10 may include one or more pads 18 that are positioned against the external skin of the patient 16 (only one pad 18 shown for clarity). The pad 18 may be, without limitation, any one of the pads disclosed in the external pad patents. The temperature of the pad 18 can be controlled by a pad controller 20 in accordance with principles set forth in the external pad patents to exchange heat with the patient 16, including to induce therapeutic mild or moderate hypothermia in the patient in response to the patient presenting with, e.g., cardiac arrest, myocardial infarction, stroke, high intracranial pressure, traumatic brain injury, or other malady the effects of which can be ameliorated by hypothermia. The pad 18 may receive working fluid from the system 14 through a fluid supply line L3, and return working fluid to the system 14 through a fluid return line L4. Note that in some embodiments, the systems 14, 20 are established in a single assembly.
  • [0023]
    To cool the patient while awaiting engagement of the catheter 12 and/or pad 18 with the patient, cold fluid 22 in a cold fluid source 24 may be injected into the patient and in particular into the patient's venous system through a pathway 26. Without limitation, the pathway 26 may an IV line, the source 24 may be an IV bag, and the fluid 22 may be chilled saline, e.g., saline at the freezing point or slightly warmer. Or, the source may be a syringe, and the saline can be injected directly into the bloodstream of the patient.
  • [0024]
    Now referring to FIG. 2, a portion of either of the heat exchangers in the control systems 14, 20 is shown which includes at least two cold plates 30, 32 defining a cassette slot 34 between them. In one embodiment, the width “W” of the slot 34 is less than forty mils (0.040″), and may be between twenty nine mils and thirty one mils (0.029″-0.031″). In a specific example the width “W” may be thirty mils.
  • [0025]
    The cold plates 30, 32 may be made of metal, and can be rectilinear as shown and indeed may be nearly square. The cold plates 30, 32 may abut each other along left and right side walls 36, with elongated vertical cassette frame receptacles R1 and R2 being located immediately inboard of the respective side walls 36 and with the slot 34 extending between the walls 36 and terminating at the receptacles R1, R2 as shown. The frame receptacles R1, R2 are wider than the slot 36.
  • [0026]
    In the example shown, refrigerant inlet and outlet tubes 38, 40 extend through at least one of the cold plates 32 to communicate refrigerant from a compressor into a refrigerant passageway in the cold plate. Each cold plate may have its own refrigerant inlet and outlet tubes, or, in the embodiment shown, only one cold plate may be formed with refrigerant inlet and outlet tubes and the other cold plate either thermally coupled to the cold plate in which the refrigerant flows and/or receiving refrigerant from the other cold plate through passageways formed through one or both of the side walls 36.
  • [0027]
    FIG. 3 shows details of an example cold plate 32 looking at the inner surface in transparency, it being understood that the inner surface typically is metal and that the serpentine refrigerant passageway 42 shown in FIG. 3 typically would not be visible to the human eye. In any case, the example refrigerant passageway that fluidly connects the refrigerant inlet 38 to the refrigerant outlet 40 may be serpentine-shaped as shown, or may be some other shape or pattern such as a herringbone pattern a wave pattern, etc.
  • [0028]
    FIG. 4 shows an example working fluid cassette 50 according to present principles. The cassette 50 is configured to fit snugly into the slot 34 and cassette frame receptacles R1, R2 defined between the cold plates 30, 32. Working fluid such as saline from a patient-engageable heat exchange member such as the catheter 12 or pad 18 flows through the cassette 50 in operation, with the working fluid exchanging heat with the refrigerant in the cold plates. In example embodiments, the cassette 50 is a low cost single-use disposable item that can contain, e.g., sterile saline which circulates through the catheter 12. The cassette may be placed by a medical caregiver in the slot 34 between the cold plates 30, 32 and the membrane portion which defines a space or working fluid chamber through which the example saline flows inflates when the working fluid flows through it, achieving thermal contact with the cold plates 30, 32.
  • [0029]
    In the example shown, the cassette 50 includes a frame 52 defining a periphery and a preferably rectilinear opening bounded as shown on at least three sides by the periphery of the frame. In the non-limiting example shown, the frame includes an elongated parallelepiped-shaped top rail 53 and elongated parallelepiped-shaped left and right side rails 54 parallel to each other and perpendicular to the top rail 32. The example frame 52 may have a metal strip or bottom rail 51 opposite the top rail and connected to the left and right side rails to support the membrane and facilitate placing the membrane in biaxial tension. In any case, the example frame 52 is rectilinear and is configured for being closely received between the two cold plates 30, 32, with the side rails 54 slidably engageable with the frame receptacles R1, R2 between the cold plates 30, 32 and with the below-described membrane assembly passed through the slot 36 to be in close juxtaposition with the refrigerant channels in the cold plates.
  • [0030]
    In cross-references to FIGS. 4 and 5, the frame, in the example shown, the top rail 53 thereof, is formed with a fluid inlet 56 in which an inlet tube 58 has been disposed and a fluid outlet 60 in which an outlet tube 62 has been disposed. Both the inlet and outlet establish respective fluid passageways through the frame into the opening. The inlet and outlet tubes 58, 62 may be engaged with the fluid return and supply lines L3, L4 that are associated with the catheter 12. The tubes 58, 62 may terminate at just below the top rail 53 (FIG. 4), or they may extend any desired length down to the bottom of the assembly, i.e., the tubes 58, 62 may extend almost the entire length of the left and right side rails 54, ending just above the below-described bottom seam of the membrane assembly (FIG. 4A). A combination of FIGS. 4 and 4A may be used in which one tube (e.g., the inlet tube) terminates just below the top rail 53 while the other tube (e.g., the outlet tube) ends just above the below-described bottom seam. Or, the outlet tube may terminate just below the top rail 53 while the other inlet tube can end just above the below-described bottom seam. By terminating at least one tube near the bottom of the membranes, evacuation of coolant from between the membranes is facilitated, which facilitates easier removal of the cassette from between the cold plates. A longer “tube” can be established by placing a shorter thinner tube within a longer larger tube which is sealed to the perimeter of the membranes.
  • [0031]
    Indeed, a polymeric membrane assembly 64 is connected to the frame 52, blocking the opening that is bounded on four sides by the frame as shown. The membrane assembly includes a first membrane 66 that is parallel to and closely spaced from a second membrane 68, leaving a space therebetween which establishes a working fluid chamber. The fluid inlet 56 and fluid outlet 60 communicate with the space between the membranes 66, 68. At least one and preferably both of the membranes 66, 68 are disposed in tension in the opening. The space between the membranes is expandable when filled with working fluid.
  • [0032]
    In one example, each membrane is no more than two mils (0.002″) thick and more preferably is between one mil and two mils in thickness (0.001″-0.002″), inclusive. The example preferred membranes 66, 68 are co-extensive with the opening and like the opening are more or less square, with the length of top and bottom edges of the example membranes being approximately equal (within ±10% and more preferably within ±5%) of the lengths of the left and right edges of the membranes. In other embodiments instead of a square (1:1) aspect ratio, an aspect ratio of up to 1:1.5 may be used. The working fluid chamber between the membranes is also rectilinear and in the preferred embodiment no obstructions exist between the membranes, meaning the working fluid chamber is a complete rectilinear, more or less square chamber.
  • [0033]
    Owing to the thinness of the membranes 66, 68 and the closeness of the cold plates 30, 32 to each other and to the membrane assembly between them when the cassette is engaged with the cold plates, the system shown in the figures affords low impedance of heat transfer between the refrigerant circulating in the cold plates and the working fluid circulating between the membranes 66, 68. The working fluid chamber between the membranes inflates due to backpressure generated by working fluid flow, eliminating or reducing the need for a moving mechanism in the cold plates. Moreover, the narrow slot 34 between the two cold plates provides better heat transfer by reducing the conductive path length between the cold plates and the working fluid. The frame allows for ease of handling, such as insertion and removal of the cassette with/from the cold plates.
  • [0034]
    With respect to the example working fluid chamber between the membranes 66, 68 having a width-to-length aspect ratio near 1:1 (i.e., square or nearly so), the amount of backpressure required to induce working fluid flow through heat exchanger is reduced compared to a less square configuration. This reduces the amount of work that a working fluid pump must perform, which is desirable for two reasons. One, since the pump may be disposable, lower performance requirements translate into a lower cost disposable and quieter system. For instance, peristaltic roller pumps offer quiet operation and a low-cost disposable element, but operate most efficiently when only modest pressures are required. Two, lowering the working fluid pump work reduces the amount of heat transferred into the working fluid by the pump itself. Also, a low width/length aspect ratio results in slower working fluid velocity which reduces amount of mixing, but this otherwise desirable (from a heat exchange standpoint) effect is negligible in the present example system since the Reynolds numbers are typically <1000, suggesting a laminar flow regime. Furthermore, a low width/length aspect ratio significantly reduces the number of bends (or “corners”) in the fluid flow path. These bends are areas of mixing for the fluid which promotes heat transfer. Without them, a fluid boundary layer builds up. However, this effect is offset herein by maintaining a narrow slot between the cold plates. This way the primary heat transfer mechanism is by conduction, but the conduction path length (and therefore boundary layer) is small, resulting in a relatively high rate of heat transfer.
  • [0035]
    In preferred examples, the membranes 66, 68 are stretched under tension during assembly to the frame, preferably biaxially (i.e., in tension between the top and bottom rails 53, 51 and also in tension between the left and right side rails 54). This tension can be maintained over the shelf life of the product. Pretensioning minimizes wrinkles in material, which is beneficial because wrinkles can impede working fluid flow and create air gaps which reduce heat transfer between the working fluid and cold plates. Wrinkles can also complicate insertion of the membrane assembly into the narrow slot 34.
  • [0036]
    To establish pre-tensioning of the membranes, the frame may be made in halves and posts such as threaded fasteners 70 (FIG. 5) can extend transversely to one half of the frame, with the membranes 66, 68 being stretched over the posts and holes made in the membranes to receive the posts. The other half of the frame is then positioned to sandwich a rectilinear border portion 74 (only the innermost portion of which is shown in FIG. 5) of the membrane assembly between the frame halves, and a closure such as respective nuts 72 engaged with the posts 70 to hold the frame halves together with the membrane assembly held in tension between the frame halves. FIG. 4 shows that the working fluid chamber is closed off at the bottom by a bottom seam 74A of the membrane assembly, which is part of the border portion 74. In addition to applying tension to avoid wrinkling during use, additional posts may be used to avoid wrinkling during the welding process, improving the quality of the weld joints.
  • [0037]
    In the border portion 74, at least one and preferably more layers of polymer film may be used to reinforce the membranes 66, 68 to establish welded seams through which (at the sides of the membrane assembly) the post holes are formed, allowing for easier fabrication. By placing reinforcing layers on the border portion 74 only, the central “window” of the membrane assembly consists only of a single thin layer membrane between the working fluid and one of the cold plates 30, 32 to minimize impeding heat transfer. A die-cut reinforcement layer may be used which reinforces the entire perimeter with one piece of material.
  • [0038]
    In some examples, the polymer membranes 66, 68 are highly stretchable, at least greater than 25% elongation. This allows the membranes to change from the empty flat state shown in FIGS. 4 and 5 to an inflated shape (within the slot 34 between the cold plates) without wrinkling. It also allows the membranes to easily conform to features on the faces of the cold plates.
  • [0039]
    Additionally, the membranes may be made of a material which can also be made into tubing. Tubes such as the inlet and outlet tubes 58, 62 shown in FIG. 4 can then be thermally welded (e.g., using RF sealing) to the membranes, which is more reliable and quicker than adhesive bonding. The membranes 66, 68 need not provide their own lateral support because the cold plates 32, 34 and frame provide the support for the inflated membrane assembly, allowing it to withstand the pressure generated as a result of working fluid flowing through between the membranes. Structural features such as raised bumps, concavities, raised ribs, and so on may be located on the cold plates to optimize heat transfer. This can be economically advantageous because the cold plates are reusable components. Manifolds can be cut into the cold plates to even out the distribution of saline flow.
  • [0040]
    FIGS. 6 and 7 show that alternatively, a working fluid inlet 80 may be formed in the left rail of a frame 82 holding a membrane assembly 84 in tension. It is to be understood that a working fluid outlet may be formed in the right rail of the frame 82. The inlet 80 and outlet may extend almost the entire length of the rail if desired or may extend only part way down the rail. In any case one or more lateral channels 86 extend from the inlet 80 to the working fluid chamber 88 of the membrane assembly 84 to establish fluid communication between the inlet (and outlet) of the frame 82 and the working fluid chamber. If desired, the cold plates 30, 32 may be formed with a chamfer 90 at the start of the slot 92 in which the membrane assembly 84 is disposed, with a complementarily shaped chamfer 94 being formed in the rail of the frame 82, to accommodate any “ballooning” of the membrane assembly 84 at the frame/membrane interface as the saline flows out of the frame into the membrane assembly.
  • [0041]
    While the particular FLUID CASSETTE WITH TENSIONED POLYMERIC MEMBRANES FOR PATIENT HEAT EXCHANGE SYSTEM is herein shown and described in detail, the scope of the present invention is to be limited by nothing other than the appended claims.

Claims (20)

    What is claimed is:
  1. 1. Device, comprising:
    a frame defining a periphery and an opening bounded on at least three sides by the periphery, the frame being configured for being closely received between two cold plates, the frame having at least a fluid inlet and a fluid outlet both establishing respective fluid passageways through the frame into the opening, the fluid inlet and outlet being configured for fluid communication with respective fluid return and supply lines associated with a patient-engageable heat exchange member; and
    a polymeric membrane assembly connected to the frame and blocking the opening, the membrane assembly including a first membrane parallel to a second membrane with a space therebetween, the fluid inlet and fluid outlet communicating with the space between the membranes, at least one of the membranes being disposed in tension in the opening.
  2. 2. The device of claim 1, wherein the heat exchange member includes an intravascular heat exchange catheter.
  3. 3. The device of claim 1, wherein the heat exchange member includes a heat exchange pad externally engageable with a patient.
  4. 4. The device of claim 1, wherein the space is expandable when filled with working fluid circulating from the heat exchange member.
  5. 5. The device of claim 1, wherein each membrane is no more than two mils (0.002″) thick.
  6. 6. The device of claim 1, wherein the membranes are disposed in biaxial tension in the frame.
  7. 7. The device of claim 1, wherein the opening is rectilinear.
  8. 8. The device of claim 7, wherein the opening defines a top, a bottom edge spaced from and parallel to the top, a left side extending between the top and bottom, and a right side extending between the top and bottom and parallel to the left side, the left and right sides defining a first length, the top and bottom defining a second length, the first length being equal to the second length±ten percent of the second length.
  9. 9. The device of claim 8, wherein the first length is approximately equal to the second length.
  10. 10. The device of claim 1, wherein both membranes of the membrane assembly are disposed in tension within the opening.
  11. 11. The device of claim 10, comprising plural posts on the frame, at least portions of the membrane assembly being stretched over the posts and being engaged with the posts to hold the membrane assembly in tension within the opening.
  12. 12. The device of claim 1, wherein the membrane assembly defines a rectilinear border juxtaposed with the frame, the border including the first and second membranes and at least one reinforcing layer engaged with the first and second membranes to at least in part establish the border.
  13. 13. The device of claim 1, wherein the membranes are stretchable to at least 25% elongation.
  14. 14. The device of claim 1, comprising the cold plates.
  15. 15. The device of claim 14, comprising the heat exchange member.
  16. 16. Apparatus comprising:
    working fluid chamber defined by two and only two membranes closely spaced from each other; and
    a hollow frame bordering at least portions of the working fluid chamber and holding the membranes in biaxial tension, the hollow frame defining at least one fluid passageway through which fluid can pass into and/or out of the working fluid chamber, wherein when the apparatus is disposed between heat exchange surfaces of a heat exchanger and working fluid fills the working fluid chamber, the working fluid chamber expands against the heat exchange surfaces to facilitate heat exchange with the working fluid.
  17. 17. The apparatus of claim 16, wherein the frame is substantially square and the membranes are polymeric membranes each being no more than two mils (0.002″) thick.
  18. 18. The apparatus of claim 16, comprising plural posts on the frame, at least portions of the membranes being stretched over the posts and being engaged with the posts to hold the membranes in tension within the opening.
  19. 19. The apparatus of claim 16, wherein the membranes define a rectilinear border juxtaposed with the frame, the border including the first and second membranes and at least one reinforcing layer engaged with the first and second membranes and not extending radially inwardly past the border.
  20. 20. Method comprising:
    stretching first and second polymeric membranes over supports on a first frame half; and
    engaging the first frame half with a second frame half to establish a cassette receivable between two cold plates, the frame having fluid passageways into a space between the membranes such that the frame is configured for fluid communication with fluid return and supply lines associated with a patient-engageable heat exchange member.
US14180613 2014-02-14 2014-02-14 Fluid cassette with tensioned polymeric membranes for patient heat exchange system Pending US20150230973A1 (en)

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US14180613 US20150230973A1 (en) 2014-02-14 2014-02-14 Fluid cassette with tensioned polymeric membranes for patient heat exchange system
CN 201480077207 CN106068113A (en) 2014-02-14 2014-10-03 Fluid cassette with tensioned polymeric membranes for patient heat exchange system
CA 2939439 CA2939439A1 (en) 2014-02-14 2014-10-03 Fluid cassette with tensioned polymeric membranes for patient heat exchange system
PCT/US2014/058996 WO2015122936A1 (en) 2014-02-14 2014-10-03 Fluid cassette with tensioned polymeric membranes for patient heat exchange system
JP2016551137A JP2017508509A (en) 2014-02-14 2014-10-03 Fluid cassette having a polymer membrane tensioned for patient heat exchange system
EP20140882315 EP3094289A4 (en) 2014-02-14 2014-10-03 Fluid cassette with tensioned polymeric membranes for patient heat exchange system

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EP3094289A1 (en) 2016-11-23 application
WO2015122936A1 (en) 2015-08-20 application
CA2939439A1 (en) 2015-08-20 application
JP2017508509A (en) 2017-03-30 application
EP3094289A4 (en) 2017-10-04 application
CN106068113A (en) 2016-11-02 application

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