US20110022159A1 - Porous membranes for medical implants and methods of manufacture - Google Patents

Porous membranes for medical implants and methods of manufacture Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US20110022159A1
US20110022159A1 US12/895,032 US89503210A US2011022159A1 US 20110022159 A1 US20110022159 A1 US 20110022159A1 US 89503210 A US89503210 A US 89503210A US 2011022159 A1 US2011022159 A1 US 2011022159A1
Authority
US
United States
Prior art keywords
single
porous membrane
layer porous
membrane
material
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
Application number
US12/895,032
Inventor
Joost J. Fierens
Erhard Huesler
Arik Zucker
Eric Marcoux
Philippe Nicaise
Sebastien Dubois
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Abbott Laboratories Vascular Enterprises Ltd
Original Assignee
Abbott Laboratories Vascular Enterprises Ltd
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to US09/967,789 priority Critical patent/US6755856B2/en
Priority to US10/859,636 priority patent/US7927364B2/en
Priority to US63749504P priority
Priority to US11/313,110 priority patent/US7815763B2/en
Application filed by Abbott Laboratories Vascular Enterprises Ltd filed Critical Abbott Laboratories Vascular Enterprises Ltd
Priority to US12/895,032 priority patent/US20110022159A1/en
Publication of US20110022159A1 publication Critical patent/US20110022159A1/en
Priority claimed from US13/801,469 external-priority patent/US20130190856A1/en
Application status is Abandoned legal-status Critical

Links

Images

Classifications

    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D04BRAIDING; LACE-MAKING; KNITTING; TRIMMINGS; NON-WOVEN FABRICS
    • D04HMAKING TEXTILE FABRICS, e.g. FROM FIBRES OR FILAMENTARY MATERIAL; FABRICS MADE BY SUCH PROCESSES OR APPARATUS, e.g. FELTS, NON-WOVEN FABRICS; COTTON-WOOL; WADDING NON-WOVEN FABRICS FROM STAPLE FIBRES, FILAMENTS OR YARNS, BONDED WITH AT LEAST ONE WEB-LIKE MATERIAL DURING THEIR CONSOLIDATION
    • D04H3/00Non-woven fabrics formed wholly or mainly of yarns or like filamentary material of substantial length
    • D04H3/02Non-woven fabrics formed wholly or mainly of yarns or like filamentary material of substantial length characterised by the method of forming fleeces or layers, e.g. reorientation of yarns or filaments
    • D04H3/07Non-woven fabrics formed wholly or mainly of yarns or like filamentary material of substantial length characterised by the method of forming fleeces or layers, e.g. reorientation of yarns or filaments otherwise than in a plane, e.g. in a tubular way
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, e.g. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/82Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/86Stents in a form characterised by the wire-like elements; Stents in the form characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure
    • A61F2/90Stents in a form characterised by the wire-like elements; Stents in the form characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure
    • A61F2/91Stents in a form characterised by the wire-like elements; Stents in the form characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure made from perforated sheet material or tubes, e.g. perforated by laser cuts or etched holes
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, e.g. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/82Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/86Stents in a form characterised by the wire-like elements; Stents in the form characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure
    • A61F2/90Stents in a form characterised by the wire-like elements; Stents in the form characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure
    • A61F2/91Stents in a form characterised by the wire-like elements; Stents in the form characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure made from perforated sheet material or tubes, e.g. perforated by laser cuts or etched holes
    • A61F2/915Stents in a form characterised by the wire-like elements; Stents in the form characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure made from perforated sheet material or tubes, e.g. perforated by laser cuts or etched holes with bands having a meander structure, adjacent bands being connected to each other
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C48/00Extrusion moulding, i.e. expressing the moulding material through a die or nozzle which imparts the desired form; Apparatus therefor
    • B29C48/15Extrusion moulding, i.e. expressing the moulding material through a die or nozzle which imparts the desired form; Apparatus therefor incorporating preformed parts or layers, e.g. extrusion moulding around inserts
    • B29C48/151Coating hollow articles
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C48/00Extrusion moulding, i.e. expressing the moulding material through a die or nozzle which imparts the desired form; Apparatus therefor
    • B29C48/25Component parts, details or accessories; Auxiliary operations
    • B29C48/92Measuring, controlling or regulating
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, e.g. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/01Filters implantable into blood vessels
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, e.g. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/82Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/86Stents in a form characterised by the wire-like elements; Stents in the form characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure
    • A61F2/90Stents in a form characterised by the wire-like elements; Stents in the form characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, e.g. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/82Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/86Stents in a form characterised by the wire-like elements; Stents in the form characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure
    • A61F2/90Stents in a form characterised by the wire-like elements; Stents in the form characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure
    • A61F2/91Stents in a form characterised by the wire-like elements; Stents in the form characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure made from perforated sheet material or tubes, e.g. perforated by laser cuts or etched holes
    • A61F2/915Stents in a form characterised by the wire-like elements; Stents in the form characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure made from perforated sheet material or tubes, e.g. perforated by laser cuts or etched holes with bands having a meander structure, adjacent bands being connected to each other
    • A61F2002/91508Stents in a form characterised by the wire-like elements; Stents in the form characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure made from perforated sheet material or tubes, e.g. perforated by laser cuts or etched holes with bands having a meander structure, adjacent bands being connected to each other the meander having a difference in amplitude along the band
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, e.g. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/82Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/86Stents in a form characterised by the wire-like elements; Stents in the form characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure
    • A61F2/90Stents in a form characterised by the wire-like elements; Stents in the form characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure
    • A61F2/91Stents in a form characterised by the wire-like elements; Stents in the form characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure made from perforated sheet material or tubes, e.g. perforated by laser cuts or etched holes
    • A61F2/915Stents in a form characterised by the wire-like elements; Stents in the form characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure made from perforated sheet material or tubes, e.g. perforated by laser cuts or etched holes with bands having a meander structure, adjacent bands being connected to each other
    • A61F2002/91533Stents in a form characterised by the wire-like elements; Stents in the form characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure made from perforated sheet material or tubes, e.g. perforated by laser cuts or etched holes with bands having a meander structure, adjacent bands being connected to each other characterised by the phase between adjacent bands
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, e.g. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/82Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/86Stents in a form characterised by the wire-like elements; Stents in the form characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure
    • A61F2/90Stents in a form characterised by the wire-like elements; Stents in the form characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure
    • A61F2/91Stents in a form characterised by the wire-like elements; Stents in the form characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure made from perforated sheet material or tubes, e.g. perforated by laser cuts or etched holes
    • A61F2/915Stents in a form characterised by the wire-like elements; Stents in the form characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure made from perforated sheet material or tubes, e.g. perforated by laser cuts or etched holes with bands having a meander structure, adjacent bands being connected to each other
    • A61F2002/9155Adjacent bands being connected to each other
    • A61F2002/91558Adjacent bands being connected to each other connected peak to peak
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C2948/00Indexing scheme relating to extrusion moulding
    • B29C2948/92Measuring, controlling or regulating
    • B29C2948/92504Controlled parameter
    • B29C2948/92571Position, e.g. linear or angular
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C2948/00Indexing scheme relating to extrusion moulding
    • B29C2948/92Measuring, controlling or regulating
    • B29C2948/92504Controlled parameter
    • B29C2948/9258Velocity
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C2948/00Indexing scheme relating to extrusion moulding
    • B29C2948/92Measuring, controlling or regulating
    • B29C2948/92504Controlled parameter
    • B29C2948/9258Velocity
    • B29C2948/9259Angular velocity
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C2948/00Indexing scheme relating to extrusion moulding
    • B29C2948/92Measuring, controlling or regulating
    • B29C2948/92504Controlled parameter
    • B29C2948/9258Velocity
    • B29C2948/926Flow or feed rate
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C2948/00Indexing scheme relating to extrusion moulding
    • B29C2948/92Measuring, controlling or regulating
    • B29C2948/92504Controlled parameter
    • B29C2948/92609Dimensions
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C2948/00Indexing scheme relating to extrusion moulding
    • B29C2948/92Measuring, controlling or regulating
    • B29C2948/92504Controlled parameter
    • B29C2948/92609Dimensions
    • B29C2948/92628Width or height
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C2948/00Indexing scheme relating to extrusion moulding
    • B29C2948/92Measuring, controlling or regulating
    • B29C2948/92504Controlled parameter
    • B29C2948/92695Viscosity; Melt flow index [MFI]; Molecular weight
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C2948/00Indexing scheme relating to extrusion moulding
    • B29C2948/92Measuring, controlling or regulating
    • B29C2948/92819Location or phase of control
    • B29C2948/92857Extrusion unit
    • B29C2948/92904Die; Nozzle zone
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C48/00Extrusion moulding, i.e. expressing the moulding material through a die or nozzle which imparts the desired form; Apparatus therefor
    • B29C48/001Combinations of extrusion moulding with other shaping operations
    • B29C48/0012Combinations of extrusion moulding with other shaping operations combined with shaping by internal pressure generated in the material, e.g. foaming
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C48/00Extrusion moulding, i.e. expressing the moulding material through a die or nozzle which imparts the desired form; Apparatus therefor
    • B29C48/03Extrusion moulding, i.e. expressing the moulding material through a die or nozzle which imparts the desired form; Apparatus therefor characterised by the shape of the extruded material at extrusion
    • B29C48/07Flat, e.g. panels
    • B29C48/08Flat, e.g. panels flexible, e.g. films
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29KINDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBCLASSES B29B, B29C OR B29D, RELATING TO MOULDING MATERIALS OR TO MATERIALS FOR MOULDS, REINFORCEMENTS, FILLERS OR PREFORMED PARTS, e.g. INSERTS
    • B29K2023/00Use of polyalkenes or derivatives thereof as moulding material
    • B29K2023/04Polymers of ethylene
    • B29K2023/06PE, i.e. polyethylene
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29KINDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBCLASSES B29B, B29C OR B29D, RELATING TO MOULDING MATERIALS OR TO MATERIALS FOR MOULDS, REINFORCEMENTS, FILLERS OR PREFORMED PARTS, e.g. INSERTS
    • B29K2023/00Use of polyalkenes or derivatives thereof as moulding material
    • B29K2023/10Polymers of propylene
    • B29K2023/12PP, i.e. polypropylene
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29KINDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBCLASSES B29B, B29C OR B29D, RELATING TO MOULDING MATERIALS OR TO MATERIALS FOR MOULDS, REINFORCEMENTS, FILLERS OR PREFORMED PARTS, e.g. INSERTS
    • B29K2027/00Use of polyvinylhalogenides or derivatives thereof as moulding material
    • B29K2027/12Use of polyvinylhalogenides or derivatives thereof as moulding material containing fluorine
    • B29K2027/18PTFE, i.e. polytetrafluorethene, e.g. ePTFE, i.e. expanded polytetrafluorethene
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29KINDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBCLASSES B29B, B29C OR B29D, RELATING TO MOULDING MATERIALS OR TO MATERIALS FOR MOULDS, REINFORCEMENTS, FILLERS OR PREFORMED PARTS, e.g. INSERTS
    • B29K2067/00Use of polyesters or derivatives thereof, as moulding material
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29KINDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBCLASSES B29B, B29C OR B29D, RELATING TO MOULDING MATERIALS OR TO MATERIALS FOR MOULDS, REINFORCEMENTS, FILLERS OR PREFORMED PARTS, e.g. INSERTS
    • B29K2071/00Use of polyethers, e.g. PEEK, i.e. polyether-etherketone or PEK, i.e. polyetherketone or derivatives thereof, as moulding material
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29KINDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBCLASSES B29B, B29C OR B29D, RELATING TO MOULDING MATERIALS OR TO MATERIALS FOR MOULDS, REINFORCEMENTS, FILLERS OR PREFORMED PARTS, e.g. INSERTS
    • B29K2075/00Use of PU, i.e. polyureas or polyurethanes or derivatives thereof, as moulding material
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29KINDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBCLASSES B29B, B29C OR B29D, RELATING TO MOULDING MATERIALS OR TO MATERIALS FOR MOULDS, REINFORCEMENTS, FILLERS OR PREFORMED PARTS, e.g. INSERTS
    • B29K2077/00Use of PA, i.e. polyamides, e.g. polyesteramides or derivatives thereof, as moulding material
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29KINDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBCLASSES B29B, B29C OR B29D, RELATING TO MOULDING MATERIALS OR TO MATERIALS FOR MOULDS, REINFORCEMENTS, FILLERS OR PREFORMED PARTS, e.g. INSERTS
    • B29K2105/00Condition, form or state of moulded material or of the material to be shaped
    • B29K2105/04Condition, form or state of moulded material or of the material to be shaped cellular or porous
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29KINDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBCLASSES B29B, B29C OR B29D, RELATING TO MOULDING MATERIALS OR TO MATERIALS FOR MOULDS, REINFORCEMENTS, FILLERS OR PREFORMED PARTS, e.g. INSERTS
    • B29K2105/00Condition, form or state of moulded material or of the material to be shaped
    • B29K2105/06Condition, form or state of moulded material or of the material to be shaped containing reinforcements, fillers or inserts
    • B29K2105/08Condition, form or state of moulded material or of the material to be shaped containing reinforcements, fillers or inserts of continuous length, e.g. cords, rovings, mats, fabrics, strands or yarns
    • B29K2105/10Cords, strands or rovings, e.g. oriented cords, strands or rovings
    • B29K2105/101Oriented
    • B29K2105/108Oriented arranged in parallel planes and crossing at substantial angles
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29LINDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBCLASS B29C, RELATING TO PARTICULAR ARTICLES
    • B29L2031/00Other particular articles
    • B29L2031/753Medical equipment; Accessories therefor
    • B29L2031/7532Artificial members, protheses
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29LINDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBCLASS B29C, RELATING TO PARTICULAR ARTICLES
    • B29L2031/00Other particular articles
    • B29L2031/755Membranes, diaphragms
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T428/00Stock material or miscellaneous articles
    • Y10T428/24Structurally defined web or sheet [e.g., overall dimension, etc.]
    • Y10T428/24273Structurally defined web or sheet [e.g., overall dimension, etc.] including aperture
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T428/00Stock material or miscellaneous articles
    • Y10T428/24Structurally defined web or sheet [e.g., overall dimension, etc.]
    • Y10T428/24273Structurally defined web or sheet [e.g., overall dimension, etc.] including aperture
    • Y10T428/24298Noncircular aperture [e.g., slit, diamond, rectangular, etc.]
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T428/00Stock material or miscellaneous articles
    • Y10T428/24Structurally defined web or sheet [e.g., overall dimension, etc.]
    • Y10T428/24273Structurally defined web or sheet [e.g., overall dimension, etc.] including aperture
    • Y10T428/24298Noncircular aperture [e.g., slit, diamond, rectangular, etc.]
    • Y10T428/24306Diamond or hexagonal

Abstract

The present invention involves porous polymer membranes, suitable for use in medical implants, having controlled pore sizes, pore densities and mechanical properties. Methods of manufacturing such porous membranes are described in which a continuous fiber of polymer is extruded through a reciprocating extrusion head and deposited onto a substrate in a predetermined pattern. When cured, the polymeric material forms a stable, porous membrane suitable for a variety of applications, including reducing emboli release during and after stent delivery, and providing a source for release of bioactive substances to a vessel or organ and surrounding tissue.

Description

    CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
  • The present application is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/313,110, filed Dec. 19, 2005, which claims the benefit of and priority to U.S. provisional patent application Ser. No. 60/637,495, filed Dec. 20, 2004, and is also a continuation-in-part of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/859,636, filed Jun. 3, 2004, which is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/967,789, filed Sep. 28, 2001.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • 1. The Field of the Invention
  • The present invention relates to porous membranes suitable for covering medical implants such as stents for intravascular delivery, implants covered with such membranes and methods for making the porous membranes.
  • 2. The Relevant Technology
  • Covered stents for implantation into a body vessel, duct or lumen generally include a stent and a cover attached to the stent. A porous structure of the cover, depending on the porosity, may enhance tissue ingrowth after the covered stent has been implanted. A porous structure affixed to an implantable device also may serve as a reservoir for bioactive components and/or reduce embolization by trapping thrombus against a vessel wall.
  • Porous membranes for use in medical devices are known in the art. For example, U.S. Pat. No. 4,759,757 to Pinchuk describes the formation of a porous membrane by leaching water soluble inorganic salts incorporated into the membrane to create pores where the salt crystals were initially located. U.S. Pat. No. 6,540,776 to Sanders Millare et al. describes a perforated membrane in which a pattern of interstices is created by removing material, for example, by laser cutting. The foregoing manufacturing methods require at least two process steps to form a porous membrane.
  • One step processes for forming porous membranes also are known in the art, for example, using spinning techniques. U.S. Patent Application Publication No. 20040051201 to Greenhalgh et al. describes an electrospinning process in which a membrane is formed from a plurality of randomly-oriented, intertangled, nonwoven fibrils.
  • Spinning techniques that produce less random, but non-uniform membranes, also are known. For example, U.S. Pat. No. 4,475,972 to Wong describes a porous polymeric material made by a process in which polymeric fibers are wound on a mandrel in multiple overlying layers. The fibers contain unevaporated solvent when deposited in contact with one another, so that upon evaporation of the solvent the fibers bond together. The fibers laid in one traverse are wound on the mandrel parallel to each other and at an angle with respect to the axis of the mandrel. In the next traverse, the angle of winding is reverse to the previous angle, so that the fibers crisscross each other in multiple layers to form the porous structure.
  • U.S. Pat. No. 4,738,740 to Pinchuk et al. describes a spinning method similar to that of Wong and further comprising intermittently applying a electrostatic charge to ensure reattachment of broken fibers to the mandrel. U.S. Pat. No. 5,653,747 to Dereume describes a vascular graft with an expandable coating produced by the spinning technique of Wong and having pores that open when the tubular support member expands.
  • All of the foregoing spinning processes suffer from an inability to tightly control the pore size and pore pattern of the resulting membranes. More specifically, lateral deviation of the fibers using previously known spinning techniques has resulted in unsteady collocation of the fibers and the need to deposit multiple layers to ensure adequate coverage. Consequently, previously-known techniques produce either stiff membranes formed of multiple layers and unsatisfactory porosity, or porous, elastic membranes with insufficient strength.
  • In view of the foregoing, it would be desirable to provide membranes having controlled porosity, pore pattern and pore distribution.
  • It further would be desirable to provide a one step manufacturing process to produce membranes having controlled porosity, pore pattern and pore distribution.
  • It still further would be desirable to provide a one step manufacturing process to produce membranes having controlled porosity and/or pore pattern wherein the membrane includes a bioactive substance that may be eluted from the membrane after implantation.
  • It also would be desirable to provide manufacturing processes to produce membranes having the desired porosity, pattern and distribution characteristics for use in medical implants.
  • BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • In view of the foregoing, it is an object of the present invention to provide membranes for use in medical implants having controlled porosity, pore pattern and pore distribution.
  • It is another object of this invention to provide a one step manufacturing process to produce membranes having controlled porosity, pore pattern and pore distribution.
  • It is a further object of the present invention to provide a one step manufacturing process to produce membranes having controlled porosity and/or pore pattern wherein the membrane includes a bioactive substance that may be eluted from the membrane after implantation.
  • It is also an object of this invention to provide manufacturing processes to produce membranes having the desired porosity, pattern and distribution characteristics for use in medical implants.
  • These and other objects of the present invention are accomplished by providing a membrane comprising a plurality of fibers that are deposited onto a substrate with a predetermined and reproducible pattern. The substrate may be either a mandrel or a surface of an implantable device, such as a stent. In a preferred embodiment, the fibers comprise a polymer that is sufficiently elastic and robust that the membrane follows the movements of the stent from loading onto a stent delivery system to deployment and implantation, without adversely affecting the performance of the membrane of the stent.
  • In a preferred embodiment, the membrane is formed using a computer-controller substrate that moves in a precisely controlled and reproducible manner. The polymer used to form the fibers, e.g., a polyurethane or a copolymer thereof, is dissolved in a solvent and extruded through one or more extrusion heads onto a moving substrate. By moving the extrusion head back and forth with a specific velocity along the axis of the substrate, specific filament angles or patterns may be deposited. In accordance with one aspect of the present invention, the number of passes, substrate shape and motion and extrusion head speed and material flow are controlled to provide a predetermined fiber diameter that is deposited to produce desired membrane properties, such as pore size and density.
  • The membrane may either be fixed on the exterior surface of an implantable device, such as a stent, on the interior surface or both. Where an exterior covering is desired, the membrane may be directly deposited on the implantable device. Alternatively, the covering may be deposited on a mandrel to form a separate component, and then affixed to the implantable device in a later manufacturing step.
  • In accordance with another aspect of the present invention, the membrane may comprise composite fibers having a viscous sheath co-extruded around a solid core component, or alternatively may comprise co-extruded viscous components. In this manner, a membrane may be created wherein the individual fibers are loaded with a desired bioactive agent, such as a drug, that elutes from the matrix of the membrane without resulting in substantial degradation of the mechanical properties of the membrane.
  • Methods of manufacturing covered implantable medical devices including the porous membranes of the present invention also are provided.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • Further features of the invention, its nature and various advantages will be more apparent from the accompanying drawings and the following detailed description of the preferred embodiments, in which:
  • FIG. 1 is a schematic depiction of a membrane manufacturing system constructed in accordance with the principles of the present invention;
  • FIGS. 2A-2C are perspective views depicting exemplary patterns for depositing fibers onto a moving substrate in accordance with the present invention;
  • FIG. 3 is a perspective view illustrating a stent covered with the membrane of the present invention;
  • FIG. 4 is a schematic depiction of a membrane manufacturing process wherein the fibers comprise a core filament having a polymeric sheath; and
  • FIG. 5 is a schematic depiction of a membrane manufacturing process wherein the fibers comprise a coextrusion of two polymers.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS
  • The present invention generally relates to medical implants, such as stents, having a porous membrane and the methods of making such membranes and medical implants. In accordance with the present invention, polymer membranes are provided that have well-defined pores based on a controlled deposition of fibers onto a substrate. In this manner a permeable membrane having a predetermined pore size and distribution may be obtained.
  • Acute as well as late embolization are a significant threat during and after intravascular interventions such as stenting in saphenous vein grafts (SVG) and carotid arteries, where released particles can lead to major cardiac attacks or strokes, respectively. Covered stents for treatment of atherosclerotic lesions constructed according to the present invention comprise a porous membrane bonded to an exterior surface, and interior surface, or both, of a stent. Advantageously, the covered stent of the present invention may serve both to reduce embolization during an interventional procedure and prevent late embolization by tethering emboli and particles to the vessel wall.
  • The inventive membrane may be engineered to provide any of a number of design properties, including: single and multi-component material composition; loading of one or more physiological (bioactive) substances into the polymer matrix; predetermined isotropic or an-isotropic mechanical properties; and predetermined pore geometry.
  • In accordance with the principles of the present invention, polymeric material is deposited onto a computer-controlled movable substrate. Controlling the relative location and motion of the material source with regard to the deposition location on the substrate and process parameters, such as material flow and viscosity of the deposited material, permits generation of a multitude of different patterns for the membrane.
  • The porous membrane of the present invention is sufficiently strong and flexible for use in medical devices, and preferably comprises steps of extruding a continuous fiber-forming biocompatible polymeric material through a reciprocating extrusion head onto a substrate to form an elongated fiber. The fiber is deposited on the substrate in a predetermined pattern in traces having a width of from 5 to 500 micrometers, adjacent traces being spaced apart from each other a distance of between o and 500 micrometers.
  • Preferably, the fibers have a predetermined viscous creep that allows adjacent traces to bond to one another at predetermined contact points upon deposition. The number of overlapping or crossing fibers generally should be less than 5, preferably less than 4, and most preferably 1 or 2. When cured, the biocompatible material provides a stable, porous membrane.
  • Referring to FIG. 1, apparatus 10 suitable for forming the porous membranes of the present invention comprises polymer extrusion machine 11 coupled to numerically controlled positioning system 12. Computer 13 controls the flow of extrudate 14 through extrusion head 15 as well as relative motion of extrusion head 15 and substrate 16 resulting from actuation of positioning system 12.
  • Apparatus 10 permits highly-localized deposition of the extrudate with four degrees of freedom onto a substrate to form a membrane. The degrees of freedom are: z—the longitudinal motion of substrate 16 relative to extrusion head 15; φ—the angular movement of substrate 16 relative to extrusion head 15; r—the distance between extrusion head 15 and substrate 16; and θ—the pivotal angle of extrusion head 15. The polymer strands 17 may be deposited onto the substrate under computer control to form any of the patterns described herein below.
  • In a preferred embodiment, the substrate comprises a rotating mandrel. Polymer is extruded through reciprocating extrusion head 15 representing the first degree of freedom z, and with a controlled distance between the extrusion head and substrate 16, representing the second degree of freedom r. Preferably, the distance between the extrusion head and substrate is between 0 to 50 mm, and more preferably between 0.5 and 20 mm. As the polymer is deposited onto the substrate, the substrate is rotated through a predetermined angle φ, corresponding to the third degree of freedom. In this manner, fibers 17 extruded from extrusion head 15 form a two-dimensional membrane on substrate 16. In addition, by pivoting the extrusion head along its vertical axis, fourth degree of freedom θ may be employed, thus making it possible to deposit more than one filament simultaneously while maintaining a set inter-fiber distance.
  • The four degrees of freedom discussed above may be independently controlled and if needed, synchronized, to attain a spatial resolution of material deposition having an order of magnitude of microns or higher. Optionally, the second degree of freedom r may be fixed if stable polymer deposition has been achieved. The fourth degree of freedom is not required when extruding only one filament.
  • Extrusion head 15 may have one or more outlets to deposit an extruded polymer fiber onto substrate 16 in traces having an inter-trace distance ranging between 0 to 1000 micrometers. The width of the individual trace (corresponding to the fiber width) may vary between 5 to 500 micrometers, and more preferably is in the range of 10 to 200 micrometers. Pore size is a function of trace width and inter-trace distance and may be selected by selection of these variables from between 0 (i.e., a tight covering) to 200 micrometers (i.e., to form a filter or tether to trap emboli against a vessel wall) Due to the precise control of fiber deposition, it is possible to create a membrane with desired porosity, strength and flexibility with a very small number of overlapping traces or crossing traces. The number of overlapping or crossing traces in the membrane of the present invention generally should be less than 5, preferably less than 4, and most preferably 1 to 2.
  • The biocompatible polymer is liquefied either by dissolving the biocompatible material in solvents or by thermally melting the biocompatible material, or both. The viscosity of the liquefied material determines the viscous creep properties and thus final pore size and inter-pore distance when the material is deposited on the substrate. Preferably, the viscous creep is controlled so that desired geometrical and physical properties are met upon deposition. By controlling the viscosity and amount of the deposited material on the substrate and consequently the viscous creep of the polymer before curing, the specified inter-pore distance, pore width and inter-fiber bonding may be achieved. Alternatively, the substrate may be heated to facilitate relaxation and/or curing of the trace width after deposition on the substrate.
  • Viscosity also may be controlled by adjustment of the distance r of extrusion head 15 relative to substrate 16, the concentration of the solvent in extrudate 14 and/or the heating temperature, ambient pressure, and extrusion parameters. With the viscous creep of the fibers being appropriately controlled, the traces deposited on the substrate will bond to one another at predetermined contact points upon deposition.
  • A specified pore size of the membrane may be achieved by, but is not limited to, lateral deposition distance between two adjacent material traces, extrusion parameters, and/or extrusion head outlet diameters and extrusion pressure. The latter two parameters also affect the fiber diameter, thus in combination with the fiber deposition pattern selected, permit selection and control of the mechanical properties of the membrane.
  • Suitable biocompatible materials include but are not limited to polyurethane and copolymers thereof, silicone polyurethane copolymer, polypropylene and copolymers thereof, polyamides, polyethylenes, PET, PEEK, ETFE, CTFE, PTFE and copolymers thereof. Preferred materials for forming membranes of the present invention are polyurethane and copolymers thereof. The polymers may in addition include any biologically active substance having desired release kinetics upon implantation into a patient's body.
  • Referring now to FIGS. 2A to 2C, exemplary patterns formed by apparatus 10 during deposition of the fibers from extrusion head 15 of the present invention are described. In FIG. 2A, membrane 20 is formed on substrate 16 having diameter D by reciprocating extrusion head 15 longitudinally relative to the longitudinal axis of the substrate, followed by indexed angular movement of the substrate while the extrusion head is held stationary at the ends of the substrate. In this manner, traces 21 having a controlled width and inter-trace spacing may be deposited on the substrate.
  • Once the longitudinal fibers have been deposited on the substrate, the substrate is rotated 3600 while the extrusion head is indexed along the length of the substrate, thereby forming a regular pattern of square or rectangular pores having a predetermined size. Alternatively, if extrusion head 15 is provided with multiple outlets, multiple parallel fibers may be deposited in a single longitudinal pass.
  • FIG. 2B illustrates alternative membrane pattern 22, wherein the substrate is rotated through precise angular motions during longitudinal translation of the extrusion head. Instead of depositing a straight longitudinal strand, as in the pattern of FIG. 2A, the pattern of FIG. 2B includes a series of “jogs” 23 in each longitudinal filament 24. When adjacent filaments 24 are deposited on the substrate, the contacting portions of the traces bond to one another to define pores 25 having a predetermined size. In this manner, with each longitudinal pass of the extrusion head, a line of pores 25 of predetermined size in formed in a single layer membrane.
  • FIG. 2C shows another pattern 26 by which the membrane of the present invention may be built up. In this embodiment, positioning system 12 employs two degrees of freedom, z and φ, simultaneously, resulting in a “braid-like” structure. Preferably the extruded fibers retain a high unevaporated solvent content when deposited on substrate 16, so that the fibers fuse to form a unitary structure having a predetermined pore size.
  • More generally, apparatus 10 may be used to deposit one or more traces of a biocompatible material on substrate 16 while extrusion head 15 is reciprocated along the length of the substrate. An extrusion head having multiple outlets permit the deposition of multiple filaments on the substrate during a single translation of the extrusion head or rotation of the substrate. All translational and rotational motions of the components of apparatus 10 are individually or synchronously controlled by computer 13, thus permitting the membrane to be configured with any desired pattern.
  • As discussed above with respect to FIGS. 2A-2C, apparatus 10 permits fibers to be deposited with any of a number of possible alternative patterns. By depositing the fibers first in multiple passes longitudinal passes followed by indexed translation of the extrusion head and simultaneous rotation of the substrate, as in FIG. 2A, two trace layers may be generated that cross or overlap to form a membrane having a regular grid of pores. In this case, only one degree of freedom is used at any one time. Alternatively, addressing two degrees of freedom alternatingly, as in the pattern of FIG. 2B, a series of “jogs” may be introduced into the individual fibers. In this case, the traces do not cross but only contact each other, thereby creating a line of pores in a single layer membrane. Still further, by addressing two degrees of freedom simultaneously, a braided structure such as depicted in FIG. 2C may be obtained, in which a specified pore size and shape is attained by varying the distance between two parallel traces of material.
  • In accordance with one aspect of the present invention, extrusion is performed with chemically or thermally liquefied material, or both. The viscosity of the extrudate may be controlled by the concentration of the solvent, by enhancing evaporation of the solvent from the deposited material trace by means of heating the substrate, by varying the distance r between the extrusion head and the substrate, or by adjusting the extrusion temperature of the material so that a well-defined viscous creep of the material occurs after deposition onto the substrate.
  • Adjustment of the viscous creep allows fusion of the traces at contact points and thus formation of a two-dimensional membrane having desired mechanical strength characteristics. By appropriately setting these parameters accurate material deposition may be achieved with reduced lateral aberrations of the filaments compared to previously-known membrane manufacturing techniques.
  • As will of course be understood, the diameter of the substrate should be selected based upon the dimensions of the medical implant or stent to which the membrane is to be affixed. For example, the diameter may be selected based upon the expanded configuration of the medical implant or stent. The implant to be covered may be balloon-expandable or self-expandable. In a preferred embodiment, the implant is a self-expandable stent comprising a superelastic material such as a nickel-titanium alloy.
  • Referring to FIG. 3, stent 30 covered with membrane 31 of the present invention is described. Stent 30 may comprise any suitable design, such as a plastically deformable slotted tube or self-expanding superelastic structure. Porous membrane 31 may be deposited directly onto the medical implant, such as stent 30 which is employed as the substrate during the membrane deposition process.
  • Alternatively, the membrane may be deposited on a mandrel and after curing may be bonded in a separate step to the medical implant. In the latter case, thermal drying and/or evaporation of the solvent cures the biocompatible material while on the substrate. Once the membrane has cured sufficiently so that the mechanical properties of the membrane permit it to be removed from the substrate, the membrane may be bonded to a surface of the implant using a solvent, adhesive or thermal technique. In this case, the surface of the implant may be pre-processed to optimize bonding, for example by activation of the surface, coating of the surface with liquified polymer or other appropriate treatments of the surface.
  • Referring now to FIG. 4, an alternative method of forming a porous membrane, suitable for use in a medical implant, is described. In this embodiment, membrane 40 comprises multi-component fiber 41 including core filament 42 coated with at least second biocompatible material 43 having the same or different chemical, physical, mechanical, biocompatible and or biologically active properties. Material 43 may incorporate one or more biologically active substances that elute into the patient's bloodstream after the medical implant is implanted.
  • Multi-component fiber 41 may be deposited onto the substrate to form a two-dimensional contiguous structure. The individual components of fiber 41 may be selected to provide different characteristics to the membrane, which may employ any of the pattern designs discussed herein above. For example, core filament 42 may provide mechanical stability, while material 43 may serve as and interface to the biological environment, enhance the adhesive properties for inter-trace bonding and/or enhance bonding of the membrane to the medical implant.
  • Suitable materials for the core filament include but are not limited to polyamides, polyethylenes, PET, PEEK, ETFE, CTFE, and PTFE and copolymers thereof, and metal wire or fiber glass. Suitable materials for ensheathing core filament 41 include but are not limited to polyurethane and copolymers thereof, silicone polyurethane copolymer, polypropylene and copolymers thereof, polyamides, polyethylenes, PET, PEEK, ETFE, CTFE, PTFE and copolymers thereof.
  • Referring to FIG. 5, a further alternative method of forming the porous membrane of the present invention is described. In the method depicted in FIG. 5, membrane 50 comprises co-extruded fibers 51 formed of at least first biocompatible material 52 and second biocompatible material 53. Materials 52 and 53 may have the same or different chemical, physical, mechanical, biocompatible and or physiologically active properties. Fibers 51, while illustrated as being co-axially co-extruded, alternatively may be co-extruded co-linearly.
  • Suitable materials for first material 52 include but are not limited to polyamides, polyethylenes, PET, PEEK, ETFE, CTFE, PTFE and copolymers thereof. Suitable materials for second material 53 include but are not limited to polyurethane and copolymers thereof, silicone polyurethane copolymer, polypropylene and copolymers thereof, polyamides, polyethylenes, PET, PEEK, ETFE, CTFE, PTFE and copolymers thereof.
  • It should be understood that the present invention is not limited to membranes for use on stents. Rather, the membranes of the present invention may be affixed to any other medical device or implant that is brought into an intracorporal lumen for limited or extended implant durations. Such devices include vascular protection devices to filter emboli that are only transiently introduced into the body. Further applications for such porous membranes may be devices configured to be introduced into other body lumens or ducts, such as the trachea, esophagus, and biliary or urinary lumina.
  • While preferred illustrative embodiments of the invention are described above, it will be apparent to one skilled in the art that various changes and modifications may be made therein without departing from the invention. The appended claims are intended to cover all such changes and modifications that fall within the true spirit and scope of the invention.

Claims (26)

1. A single-layer porous membrane for use in medical implants comprising:
an elongated fiber having a width of 5 to 500 micrometers, the elongated fiber forming a plurality of non-crossing traces extending adjacently from a first end to a second end of the membrane, each trace contacting its adjacent traces in an alternating manner, adjacent traces being bonded together at points of contact, the traces defining a plurality of pores of predetermined sizes.
2. The single-layer porous membrane of claim 1, wherein the plurality of pores have essentially the same size.
3. The single-layer porous membrane of claim 1, wherein the membrane has a thickness substantially equal to the thickness of the elongated fiber.
4. The single-layer porous membrane of claim 1, wherein the elongated fiber comprises a bio-compatible material.
5. The single-layer porous membrane of claim 1, wherein the elongated fiber is continuous.
6. The single-layer porous membrane of claim 1, wherein at least one of the plurality of pores has an essentially square shape.
7. The single-layer porous membrane of claim 1, wherein at least one of the plurality of pores has an essentially diamond shape.
8. The single-layer porous membrane of claim 1, wherein at least one of the plurality of pores has an essentially rectangular shape.
9. The single-layer porous membrane of claim 1, wherein adjacent traces have an inter-trace distance of between 0 and 200 micrometers.
10. The single-layer porous membrane of claim 1, wherein the elongated fiber comprises a multi-component fiber.
11. The single-layer porous membrane of claim 10, wherein the multi-component fiber comprises a core filament comprising a first material, the core filament being disposed within a second material.
12. The single-layer porous membrane of claim 11, wherein the second material includes one or more biologically active substances.
13. The single-layer porous membrane of claim 12, wherein the second material is configured to deliver the one or more biologically active substances.
14. The single-layer porous membrane of claim 13, wherein the one or more biologically active substances are configured to be eluted from the second material.
15. The single-layer porous membrane of claim 11, wherein the first material is selected from the group consisting of polyamide, polyethylene, PET, PEEK, ETFE, CTFE, PTFE, metal, and fiberglass.
16. The single-layer porous membrane of claim 11, wherein the second material is selected from the group consisting of polyurethane and copolymers thereof, silicone polyurethane, polypropylene and copolymers thereof, polyamide, polyethylene, PET, PEEK, ETFE, CTFE, and PTFE.
17. A single-layer porous membrane for use with medical implants comprising:
a continuous elongated fiber having a width of 5 to 500 micrometers forming a predetermined pattern of non-crossing traces, the traces extending adjacently from a first end to a second end of the membrane, each trace being bonded at contact portions to its adjacent traces, the contact portions being spaced apart, the traces defining a plurality of pores of predetermined sizes, the membrane having a thickness approximately equal to the thickness of the fiber.
18. The single-layer porous membrane of claim 17, wherein the plurality of pores have a dimension between 1 and 500 micrometers.
19. The single-layer porous membrane of claim 17, wherein the elongated fiber comprises a polymeric sheath surrounding a solid core filament.
20. The single-layer porous membrane of claim 19, wherein the solid core filament is co-axially positioned within the polymeric sheath.
21. An implantable medical device comprising:
a medical implant;
a single-layer porous membrane coupled to the medical implant, the single-layer porous membrane comprising:
an elongated fiber of bio-compatible material having a width of 5 to 500 micrometers, the elongated fiber forming a plurality of non-crossing traces extending adjacently from a first end to a second end of the membrane, each trace contacting its adjacent traces in an alternating manner, adjacent traces being bonded together at points of contact, the traces defining a plurality of pores of predetermined sizes.
22. The implantable medical device of claim 21, wherein the medical implant is a vascular implant.
23. The implantable medical device of claim 22, wherein the vascular implant is a stent.
24. The implantable medical device of claim 22, wherein the vascular implant is a filter.
25. The implantable medical device of claim 22, wherein the membrane is thermally bonded to the medical implant.
26. The implantable medical device of claim 22, wherein the membrane is bonded to the medical implant with an adhesive.
US12/895,032 1998-09-05 2010-09-30 Porous membranes for medical implants and methods of manufacture Abandoned US20110022159A1 (en)

Priority Applications (5)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US09/967,789 US6755856B2 (en) 1998-09-05 2001-09-28 Methods and apparatus for stenting comprising enhanced embolic protection, coupled with improved protection against restenosis and thrombus formation
US10/859,636 US7927364B2 (en) 1998-09-05 2004-06-03 Methods and apparatus for stenting comprising enhanced embolic protection coupled with improved protections against restenosis and thrombus formation
US63749504P true 2004-12-20 2004-12-20
US11/313,110 US7815763B2 (en) 2001-09-28 2005-12-19 Porous membranes for medical implants and methods of manufacture
US12/895,032 US20110022159A1 (en) 2001-09-28 2010-09-30 Porous membranes for medical implants and methods of manufacture

Applications Claiming Priority (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US12/895,032 US20110022159A1 (en) 2001-09-28 2010-09-30 Porous membranes for medical implants and methods of manufacture
US13/801,469 US20130190856A1 (en) 1998-09-05 2013-03-13 Methods and apparatus for stenting comprising enhanced embolic protection coupled with improved protections against restenosis and thrombus formation

Related Parent Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US11/313,110 Continuation US7815763B2 (en) 1998-09-05 2005-12-19 Porous membranes for medical implants and methods of manufacture

Related Child Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US13/801,469 Continuation-In-Part US20130190856A1 (en) 1998-09-05 2013-03-13 Methods and apparatus for stenting comprising enhanced embolic protection coupled with improved protections against restenosis and thrombus formation

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US20110022159A1 true US20110022159A1 (en) 2011-01-27

Family

ID=46323411

Family Applications (2)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US11/313,110 Active 2022-03-09 US7815763B2 (en) 1998-09-05 2005-12-19 Porous membranes for medical implants and methods of manufacture
US12/895,032 Abandoned US20110022159A1 (en) 1998-09-05 2010-09-30 Porous membranes for medical implants and methods of manufacture

Family Applications Before (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US11/313,110 Active 2022-03-09 US7815763B2 (en) 1998-09-05 2005-12-19 Porous membranes for medical implants and methods of manufacture

Country Status (1)

Country Link
US (2) US7815763B2 (en)

Cited By (14)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20080294239A1 (en) * 2007-05-23 2008-11-27 Abbott Laboratories Vascular Enterprises Limited Flexible stent with elevated scaffolding properties
US20100328087A1 (en) * 2009-06-28 2010-12-30 Oki Data Corporation Communication apparatus, connection control method for communication apparatus and method of determining state of communication plug relative to communication connector in communication apparatus
US20110004289A1 (en) * 1998-09-05 2011-01-06 Abbott Laboratories Vascular Enterprises Limited Methods and apparatus for a stent having an expandable web structure
US20110135806A1 (en) * 2009-12-03 2011-06-09 David Grewe Manufacturing methods for covering endoluminal prostheses
US8246674B2 (en) 2007-12-20 2012-08-21 Abbott Laboratories Vascular Enterprises Limited Endoprosthesis having struts linked by foot extensions
US8343208B2 (en) 1998-09-05 2013-01-01 Abbott Laboratories Vascular Enterprises Limited Stent having an expandable web structure
US8795577B2 (en) 2007-11-30 2014-08-05 Cook Medical Technologies Llc Needle-to-needle electrospinning
US8814926B2 (en) 1998-09-05 2014-08-26 Abbott Laboratories Vascular Enterprises Limited Methods and apparatus for stenting comprising enhanced embolic protection coupled with improved protections against restenosis and thrombus formation
US9175427B2 (en) 2011-11-14 2015-11-03 Cook Medical Technologies Llc Electrospun patterned stent graft covering
US9320627B2 (en) 2007-05-23 2016-04-26 Abbott Laboratories Vascular Enterprises Limited Flexible stent with torque-absorbing connectors
US20160331512A1 (en) * 2009-08-07 2016-11-17 Zeus Industrial Products, Inc. Prosthetic device including electrostatically spun fibrous layer & method for making the same
US9856588B2 (en) 2009-01-16 2018-01-02 Zeus Industrial Products, Inc. Electrospinning of PTFE
US10010395B2 (en) 2012-04-05 2018-07-03 Zeus Industrial Products, Inc. Composite prosthetic devices
US10154918B2 (en) 2012-12-28 2018-12-18 Cook Medical Technologies Llc Endoluminal prosthesis with fiber matrix

Families Citing this family (20)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2006126182A2 (en) 2005-05-24 2006-11-30 Inspire M.D Ltd. Stent apparatuses for treatment via body lumens and methods of use
US8961586B2 (en) 2005-05-24 2015-02-24 Inspiremd Ltd. Bifurcated stent assemblies
EP2076212B1 (en) 2006-10-18 2017-03-29 Inspiremd Ltd. Knitted stent jackets
US8043323B2 (en) * 2006-10-18 2011-10-25 Inspiremd Ltd. In vivo filter assembly
WO2008062414A2 (en) 2006-11-22 2008-05-29 Inspiremd Ltd. Optimized stent jacket
US20090043380A1 (en) * 2007-08-09 2009-02-12 Specialized Vascular Technologies, Inc. Coatings for promoting endothelization of medical devices
US20090043330A1 (en) * 2007-08-09 2009-02-12 Specialized Vascular Technologies, Inc. Embolic protection devices and methods
US20090112239A1 (en) * 2007-10-31 2009-04-30 Specialized Vascular Technologies, Inc. Sticky dilatation balloon and methods of using
US8920488B2 (en) 2007-12-20 2014-12-30 Abbott Laboratories Vascular Enterprises Limited Endoprosthesis having a stable architecture
US8337544B2 (en) 2007-12-20 2012-12-25 Abbott Laboratories Vascular Enterprises Limited Endoprosthesis having flexible connectors
WO2009126689A2 (en) * 2008-04-08 2009-10-15 Trustees Of Tufts College System and method for making biomaterial structures
WO2010054121A2 (en) * 2008-11-07 2010-05-14 Specialized Vascular Technologies, Inc. Extracellular matrix modulating coatings for medical devices
US9839540B2 (en) 2011-01-14 2017-12-12 W. L. Gore & Associates, Inc. Stent
US10166128B2 (en) 2011-01-14 2019-01-01 W. L. Gore & Associates. Inc. Lattice
US9744033B2 (en) 2011-04-01 2017-08-29 W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc. Elastomeric leaflet for prosthetic heart valves
US9510935B2 (en) 2012-01-16 2016-12-06 W. L. Gore & Associates, Inc. Articles including expanded polytetrafluoroethylene membranes with serpentine fibrils and having a discontinuous fluoropolymer layer thereon
US9931193B2 (en) 2012-11-13 2018-04-03 W. L. Gore & Associates, Inc. Elastic stent graft
CN103431925B (en) * 2013-05-03 2015-08-12 清华大学 A multi-DOF pneumatic multi-jet manufacturing complex tissue and organ systems
CN104287875A (en) * 2014-03-05 2015-01-21 青岛尤尼科技有限公司 Multifunctional bioprinting system and tissue engineering organ preparation method based on bioprinting system
CN104207859B (en) * 2014-09-16 2016-09-28 清华大学 Deposited using a method of rotating Method Preparation of tissues and organs and special equipment

Citations (100)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4738740A (en) * 1985-11-21 1988-04-19 Corvita Corporation Method of forming implantable vascular grafts
US4743252A (en) * 1986-01-13 1988-05-10 Corvita Corporation Composite grafts
US4759757A (en) * 1984-04-18 1988-07-26 Corvita Corporation Cardiovascular graft and method of forming same
US4800882A (en) * 1987-03-13 1989-01-31 Cook Incorporated Endovascular stent and delivery system
US5015253A (en) * 1989-06-15 1991-05-14 Cordis Corporation Non-woven endoprosthesis
US5019090A (en) * 1988-09-01 1991-05-28 Corvita Corporation Radially expandable endoprosthesis and the like
US5102417A (en) * 1985-11-07 1992-04-07 Expandable Grafts Partnership Expandable intraluminal graft, and method and apparatus for implanting an expandable intraluminal graft
US5104404A (en) * 1989-10-02 1992-04-14 Medtronic, Inc. Articulated stent
US5116360A (en) * 1990-12-27 1992-05-26 Corvita Corporation Mesh composite graft
EP0565251A1 (en) * 1992-03-25 1993-10-13 Cook Incorporated Vascular stent
US5282823A (en) * 1992-03-19 1994-02-01 Medtronic, Inc. Intravascular radially expandable stent
US5292331A (en) * 1989-08-24 1994-03-08 Applied Vascular Engineering, Inc. Endovascular support device
US5378239A (en) * 1990-04-12 1995-01-03 Schneider (Usa) Inc. Radially expandable fixation member constructed of recovery metal
US5380299A (en) * 1993-08-30 1995-01-10 Med Institute, Inc. Thrombolytic treated intravascular medical device
US5449382A (en) * 1992-11-04 1995-09-12 Dayton; Michael P. Minimally invasive bioactivated endoprosthesis for vessel repair
US5514154A (en) * 1991-10-28 1996-05-07 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Expandable stents
US5527354A (en) * 1991-06-28 1996-06-18 Cook Incorporated Stent formed of half-round wire
US5591224A (en) * 1992-03-19 1997-01-07 Medtronic, Inc. Bioelastomeric stent
US5591197A (en) * 1995-03-14 1997-01-07 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Expandable stent forming projecting barbs and method for deploying
US5593417A (en) * 1995-11-27 1997-01-14 Rhodes; Valentine J. Intravascular stent with secure mounting means
US5593442A (en) * 1995-06-05 1997-01-14 Localmed, Inc. Radially expansible and articulated vessel scaffold
US5609606A (en) * 1993-02-05 1997-03-11 Joe W. & Dorothy Dorsett Brown Foundation Ultrasonic angioplasty balloon catheter
US5628788A (en) * 1995-11-07 1997-05-13 Corvita Corporation Self-expanding endoluminal stent-graft
US5630829A (en) * 1994-12-09 1997-05-20 Intervascular, Inc. High hoop strength intraluminal stent
US5632772A (en) * 1993-10-21 1997-05-27 Corvita Corporation Expandable supportive branched endoluminal grafts
US5707386A (en) * 1993-02-04 1998-01-13 Angiomed Gmbh & Company Medizintechnik Kg Stent and method of making a stent
US5709713A (en) * 1995-03-31 1998-01-20 Cardiovascular Concepts, Inc. Radially expansible vascular prosthesis having reversible and other locking structures
US5709703A (en) * 1995-11-14 1998-01-20 Schneider (Europe) A.G. Stent delivery device and method for manufacturing same
US5716393A (en) * 1994-05-26 1998-02-10 Angiomed Gmbh & Co. Medizintechnik Kg Stent with an end of greater diameter than its main body
US5723003A (en) * 1994-09-13 1998-03-03 Ultrasonic Sensing And Monitoring Systems Expandable graft assembly and method of use
US5723004A (en) * 1993-10-21 1998-03-03 Corvita Corporation Expandable supportive endoluminal grafts
US5733303A (en) * 1994-03-17 1998-03-31 Medinol Ltd. Flexible expandable stent
US5735892A (en) * 1993-08-18 1998-04-07 W. L. Gore & Associates, Inc. Intraluminal stent graft
US5735897A (en) * 1993-10-19 1998-04-07 Scimed Life Systems, Inc. Intravascular stent pump
US5738817A (en) * 1996-02-08 1998-04-14 Rutgers, The State University Solid freeform fabrication methods
US5741327A (en) * 1997-05-06 1998-04-21 Global Therapeutics, Inc. Surgical stent featuring radiopaque markers
US5741325A (en) * 1993-10-01 1998-04-21 Emory University Self-expanding intraluminal composite prosthesis
US5743874A (en) * 1994-08-29 1998-04-28 Fischell; Robert E. Integrated catheter for balloon angioplasty and stent delivery
US5749880A (en) * 1995-03-10 1998-05-12 Impra, Inc. Endoluminal encapsulated stent and methods of manufacture and endoluminal delivery
US5755771A (en) * 1994-11-03 1998-05-26 Divysio Solutions Ulc Expandable stent and method of delivery of same
US5776161A (en) * 1995-10-16 1998-07-07 Instent, Inc. Medical stents, apparatus and method for making same
US5782904A (en) * 1993-09-30 1998-07-21 Endogad Research Pty Limited Intraluminal graft
US5824045A (en) * 1996-10-21 1998-10-20 Inflow Dynamics Inc. Vascular and endoluminal stents
US5855600A (en) * 1997-08-01 1999-01-05 Inflow Dynamics Inc. Flexible implantable stent with composite design
US5861027A (en) * 1996-04-10 1999-01-19 Variomed Ag Stent for the transluminal implantation in hollow organs
US5868781A (en) * 1996-10-22 1999-02-09 Scimed Life Systems, Inc. Locking stent
US5871538A (en) * 1992-12-21 1999-02-16 Corvita Corporation Luminal graft endoprotheses and manufacture thereof
US5876449A (en) * 1995-04-01 1999-03-02 Variomed Ag Stent for the transluminal implantation in hollow organs
US5876450A (en) * 1997-05-09 1999-03-02 Johlin, Jr.; Frederick C. Stent for draining the pancreatic and biliary ducts and instrumentation for the placement thereof
US5895406A (en) * 1996-01-26 1999-04-20 Cordis Corporation Axially flexible stent
US5897589A (en) * 1996-07-10 1999-04-27 B.Braun Celsa Endoluminal medical implant
US6017365A (en) * 1997-05-20 2000-01-25 Jomed Implantate Gmbh Coronary stent
US6019789A (en) * 1998-04-01 2000-02-01 Quanam Medical Corporation Expandable unit cell and intraluminal stent
US6027526A (en) * 1996-04-10 2000-02-22 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Stent having varied amounts of structural strength along its length
US6033434A (en) * 1995-06-08 2000-03-07 Ave Galway Limited Bifurcated endovascular stent and methods for forming and placing
US6033435A (en) * 1997-11-03 2000-03-07 Divysio Solutions Ulc Bifurcated stent and method for the manufacture and delivery of same
US6033433A (en) * 1997-04-25 2000-03-07 Scimed Life Systems, Inc. Stent configurations including spirals
WO2000018328A1 (en) * 1998-09-30 2000-04-06 Impra, Inc. Selective adherence of stent-graft coverings, mandrel and method of making stent-graft device
US6048361A (en) * 1997-05-17 2000-04-11 Jomed Implantate Gmbh Balloon catheter and multi-guidewire stent for implanting in the region of branched vessels
US6136023A (en) * 1996-04-16 2000-10-24 Medtronic, Inc. Welded sinusoidal wave stent
US6168409B1 (en) * 1998-11-13 2001-01-02 Rosaldo Fare Apparatus for making two component fibers or continuous filaments using flexible tube inserts
US6174326B1 (en) * 1996-09-25 2001-01-16 Terumo Kabushiki Kaisha Radiopaque, antithrombogenic stent and method for its production
US6179868B1 (en) * 1998-03-27 2001-01-30 Janet Burpee Stent with reduced shortening
US6190403B1 (en) * 1998-11-13 2001-02-20 Cordis Corporation Low profile radiopaque stent with increased longitudinal flexibility and radial rigidity
US6193747B1 (en) * 1997-02-17 2001-02-27 Jomed Implantate Gmbh Stent
US6193744B1 (en) * 1998-09-10 2001-02-27 Scimed Life Systems, Inc. Stent configurations
US6200335B1 (en) * 1997-03-31 2001-03-13 Kabushikikaisha Igaki Iryo Sekkei Stent for vessel
US6200334B1 (en) * 1998-02-03 2001-03-13 G. David Jang Tubular stent consists of non-parallel expansion struts and contralaterally attached diagonal connectors
US6203569B1 (en) * 1996-01-04 2001-03-20 Bandula Wijay Flexible stent
US6340366B2 (en) * 1998-12-08 2002-01-22 Bandula Wijay Stent with nested or overlapping rings
US20020019660A1 (en) * 1998-09-05 2002-02-14 Marc Gianotti Methods and apparatus for a curved stent
US6348065B1 (en) * 1995-03-01 2002-02-19 Scimed Life Systems, Inc. Longitudinally flexible expandable stent
US6377835B1 (en) * 2000-08-30 2002-04-23 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Method for separating arteries and veins in 3D MR angiographic images using correlation analysis
US6503272B2 (en) * 2001-03-21 2003-01-07 Cordis Corporation Stent-based venous valves
US6506211B1 (en) * 2000-11-13 2003-01-14 Scimed Life Systems, Inc. Stent designs
US6508834B1 (en) * 1994-03-17 2003-01-21 Medinol Ltd. Articulated stent
US20030055487A1 (en) * 2001-09-18 2003-03-20 Jomed Nv Stent
US6540776B2 (en) * 2000-12-28 2003-04-01 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Sheath for a prosthesis and methods of forming the same
US6652574B1 (en) * 2000-09-28 2003-11-25 Vascular Concepts Holdings Limited Product and process for manufacturing a wire stent coated with a biocompatible fluoropolymer
US20040002753A1 (en) * 2002-06-28 2004-01-01 Robert Burgermeister Stent with diagonal flexible connecting links
US6676701B2 (en) * 2000-02-01 2004-01-13 Endotex Interventional Systems, Inc. Micro-porous mesh stent with hybrid structure
US6679911B2 (en) * 2001-03-01 2004-01-20 Cordis Corporation Flexible stent
US6682554B2 (en) * 1998-09-05 2004-01-27 Jomed Gmbh Methods and apparatus for a stent having an expandable web structure
US20040051201A1 (en) * 2002-04-11 2004-03-18 Greenhalgh Skott E. Coated stent and method for coating by treating an electrospun covering with heat or chemicals
US6723119B2 (en) * 2000-03-01 2004-04-20 Medinol Ltd. Longitudinally flexible stent
US6761733B2 (en) * 2001-04-11 2004-07-13 Trivascular, Inc. Delivery system and method for bifurcated endovascular graft
US6846323B2 (en) * 2003-05-15 2005-01-25 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Intravascular stent
US20050075716A1 (en) * 2000-05-04 2005-04-07 Avantec Vascular Corporation Flexible stent structure
US6881222B2 (en) * 1999-10-13 2005-04-19 Endosystems Llc Non-foreshortening intraluminal prosthesis
US20060015173A1 (en) * 2003-05-06 2006-01-19 Anton Clifford Endoprosthesis having foot extensions
US6998060B2 (en) * 2001-03-01 2006-02-14 Cordis Corporation Flexible stent and method of manufacture
US7029493B2 (en) * 2002-01-25 2006-04-18 Cordis Corporation Stent with enhanced crossability
US20070021827A1 (en) * 2002-05-08 2007-01-25 David Lowe Endoprosthesis Having Foot Extensions
US20070021834A1 (en) * 2003-05-06 2007-01-25 Eugene Young Endoprosthesis having foot extensions
US7204848B1 (en) * 1995-03-01 2007-04-17 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Longitudinally flexible expandable stent
US7329277B2 (en) * 1997-06-13 2008-02-12 Orbusneich Medical, Inc. Stent having helical elements
US20080077231A1 (en) * 2006-07-06 2008-03-27 Prescient Medical, Inc. Expandable vascular endoluminal prostheses
US7520892B1 (en) * 2001-06-28 2009-04-21 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Low profile stent with flexible link
US20100057190A1 (en) * 2007-01-09 2010-03-04 Stentys S.A.S. Frangible bridge structure for a stent, and stent including such bridge structures
US7686843B2 (en) * 2002-07-31 2010-03-30 Unison Therapeutics, Inc. Flexible and conformable stent

Family Cites Families (133)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4475972A (en) * 1981-10-01 1984-10-09 Ontario Research Foundation Implantable material
US4580568A (en) * 1984-10-01 1986-04-08 Cook, Incorporated Percutaneous endovascular stent and method for insertion thereof
US4907336A (en) 1987-03-13 1990-03-13 Cook Incorporated Method of making an endovascular stent and delivery system
US5041126A (en) 1987-03-13 1991-08-20 Cook Incorporated Endovascular stent and delivery system
US5059211A (en) 1987-06-25 1991-10-22 Duke University Absorbable vascular stent
US5133732A (en) * 1987-10-19 1992-07-28 Medtronic, Inc. Intravascular stent
US5171262A (en) 1989-06-15 1992-12-15 Cordis Corporation Non-woven endoprosthesis
US5122154A (en) 1990-08-15 1992-06-16 Rhodes Valentine J Endovascular bypass graft
US5163951A (en) 1990-12-27 1992-11-17 Corvita Corporation Mesh composite graft
US5147370A (en) * 1991-06-12 1992-09-15 Mcnamara Thomas O Nitinol stent for hollow body conduits
US5370683A (en) * 1992-03-25 1994-12-06 Cook Incorporated Vascular stent
US5443458A (en) 1992-12-22 1995-08-22 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Multilayered biodegradable stent and method of manufacture
US5824048A (en) 1993-04-26 1998-10-20 Medtronic, Inc. Method for delivering a therapeutic substance to a body lumen
US5855598A (en) 1993-10-21 1999-01-05 Corvita Corporation Expandable supportive branched endoluminal grafts
US5639278A (en) 1993-10-21 1997-06-17 Corvita Corporation Expandable supportive bifurcated endoluminal grafts
JP2703510B2 (en) 1993-12-28 1998-01-26 アドヴァンスド カーディオヴァスキュラー システムズ インコーポレーテッド Expandable stent and a method for manufacturing the same
US5843120A (en) 1994-03-17 1998-12-01 Medinol Ltd. Flexible-expandable stent
DE69527141T2 (en) 1994-04-29 2002-11-07 Scimed Life Systems Inc Stent with collagen
US5476508A (en) 1994-05-26 1995-12-19 Tfx Medical Stent with mutually interlocking filaments
DE69530891D1 (en) 1994-06-27 2003-07-03 Corvita Corp Bistable luminal graft endoprosthesis
IL115756D0 (en) 1994-10-27 1996-01-19 Medinol Ltd Stent fabrication method
AU3783195A (en) 1994-11-15 1996-05-23 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems Inc. Intraluminal stent for attaching a graft
DE4446036C2 (en) 1994-12-23 1999-06-02 Ruesch Willy Ag Placeholder for disposing in a body tube
US5674277A (en) 1994-12-23 1997-10-07 Willy Rusch Ag Stent for placement in a body tube
US6231600B1 (en) 1995-02-22 2001-05-15 Scimed Life Systems, Inc. Stents with hybrid coating for medical devices
US6818014B2 (en) 1995-03-01 2004-11-16 Scimed Life Systems, Inc. Longitudinally flexible expandable stent
US5556414A (en) 1995-03-08 1996-09-17 Wayne State University Composite intraluminal graft
CA2171896C (en) 1995-03-17 2007-05-15 Scott C. Anderson Multi-anchor stent
US5674242A (en) 1995-06-06 1997-10-07 Quanam Medical Corporation Endoprosthetic device with therapeutic compound
US6261318B1 (en) * 1995-07-25 2001-07-17 Medstent Inc. Expandable stent
KR100452916B1 (en) * 1995-07-25 2005-05-27 메드스텐트 인코퍼레이티드 Expandible Stent
US5824037A (en) 1995-10-03 1998-10-20 Medtronic, Inc. Modular intraluminal prostheses construction and methods
US5810868A (en) 1995-12-07 1998-09-22 Arterial Vascular Engineering, Inc. Stent for improved transluminal deployment
US5843158A (en) 1996-01-05 1998-12-01 Medtronic, Inc. Limited expansion endoluminal prostheses and methods for their use
US5938682A (en) 1996-01-26 1999-08-17 Cordis Corporation Axially flexible stent
US6258116B1 (en) 1996-01-26 2001-07-10 Cordis Corporation Bifurcated axially flexible stent
IL125757A (en) 1996-02-15 2003-09-17 Biosense Inc Medical procedures and apparatus using intrabody probes
US5928248A (en) 1997-02-14 1999-07-27 Biosense, Inc. Guided deployment of stents
US5695516A (en) 1996-02-21 1997-12-09 Iso Stent, Inc. Longitudinally elongating balloon expandable stent
CA2199890C (en) 1996-03-26 2002-02-05 Leonard Pinchuk Stents and stent-grafts having enhanced hoop strength and methods of making the same
US6152957A (en) 1996-04-26 2000-11-28 Jang; G. David Intravascular stent
US5922021A (en) 1996-04-26 1999-07-13 Jang; G. David Intravascular stent
US6039756A (en) * 1996-04-26 2000-03-21 Jang; G. David Intravascular stent
DE69719237D1 (en) 1996-05-23 2003-04-03 Samsung Electronics Co Ltd Flexible, self-expanding stent and method for its production
US5670161A (en) 1996-05-28 1997-09-23 Healy; Kevin E. Biodegradable stent
US5697971A (en) 1996-06-11 1997-12-16 Fischell; Robert E. Multi-cell stent with cells having differing characteristics
US5843161A (en) 1996-06-26 1998-12-01 Cordis Corporation Endoprosthesis assembly for percutaneous deployment and method of deploying same
US5769884A (en) * 1996-06-27 1998-06-23 Cordis Corporation Controlled porosity endovascular implant
US5755781A (en) 1996-08-06 1998-05-26 Iowa-India Investments Company Limited Embodiments of multiple interconnected stents
US5776183A (en) 1996-08-23 1998-07-07 Kanesaka; Nozomu Expandable stent
US5807404A (en) 1996-09-19 1998-09-15 Medinol Ltd. Stent with variable features to optimize support and method of making such stent
US6099561A (en) 1996-10-21 2000-08-08 Inflow Dynamics, Inc. Vascular and endoluminal stents with improved coatings
US6086610A (en) 1996-10-22 2000-07-11 Nitinol Devices & Components Composite self expanding stent device having a restraining element
US5836964A (en) 1996-10-30 1998-11-17 Medinol Ltd. Stent fabrication method
WO1998020810A1 (en) * 1996-11-12 1998-05-22 Medtronic, Inc. Flexible, radially expansible luminal prostheses
US6162537A (en) * 1996-11-12 2000-12-19 Solutia Inc. Implantable fibers and medical articles
US5846247A (en) 1996-11-15 1998-12-08 Unsworth; John D. Shape memory tubular deployment system
ES2251763T3 (en) * 1997-01-24 2006-05-01 Paragon Intellectual Properties, Llc Bistable spring structure for an endoprosthesis.
US5827321A (en) 1997-02-07 1998-10-27 Cornerstone Devices, Inc. Non-Foreshortening intraluminal prosthesis
US5810872A (en) 1997-03-14 1998-09-22 Kanesaka; Nozomu Flexible stent
US5853419A (en) 1997-03-17 1998-12-29 Surface Genesis, Inc. Stent
US5817126A (en) 1997-03-17 1998-10-06 Surface Genesis, Inc. Compound stent
US5824054A (en) 1997-03-18 1998-10-20 Endotex Interventional Systems, Inc. Coiled sheet graft stent and methods of making and use
US6273913B1 (en) 1997-04-18 2001-08-14 Cordis Corporation Modified stent useful for delivery of drugs along stent strut
US6451049B2 (en) * 1998-04-29 2002-09-17 Sorin Biomedica Cardio, S.P.A. Stents for angioplasty
DE29708689U1 (en) * 1997-05-15 1997-07-17 Jomed Implantate Gmbh coronary stent
US5836966A (en) 1997-05-22 1998-11-17 Scimed Life Systems, Inc. Variable expansion force stent
EP0890346A1 (en) 1997-06-13 1999-01-13 Gary J. Becker Expandable intraluminal endoprosthesis
EP0884029B1 (en) * 1997-06-13 2004-12-22 Gary J. Becker Expandable intraluminal endoprosthesis
US5824059A (en) 1997-08-05 1998-10-20 Wijay; Bandula Flexible stent
US5984965A (en) 1997-08-28 1999-11-16 Urosurge, Inc. Anti-reflux reinforced stent
EP1017336B1 (en) * 1997-09-24 2007-08-15 Med Institute, Inc. Radially expandable stent
US6042606A (en) 1997-09-29 2000-03-28 Cook Incorporated Radially expandable non-axially contracting surgical stent
US5972027A (en) 1997-09-30 1999-10-26 Scimed Life Systems, Inc Porous stent drug delivery system
US6071308A (en) 1997-10-01 2000-06-06 Boston Scientific Corporation Flexible metal wire stent
US6129755A (en) 1998-01-09 2000-10-10 Nitinol Development Corporation Intravascular stent having an improved strut configuration
US6117535A (en) * 1998-01-14 2000-09-12 Cardiotech International, Inc. Biocompatible devices
FR2774279B3 (en) 1998-02-03 2000-04-07 Braun Celsa Sa Endoprosthesis has structure was zigzags and articulated rails
US6113627A (en) * 1998-02-03 2000-09-05 Jang; G. David Tubular stent consists of horizontal expansion struts and contralaterally attached diagonal-connectors
AU2684499A (en) 1998-02-17 1999-08-30 G. David Jang Tubular stent consists of chevron-shape expansion struts and ipsilaterally attached m-frame connectors
EP1059896B1 (en) 1998-03-04 2006-05-24 Boston Scientific Limited Improved stent cell configurations
US6132460A (en) 1998-03-27 2000-10-17 Intratherapeutics, Inc. Stent
US6558415B2 (en) 1998-03-27 2003-05-06 Intratherapeutics, Inc. Stent
US6241762B1 (en) 1998-03-30 2001-06-05 Conor Medsystems, Inc. Expandable medical device with ductile hinges
DE19829702C1 (en) 1998-07-03 2000-03-16 Heraeus Gmbh W C A radially expandable support device V
WO2000010622A1 (en) 1998-08-20 2000-03-02 Cook Incorporated Coated implantable medical device
DE19839646A1 (en) 1998-08-31 2000-03-09 Jomed Implantate Gmbh stent
US7887578B2 (en) 1998-09-05 2011-02-15 Abbott Laboratories Vascular Enterprises Limited Stent having an expandable web structure
US6755856B2 (en) 1998-09-05 2004-06-29 Abbott Laboratories Vascular Enterprises Limited Methods and apparatus for stenting comprising enhanced embolic protection, coupled with improved protection against restenosis and thrombus formation
DE19840645A1 (en) 1998-09-05 2000-03-09 Jomed Implantate Gmbh stent
US6540780B1 (en) 1998-11-23 2003-04-01 Medtronic, Inc. Porous synthetic vascular grafts with oriented ingrowth channels
GB2344053A (en) 1998-11-30 2000-05-31 Imperial College Stents for blood vessels
SG75982A1 (en) * 1998-12-03 2000-10-24 Medinol Ltd Controlled detachment stents
US6325825B1 (en) 1999-04-08 2001-12-04 Cordis Corporation Stent with variable wall thickness
US6409754B1 (en) * 1999-07-02 2002-06-25 Scimed Life Systems, Inc. Flexible segmented stent
US6491718B1 (en) 1999-10-05 2002-12-10 Amjad Ahmad Intra vascular stent
US6331189B1 (en) 1999-10-18 2001-12-18 Medtronic, Inc. Flexible medical stent
DE19951475A1 (en) 1999-10-26 2001-05-10 Biotronik Mess & Therapieg stent
US7141062B1 (en) * 2000-03-01 2006-11-28 Medinol, Ltd. Longitudinally flexible stent
US6436132B1 (en) 2000-03-30 2002-08-20 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Composite intraluminal prostheses
US20030114918A1 (en) * 2000-04-28 2003-06-19 Garrison Michi E. Stent graft assembly and method
US6616689B1 (en) * 2000-05-03 2003-09-09 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Intravascular stent
US6572646B1 (en) 2000-06-02 2003-06-03 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Curved nitinol stent for extremely tortuous anatomy
US6554848B2 (en) 2000-06-02 2003-04-29 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Marker device for rotationally orienting a stent delivery system prior to deploying a curved self-expanding stent
US6730252B1 (en) * 2000-09-20 2004-05-04 Swee Hin Teoh Methods for fabricating a filament for use in tissue engineering
US20020072792A1 (en) * 2000-09-22 2002-06-13 Robert Burgermeister Stent with optimal strength and radiopacity characteristics
US6485508B1 (en) 2000-10-13 2002-11-26 Mcguinness Colm P. Low profile stent
US6758859B1 (en) * 2000-10-30 2004-07-06 Kenny L. Dang Increased drug-loading and reduced stress drug delivery device
US6929660B1 (en) * 2000-12-22 2005-08-16 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Intravascular stent
US6740114B2 (en) * 2001-03-01 2004-05-25 Cordis Corporation Flexible stent
US6790227B2 (en) * 2001-03-01 2004-09-14 Cordis Corporation Flexible stent
US6629994B2 (en) * 2001-06-11 2003-10-07 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Intravascular stent
US6749629B1 (en) * 2001-06-27 2004-06-15 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Stent pattern with figure-eights
US6607554B2 (en) * 2001-06-29 2003-08-19 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Universal stent link design
US6796999B2 (en) * 2001-09-06 2004-09-28 Medinol Ltd. Self articulating stent
USD481139S1 (en) * 2001-09-17 2003-10-21 Jomed Nv Stent wall structure
US6776794B1 (en) * 2001-11-28 2004-08-17 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Stent pattern with mirror image
US7537607B2 (en) 2001-12-21 2009-05-26 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Stent geometry for improved flexibility
US7625398B2 (en) * 2003-05-06 2009-12-01 Abbott Laboratories Endoprosthesis having foot extensions
US6786922B2 (en) * 2002-10-08 2004-09-07 Cook Incorporated Stent with ring architecture and axially displaced connector segments
US20040126405A1 (en) 2002-12-30 2004-07-01 Scimed Life Systems, Inc. Engineered scaffolds for promoting growth of cells
US6916336B2 (en) * 2003-06-09 2005-07-12 Avantec Vascular Corporation Vascular prosthesis
US20050222671A1 (en) * 2004-03-31 2005-10-06 Schaeffer Darin G Partially biodegradable stent
US7867272B2 (en) * 2004-10-26 2011-01-11 Cordis Corporation Stent having twist cancellation geometry
CN102309370B (en) * 2005-04-04 2015-04-15 灵活支架解决方案股份有限公司 Flexible stent
WO2008002441A2 (en) * 2006-06-23 2008-01-03 Boston Scientific Limited Bifurcated stent with twisted hinges
US8778009B2 (en) 2006-10-06 2014-07-15 Abbott Cardiovascular Systems Inc. Intravascular stent
US8016874B2 (en) 2007-05-23 2011-09-13 Abbott Laboratories Vascular Enterprises Limited Flexible stent with elevated scaffolding properties
US8128679B2 (en) 2007-05-23 2012-03-06 Abbott Laboratories Vascular Enterprises Limited Flexible stent with torque-absorbing connectors
US8337544B2 (en) * 2007-12-20 2012-12-25 Abbott Laboratories Vascular Enterprises Limited Endoprosthesis having flexible connectors
US20090163998A1 (en) * 2007-12-20 2009-06-25 Abbott Laboratories Vascular Enterprises Limited Endoprosthesis having rings linked by foot extensions
US7850726B2 (en) 2007-12-20 2010-12-14 Abbott Laboratories Vascular Enterprises Limited Endoprosthesis having struts linked by foot extensions
US8920488B2 (en) * 2007-12-20 2014-12-30 Abbott Laboratories Vascular Enterprises Limited Endoprosthesis having a stable architecture

Patent Citations (110)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4759757A (en) * 1984-04-18 1988-07-26 Corvita Corporation Cardiovascular graft and method of forming same
US5102417A (en) * 1985-11-07 1992-04-07 Expandable Grafts Partnership Expandable intraluminal graft, and method and apparatus for implanting an expandable intraluminal graft
US4738740A (en) * 1985-11-21 1988-04-19 Corvita Corporation Method of forming implantable vascular grafts
US4743252A (en) * 1986-01-13 1988-05-10 Corvita Corporation Composite grafts
US4800882A (en) * 1987-03-13 1989-01-31 Cook Incorporated Endovascular stent and delivery system
US5314444A (en) * 1987-03-13 1994-05-24 Cook Incorporated Endovascular stent and delivery system
US5019090A (en) * 1988-09-01 1991-05-28 Corvita Corporation Radially expandable endoprosthesis and the like
US5015253A (en) * 1989-06-15 1991-05-14 Cordis Corporation Non-woven endoprosthesis
US5292331A (en) * 1989-08-24 1994-03-08 Applied Vascular Engineering, Inc. Endovascular support device
US5104404A (en) * 1989-10-02 1992-04-14 Medtronic, Inc. Articulated stent
US5496277A (en) * 1990-04-12 1996-03-05 Schneider (Usa) Inc. Radially expandable body implantable device
US5378239A (en) * 1990-04-12 1995-01-03 Schneider (Usa) Inc. Radially expandable fixation member constructed of recovery metal
US5116360A (en) * 1990-12-27 1992-05-26 Corvita Corporation Mesh composite graft
US5527354A (en) * 1991-06-28 1996-06-18 Cook Incorporated Stent formed of half-round wire
US5728158A (en) * 1991-10-28 1998-03-17 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Expandable stents
US5514154A (en) * 1991-10-28 1996-05-07 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Expandable stents
US5603721A (en) * 1991-10-28 1997-02-18 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Expandable stents and method for making same
US5735893A (en) * 1991-10-28 1998-04-07 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Expandable stents and method for making same
US5282823A (en) * 1992-03-19 1994-02-01 Medtronic, Inc. Intravascular radially expandable stent
US5591224A (en) * 1992-03-19 1997-01-07 Medtronic, Inc. Bioelastomeric stent
EP0565251A1 (en) * 1992-03-25 1993-10-13 Cook Incorporated Vascular stent
US5449382A (en) * 1992-11-04 1995-09-12 Dayton; Michael P. Minimally invasive bioactivated endoprosthesis for vessel repair
US5871538A (en) * 1992-12-21 1999-02-16 Corvita Corporation Luminal graft endoprotheses and manufacture thereof
US5707386A (en) * 1993-02-04 1998-01-13 Angiomed Gmbh & Company Medizintechnik Kg Stent and method of making a stent
US5860999A (en) * 1993-02-04 1999-01-19 Angiomed Gmbh & Co.Medizintechnik Kg Stent and method of using same
US5609606A (en) * 1993-02-05 1997-03-11 Joe W. & Dorothy Dorsett Brown Foundation Ultrasonic angioplasty balloon catheter
US5735892A (en) * 1993-08-18 1998-04-07 W. L. Gore & Associates, Inc. Intraluminal stent graft
US5380299A (en) * 1993-08-30 1995-01-10 Med Institute, Inc. Thrombolytic treated intravascular medical device
US5782904A (en) * 1993-09-30 1998-07-21 Endogad Research Pty Limited Intraluminal graft
US5741325A (en) * 1993-10-01 1998-04-21 Emory University Self-expanding intraluminal composite prosthesis
US5735897A (en) * 1993-10-19 1998-04-07 Scimed Life Systems, Inc. Intravascular stent pump
US5723004A (en) * 1993-10-21 1998-03-03 Corvita Corporation Expandable supportive endoluminal grafts
US5632772A (en) * 1993-10-21 1997-05-27 Corvita Corporation Expandable supportive branched endoluminal grafts
US6875228B2 (en) * 1994-03-17 2005-04-05 Medinol, Ltd. Articulated stent
US6508834B1 (en) * 1994-03-17 2003-01-21 Medinol Ltd. Articulated stent
US5733303A (en) * 1994-03-17 1998-03-31 Medinol Ltd. Flexible expandable stent
US5716393A (en) * 1994-05-26 1998-02-10 Angiomed Gmbh & Co. Medizintechnik Kg Stent with an end of greater diameter than its main body
US5743874A (en) * 1994-08-29 1998-04-28 Fischell; Robert E. Integrated catheter for balloon angioplasty and stent delivery
US5723003A (en) * 1994-09-13 1998-03-03 Ultrasonic Sensing And Monitoring Systems Expandable graft assembly and method of use
US5755771A (en) * 1994-11-03 1998-05-26 Divysio Solutions Ulc Expandable stent and method of delivery of same
US5630829A (en) * 1994-12-09 1997-05-20 Intervascular, Inc. High hoop strength intraluminal stent
US5707388A (en) * 1994-12-09 1998-01-13 Intervascular, Inc. High hoop strength intraluminal stent
US6348065B1 (en) * 1995-03-01 2002-02-19 Scimed Life Systems, Inc. Longitudinally flexible expandable stent
US7204848B1 (en) * 1995-03-01 2007-04-17 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Longitudinally flexible expandable stent
US5749880A (en) * 1995-03-10 1998-05-12 Impra, Inc. Endoluminal encapsulated stent and methods of manufacture and endoluminal delivery
US5591197A (en) * 1995-03-14 1997-01-07 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Expandable stent forming projecting barbs and method for deploying
US5709713A (en) * 1995-03-31 1998-01-20 Cardiovascular Concepts, Inc. Radially expansible vascular prosthesis having reversible and other locking structures
US5876449A (en) * 1995-04-01 1999-03-02 Variomed Ag Stent for the transluminal implantation in hollow organs
US5593442A (en) * 1995-06-05 1997-01-14 Localmed, Inc. Radially expansible and articulated vessel scaffold
US6033434A (en) * 1995-06-08 2000-03-07 Ave Galway Limited Bifurcated endovascular stent and methods for forming and placing
US5776161A (en) * 1995-10-16 1998-07-07 Instent, Inc. Medical stents, apparatus and method for making same
US5628788A (en) * 1995-11-07 1997-05-13 Corvita Corporation Self-expanding endoluminal stent-graft
US5709703A (en) * 1995-11-14 1998-01-20 Schneider (Europe) A.G. Stent delivery device and method for manufacturing same
US5593417A (en) * 1995-11-27 1997-01-14 Rhodes; Valentine J. Intravascular stent with secure mounting means
US6203569B1 (en) * 1996-01-04 2001-03-20 Bandula Wijay Flexible stent
US5895406A (en) * 1996-01-26 1999-04-20 Cordis Corporation Axially flexible stent
US5738817A (en) * 1996-02-08 1998-04-14 Rutgers, The State University Solid freeform fabrication methods
US5861027A (en) * 1996-04-10 1999-01-19 Variomed Ag Stent for the transluminal implantation in hollow organs
US6027526A (en) * 1996-04-10 2000-02-22 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Stent having varied amounts of structural strength along its length
US6136023A (en) * 1996-04-16 2000-10-24 Medtronic, Inc. Welded sinusoidal wave stent
US5897589A (en) * 1996-07-10 1999-04-27 B.Braun Celsa Endoluminal medical implant
US6174326B1 (en) * 1996-09-25 2001-01-16 Terumo Kabushiki Kaisha Radiopaque, antithrombogenic stent and method for its production
US5824045A (en) * 1996-10-21 1998-10-20 Inflow Dynamics Inc. Vascular and endoluminal stents
US5868781A (en) * 1996-10-22 1999-02-09 Scimed Life Systems, Inc. Locking stent
US6193747B1 (en) * 1997-02-17 2001-02-27 Jomed Implantate Gmbh Stent
US6200335B1 (en) * 1997-03-31 2001-03-13 Kabushikikaisha Igaki Iryo Sekkei Stent for vessel
US6033433A (en) * 1997-04-25 2000-03-07 Scimed Life Systems, Inc. Stent configurations including spirals
US5741327A (en) * 1997-05-06 1998-04-21 Global Therapeutics, Inc. Surgical stent featuring radiopaque markers
US5876450A (en) * 1997-05-09 1999-03-02 Johlin, Jr.; Frederick C. Stent for draining the pancreatic and biliary ducts and instrumentation for the placement thereof
US6048361A (en) * 1997-05-17 2000-04-11 Jomed Implantate Gmbh Balloon catheter and multi-guidewire stent for implanting in the region of branched vessels
US6017365A (en) * 1997-05-20 2000-01-25 Jomed Implantate Gmbh Coronary stent
US7329277B2 (en) * 1997-06-13 2008-02-12 Orbusneich Medical, Inc. Stent having helical elements
US5855600A (en) * 1997-08-01 1999-01-05 Inflow Dynamics Inc. Flexible implantable stent with composite design
US6033435A (en) * 1997-11-03 2000-03-07 Divysio Solutions Ulc Bifurcated stent and method for the manufacture and delivery of same
US6200334B1 (en) * 1998-02-03 2001-03-13 G. David Jang Tubular stent consists of non-parallel expansion struts and contralaterally attached diagonal connectors
US6179868B1 (en) * 1998-03-27 2001-01-30 Janet Burpee Stent with reduced shortening
US6019789A (en) * 1998-04-01 2000-02-01 Quanam Medical Corporation Expandable unit cell and intraluminal stent
US20110004289A1 (en) * 1998-09-05 2011-01-06 Abbott Laboratories Vascular Enterprises Limited Methods and apparatus for a stent having an expandable web structure
US20020019660A1 (en) * 1998-09-05 2002-02-14 Marc Gianotti Methods and apparatus for a curved stent
US20050004659A1 (en) * 1998-09-05 2005-01-06 Abbott Laboratories Vascular Enterprises Limited Methods and apparatus for stent having an expandable web structure
US6682554B2 (en) * 1998-09-05 2004-01-27 Jomed Gmbh Methods and apparatus for a stent having an expandable web structure
US6193744B1 (en) * 1998-09-10 2001-02-27 Scimed Life Systems, Inc. Stent configurations
WO2000018328A1 (en) * 1998-09-30 2000-04-06 Impra, Inc. Selective adherence of stent-graft coverings, mandrel and method of making stent-graft device
US6168409B1 (en) * 1998-11-13 2001-01-02 Rosaldo Fare Apparatus for making two component fibers or continuous filaments using flexible tube inserts
US6190403B1 (en) * 1998-11-13 2001-02-20 Cordis Corporation Low profile radiopaque stent with increased longitudinal flexibility and radial rigidity
US6340366B2 (en) * 1998-12-08 2002-01-22 Bandula Wijay Stent with nested or overlapping rings
US6881222B2 (en) * 1999-10-13 2005-04-19 Endosystems Llc Non-foreshortening intraluminal prosthesis
US6676701B2 (en) * 2000-02-01 2004-01-13 Endotex Interventional Systems, Inc. Micro-porous mesh stent with hybrid structure
US6723119B2 (en) * 2000-03-01 2004-04-20 Medinol Ltd. Longitudinally flexible stent
US20050075716A1 (en) * 2000-05-04 2005-04-07 Avantec Vascular Corporation Flexible stent structure
US6377835B1 (en) * 2000-08-30 2002-04-23 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Method for separating arteries and veins in 3D MR angiographic images using correlation analysis
US6652574B1 (en) * 2000-09-28 2003-11-25 Vascular Concepts Holdings Limited Product and process for manufacturing a wire stent coated with a biocompatible fluoropolymer
US6506211B1 (en) * 2000-11-13 2003-01-14 Scimed Life Systems, Inc. Stent designs
US6540776B2 (en) * 2000-12-28 2003-04-01 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Sheath for a prosthesis and methods of forming the same
US6679911B2 (en) * 2001-03-01 2004-01-20 Cordis Corporation Flexible stent
US6998060B2 (en) * 2001-03-01 2006-02-14 Cordis Corporation Flexible stent and method of manufacture
US6503272B2 (en) * 2001-03-21 2003-01-07 Cordis Corporation Stent-based venous valves
US6761733B2 (en) * 2001-04-11 2004-07-13 Trivascular, Inc. Delivery system and method for bifurcated endovascular graft
US7520892B1 (en) * 2001-06-28 2009-04-21 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Low profile stent with flexible link
US20030055487A1 (en) * 2001-09-18 2003-03-20 Jomed Nv Stent
US7029493B2 (en) * 2002-01-25 2006-04-18 Cordis Corporation Stent with enhanced crossability
US20040051201A1 (en) * 2002-04-11 2004-03-18 Greenhalgh Skott E. Coated stent and method for coating by treating an electrospun covering with heat or chemicals
US20070021827A1 (en) * 2002-05-08 2007-01-25 David Lowe Endoprosthesis Having Foot Extensions
US20040002753A1 (en) * 2002-06-28 2004-01-01 Robert Burgermeister Stent with diagonal flexible connecting links
US7686843B2 (en) * 2002-07-31 2010-03-30 Unison Therapeutics, Inc. Flexible and conformable stent
US20070021834A1 (en) * 2003-05-06 2007-01-25 Eugene Young Endoprosthesis having foot extensions
US20060015173A1 (en) * 2003-05-06 2006-01-19 Anton Clifford Endoprosthesis having foot extensions
US6846323B2 (en) * 2003-05-15 2005-01-25 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Intravascular stent
US20080077231A1 (en) * 2006-07-06 2008-03-27 Prescient Medical, Inc. Expandable vascular endoluminal prostheses
US20100057190A1 (en) * 2007-01-09 2010-03-04 Stentys S.A.S. Frangible bridge structure for a stent, and stent including such bridge structures

Cited By (18)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US8303645B2 (en) 1998-09-05 2012-11-06 Abbott Laboratories Vascular Enterprises Limited Methods and apparatus for a stent having an expandable web structure
US9517146B2 (en) 1998-09-05 2016-12-13 Abbott Laboratories Vascular Enterprises Limited Methods and apparatus for stenting comprising enhanced embolic protection coupled with improved protections against restenosis and thrombus formation
US20110004289A1 (en) * 1998-09-05 2011-01-06 Abbott Laboratories Vascular Enterprises Limited Methods and apparatus for a stent having an expandable web structure
US8814926B2 (en) 1998-09-05 2014-08-26 Abbott Laboratories Vascular Enterprises Limited Methods and apparatus for stenting comprising enhanced embolic protection coupled with improved protections against restenosis and thrombus formation
US8343208B2 (en) 1998-09-05 2013-01-01 Abbott Laboratories Vascular Enterprises Limited Stent having an expandable web structure
US9320627B2 (en) 2007-05-23 2016-04-26 Abbott Laboratories Vascular Enterprises Limited Flexible stent with torque-absorbing connectors
US8016874B2 (en) 2007-05-23 2011-09-13 Abbott Laboratories Vascular Enterprises Limited Flexible stent with elevated scaffolding properties
US20080294239A1 (en) * 2007-05-23 2008-11-27 Abbott Laboratories Vascular Enterprises Limited Flexible stent with elevated scaffolding properties
US8795577B2 (en) 2007-11-30 2014-08-05 Cook Medical Technologies Llc Needle-to-needle electrospinning
US8246674B2 (en) 2007-12-20 2012-08-21 Abbott Laboratories Vascular Enterprises Limited Endoprosthesis having struts linked by foot extensions
US9856588B2 (en) 2009-01-16 2018-01-02 Zeus Industrial Products, Inc. Electrospinning of PTFE
US20100328087A1 (en) * 2009-06-28 2010-12-30 Oki Data Corporation Communication apparatus, connection control method for communication apparatus and method of determining state of communication plug relative to communication connector in communication apparatus
US20160331512A1 (en) * 2009-08-07 2016-11-17 Zeus Industrial Products, Inc. Prosthetic device including electrostatically spun fibrous layer & method for making the same
US20110135806A1 (en) * 2009-12-03 2011-06-09 David Grewe Manufacturing methods for covering endoluminal prostheses
US8637109B2 (en) 2009-12-03 2014-01-28 Cook Medical Technologies Llc Manufacturing methods for covering endoluminal prostheses
US9175427B2 (en) 2011-11-14 2015-11-03 Cook Medical Technologies Llc Electrospun patterned stent graft covering
US10010395B2 (en) 2012-04-05 2018-07-03 Zeus Industrial Products, Inc. Composite prosthetic devices
US10154918B2 (en) 2012-12-28 2018-12-18 Cook Medical Technologies Llc Endoluminal prosthesis with fiber matrix

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
US20060175727A1 (en) 2006-08-10
US7815763B2 (en) 2010-10-19

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
CA2566929C (en) Endoluminal encapsulated stent and methods of manufacture and endoluminal delivery
US7794490B2 (en) Implantable medical devices with antimicrobial and biodegradable matrices
US5061276A (en) Multi-layered poly(tetrafluoroethylene)/elastomer materials useful for in vivo implantation
US5749880A (en) Endoluminal encapsulated stent and methods of manufacture and endoluminal delivery
CA2367351C (en) Intraluminal lining
EP1578311B1 (en) Radiopaque ePTFE medical devices
US4798606A (en) Reinforcing structure for cardiovascular graft
CA2055130C (en) Mesh composite graft
US4816339A (en) Multi-layered poly(tetrafluoroethylene)/elastomer materials useful for in vivo implantation
EP1500407B1 (en) Drug release stent coating process
US7563324B1 (en) System and method for coating an implantable medical device
CA2282748C (en) Conformal laminate stent device
EP0875218B1 (en) Porous medicated stent
CA2216943C (en) Drug release coated stent
JP5722631B2 (en) Stent having adjacent elements connected by a flexible web
JP4411431B2 (en) Stent graft and a method of manufacturing laminated structure
JP4017821B2 (en) Supported graft and a method of manufacturing the same
US20140105955A1 (en) Thermoplastic fluoropolymer-coated medical devices
US20060009839A1 (en) Composite vascular graft including bioactive agent coating and biodegradable sheath
US6620194B2 (en) Drug coating with topcoat
DE60021309T2 (en) Vascular graft having improved surface flow
US20070178221A1 (en) Methods of making medical devices
US6143022A (en) Stent-graft assembly with dual configuration graft component and method of manufacture
JP4145143B2 (en) Improved vascular prosthesis and a method of manufacturing the same
JP4575669B2 (en) Flexible stent and manufacturing method thereof