US20100331737A1 - Encapsulated force sensor for measuring a parameter of the muscular-skeletal system - Google Patents

Encapsulated force sensor for measuring a parameter of the muscular-skeletal system Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US20100331737A1
US20100331737A1 US12825736 US82573610A US2010331737A1 US 20100331737 A1 US20100331737 A1 US 20100331737A1 US 12825736 US12825736 US 12825736 US 82573610 A US82573610 A US 82573610A US 2010331737 A1 US2010331737 A1 US 2010331737A1
Authority
US
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
sensing
insert
sensing module
parameter
system
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
Application number
US12825736
Inventor
Marc Stein
James Ellis
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Orthosensor Inc
Original Assignee
Orthosensor Inc
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

Links

Images

Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/68Arrangements of detecting, measuring or recording means, e.g. sensors, in relation to patient
    • A61B5/6846Arrangements of detecting, measuring or recording means, e.g. sensors, in relation to patient specially adapted to be brought in contact with an internal body part, i.e. invasive
    • A61B5/6867Arrangements of detecting, measuring or recording means, e.g. sensors, in relation to patient specially adapted to be brought in contact with an internal body part, i.e. invasive specially adapted to be attached or implanted in a specific body part
    • A61B5/6878Bone
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/45For evaluating or diagnosing the musculoskeletal system or teeth
    • A61B5/4528Joints
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/68Arrangements of detecting, measuring or recording means, e.g. sensors, in relation to patient
    • A61B5/6846Arrangements of detecting, measuring or recording means, e.g. sensors, in relation to patient specially adapted to be brought in contact with an internal body part, i.e. invasive
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B8/00Diagnosis using ultrasonic, sonic or infrasonic waves
    • A61B8/13Tomography
    • A61B8/15Transmission-tomography
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/45For evaluating or diagnosing the musculoskeletal system or teeth
    • A61B5/4504Bones
    • A61B5/4509Bone density determination
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/72Signal processing specially adapted for physiological signals or for diagnostic purposes
    • A61B5/7235Details of waveform analysis
    • A61B5/7239Details of waveform analysis using differentiation including higher order derivatives
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T307/00Electrical transmission or interconnection systems
    • Y10T307/50Plural supply circuits or sources
    • Y10T307/615Substitute or emergency source

Abstract

A sensing insert device (100) is disclosed for measuring a parameter of the muscular-skeletal system. The sensing insert device (100) can be temporary or permanent. Used intra-operatively, the sensing insert device (100) comprises an insert dock (202) and a sensing module (200). The sensing module (200) is a self-contained encapsulated measurement device having at least one contacting surface that couples to the muscular-skeletal system. The insert dock (202) is a passive component made for different prosthetic component manufacturers as well as for different size prosthetic components. The sensing module (200) fits in an opening or cavity of the insert dock (202). The intra-operative insert device is substantially equal in dimension to an implanted final insert. The sensing insert device (100) is also a permanent prosthetic component. The sensing module (200) residing within the sensing insert device and coupling to a bearing surface of the insert.

Description

    CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
  • This application claims the priority benefit of U.S. provisional patent application Nos. 61/221,761, 61/221,767, 61/221,779, 61/221,788, 61/221,793, 61/221,801, 61/221,808, 61/221,817, 61/221,867, 61/221,874, 61/221,879, 61/221,881, 61/221,886, 61/221,889, 61/221,894, 61/221,901, 61/221,909, 61/221,916, 61/221,923, and 61/221,929 all filed 30 Jun. 2009; the disclosures of which are hereby incorporated herein by reference in their entirety.
  • FIELD
  • The present invention pertains generally to measurement of physical parameters, and particularly to, but not exclusively to, a hermetically encapsulated sensing module for communicating sensor data and measurements in real-time.
  • BACKGROUND
  • The skeletal system of a mammal is subject to variations among species. Further changes can occur due to environmental factors, degradation through use, and aging. An orthopedic joint of the skeletal system typically comprises two or more bones that move in relation to one another. Movement is enabled by muscle tissue and tendons attached to the skeletal system of the joint. Ligaments hold and stabilize the one or more joint bones positionally. Cartilage is a wear surface that prevents bone-to-bone contact, distributes load, and lowers friction.
  • There has been substantial growth in the repair of the human skeletal system. In general, orthopedic joints have evolved using information from simulations, mechanical prototypes, and patient data that is collected and used to initiate improved designs. Similarly, the tools being used for orthopedic surgery have been refined over the years but have not changed substantially. Thus, the basic procedure for replacement of an orthopedic joint has been standardized to meet the general needs of a wide distribution of the population. Although the tools, procedure, and artificial joint meet a general need, each replacement procedure is subject to significant variation from patient to patient. The correction of these individual variations relies on the skill of the surgeon to adapt and fit the replacement joint using the available tools to the specific circumstance.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • Various features of the system are set forth with particularity in the appended claims. The embodiments herein, can be understood by reference to the following description, taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, in which:
  • FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a medical sensing platform comprising an encapsulating enclosure in accordance with one embodiment;
  • FIG. 2 is a perspective view of a medical sensing device suitable for use as an bi-compartmental implant and comprising an encapsulating enclosure in accordance with one embodiment;
  • FIG. 3 is an illustration of an application of sensing insert device in accordance with an exemplary embodiment;
  • FIG. 4 is an illustration of a sensing insert device placed in a joint of the muscular-skeletal system for measuring a parameter in accordance with an exemplary embodiment;
  • FIG. 5 is an exemplary block diagram of the components of a sensing module in accordance with an exemplary embodiment;
  • FIG. 6 is a cross sectional view of the sensing insert device in further detail according to one embodiment as an encapsulating enclosure;
  • FIG. 7 depicts high-level processing blocks of an encapsulated force sensor in accordance with one embodiment;
  • FIG. 8 is a cross-sectional view of a layout architecture of the sensing module in accordance with an exemplary embodiment;
  • FIG. 9 is a block diagram of a propagation tuned oscillator (PTO) to maintain positive closed-loop feedback in accordance with an exemplary embodiment;
  • FIG. 10 is a final insert device in accordance with an exemplary embodiment;
  • FIG. 11 is a perspective view of the sensing modules in the final insert in accordance with an exemplary embodiment; and
  • FIG. 12 is an illustration of the final insert installed in a knee in accordance with an exemplary embodiment.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION
  • Embodiments of the invention are broadly directed to measurement of physical parameters, and more particularly, to real-time measurement and communication of load, force, pressure, displacement, density, viscosity, or localized temperature by sensing structures or assemblies encapsulated within hermetic or non-hermetic modules or devices. Many parameters of interest within physical systems or bodies can be measured by evaluating changes in the transit time of energy waves or pulses having the property that their propagation velocity is affected by physical changes in a medium of propagation. Alternatively, piezo-resistive sensing, MEMS sensing, strain gauge sensing can also be incorporated into the sensing assembly. The physical parameter or parameters of interest include, but are not limited to, measurement of load, force, pressure, displacement, density, viscosity, localized temperature. The sensing platforms that include the sensing assemblies can be placed on or within a body, instrument, appliance, vehicle, equipment, or other physical system.
  • In all of the examples illustrated and discussed herein, any specific materials, temperatures, times, energies, etc. for process steps or specific structure implementations should be interpreted to illustrative only and non-limiting. Processes, techniques, apparatus, and materials as known by one of ordinary skill in the art may not be discussed in detail but are intended to be part of an enabling description where appropriate.
  • Note that similar reference numerals and letters refer to similar items in the following figures. In some cases, numbers from prior illustrations will not be placed on subsequent figures for purposes of clarity. In general, it should be assumed that structures not identified in a figure are the same as previous prior figures.
  • One embodiment is a sensing platform that employs a combination of two or more load bearing surfaces incorporating features for contacting external objects. The sensing assembly comprises one or more transducers, a compressible energy propagating structure media, and spring or springs or other means of elastic support, to measure force or pressure external to the sensing platform or displacement produced by contact with an external object. In a non-limiting example, the sensing platform measures load. A position of the center or focal point (or locus or centroid) of the applied load, force, pressure, or external contact on the load bearing or contacting surface or surfaces of the sensing platform can also be determined. The centroid or barycenter is considered the average of all points, weighted by the local density. In fluid mechanics, the force density has the physical dimensions of force per unit volume
  • Force, pressure, displacement, density, or viscosity is measured by controlled compression or displacement of the compressible energy propagating structure or structures or media. The compression or displacement of the compressible energy propagating structure or structures or media is accurately controlled by the action of the spring or springs or other means of elastic support positioned in conjunction with the compressible energy propagating structure or structures or media between the contacting surfaces. Changes in compression or displacement of the compressible energy propagating structure or structures or media alter their physical length and may be detected by changes in transit time of energy pulses or waves propagating therein. The center or focal point (or locus or centroid) of the applied force, pressure, displacement, density, or viscosity on the load bearing or contacting surfaces may be determined by combining measurements taken with a combination of assemblages of energy transducers and compressible energy propagating structure or structures or media. For clarity, the remainder of the description focuses on a specific form of energy and medium of propagation. Ultrasound energy pulses or waves, the emission of ultrasound pulses or waves by ultrasound resonators or transducers, transmitted through ultrasound waveguides, and detected by ultrasound resonators or transducers will be used in the following discussion and examples of embodiments of the present invention as examples of energy pulses, waves, and propagation structures and media.
  • FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a medical sensing platform comprising an encapsulating enclosure in accordance with one embodiment. In general, parameters of the muscular-skeletal system can be measured with a sensing module 200 that in one embodiment is an integral part of a complete sensing insert device 100. The sensing module 200 is a self-contained sensor within an encapsulating enclosure that integrates sensing assemblages, an electronic assemblage that couples to the sensing assemblages, a power source, signal processing, and wireless communication. All components required for the measurement are contained in the sensing module 200. The sensing module 200 has at least one contacting surface for coupling to the muscular-skeletal system. A parameter of the muscular-skeletal system is applied to the contact surfaces to be measured by the one or more sensing assemblages therein. As will be disclosed in further detail herein, the sensing module 200 is part of a system that allows intra-operative and post-operative sensing of a joint of the muscular-skeletal system. More specifically, sensing module 200 is placed within a temporary or permanent prosthetic component that has a similar form factor as the passive prosthetic component currently being used. This has a benefit of rapid adoption because the sensing platform is inserted identically to the commonly used passive component but can provide much needed quantitative measurements with little or no procedural changes.
  • As shown, the sensing insert device 100 comprises an insert dock 202 and the sensing module 200. Sensing insert device 100 is a non-permanent or temporary measurement device that is used intra-operatively to provide quantitative data related to the installation of prosthetic components such as in joint replacement surgery. The combination of the insert dock 202 and sensing module 202 has a form factor substantially equal to a final insert device. The final insert device can be a passive component or sensored incorporating sensing module 200. The substantially equal form factor of sensing insert device 100 means that there are no extraneous structures in the surgical field that can interfere with the procedure. For example, a final insert device is designed to mimic the function of the natural component it is replacing. The final insert device allows natural movement of the muscular-skeletal system and does not interfere with ligaments, tendons, tissue, muscles, and other components of the muscular-skeletal system. Similarly, sensing insert device 100 allows exposure of the surgical field around the joint by having the similar form factor as the final insert thereby allowing the surgeon to make adjustments during the installation in a natural setting with quantitative measurements to support the modifications.
  • In one embodiment, insert dock 202 is an adaptor. Insert dock 202 is made in different sizes. In general, prosthetic components are manufactured in different sizes to accommodate variation in the muscular-skeletal system from person to person. In the example, the size of insert dock 202 is chosen to mate with the selected prosthetic implant components. In particular, a feature 204 aligns with and retains insert dock 202 in a fixed position to a prosthetic or natural component of the muscular-skeletal system. The insert dock 202 is a passive component having an opening for receiving sensing module 200. The opening is positioned to place the contacting surfaces in a proper orientation to measure the parameter when used in conjunction with other prosthetic components. The insert dock 202 as an adaptor can be manufactured at low cost. Moreover, insert dock 202 can be formed for adapting to different prosthetic manufacturers thereby increasing system flexibility. This allows a standard sensing module 200 to be provided but customized for appropriate size and dimensions through dock 202 for the specific application and manufacturer component.
  • The one or more sensing assemblages within sensing module 200 couple to the contacting surfaces of sensing module 200 for receiving the applied parameter of the muscular-skeletal system. In one embodiment, a sensing assemblage comprises one or more energy transducers coupled to an elastic structure. The elastic structure allows the propagation of energy waves. The forms of energy propagated through the elastic energy propagating structures may include, but is not limited to, sound, ultrasound, or electromagnetic radiation including radio frequency, infrared, or light. A change in the parameter applied to the contacting surfaces results in a change a dimension of the elastic structure. The dimension of the elastic structure can be measured precisely using continuous wave, pulsed, or pulsed echo measurement. The dimension and material properties of the elastic structure have a known relationship to the parameter being measured. Thus, the dimension is precisely measured and converted to the parameter. Other factors such as movement or acceleration can be taken into account in the calculation. As an example, a force, pressure, or load applied to the one or more contacting surfaces of sensing module 200 is used to illustrate a parameter measurement hereinbelow. It should be noted that this is for illustration purposes and that the sensing module 200 can be used to measure other parameters.
  • As will be shown ahead, the encapsulating enclosure can serve in a first embodiment as a trial implant for orthopedic surgical procedures, namely, for determining load forces on prosthetic components and the musculoskeletal system. In a second embodiment, the encapsulating enclosure can be placed within a permanent prosthetic component for long term monitoring. The encapsulating enclosure supports and protects internal mechanical and electronic components from external physical, mechanical, chemical, and electrical, and electromagnetic intrusion that might compromise sensing or communication operations of the module or device. The integration of the internal components is designed to minimize adverse physical, mechanical, electrical, and ultrasonic interactions that might compromise sensing or communication operations of the module or device.
  • FIG. 2 is a perspective view of a medical sensing device suitable for use as a bi-compartmental implant and comprising an encapsulating enclosure in accordance with one embodiment. As shown, the load sensing insert device 100 comprises two sensing modules 200. Each sensing module 200 is a self-contained encapsulated enclosure that can make individual or coordinated parameter measurements. For example, the sensing insert device 100 can be used to assess load forces on a bi-compartmental knee joint implant. In particular, both sensing modules 200 can individually, or in combination, report applied loading forces. Bi-compartmental sensing provides the benefit of providing quantitative measurement to balance each compartment in relation to one another.
  • Similar to that described above, insert dock 202 is an adaptor having two openings instead of one. Insert dock 202 can be made in different sizes to accommodated different sized prosthetic components and different manufacturers. The insert dock 202 with two openings is a passive component for receiving two separate sensing modules 200. The opening is positioned to place the contacting surfaces in a proper orientation to measure the parameter when used in conjunction with other prosthetic components. In general, encapsulated enclosures can be positioned on or within, or engaged with, or attached or affixed to or within, a wide range of physical systems including, but not limited to instruments, appliances, vehicles, equipments, or other physical systems as well as animal and human bodies, for sensing and communicating the parameter or parameters of interest in real time. Similar to that described above, insert dock 202 as an adaptor can be manufactured at low cost providing design flexibility and allowing rapid adoption of quantitative measurement.
  • FIG. 3 is an illustration of an application of sensing insert device 100 in accordance with an exemplary embodiment. The illustration shows the device 100 measuring a force, pressure, or load applied by the muscular-skeletal system. In the illustration, device 100 can collect load data for real-time viewing of the load forces over various applied loads and angles of flexion. The sensing insert device 100 can measure the level and distribution of load at various points on the prosthetic component and transmits the measured load data by way data communication to a receiver station 110 for permitting visualization. This can aid the surgeon in making any adjustments needed to achieve optimal joint balancing.
  • In general, device 100 has at least one contacting surface that couples to the muscular-skeletal system. As shown, a first and a second contacting surface respectively couple to a femoral prosthetic component 104 and a tibial prosthetic component 106. Device 100 is designed to be used in the normal flow of an orthopedic surgical procedure without special procedures, equipment, or components. Typically, one or more natural components of the muscular-skeletal system are replaced when joint functionality substantially reduces a patient quality of life. A joint replacement is a common procedure in later life because it is prone to wear over time, can be damaged during physical activity, or by accident.
  • A joint of the muscular-skeletal system provides movement of bones in relation to one another that can comprise angular and rotational motion. The joint can be subjected to loading and torque throughout the range of motion. The joint typically comprises two bones that move in relation to one another with a low friction flexible connective tissue such as cartilage between the bones. Natural lubricant in the joint in conjunction with the cartilage aid in joint movement. Sensing insert device 100 mimics the natural structure between the bones of the joint. Insert device 100 has a contacting surface on which a bone or a prosthetic component can moveably couple. A knee joint is disclosed for illustrative purposes but sensing insert device 100 is applicable to other joints of the muscular-skeletal system. For example, the hip, spine, and shoulder have similar structures comprising two or more bones that move in relation to one another. In general, insert device 100 can be used between two or more bones allowing movement of the bones during measurement or maintaining the bones in a fixed position.
  • The load sensor insert device 100 and the receiver station 110 forms a communication system for conveying data via secure wireless transmission within a broadcasting range over short distances on the order of a few meters to protect against any form of unauthorized or accidental query. A combination of cyclic redundancy checks and a high repetition rate of transmission during data capture permits discarding of corrupted data without materially affecting display of data
  • In the illustration, a surgical procedure is performed to place a femoral prosthetic component 104 onto a prepared distal end of the femur 102. Similarly, a tibial prosthetic component 106 is placed to a prepared proximal end of the tibia 108. The tibial prosthetic component 106 can be a tray or plate affixed to a planarized proximal end of the tibia 108. The sensing insert device 100 is a third prosthetic component that is placed between the plate of the tibial prosthetic component 106 and the femoral prosthetic component 104. The three prosthetic components enable the prostheses to emulate the functioning of a natural knee joint. In one embodiment, sensing insert device 100 is used during surgery and replaced with a final insert after quantitative measurements are taken to ensure optimal fit, balance, and loading of the prosthesis.
  • In one embodiment, sensing insert device 100 is a mechanical replica of a final insert. In other words, sensing insert device 100 has substantially equal dimensions to the final insert. The substantially equal dimensions ensure that the final insert when placed in the reconstructed joint will have similar loading and balance as that measured by sensing insert device 100 during the trial phase of the surgery. Moreover, passive trial inserts are commonly used during surgery to determine the appropriate final insert. Thus, the procedure remains the same. It can measure loads at various points (or locations) on the femoral prosthetic component 104 and transmit the measured data to a receiving station 110 by way of an integrated loop antenna. The receiving station 110 can include data processing, storage, or display, or combination thereof and provide real time graphical representation of the level and distribution of the load.
  • As one example, the sensing insert device 100 can measure forces (Fx, Fy, and Fz) with corresponding locations and torques (e.g. Tx, Ty, and Tz) on the femoral prosthetic component 104 and the tibial prosthetic component 106. It can then transmit this data to the receiving station 110 to provide real-time visualization for assisting the surgeon in identifying any adjustments needed to achieve optimal joint balancing.
  • FIG. 4 is an illustration of a sensing insert device 100 placed in a joint of the muscular-skeletal system for measuring a parameter in accordance with an exemplary embodiment. In particular, sensing insert device 100 is placed in contact between a femur 102 and a tibia 108 for measuring a parameter. In the example, a force, pressure, or load is being measured. The device 100 in this example can intra-operatively assess a load on prosthetic components during the surgical procedure. As mentioned previously, sensing insert device 100 collects data for real-time viewing of the load forces over various applied loads and angles of flexion. It can measure the level and distribution of load at various points on the prosthetic component and transmit the measured load data by way data communication to a receiver station 110 for permitting visualization. This can aid the surgeon in making any adjustments needed to achieve optimal joint balancing.
  • A proximal end of tibia 108 is prepared to receive tibial prosthetic component 106. Tibial prosthetic component 106 is a support structure that is fastened to the proximal end of the tibia and is usually made of a metal or metal alloy. The tibial prosthetic component 106 also retains the insert in a fixed position with respect to tibia 108. Similarly, a distal end of femur 102 is prepared to receive femoral prosthetic component 104. The femoral prosthetic component 104 is generally shaped to have an outer condylar articulating surface. The preparation of femur 102 and tibia 108 is aligned to the mechanical axis of the leg. The sensing insert device 100 provides a concave or flat surface against which the outer condylar articulating surface of the femoral prosthetic component 104 rides relative to the tibia prosthetic component 106. In particular, the top surface of the sensing module 200 faces the condylar articulating surface of the femoral prosthetic component 104, and the bottom surface of the insert dock 202 faces the top surface of the tibial prosthetic component 106.
  • A final insert is subsequently fitted between femoral prosthetic component 104 and tibial prosthetic component 106 that has a bearing surface that couples to femoral component 104 allowing the leg a natural range of motion. The final insert is has a wear surface that is typically made of a low friction polymer material. Ideally, the prosthesis has an appropriate loading, alignment, and balance that mimics the natural leg and maximizes the life of the artificial components.
  • The sensing insert device 100 is used to measure, adjust, and test the reconstructed joint prior to installing the final insert. As mentioned previously, the sensing insert device 100 is placed between the femur 102 and tibia 108. The condyle surface of femoral component 104 contacts a major surface of device 100. The major surface of device 100 approximates a surface of a final insert. Tibial prosthetic component 106 can include a cavity or tray on the major surface that receives and retains an insert dock 202 and a sensing module 200 during a measurement process. It should be noted that sensing insert device 100 is coupled to and provides measurement data in conjunction with permanent prosthetic components. In other words, the permanent prosthetic components are the installed components of the patient.
  • Insert dock 202 is provided in different sizes and shapes. Insert dock 202 can comprise many different sizes and shapes to interface appropriately with different manufacturer prosthetic components. Prosthetic components are made in different sizes to accommodate anatomical differences over a wide population range. Insert dock 202 is designed for different prosthetic sizes within the same manufacturer. In at least one embodiment, multiple docks of different dimensions are provided for a surgery. For example, the thickness of the final insert is determined by the surgical cuts to the muscular-skeletal system and measurements provided by sensing module 200. The surgeon may try two insert docks 202 of different thicknesses before making a final decision. In one embodiment, sensing insert device 100 selected by the surgeon has substantially equal dimensions to the final insert used. In general, insert dock 202 allows standardization on a single sensing module 200 for different prosthetic platforms. Thus, the sensing module 200 is common to the different insert docks 202 allowing improved quality, reliability, and performance.
  • In one embodiment, one or more insert docks 202 are used to determine an appropriate thickness that yields an optimal loading. In general, the absolute loading over the range of motion is kept within a predetermined range. Soft tissue tensioning can be used to adjust the absolute loading. The knee balance can also be adjusted within a predetermined range if a total knee reconstruction is being performed and a sensing module 202 is used in each compartment. Tibial prosthetic component 106 and device 100 have a combined thickness that represents a combined thickness of tibial prosthetic component 106 and a final (or chronic) insert of the knee joint. Thus, the final insert thickness or depth is chosen based on the trial performed using device 100. Typically, the final insert thickness is identical to the device 100 to maintain the measured loading and balance. In one embodiment, sensing module 200 and insert docks 202 are disposed of after surgery. Alternatively, the sensing module 200 and insert docks 202 can be cleaned, sterilized, and packaged for reuse.
  • The prosthesis incorporating device 100 emulates the function of a natural knee joint. Device 100 can measure loads or other parameters at various points throughout the range of motion. Data from device 100 is transmitted to a receiving station 110 via wired or wireless communications. In a first embodiment, device 100 is a disposable system. Device 100 can be disposed of after using the sensing insert device 100 to optimally fit the joint implant. Device 100 is a low cost disposable system that reduces capital costs, operating costs, facilitates rapid adoption of quantitative measurement, and initiates evidentiary based orthopedic medicine. In a second embodiment, a methodology can be put in place to clean and sterilize device 100 for reuse. In a third embodiment, device 100 can be incorporated in a tool instead of being a component of the replacement joint. The tool can be disposable or be cleaned and sterilized for reuse. In a fourth embodiment, device 100 can be a permanent component of the replacement joint. Device 100 can be used to provide both short term and long term post-operative data on the implanted joint. In a fifth embodiment, device 100 can be coupled to the muscular-skeletal system. In all of the embodiments, receiving station 110 can include data processing, storage, or display, or combination thereof and provide real time graphical representation of the level and distribution of the load. Receiving station 110 can record and provide accounting information of device 100 to an appropriate authority.
  • The sensing insert device 100, in one embodiment, comprises a load sensing platform 121, an accelerometer 122, and sensing assemblies 123. This permits the sensing device 100 to assess a total load on the prosthetic components when it is being moved. The system accounts for forces due to gravity and motion. In one embodiment, load sensing platform 121 includes two or more load bearing surfaces, at least one energy transducer, at least one compressible energy propagating structure, and at least one member for elastic support. The accelerometer 122 can measure acceleration. Acceleration can occur when the load sensing device 100 is moved or put in motion. Accelerometer 122 can sense orientation, vibration, and impact. In another embodiment, the femoral component 104 can similarly include an accelerometer 127, which by way of a communication interface to the sensing insert device 100, can provide reference position and acceleration data to determine an exact angular relationship between the femur and tibia. The sensing assemblies 123 can reveal changes in length or compression of the energy propagating structure or structures by way of the energy transducer or transducers. Together the load sensing platform 121, accelerometer 122 (and in certain cases accelerometer 127), and sensing assemblies 123 measure force or pressure external to the load sensing platform or displacement produced by contact with the prosthetic components.
  • In at least one exemplary embodiment, an energy pulse is directed within one or more waveguides in device 100 by way of pulse mode operations and pulse shaping. The waveguide is a conduit that directs the energy pulse in a predetermined direction. The energy pulse is typically confined within the waveguide. In one embodiment, the waveguide comprises a polymer material. For example, urethane or polyethylene are polymers suitable for forming a waveguide. The polymer waveguide can be compressed and has little or no hysteresis in the system. Alternatively, the energy pulse can be directed through the muscular-skeletal system. In one embodiment, the energy pulse is directed through bone of the muscular-skeletal system to measure bone density. A transit time of an energy pulse is related to the material properties of a medium through which it traverses. This relationship is used to generate accurate measurements of parameters such as distance, weight, strain, pressure, wear, vibration, viscosity, and density to name but a few.
  • Incorporating data from the accelerometer 122 with data from the other sensing components 121 and 123 assures accurate measurement of the applied load, force, pressure, or displacement by enabling computation of adjustments to offset this external motion. This capability can be required in situations wherein the body, instrument, appliance, vehicle, equipment, or other physical system, is itself operating or moving during sensing of load, pressure, or displacement. This capability can also be required in situations wherein the body, instrument, appliance, vehicle, equipment, or other physical system, is causing the portion of the body, instrument, appliance, vehicle, equipment, or other physical system being measured to be in motion during sensing of load, pressure, or displacement.
  • The accelerometer 122 can operate singly, as an integrated unit with the load sensing platform 121, and/or as an integrated unit with the sensing assemblies 123. Integrating one or more accelerometers 122 within the sensing assemblages 123 to determine position, attitude, movement, or acceleration of sensing assemblages 123 enables augmentation of presentation of data to accurately identify, but not limited to, orientation or spatial distribution of load, force, pressure, displacement, density, or viscosity, or localized temperature by controlling the load and position sensing assemblages to measure the parameter or parameters of interest relative to specific orientation, alignment, direction, or position as well as movement, rotation, or acceleration along any axis or combination of axes. Measurement of the parameter or parameters of interest may also be made relative to the earth's surface and thus enable computation and presentation of spatial distributions of the measured parameter or parameters relative to this frame of reference.
  • In one embodiment, the accelerometer 122 includes direct current (DC) sensitivity to measure static gravitational pull with load and position sensing assemblages to enable capture of, but not limited to, distributions of load, force, pressure, displacement, movement, rotation, or acceleration by controlling the sensing assemblages to measure the parameter or parameters of interest relative to orientations with respect to the earths surface or center and thus enable computation and presentation of spatial distributions of the measured parameter or parameters relative to this frame of reference.
  • Embodiments of device 100 are broadly directed to measurement of physical parameters, and more particularly, to evaluating changes in the transit time of a pulsed energy wave propagating through a medium. In-situ measurements during orthopedic joint implant surgery would be of substantial benefit to verify an implant is in balance and under appropriate loading or tension. In one embodiment, the instrument is similar to and operates familiarly with other instruments currently used by surgeons. This will increase acceptance and reduce the adoption cycle for a new technology. The measurements will allow the surgeon to ensure that the implanted components are installed within predetermined ranges that maximize the working life of the joint prosthesis and reduce costly revisions. Providing quantitative measurement and assessment of the procedure using real-time data will produce results that are more consistent. A further issue is that there is little or no implant data generated from the implant surgery, post-operatively, and long term. Device 100 can provide implant status data to the orthopedic manufacturers and surgeons. Moreover, data generated by direct measurement of the implanted joint itself would greatly improve the knowledge of implanted joint operation and joint wear thereby leading to improved design and materials.
  • As mentioned previously, device 100 can be used for other joint surgeries; it is not limited to knee replacement implant or implants. Moreover, device 100 is not limited to trial measurements. Device 100 can be incorporated into the final joint system to provide data post-operatively to determine if the implanted joint is functioning correctly. Early determination of a problem using device 100 can reduce catastrophic failure of the joint by bringing awareness to a problem that the patient cannot detect. The problem can often be rectified with a minimal invasive procedure at lower cost and stress to the patient. Similarly, longer term monitoring of the joint can determine wear or misalignment that if detected early can be adjusted for optimal life or replacement of a wear surface with minimal surgery thereby extending the life of the implant. In general, device 100 can be shaped such that it can be placed or engaged or affixed to or within load bearing surfaces used in many orthopedic applications (or used in any orthopedic application) related to the musculoskeletal system, joints, and tools associated therewith. Device 100 can provide information on a combination of one or more performance parameters of interest such as wear, stress, kinematics, kinetics, fixation strength, ligament balance, anatomical fit and balance.
  • FIG. 5 is an exemplary block diagram of the components of a sensing module 200 in accordance with an exemplary embodiment. It should be noted that the sensing module could comprise more or less than the number of components shown. As illustrated, the sensing module includes one or more sensing assemblages 303, a transceiver 320, an energy storage 330, electronic circuitry 307, one or more mechanical supports 315 (e.g., springs), and an accelerometer 302. In the non-limiting example, an applied compressive force can be measured by the sensing module.
  • The sensing assemblage 303 can be positioned, engaged, attached, or affixed to the contact surfaces 306. Mechanical supports 315 serve to provide proper balancing of contact surfaces 306. In at least one exemplary embodiment, contact surfaces 306 are load-bearing surfaces. In general, the propagation structure 305 is subject to the parameter being measured. Surfaces 306 can move and tilt with changes in applied load; actions which can be transferred to the sensing assemblages 303 and measured by the electronic circuitry 307. The electronic circuitry 307 measures physical changes in the sensing assemblage 303 to determine parameters of interest, for example a level, distribution and direction of forces acting on the contact surfaces 306. In general, the sensing module is powered by the energy storage 330.
  • As one example, the sensing assemblage 303 can comprise an elastic or compressible propagation structure 305 between a transducer 304 and a transducer 314. In the current example, transducer 304 can be an ultrasound (or ultrasonic) resonator, and the elastic or compressible propagation structure 305 can be an ultrasound (or ultrasonic) waveguide (or waveguides). The electronic circuitry 307 is electrically coupled to the sensing assemblages 303 and translates changes in the length (or compression or extension) of the sensing assemblages 303 to parameters of interest, such as force. It measures a change in the length of the propagation structure 305 (e.g., waveguide) responsive to an applied force and converts this change into electrical signals which can be transmitted via the transceiver 320 to convey a level and a direction of the applied force. In other arrangements herein contemplated, the sensing assemblage 303 may require only a single transducer. In yet other arrangements, the sensing assemblage 303 can include piezoelectric, capacitive, optical or temperature sensors or transducers to measure the compression or displacement. It is not limited to ultrasonic transducers and waveguides.
  • The accelerometer 302 can measure acceleration and static gravitational pull. Accelerometer 302 can be single-axis and multi-axis accelerometer structures that detect magnitude and direction of the acceleration as a vector quantity. Accelerometer 302 can also be used to sense orientation, vibration, impact and shock. The electronic circuitry 307 in conjunction with the accelerometer 302 and sensing assemblies 303 can measure parameters of interest (e.g., distributions of load, force, pressure, displacement, movement, rotation, torque and acceleration) relative to orientations of the sensing module with respect to a reference point. In such an arrangement, spatial distributions of the measured parameters relative to a chosen frame of reference can be computed and presented for real-time display.
  • The transceiver 320 comprises a transmitter 309 and an antenna 310 to permit wireless operation and telemetry functions. In various embodiments, the antenna 310 can be configured by design as an integrated loop antenna. As will be explained ahead, the integrated loop antenna is configured at various layers and locations on the electronic substrate with electrical components and by way of electronic control circuitry to conduct efficiently at low power levels. Once initiated the transceiver 320 can broadcast the parameters of interest in real-time. The telemetry data can be received and decoded with various receivers, or with a custom receiver. The wireless operation can eliminate distortion of, or limitations on, measurements caused by the potential for physical interference by, or limitations imposed by, wiring and cables connecting the sensing module with a power source or with associated data collection, storage, display equipment, and data processing equipment.
  • The transceiver 320 receives power from the energy storage 330 and can operate at low power over various radio frequencies by way of efficient power management schemes, for example, incorporated within the electronic circuitry 307. As one example, the transceiver 320 can transmit data at selected frequencies in a chosen mode of emission by way of the antenna 310. The selected frequencies can include, but are not limited to, ISM bands recognized in International Telecommunication Union regions 1, 2 and 3. A chosen mode of emission can be, but is not limited to, Gaussian Frequency Shift Keying, (GFSK), Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK), Phase Shift Keying (PSK), Minimum Shift Keying (MSK), Frequency Modulation (FM), Amplitude Modulation (AM), or other versions of frequency or amplitude modulation (e.g., binary, coherent, quadrature, etc.).
  • The antenna 310 can be integrated with components of the sensing module to provide the radio frequency transmission. The substrate for the antenna 310 and electrical connections with the electronic circuitry 307 can further include a matching network. This level of integration of the antenna and electronics enables reductions in the size and cost of wireless equipment. Potential applications may include, but are not limited to any type of short-range handheld, wearable, or other portable communication equipment where compact antennas are commonly used. This includes disposable modules or devices as well as reusable modules or devices and modules or devices for long-term use.
  • The energy storage 330 provides power to electronic components of the sensing module. It can be charged by wired energy transfer, short-distance wireless energy transfer or a combination thereof. External power sources can include, but are not limited to, a battery or batteries, an alternating current power supply, a radio frequency receiver, an electromagnetic induction coil, a photoelectric cell or cells, a thermocouple or thermocouples, or an ultrasound transducer or transducers. By way of the energy storage 330, the sensing module can be operated with a single charge until the internal energy is drained. It can be recharged periodically to enable continuous operation. The energy storage 330 can utilize common power management technologies such as replaceable batteries, supply regulation technologies, and charging system technologies for supplying energy to the components of the sensing module to facilitate wireless applications.
  • The energy storage 330 minimizes additional sources of energy radiation required to power the sensing module during measurement operations. In one embodiment, as illustrated, the energy storage 330 can include a capacitive energy storage device 308 and an induction coil 311. External source of charging power can be coupled wirelessly to the capacitive energy storage device 308 through the electromagnetic induction coil or coils 311 by way of inductive charging. The charging operation can be controlled by power management systems designed into, or with, the electronic circuitry 307. As one example, during operation of electronic circuitry 307, power can be transferred from capacitive energy storage device 308 by way of efficient step-up and step-down voltage conversion circuitry. This conserves operating power of circuit blocks at a minimum voltage level to support the required level of performance.
  • In one configuration, the energy storage 330 can further serve to communicate downlink data to the transceiver 320 during a recharging operation. For instance, downlink control data can be modulated onto the energy source signal and thereafter demodulated from the induction coil 311 by way of electronic control circuitry 307. This can serve as a more efficient way for receiving downlink data instead of configuring the transceiver 320 for both uplink and downlink operation. As one example, downlink data can include updated control parameters that the sensing module uses when making a measurement, such as external positional information, or for recalibration purposes, such as spring biasing. It can also be used to download a serial number or other identification data.
  • The electronic circuitry 307 manages and controls various operations of the components of the sensing module, such as sensing, power management, telemetry, and acceleration sensing. It can include analog circuits, digital circuits, integrated circuits, discrete components, or any combination thereof. In one arrangement, it can be partitioned among integrated circuits and discrete components to minimize power consumption without compromising performance. Partitioning functions between digital and analog circuit enhances design flexibility and facilitates minimizing power consumption without sacrificing functionality or performance. Accordingly, the electronic circuitry 307 can comprise one or more Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) chips, for example, specific to a core signal processing algorithm.
  • In another arrangement, the electronic circuitry can comprise a controller such as a programmable processor, a Digital Signal Processor (DSP), a microcontroller, or a microprocessor, with associated storage memory and logic. The controller can utilize computing technologies with associated storage memory such a Flash, ROM, RAM, SRAM, DRAM or other like technologies for controlling operations of the aforementioned components of the sensing module. In one arrangement, the storage memory may store one or more sets of instructions (e.g., software) embodying any one or more of the methodologies or functions described herein. The instructions may also reside, completely or at least partially, within other memory, and/or a processor during execution thereof by another processor or computer system.
  • FIG. 6 is a cross sectional view of the sensing insert device 100 in further detail according to one embodiment as an encapsulating enclosure. As shown, the sensing insert device 100 comprises the sensing module 200 and the insert dock 202. The insert dock 202 in this embodiment provides a concave surface. In a first configuration, the insert dock 202 can further include an insert cover 704 to seal in the sensing module 200. The insert cover 704 couples to a contacting surface of sensing module 200. In a second configuration, the insert cover 704 may be absent, and the sensing module 200 alone is sealed.
  • In either configuration, the sensing module 200 can be hermetically sealed to form the encapsulating enclosure. The sensing module 200 and insert dock 202 are sterilized in sealed packages that are opened within the surgical field prior to use. The sensing module 200 is placed through an opening into a cavity of insert dock 202. The insert cover 704 can overlie sensing module 200. In one embodiment, the sensing insert device 100 is used intra-operatively to measure parameters related to prosthetic implantation during surgery. The sensing insert device 100 comprising insert dock 202 and sensing module 200 adds flexibility by simplifying customization for different manufacturers. Alternatively, the sensing insert device 100 can be formed as a single measurement device where the sensing module 200 is incorporated in an encapsulating enclosure and cannot be removed. The sensing module 200 fits within or at a boundary of dock 202. No components extend out in the surgical area because all measurement circuitry is contained and resides within sensing module 200. This enclosure permits the sensing module 200 to measure parameters of interest within a wide range of applications including, but not limited to, applications within adverse and harsh environments, long-term applications, or medical applications. It can also be constructed in a wide range of sizes from very compact to large as required to fit the application. The hermetic sealing facilitates real time measurement and communication of physiological parameters within animal or human bodies including, but not limited to, loading within individual joints, bone density, movement, fluid motion, various parameters of interstitial fluids including, but not limited to, viscosity, pressure, and localized temperature with applications throughout the vascular, lymph, respiratory, and digestive systems, as well as within or affecting muscles, bones, joints, and soft tissue areas.
  • In the first configuration, the encapsulating enclosure comprises a unitary main body 242 and load bearing or contact surfaces 243 that can be, but are not limited to, dissimilar materials combined to form a hermetic or non-hermetic module or device. The components of the encapsulating structure can also consist of, but are not limited to, bio-compatible materials. In the second configuration, the encapsulating enclosure comprises the insert dock 202, the sensing module 200, and the insert cover 704. For medical applications, the encapsulating enclosure is hermetic. The encapsulating enclosure can comprise biocompatible materials, for example, but not limited to, polycarbonate, steel, silicon, neoprene, and similar materials.
  • Polycarbonate is an example material that fulfills the molding and hermetic requirements for the unitary main body. Polycarbonate and steel are examples of materials that fulfill the interface and hermetic requirements for the load bearing or contacting surfaces. In the example of combining separate components of polycarbonate and steel to construct an encapsulating enclosure, silicon, silicon adhesive, and neoprene are examples of materials that fulfill the sealing and flexibility requirements for interfacing the polycarbonate and steel components.
  • The sensing module 200 can also be incorporated into, but not limited to, handheld instruments, such as one that might be commonly used for evaluation of the flexion-extension gap; or a final, chronically implanted prosthetic implants, such as a tibial bearing or insert; as well as many other in vivo or external applications enabled by the flexibility to encapsulate the wireless load sensing module within a wide range of shapes and sizes. This wireless load sensing module or device may also have a wide range of non-medical and applications as well as medical applications.
  • The sensing module 200 can also be used in non-medical applications that require measurement of, but not limited to, load, force, pressure, or movement of portions of physical systems, or load, force, pressure placed upon, or movement of, physical systems or bodies themselves, or load, force, pressure, or movement caused by external objects in the environment of the physical systems or bodies, or combinations of these parameters. The sensing module 200 can be ported to applications where the following attributes are preferred: measurement of parameters of interest in real time, communication of measured values in real time, exemplary accuracy and precision of measurements, or a wide range of sizes of the sensing and communication module or device to fit requirements of applications or harsh environments within which the measurement data is captured, or any combination of these attributes.
  • FIG. 7 depicts high-level processing blocks of an encapsulated force sensor 600 in accordance with one embodiment. The blocks are operatively coupled together within the encapsulated enclosure of the sensing module 200 and together form an encapsulated force sensor 600. An ASIC or application specific integrated circuit is used to minimize the form factor by incorporating most of the circuitry on a single die. The encapsulated force sensor 600 comprises the hermetic seal 623 and may include more or less than the number of high-level processing blocks shown. In one embodiment, a temporary test interconnect or text tab 625 can be used during set-up, calibration or testing that can be removed after all testing, calibration, and programming is complete.
  • Load sensing platform block A is responsible for detecting and supporting load requirements. Compact low-power energy source block B is responsible for powering components of the sensing module 200. In one embodiment, low-power energy source block B includes a super-capacitor that can be charged in a short period of time prior to surgery. The super-capacitor can be charged by inductive coupling. The stored charge on the super-capacitor is sufficient to power encapsulated force sensor 600 for the duration of the surgery. The output voltage of the super capacitor can be regulated. Integrated position and load sensing block C is responsible for interpreting load and position measurements. High-Precision sensing block D is responsible for sensing precise load measurements such as level and distribution of force. It permits reliable measurement of the load across the entire range of flexion of the knee joint. Short-range telemetry block E is responsible for transmitting load and position measurements to a receiving system.
  • Notably, the encapsulating force sensor 600 supports and protects the specialized mechanical and electronic components from external physical, mechanical, chemical, and electrical, and electromagnetic intrusion that might compromise sensing or communication operations of the module or device. The encapsulating force sensor 600 also supports internal mechanical and electronic components and minimizes adverse physical, mechanical, electrical, and ultrasonic interactions that might compromise sensing or communication operations of the module or device.
  • The housing electrically insulates the internal electronic, sensing, and communication components. The encapsulating force sensor 600 eliminates parasitic paths that might conduct ultrasonic energy and compromise excitation and detection of ultrasound waves within the sensing assemblages during sensing operations. A temporary bi-directional electrical interconnect assures a high level of electrical observation and controllability of the electronic assembly within the encapsulating force sensor 600. The temporary interconnect also provides a high level of electrical observation of the sensing subsystem, including the transducers, waveguides, and mechanical spring or elastic assembly.
  • The encapsulating force sensor 600 has a compact size permitting it to fit for example within a trial insert to measure the level and incidence of the load on subsequent implanted prosthetic devices. It can be constructed using standard components and manufacturing processes. Manufacturing carriers or fixtures can be designed to emulate the final encapsulating enclosure of the sensing module 200. Calibration data can be obtained during the manufacturing processing thus enabling capture of accurate calibration data. These calibration parameters can be stored within the memory circuits integrated into the electronics assemblage of the sensing module 200. Testability and calibration further assures the quality and reliability of the encapsulated enclosure.
  • Examples of a wide range of potential medical applications can include, but are not limited to, implantable devices, modules within implantable devices, intra-operative implants or modules within intra-operative implants or trial inserts, modules within inserted or ingested devices, modules within wearable devices, modules within handheld devices, modules within instruments, appliances, equipment, or accessories of all of these, or disposables within implants, trial inserts, inserted or ingested devices, wearable devices, handheld devices, instruments, appliances, equipment, or accessories to these devices, instruments, appliances, or equipment.
  • FIG. 8 is a cross-sectional view of a layout architecture of the sensing module 200 in accordance with an exemplary embodiment. The blocks are operatively coupled together within the encapsulated enclosure of the sensing module 200 and together form an encapsulated force sensor 900. The encapsulated force sensor 900 illustrates an exemplary load sensing platform block A of the encapsulating force sensor 600 according to one embodiment. In general, the sensors overlie the electronics within the assembly to achieve the form factor required for implanting. It comprises a top steel plate 904 coupled to a lower printed circuit board (PCB) 918 by way of spring retainer 906, disc spring 908, and spring post 914. The load sensing platform block A is biased with springs or other means of elastic support to accurately maintain a required distance between the load bearing or contact surfaces such as top cover 902 and to minimize hysteresis due to material properties of waveguide 910.
  • Ultrasound waveguide 910 is coupled to the top cover 902. A force applied to the top cover 902 compresses waveguide 910. Lower piezo 924 and upper piezo 912 are piezo-electric transducers respectively coupled to waveguide 910 at a first and second location. In one embodiment, the transducers are ultrasonic transducers. Waveguide 910 is a compressible propagating medium for ultrasonic energy waves. The transducers emit energy waves and detect propagated energy waves in waveguide 910. Electronic circuitry is coupled to lower piezo 924 and upper piezo 912 to measure transit time, frequency, or phase of the propagated energy waves. The transit time, frequency, or phase of energy waves propagating between the first and second locations of waveguide 910 can be precisely measured and therefore the length of the ultrasound waveguide 910. The length of waveguide 910 is calculated by a known function relating material properties of the waveguide 910 to the parameter being measured. In the example, a force, pressure, or load is calculated from the measured length of waveguide 910. More than one waveguide 910 can be coupled to top cover 902 to measure the parameter value and the position where the parameter is applied to cover 902. For example, the magnitude and position of the loading on the contacting surface of sensing module 200 applied by femur 102 and tibia 108 to sensing module 200 can be measured and displayed. Multiple springs or other means of elastic support coupled with multiple sensing assemblages attached between the load bearing surfaces enable accurate translation of the extent and location of the center or focal point (or locus or centroid) of the load.
  • The encapsulated force sensor 900 can accurately and repeatedly measure one pound changes in load with changes in length of a waveguide comprising 2.5 microns. The maximum change in the present implementation is specified at less than 5.0 microns. This assures that the size of the sensing module 200 throughout all measurements remains within the required dimension (e.g., distance) of the insert between the load bearing surfaces of the prosthetic components.
  • An exemplary level of control of the compression or displacement of the waveguides 910 with changes in load, force, pressure, or displacement is achieved by positioning the spring or springs 908 or other means of elastic support, including the waveguides 910 themselves, between the load bearing contact surfaces to minimize any tendency of the load bearing contact surfaces to cantilever. Cantilevering can compromise the accuracy of the inclination of the load bearing contact surface whenever load, force, pressure, or displacement is applied to any point near a periphery of the load bearing contact surfaces. In one embodiment, springs 908 are disc springs. The spring 908 is held in a predetermined location by spring post 914 and spring retainer 904.
  • The walls of the unitary main body 957 include a small gap to enable the steel plate 904 to move. The hermetic seal is also flexible to allow the steel plate 904 of the force sensor 904 to slide up and down, like a piston, for distances on the order of a hundred microns without compromising integrity of the seal. The hermetic seal completes manufacturing, sterilization, and packaging processes without compromising ability to meet regulatory requirements for hermeticity. The level of hermeticity is sufficient to assure functionality and biocompatibility over the lifetime of the device. Implant devices with total implant time less than 24 hours may have less stringent regulatory requirements for hermeticity. Unbiased electrical circuitry is less susceptible to damage from moisture. The electronics in one embodiment are only powered during actual usage. In another embodiment, the encapsulated force sensor 900 employs low duty cycles to serve as a measurement-on-demand device to efficiently perform at low total operating time when the electronics are powered on.
  • FIG. 9 is a block diagram 1000 of a propagation tuned oscillator (PTO) 4 to maintain positive closed-loop feedback in accordance with an exemplary embodiment. The measurement system includes a sensing assemblage 1 and propagation tuned oscillator (PTO) 4 that detects energy waves 2 in one or more waveguides 3 of the sensing assemblage 1. In one embodiment, energy waves 2 are ultrasound waves. A pulse 11 is generated in response to the detection of energy waves 2 to initiate a propagation of a new energy wave in waveguide 3. It should be noted that ultrasound energy pulses or waves, the emission of ultrasound pulses or waves by ultrasound resonators or transducers, transmitted through ultrasound waveguides, and detected by ultrasound resonators or transducers are used merely as examples of energy pulses, waves, and propagation structures and media. Other embodiments herein contemplated can utilize other wave forms, such as, light.
  • The sensing assemblage 1 comprises transducer 5, transducer 6, and a waveguide 3 (or energy propagating structure). In a non-limiting example, sensing assemblage 1 is affixed to load bearing or contacting surfaces 8. External forces applied to the contacting surfaces 8 compress the waveguide 3 and change the length of the waveguide 3. Under compression, transducers 5 and 6 will also be moved closer together. The change in distance affects the transit time 7 of energy waves 2 transmitted and received between transducers 5 and 6. The propagation tuned oscillator 4 in response to these physical changes will detect each energy wave sooner (e.g. shorter transit time) and initiate the propagation of new energy waves associated with the shorter transit time. As will be explained below, this is accomplished by way of PTO 4 in conjunction with the pulse generator 10, the mode control 12, and the phase detector 14.
  • Notably, changes in the waveguide 3 (energy propagating structure or structures) alter the propagation properties of the medium of propagation (e.g. transit time 7). The energy wave can be a continuous wave or a pulsed energy wave. A pulsed energy wave approach reduces power dissipation allowing for a temporary power source such as a battery or capacitor to power the system during the course of operation. In at least one exemplary embodiment, a continuous wave energy wave or a pulsed energy wave is provided by transducer 5 to a first surface of waveguide 3. Transducer 5 generates energy waves 2 that are coupled into waveguide 3. In a non-limiting example, transducer 5 is a piezo-electric device capable of transmitting and receiving acoustic signals in the ultrasonic frequency range.
  • Transducer 6 is coupled to a second surface of waveguide 3 to receive the propagated pulsed signal and generates a corresponding electrical signal. The electrical signal output by transducer 6 is coupled to phase detector 14. In general, phase detector 14 compares the timing of a selected point on the waveform of the detected energy wave with respect to the timing of the same point on the waveform of other propagated energy waves. In a first embodiment, phase detector 14 can be a zero-crossing receiver. In a second embodiment, phase detector 14 can be an edge-detect receiver. In the example where sensing assemblage 1 is compressed, the detection of the propagated energy waves 2 occurs earlier (due to the length/distance reduction of waveguide 3) than a signal prior to external forces being applied to contacting surfaces. Pulse generator 10 generates a new pulse in response to detection of the propagated energy waves 2 by phase detector 14. The new pulse is provided to transducer 5 to initiate a new energy wave sequence. Thus, each energy wave sequence is an individual event of energy wave propagation, energy wave detection, and energy wave emission that maintains energy waves 2 propagating in waveguide 3.
  • The transit time 7 of a propagated energy wave is the time it takes an energy wave to propagate from the first surface of waveguide 3 to the second surface. There is delay associated with each circuit described above. Typically, the total delay of the circuitry is significantly less than the propagation time of an energy wave through waveguide 3. In addition, under equilibrium conditions variations in circuit delay are minimal. Multiple pulse to pulse timings can be used to generate an average time period when change in external forces occur relatively slowly in relation to the pulsed signal propagation time such as in a physiologic or mechanical system. The digital counter 20 in conjunction with electronic components counts the number of propagated energy waves to determine a corresponding change in the length of the waveguide 3. These changes in length change in direct proportion to the external force thus enabling the conversion of changes in parameter or parameters of interest into electrical signals.
  • The block diagram 1000 further includes counting and timing circuitry. More specifically, the timing, counting, and clock circuitry comprises a digital timer 20, a digital timer 22, a digital clock 24, and a data register 26. The digital clock 24 provides a clock signal to digital counter 20 and digital timer 22 during a measurement sequence. The digital counter 20 is coupled to the propagation tuned oscillator 4. Digital timer 22 is coupled to data register 26. Digital timer 20, digital timer, 22, digital clock 24 and data register 26 capture transit time 7 of energy waves 2 emitted by ultrasound resonator or transducer 5, propagated through waveguide 3, and detected by or ultrasound resonator or transducer 5 or 6 depending on the mode of the measurement of the physical parameters of interest applied to surfaces 8. The operation of the timing and counting circuitry is disclosed in more detail hereinbelow.
  • The measurement data can be analyzed to achieve accurate, repeatable, high precision and high resolution measurements. This method enables the setting of the level of precision or resolution of captured data to optimize trade-offs between measurement resolution versus frequency, including the bandwidth of the sensing and data processing operations, thus enabling a sensing module or device to operate at its optimal operating point without compromising resolution of the measurements. This is achieved by the accumulation of multiple cycles of excitation and transit time instead of averaging transit time of multiple individual excitation and transit cycles. The result is accurate, repeatable, high precision and high resolution measurements of parameters of interest in physical systems.
  • In at least one exemplary embodiment, propagation tuned oscillator 4 in conjunction with one or more sensing assemblages 1 are used to take measurements on a muscular-skeletal system. In a non-limiting example, sensing assemblage 1 is placed between a femoral prosthetic component and tibial prosthetic component to provide measured load information that aids in the installation of an artificial knee joint. Sensing assemblage 1 can also be a permanent component or a muscular-skeletal joint or artificial muscular-skeletal joint to monitor joint function. The measurements can be made in extension and in flexion. In the example, assemblage 1 is used to measure the condyle loading to determine if it falls within a predetermined range and location. Based on the measurement, the surgeon can select the thickness of the insert such that the measured loading and incidence with the final insert in place will fall within the predetermined range. Soft tissue tensioning can be used by a surgeon to further optimize the force or pressure. Similarly, two assemblages 1 can be used to measure both condyles simultaneously or multiplexed. The difference in loading (e.g. balance) between condyles can be measured. Soft tissue tensioning can be used to reduce the force on the condyle having the higher measured loading to reduce the measured pressure difference between condyles.
  • One method of operation holds the number of energy waves propagating through waveguide 3 as a constant integer number. A time period of an energy wave corresponds to energy wave periodicity. A stable time period is one in which the time period changes very little over a number of energy waves. This occurs when conditions that affect sensing assemblage 1 stay consistent or constant. Holding the number of energy waves propagating through waveguide 3 to an integer number is a constraint that forces a change in the time between pulses when the length of waveguide 3 changes. The resulting change in time period of each energy wave corresponds to a change in aggregate energy wave time period that is captured using digital counter 20 as a measurement of changes in external forces or conditions applied to contacting surfaces 8.
  • A further method of operation according to one embodiment is described hereinbelow for energy waves 2 propagating from transducer 5 and received by transducer 6. In at least one exemplary embodiment, energy waves 2 is an ultrasonic energy wave. Transducers 5 and 6 are piezo-electric resonator transducers. Although not described, wave propagation can occur in the opposite direction being initiated by transducer 6 and received by transducer 5. Furthermore, detecting ultrasound resonator transducer 6 can be a separate ultrasound resonator as shown or transducer 5 can be used solely depending on the selected mode of propagation (e.g. reflective sensing). Changes in external forces or conditions applied to contacting surfaces 8 affect the propagation characteristics of waveguide 3 and alter transit time 7. As mentioned previously, propagation tuned oscillator 4 holds constant an integer number of energy waves 2 propagating through waveguide 3 (e.g. an integer number of pulsed energy wave time periods) thereby controlling the repetition rate. As noted above, once PTO 4 stabilizes, the digital counter 20 digitizes the repetition rate of pulsed energy waves, for example, by way of edge-detection, as will be explained hereinbelow in more detail.
  • In an alternate embodiment, the repetition rate of pulsed energy waves 2 emitted by transducer 5 can be controlled by pulse generator 10. The operation remains similar where the parameter to be measured corresponds to the measurement of the transit time 7 of pulsed energy waves 2 within waveguide 3. It should be noted that an individual ultrasonic pulse can comprise one or more energy waves with a damping wave shape. The energy wave shape is determined by the electrical and mechanical parameters of pulse generator 10, interface material or materials, where required, and ultrasound resonator or transducer 5. The frequency of the energy waves within individual pulses is determined by the response of the emitting ultrasound resonator 4 to excitation by an electrical pulse 11. The mode of the propagation of the pulsed energy waves 2 through waveguide 3 is controlled by mode control circuitry 12 (e.g., reflectance or uni-directional). The detecting ultrasound resonator or transducer may either be a separate ultrasound resonator or transducer 6 or the emitting resonator or transducer 5 depending on the selected mode of propagation (reflectance or unidirectional).
  • In general, accurate measurement of physical parameters is achieved at an equilibrium point having the property that an integer number of pulses are propagating through the energy propagating structure at any point in time. Measurement of changes in the “time-of-flight” or transit time of ultrasound energy waves within a waveguide of known length can be achieved by modulating the repetition rate of the ultrasound energy waves as a function of changes in distance or velocity through the medium of propagation, or a combination of changes in distance and velocity, caused by changes in the parameter or parameters of interest.
  • It should be noted that ultrasound energy pulses or waves, the emission of ultrasound pulses or waves by ultrasound resonators or transducers, transmitted through ultrasound waveguides, and detected by ultrasound resonators or transducers are used merely as examples of energy pulses, waves, and propagation structures and media. Other embodiments herein contemplated can utilize other wave forms, such as, light. Furthermore, the velocity of ultrasound waves within a medium may be higher than in air. With the present dimensions of the initial embodiment of a propagation tuned oscillator the waveguide is approximately three wavelengths long at the frequency of operation.
  • Measurement by propagation tuned oscillator 4 and sensing assemblage 1 enables high sensitivity and high signal-to-noise ratio. The time-based measurements are largely insensitive to most sources of error that may influence voltage or current driven sensing methods and devices. The resulting changes in the transit time of operation correspond to frequency, which can be measured rapidly, and with high resolution. This achieves the required measurement accuracy and precision thus capturing changes in the physical parameters of interest and enabling analysis of their dynamic and static behavior.
  • These measurements may be implemented with an integrated wireless sensing module or device having an encapsulating structure that supports sensors and load bearing or contacting surfaces and an electronic assemblage that integrates a power supply, sensing elements, energy transducer or transducers and elastic energy propagating structure or structures, biasing spring or springs or other form of elastic members, an accelerometer, antennas and electronic circuitry that processes measurement data as well as controls all operations of ultrasound generation, propagation, and detection and wireless communications. The electronics assemblage also supports testability and calibration features that assure the quality, accuracy, and reliability of the completed wireless sensing module or device.
  • The level of accuracy and resolution achieved by the integration of energy transducers and an energy propagating structure or structures coupled with the electronic components of the propagation tuned oscillator enables the construction of, but is not limited to, compact ultra low power modules or devices for monitoring or measuring the parameters of interest. The flexibility to construct sensing modules or devices over a wide range of sizes enables sensing modules to be tailored to fit a wide range of applications such that the sensing module or device may be engaged with, or placed, attached, or affixed to, on, or within a body, instrument, appliance, vehicle, equipment, or other physical system and monitor or collect data on physical parameters of interest without disturbing the operation of the body, instrument, appliance, vehicle, equipment, or physical system.
  • FIG. 10 is a final insert 1102 in accordance with an exemplary embodiment. In the example, the final insert 1102 is a prosthetic component for a total knee reconstruction. Insert 1102 comprises two bearing surfaces that couple to the condyles of a femur or femoral prosthetic component. A bottom surface of insert 1102 couples to a tibial implant. The final insert 1102 is an active device for measuring a parameter of the muscular-skeletal system. A sensing module 1104 as disclosed hereinabove underlies each bearing surface of insert 1102. In one embodiment, a contacting surface of insert 1102 couples to the bearing surface. The final insert 1102 is a permanent or quasi-permanent member of the joint prosthesis that provides long term post-operative sensing of the joint. Quasi-permanent refers to the fact that insert 1102 has a wear surface that has a finite life time that could need replacing depending on a number of factors such as life style, physical shape, and length of use. Final insert 1102 replaces a passive insert that has no sensing capability. In one embodiment, an external device proximally located to the knee prosthetics can inductively charge the sensing module 1104. A super capacitor is charged in sensing module 1104 that powers the sensor and circuitry to perform the one or more measurements.
  • FIG. 11 is a perspective view of sensing modules 1104 in final insert 1102 in accordance with an exemplary embodiment. Final insert 1102 is shown being separated in two halves via a horizontal cut to show sensing modules 1104. Final insert 1102 is used in a total knee reconstruction where both knee compartments are replaced. A single sensing module 1104 would be used for a partial reconstruction. Bearing surfaces 1204 couple to a femoral prosthetic component (not shown) such that the articulating surfaces allow movement of the muscular-skeletal system. In the example, a bottom surface 1206 of the final insert 1102 aligns and couples to a tibial prosthetic component. In the example, the bottom surface 1206 is a support surface that retains insert 1102 in a fixed position relative to a mechanical axis of the leg. Furthermore, the bottom surface 1206 and a surface of the tibial prosthetic component are non-articulating.
  • Sensing modules 1104 underlie bearing surfaces 1204. A parameter of the muscular-skeletal system is applied to the bearing surface 1204 and couples through the material of final insert 1102 to contacting surfaces 1202 of sensing modules 1104. The bearing surfaces 1204 are typically a high strength polymer such as ultra high molecular weight polyethylene. In a non-limiting example, a force, pressure, or load is the parameter measured by sensing module 1104. Sensing module 1104 can measure parameter magnitude and the location where the parameter is applied. Sensing module 1104 can have a surface that mirrors or replicates the surface of bearing surfaces 1204.
  • In one embodiment, the final insert 1102 can be precision molded in two or more pieces that allow the positioning and insertion of sensing module 1104. As shown, the final insert is formed in two halves. The upper half includes the bearing surfaces 1204. The insert can be formed of a composite material. The composite material will at least include the bearing surface material and a second material that is attached or bonded together. A cavity is formed in predetermined locations that receive sensing modules 1104. The cavities correspond to bearing surfaces 1104 for each compartment of the knee. The sensing modules 1104 are placed in each cavity. The halves of final insert 1102 are then fastened together whereby the contacting surface 1202 operatively couples to a corresponding bearing surface 1204. The contact surfaces 1202 have a relational position to bearing surfaces 1104 allowing position detection where the parameter is applied. The halves of final insert 1102 can be mechanically fastened, attached by adhesive, thermally bonded or connected by other method such that halves will not separate under all operating conditions. The fastening process can also form a seal that isolates sensing modules 1104 from the external environment.
  • FIG. 12 is an illustration of the final insert 1102 installed in a knee in accordance with an exemplary embodiment. In the example, a femoral prosthetic component 1210 is coupled to a prepared 1214 femur. Similarly, a tibial prosthetic component 1212 is coupled to a prepared tibia 1216. The preparation includes alignment of the prosthetic components to a mechanical axis. The insert is placed between the tibial prosthetic component 1212 and femoral prosthetic component 1210. The artificial condyles of femoral prosthetic component 1210 articulate with a bearing surface of final insert 1102 that allows movement of the leg.
  • As disclosed above, final insert 1102 includes a sensing module that can transmit data to a processor 1208. The processor can be in a tool, equipment, computer, display, or other device. As shown, the processor is in a notebook computer. Receiver circuitry is coupled to processor 1208 that can communicate with the sensing module. Typically, the receiver circuitry is placed in close proximity to final insert 1102 to receive the short-range transmission. In one embodiment, the sensing module can only transmit data. In a second embodiment, the sensing module can have two-way communication between the sensing module and processor 1208.
  • The loading, balance, and position can be adjusted during surgery within predetermined quantitatively measured ranges through surgical techniques and adjustments using data from a trial insert and final insert 1102. Both the trial and final inserts include the sensing module to provide measured data to processor 1208 for display. The final insert 1102 is also used to monitor the reconstructed joint long term. The data can be used by the patient and health care providers to ensure that the joint is functioning properly during rehabilitation and as the patient returns to an active normal lifestyle. Conversely, the patient or health care provider is notified when the measured parameters are out of specification. This provides early detection of a problem that can be resolved with minimal stress to the patient. The data from final insert 1102 can be displayed on a screen in real time using data from the embedded sensing module. In one embodiment, a handheld device is used to receive data from final insert 1102. The handheld device can be held in proximity to the knee allowing a strong signal to be obtained for reception of the data.
  • In general, final insert 1102 is an example of a sensor system that can be integrated into prosthetic components. The form factor of the sensing assemblages, layout architecture, electronic circuitry, and housing allow it to fit in one or more prosthetic components. Moreover, it is a self-contained device that performs the measurement without extraneous devices. The sensing module can also be placed in femoral prosthetic component 1210 or tibial prosthetic component 1212 to measure a parameter of interest. Data generated by the device can be sent to a database for analysis.
  • Artificial components for other joint replacement surgeries have a similar operational form as the knee joint example. The joint typically comprises two or more bones with a cartilaginous surface as a bearing surface that allows joint movement. The cartilage also acts to absorb loading on the joint and prevents bone-to-bone contact. Reconstruction of the hip, spine, shoulder, and other joints have similar functioning insert structures having at least one bearing surface. Like the knee joint, these other insert structures typically comprise a polymer material. The polymer material is formed for a particular joint structure. For example, the hip insert is formed in a cup shape that is fitted into the pelvis. In general, the size and thickness of these other joint inserts allow the integration of the sensing module. It should be noted that the sensing module disclosed herein contemplates use in both trial inserts and permanent inserts for the other joints of the muscular-skeletal system thereby providing quantitative parameter measurements during and post surgery.
  • While the present invention has been described with reference to particular embodiments, those skilled in the art will recognize that many changes may be made thereto without departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention. Each of these embodiments and obvious variations thereof is contemplated as falling within the spirit and scope of the invention.

Claims (21)

  1. 1. A sensing system for measurement of a parameter of the muscular-skeletal system comprising:
    a trial insert having dimensions substantially equal to the dimensions of a final insert;
    a sensing module in the trial insert to measure the parameter.
  2. 2. The sensing system of claim 1 where the sensing module is placed in a cavity of the trial insert.
  3. 3. The sensing system of claim 1 where the sensing module is encapsulated to be hermetically sealed.
  4. 4. The sensing system of claim 2 where the trial insert comprises a dock having a feature that operatively couples to a prosthetic component where the dock includes an opening to receive the sensing module.
  5. 5. The sensing system of claim 1 where the trial insert interfaces with permanent prosthetic components.
  6. 6. The sensing system of claim 1 where the trial insert includes a cover overlying a contacting surface of the sensing module.
  7. 7. The sensing system of claim 1 where the trial insert measures a force, pressure, or load that is substantially equal to the force, pressure, or load applied by the muscular-skeletal system to the final insert when installed.
  8. 8. The sensing system of claim 1 where the sensing platform comprises
    one or more sensing assemblages;
    electronic circuitry operatively coupled to the one or more sensing assemblages to measure the parameter;
    a power source coupled to the electronic circuitry;
    a transmitter coupled to the electronic circuitry;
    an antenna coupled to the transmitter; and
    an enclosure that encapsulates the electronic circuitry, the power source, antenna, transmitter, and the one or more sensing assemblages
    where a transit time, frequency, or phase is measured by the sensing platform.
  9. 8. (canceled)
  10. 9. The sensing system of claim 1 where the sensing module is disposed of after surgery.
  11. 10. A prosthetic component with sensing capability for in-situ measurement of the muscular-skeletal system comprising a final insert having a bearing surface where a sensing module resides within the final insert and where the sensing module includes a contacting surface that couples to the bearing surface to measure loading thereon.
  12. 11. The prosthetic component 10 where a capacitor in the sensing module is inductively charged and where the capacitor powers the sensing module to measure a parameter of the muscular-skeletal system.
  13. 12. The prosthetic component of claim 11 where a transit time, frequency, or phase is measured by the sensing module corresponding to the parameter applied to the bearing surface of the final insert.
  14. 13. The sensing system of claim 12 where the sensing platform comprises
    one or more sensing assemblages;
    electronic circuitry operatively coupled to the one or more sensing assemblages to measure the parameter;
    a power source coupled to the electronic circuitry;
    a transmitter coupled to the electronic circuitry;
    an antenna coupled to the transmitter; and
    an enclosure that encapsulates the electronic circuitry, the power source, and the one or more sensing assemblages.
  15. 14. The sensing system of claim 13 where the sensing assemblage comprises:
    a compressible waveguide; and
    at least one transducer to emit an energy wave into the compressible waveguide and detect a propagated energy wave.
  16. 15. The sensing system of claim 13 where the sensing assemblage comprises a MEMS structure, a strain gauge, or a piezo-resistive sensor.
  17. 16. The sensing system of claim 11 where the sensing module measures position where the parameter is applied to the bearing surface of the final insert.
  18. 17. A trial insert for knee reconstruction comprising:
    a dock having an opening; and
    at least one sensing module placed in the dock where the trial insert has dimensions substantially equal to a final insert.
  19. 18. The trial insert of claim 17 further including a feature on the dock for aligning and retaining the dock to a tibial prosthetic component.
  20. 19. The trial insert of claim 17 where the at least one sensing module couples to permanent femoral and tibial prosthetic components during a measurement.
  21. 20. The trial insert of claim 17 where the sensing module has no components extending into the surgical field.
US12825736 2009-06-30 2010-06-29 Encapsulated force sensor for measuring a parameter of the muscular-skeletal system Abandoned US20100331737A1 (en)

Priority Applications (21)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US22190909 true 2009-06-30 2009-06-30
US22190109 true 2009-06-30 2009-06-30
US22180809 true 2009-06-30 2009-06-30
US22187909 true 2009-06-30 2009-06-30
US22179309 true 2009-06-30 2009-06-30
US22191609 true 2009-06-30 2009-06-30
US22176709 true 2009-06-30 2009-06-30
US22192309 true 2009-06-30 2009-06-30
US22189409 true 2009-06-30 2009-06-30
US22187409 true 2009-06-30 2009-06-30
US22176109 true 2009-06-30 2009-06-30
US22178809 true 2009-06-30 2009-06-30
US22188909 true 2009-06-30 2009-06-30
US22180109 true 2009-06-30 2009-06-30
US22192909 true 2009-06-30 2009-06-30
US22181709 true 2009-06-30 2009-06-30
US22188609 true 2009-06-30 2009-06-30
US22186709 true 2009-06-30 2009-06-30
US22177909 true 2009-06-30 2009-06-30
US22188109 true 2009-06-30 2009-06-30
US12825736 US20100331737A1 (en) 2009-06-30 2010-06-29 Encapsulated force sensor for measuring a parameter of the muscular-skeletal system

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US12825736 US20100331737A1 (en) 2009-06-30 2010-06-29 Encapsulated force sensor for measuring a parameter of the muscular-skeletal system

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US20100331737A1 true true US20100331737A1 (en) 2010-12-30

Family

ID=43379281

Family Applications (27)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US12748088 Active 2031-03-25 US8421479B2 (en) 2009-06-30 2010-03-26 Pulsed echo propagation device and method for measuring a parameter
US12748029 Abandoned US20100331733A1 (en) 2009-06-30 2010-03-26 Sensing device and method for an orthopedic joint
US12825834 Active 2032-06-27 US9301720B2 (en) 2009-06-30 2010-06-29 Integrated position and parameter sensing for the muscular-skeletal system
US12826363 Active 2031-04-25 US9492119B2 (en) 2009-06-30 2010-06-29 Sensing module for orthopedic load sensing insert device
US12826247 Active 2031-04-23 US8424384B2 (en) 2009-06-30 2010-06-29 System for continuous wave, pulsed, and pulsed-echo parameter measurement
US12825638 Abandoned US20100331734A1 (en) 2009-06-30 2010-06-29 System and method for orthopedic load sensing insert device
US12825931 Active 2031-09-19 US9592010B2 (en) 2009-06-30 2010-06-29 Dual mode closed-loop system and method for measuring a parameter of the muscular-skeletal system
US12825852 Active 2030-09-30 US8146422B2 (en) 2009-06-30 2010-06-29 High precision sensing for parameter measurement of the muscular-skeletal system
US12825661 Abandoned US20100331633A1 (en) 2009-06-30 2010-06-29 System and method for short range telemetry to measure a parameter of the muscular-skeletal system
US12826085 Active 2031-07-11 US8490488B2 (en) 2009-06-30 2010-06-29 Edge-detect receiver for orthopedic parameter sensing
US12825770 Active 2031-03-21 US8668646B2 (en) 2009-06-30 2010-06-29 Integrated sensor for medical applications
US12825671 Abandoned US20100331735A1 (en) 2009-06-30 2010-06-29 Wireless power modulation telemetry for measuring a parameter of the muscular-skeletal system
US12825736 Abandoned US20100331737A1 (en) 2009-06-30 2010-06-29 Encapsulated force sensor for measuring a parameter of the muscular-skeletal system
US12826134 Active 2031-03-13 US8337428B2 (en) 2009-06-30 2010-06-29 Zero-crossing receiver for orthopedic parameter sensing
US12825753 Active 2031-09-22 US8516907B2 (en) 2009-06-30 2010-06-29 Load sensing platform for measuring a parameter of the muscular-skeletal system
US12826273 Active 2031-10-13 US8690929B2 (en) 2009-06-30 2010-06-29 Orthopedic screw for measuring a parameter of the muscularskeletal system
US12826349 Active 2031-02-22 US8245583B2 (en) 2009-06-30 2010-06-29 Sensing module having a piezo-resistive sensor for orthopedic load sensing insert device
US12825646 Abandoned US20100328098A1 (en) 2009-06-30 2010-06-29 System and method for integrated antenna in a sensing module for measurement of the muscular-skeletal system
US12826109 Abandoned US20100331685A1 (en) 2009-06-30 2010-06-29 Transducer driver for measuring a parameter of the muscularskeletal system
US12825724 Abandoned US20100331736A1 (en) 2009-06-30 2010-06-29 Wireless sensing module for sensing a parameter of the muscular-skeletal system
US12825898 Abandoned US20100331680A1 (en) 2009-06-30 2010-06-29 High precision processing of measurement data for the muscular-skeletal system
US12826161 Abandoned US20100331682A1 (en) 2009-06-30 2010-06-29 Device and method for advanced low-power management of a sensor to measure a parameter of the muscular-skeletal system
US12825716 Active 2031-09-18 US9125627B2 (en) 2009-06-30 2010-06-29 Wireless power modulation telemetry for measuring a parameter of the muscular-skeletal system
US12825913 Active 2030-12-07 US8324975B2 (en) 2009-06-30 2010-06-29 Propagation tuned oscillator for orthopedic parameter measurement
US13539476 Active 2030-08-25 US8689647B2 (en) 2009-06-30 2012-07-01 Sensing module having a piezo-resistive sensor for orthopedic load sensing insert device
US14150358 Active 2031-09-01 US9943265B2 (en) 2009-06-30 2014-01-08 Integrated sensor for medical applications
US14172012 Active 2031-04-02 US9402583B2 (en) 2009-06-30 2014-02-04 Orthopedic screw for measuring a parameter of the muscular-skeletal system

Family Applications Before (12)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US12748088 Active 2031-03-25 US8421479B2 (en) 2009-06-30 2010-03-26 Pulsed echo propagation device and method for measuring a parameter
US12748029 Abandoned US20100331733A1 (en) 2009-06-30 2010-03-26 Sensing device and method for an orthopedic joint
US12825834 Active 2032-06-27 US9301720B2 (en) 2009-06-30 2010-06-29 Integrated position and parameter sensing for the muscular-skeletal system
US12826363 Active 2031-04-25 US9492119B2 (en) 2009-06-30 2010-06-29 Sensing module for orthopedic load sensing insert device
US12826247 Active 2031-04-23 US8424384B2 (en) 2009-06-30 2010-06-29 System for continuous wave, pulsed, and pulsed-echo parameter measurement
US12825638 Abandoned US20100331734A1 (en) 2009-06-30 2010-06-29 System and method for orthopedic load sensing insert device
US12825931 Active 2031-09-19 US9592010B2 (en) 2009-06-30 2010-06-29 Dual mode closed-loop system and method for measuring a parameter of the muscular-skeletal system
US12825852 Active 2030-09-30 US8146422B2 (en) 2009-06-30 2010-06-29 High precision sensing for parameter measurement of the muscular-skeletal system
US12825661 Abandoned US20100331633A1 (en) 2009-06-30 2010-06-29 System and method for short range telemetry to measure a parameter of the muscular-skeletal system
US12826085 Active 2031-07-11 US8490488B2 (en) 2009-06-30 2010-06-29 Edge-detect receiver for orthopedic parameter sensing
US12825770 Active 2031-03-21 US8668646B2 (en) 2009-06-30 2010-06-29 Integrated sensor for medical applications
US12825671 Abandoned US20100331735A1 (en) 2009-06-30 2010-06-29 Wireless power modulation telemetry for measuring a parameter of the muscular-skeletal system

Family Applications After (14)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US12826134 Active 2031-03-13 US8337428B2 (en) 2009-06-30 2010-06-29 Zero-crossing receiver for orthopedic parameter sensing
US12825753 Active 2031-09-22 US8516907B2 (en) 2009-06-30 2010-06-29 Load sensing platform for measuring a parameter of the muscular-skeletal system
US12826273 Active 2031-10-13 US8690929B2 (en) 2009-06-30 2010-06-29 Orthopedic screw for measuring a parameter of the muscularskeletal system
US12826349 Active 2031-02-22 US8245583B2 (en) 2009-06-30 2010-06-29 Sensing module having a piezo-resistive sensor for orthopedic load sensing insert device
US12825646 Abandoned US20100328098A1 (en) 2009-06-30 2010-06-29 System and method for integrated antenna in a sensing module for measurement of the muscular-skeletal system
US12826109 Abandoned US20100331685A1 (en) 2009-06-30 2010-06-29 Transducer driver for measuring a parameter of the muscularskeletal system
US12825724 Abandoned US20100331736A1 (en) 2009-06-30 2010-06-29 Wireless sensing module for sensing a parameter of the muscular-skeletal system
US12825898 Abandoned US20100331680A1 (en) 2009-06-30 2010-06-29 High precision processing of measurement data for the muscular-skeletal system
US12826161 Abandoned US20100331682A1 (en) 2009-06-30 2010-06-29 Device and method for advanced low-power management of a sensor to measure a parameter of the muscular-skeletal system
US12825716 Active 2031-09-18 US9125627B2 (en) 2009-06-30 2010-06-29 Wireless power modulation telemetry for measuring a parameter of the muscular-skeletal system
US12825913 Active 2030-12-07 US8324975B2 (en) 2009-06-30 2010-06-29 Propagation tuned oscillator for orthopedic parameter measurement
US13539476 Active 2030-08-25 US8689647B2 (en) 2009-06-30 2012-07-01 Sensing module having a piezo-resistive sensor for orthopedic load sensing insert device
US14150358 Active 2031-09-01 US9943265B2 (en) 2009-06-30 2014-01-08 Integrated sensor for medical applications
US14172012 Active 2031-04-02 US9402583B2 (en) 2009-06-30 2014-02-04 Orthopedic screw for measuring a parameter of the muscular-skeletal system

Country Status (1)

Country Link
US (27) US8421479B2 (en)

Cited By (36)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20100331682A1 (en) * 2009-06-30 2010-12-30 Orthosensor Device and method for advanced low-power management of a sensor to measure a parameter of the muscular-skeletal system
US8057479B2 (en) 2003-06-09 2011-11-15 OrthAlign, Inc. Surgical orientation system and method
US8057482B2 (en) 2003-06-09 2011-11-15 OrthAlign, Inc. Surgical orientation device and method
US8118815B2 (en) 2009-07-24 2012-02-21 OrthAlign, Inc. Systems and methods for joint replacement
US20120157884A1 (en) * 2010-06-29 2012-06-21 Orthosensor Medical measurement system and method
US20120157885A1 (en) * 2010-06-29 2012-06-21 Orthosensor Muscular-skeletal force, pressure, and load measurement system and method
US20120191206A1 (en) * 2010-06-29 2012-07-26 Orthosensor Hermetically sealed prosthetic component and method therefor
US20130079669A1 (en) * 2011-09-23 2013-03-28 Orthosensor Small form factor muscular-skeletal parameter measurement system
US20130079670A1 (en) * 2011-09-23 2013-03-28 Orthosensor Self-contained muscular-skeletal parameter measurement system having un-loaded or lightly loaded cavity
US8516884B2 (en) 2010-06-29 2013-08-27 Orthosensor Inc. Shielded prosthetic component
US20130226034A1 (en) * 2012-02-27 2013-08-29 Orthosensor Inc. Measurement device for the muscular-skeletal system having load distribution plates
US8661893B2 (en) 2010-06-29 2014-03-04 Orthosensor Inc. Prosthetic component having a compliant surface
US8690888B2 (en) 2011-09-23 2014-04-08 Orthosensor Inc. Modular active spine tool for measuring vertebral load and position of load
US8701484B2 (en) 2010-06-29 2014-04-22 Orthosensor Inc. Small form factor medical sensor structure and method therefor
US8707782B2 (en) 2009-06-30 2014-04-29 Orthosensor Inc Prosthetic component for monitoring synovial fluid and method
US8714009B2 (en) 2010-06-29 2014-05-06 Orthosensor Inc. Shielded capacitor sensor system for medical applications and method
US8720270B2 (en) 2010-06-29 2014-05-13 Ortho Sensor Inc. Prosthetic component for monitoring joint health
US8826733B2 (en) 2009-06-30 2014-09-09 Orthosensor Inc Sensored prosthetic component and method
US20140277526A1 (en) * 2013-03-18 2014-09-18 Orthosensor Inc Kinetic assessment and alignment of the muscular-skeletal system and method therefor
US8911448B2 (en) 2011-09-23 2014-12-16 Orthosensor, Inc Device and method for enabling an orthopedic tool for parameter measurement
US8911447B2 (en) 2008-07-24 2014-12-16 OrthAlign, Inc. Systems and methods for joint replacement
US8926530B2 (en) 2011-09-23 2015-01-06 Orthosensor Inc Orthopedic insert measuring system for having a sterilized cavity
US8945133B2 (en) 2011-09-23 2015-02-03 Orthosensor Inc Spinal distraction tool for load and position measurement
US8974468B2 (en) 2008-09-10 2015-03-10 OrthAlign, Inc. Hip surgery systems and methods
US9259179B2 (en) 2012-02-27 2016-02-16 Orthosensor Inc. Prosthetic knee joint measurement system including energy harvesting and method therefor
US9271675B2 (en) 2012-02-27 2016-03-01 Orthosensor Inc. Muscular-skeletal joint stability detection and method therefor
US9332943B2 (en) 2011-09-23 2016-05-10 Orthosensor Inc Flexible surface parameter measurement system for the muscular-skeletal system
US9339226B2 (en) 2010-01-21 2016-05-17 OrthAlign, Inc. Systems and methods for joint replacement
US9414940B2 (en) 2011-09-23 2016-08-16 Orthosensor Inc. Sensored head for a measurement tool for the muscular-skeletal system
US20160310297A1 (en) * 2015-04-22 2016-10-27 John Anes Universal force sensor for medical applications
US9549742B2 (en) 2012-05-18 2017-01-24 OrthAlign, Inc. Devices and methods for knee arthroplasty
US9622701B2 (en) 2012-02-27 2017-04-18 Orthosensor Inc Muscular-skeletal joint stability detection and method therefor
US9649160B2 (en) 2012-08-14 2017-05-16 OrthAlign, Inc. Hip replacement navigation system and method
US9757051B2 (en) 2012-11-09 2017-09-12 Orthosensor Inc. Muscular-skeletal tracking system and method
US9839390B2 (en) 2009-06-30 2017-12-12 Orthosensor Inc. Prosthetic component having a compliant surface
US9839374B2 (en) 2011-09-23 2017-12-12 Orthosensor Inc. System and method for vertebral load and location sensing

Families Citing this family (55)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US7182738B2 (en) 2003-04-23 2007-02-27 Marctec, Llc Patient monitoring apparatus and method for orthosis and other devices
DE102005051496A1 (en) * 2005-10-26 2007-05-10 Otto Bock Healthcare Ip Gmbh & Co. Kg A method for performing functional analysis of an artificial limb
WO2010088262A3 (en) * 2009-01-27 2010-12-02 University Of Washington Prosthetic limb monitoring system
US8706243B2 (en) 2009-02-09 2014-04-22 Rainbow Medical Ltd. Retinal prosthesis techniques
US8150526B2 (en) 2009-02-09 2012-04-03 Nano-Retina, Inc. Retinal prosthesis
US8939030B2 (en) * 2010-06-29 2015-01-27 Orthosensor Inc Edge-detect receiver for orthopedic parameter sensing
KR20150000456A (en) 2011-09-23 2015-01-02 오르소센서 A prosthetic component for monitoring joint health
US8539830B2 (en) * 2010-06-29 2013-09-24 Orthosensor Inc. High precision sensing for parameter measurement of bone density
US20100331738A1 (en) * 2009-06-30 2010-12-30 Orthosensor Integrated sensor and interconnect for measuring a parameter of the muscular-skeletal system
GB0918826D0 (en) * 2009-10-27 2009-12-09 Depuy Orthopaedie Gmbh Intra-operative surgical plan changing
US8718784B2 (en) 2010-01-14 2014-05-06 Nano-Retina, Inc. Penetrating electrodes for retinal stimulation
WO2011088289A3 (en) * 2010-01-15 2011-11-10 Dinkler Surgical Devices, Inc. Method and device for use of a smart skull pin
US9042995B2 (en) * 2010-02-03 2015-05-26 Medtronic, Inc. Implantable medical devices and systems having power management for recharge sessions
WO2011097289A1 (en) * 2010-02-03 2011-08-11 Medtronic, Inc. Implantable medical devices and systems having dual frequency inductive telemetry and recharge
JP4783481B1 (en) * 2010-02-18 2011-09-28 パナソニック株式会社 Ultrasonic measuring method and ultrasonic measuring device
US8206452B2 (en) * 2010-02-18 2012-06-26 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Prosthetic device with damper
US8473070B2 (en) * 2010-03-26 2013-06-25 Boston Scientific Neuromodulation Corporation Method for a controlled shutdown of an implantable medical device
US8384559B2 (en) * 2010-04-13 2013-02-26 Silicon Laboratories Inc. Sensor device with flexible interface and updatable information store
US8979758B2 (en) * 2010-06-29 2015-03-17 Orthosensor Inc Sensing module for orthopedic load sensing insert device
US8428740B2 (en) 2010-08-06 2013-04-23 Nano-Retina, Inc. Retinal prosthesis techniques
US8442641B2 (en) 2010-08-06 2013-05-14 Nano-Retina, Inc. Retinal prosthesis techniques
US8603101B2 (en) 2010-12-17 2013-12-10 Zimmer, Inc. Provisional tibial prosthesis system
US9597090B2 (en) 2010-12-17 2017-03-21 Zimmer, Inc. Cut guide attachment for use in tibial prosthesis systems
US8571669B2 (en) 2011-02-24 2013-10-29 Nano-Retina, Inc. Retinal prosthesis with efficient processing circuits
US9136728B2 (en) 2011-04-28 2015-09-15 Medtronic, Inc. Implantable medical devices and systems having inductive telemetry and recharge on a single coil
US9069380B2 (en) 2011-06-10 2015-06-30 Aliphcom Media device, application, and content management using sensory input
CA2817048A1 (en) * 2011-06-10 2012-12-13 Aliphcom Power management in a data-capable strapband
US8446275B2 (en) 2011-06-10 2013-05-21 Aliphcom General health and wellness management method and apparatus for a wellness application using data from a data-capable band
US9258670B2 (en) 2011-06-10 2016-02-09 Aliphcom Wireless enabled cap for a data-capable device
US8793522B2 (en) * 2011-06-11 2014-07-29 Aliphcom Power management in a data-capable strapband
US9307929B2 (en) 2011-09-12 2016-04-12 Scipps Health Apparatus and methods for balancing a joint
GB201121518D0 (en) * 2011-12-14 2012-01-25 Isis Innovation An orthopaedic bearing and method of assessing an orthopaedic implant
US9597516B2 (en) * 2012-01-27 2017-03-21 Medtronic, Inc. Wireless communication device for medical telemetry
US9492290B2 (en) 2012-03-30 2016-11-15 Zimmer, Inc. Tibial prosthesis systems, kits, and methods
US20140066812A1 (en) * 2012-08-15 2014-03-06 Institute of Orthopedic Research and Eduction System and Method for Monitoring the Health of Joints
FR2998108B1 (en) * 2012-11-12 2014-12-19 Accumulateurs Fixes pre-load system with a capacity from a battery
US9720477B2 (en) 2012-11-21 2017-08-01 Nano-Retina, Inc. Weak power supply operation and control
US9308102B2 (en) 2013-03-04 2016-04-12 Howmedica Osteonics Corp. Acetabular cup positioning device
US9370417B2 (en) 2013-03-14 2016-06-21 Nano-Retina, Inc. Foveated retinal prosthesis
US9468363B2 (en) 2013-03-14 2016-10-18 Stryker Corporation Power supply through a single track of discrete electrodes and method therefor
US9215075B1 (en) 2013-03-15 2015-12-15 Poltorak Technologies Llc System and method for secure relayed communications from an implantable medical device
US9400179B2 (en) * 2013-04-11 2016-07-26 Littelfuse, Inc. Propagation velocity compensated position measurement sensor
US9592133B2 (en) 2013-09-23 2017-03-14 Zimmer, Inc. Spacer block
US9784835B1 (en) 2013-09-27 2017-10-10 Waymo Llc Laser diode timing feedback using trace loop
US20150106024A1 (en) * 2013-10-10 2015-04-16 Orthonetic, LLC Systems and methods for determining implant position and orientation
US9185087B2 (en) 2013-10-24 2015-11-10 Medtronic, Inc. Medical device communication using encryption based on correlated motion
US9474902B2 (en) 2013-12-31 2016-10-25 Nano Retina Ltd. Wearable apparatus for delivery of power to a retinal prosthesis
US9488716B2 (en) * 2013-12-31 2016-11-08 Google Inc. Microphone autolocalization using moving acoustic source
US9331791B2 (en) 2014-01-21 2016-05-03 Nano Retina Ltd. Transfer of power and data
JP6325850B2 (en) * 2014-03-14 2018-05-16 公立大学法人大阪府立大学 Fat diagnostic equipment
US9693882B2 (en) 2014-06-03 2017-07-04 DePuy Synthes Products, Inc. Optical trial device
US20160346044A1 (en) 2015-05-28 2016-12-01 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Flexibly planned kitted knee protocol
WO2017143400A1 (en) * 2016-02-26 2017-08-31 Macquarie University Implanted sensing system for joint replacements
US9699294B1 (en) * 2016-06-05 2017-07-04 Chun-Fu Yao Mobile smart massage device
US10097029B2 (en) * 2016-07-26 2018-10-09 Nxp B.V. Wireless charging transmitter

Citations (30)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5197488A (en) * 1991-04-05 1993-03-30 N. K. Biotechnical Engineering Co. Knee joint load measuring instrument and joint prosthesis
US5470354A (en) * 1991-11-12 1995-11-28 Biomet Inc. Force sensing apparatus and method for orthopaedic joint reconstruction
US5683396A (en) * 1996-02-20 1997-11-04 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Orthopaedic cutting instrumentation with cam locking arrangement
US5688279A (en) * 1992-09-01 1997-11-18 Depuy Orthopedics, Inc. Alignment guide for a bone cutting block
US5871018A (en) * 1995-12-26 1999-02-16 Delp; Scott L. Computer-assisted surgical method
US6171252B1 (en) * 1999-04-29 2001-01-09 Medtronic, Inc. Pressure sensor with increased sensitivity for use with an implantable medical device
US6245109B1 (en) * 1999-11-18 2001-06-12 Intellijoint Systems, Ltd. Artificial joint system and method utilizing same for monitoring wear and displacement of artificial joint members
US20020029784A1 (en) * 1999-06-11 2002-03-14 Izex Technologies, Inc. Database management for an orthopedic treatment system
US6583630B2 (en) * 1999-11-18 2003-06-24 Intellijoint Systems Ltd. Systems and methods for monitoring wear and/or displacement of artificial joint members, vertebrae, segments of fractured bones and dental implants
US6621278B2 (en) * 1999-04-28 2003-09-16 Nexense Ltd. High-precision measuring method and apparatus
US20040019382A1 (en) * 2002-03-19 2004-01-29 Farid Amirouche System and method for prosthetic fitting and balancing in joints
US6701174B1 (en) * 2000-04-07 2004-03-02 Carnegie Mellon University Computer-aided bone distraction
US6714763B2 (en) * 2000-01-24 2004-03-30 Microstrain, Inc Micropower differential sensor measurement
US20040113790A1 (en) * 2002-09-23 2004-06-17 Hamel Michael John Remotely powered and remotely interrogated wireless digital sensor telemetry system
US6821299B2 (en) * 2002-07-24 2004-11-23 Zimmer Technology, Inc. Implantable prosthesis for measuring six force components
US20050010301A1 (en) * 2003-07-11 2005-01-13 Disilvestro Mark R. In vivo joint space measurement device and method
US20050020941A1 (en) * 2003-07-24 2005-01-27 Samih Tarabichi Dynamic spacer for total knee arthroplasty
US20050177169A1 (en) * 2004-02-06 2005-08-11 Synvasive Technology, Inc. Dynamic knee balancer
US7001346B2 (en) * 2001-11-14 2006-02-21 Michael R. White Apparatus and methods for making intraoperative orthopedic measurements
US20060047283A1 (en) * 2004-08-25 2006-03-02 Evans Boyd M Iii In-vivo orthopedic implant diagnostic device for sensing load, wear, and infection
US20060058798A1 (en) * 2004-08-24 2006-03-16 Roman Shawn D Bone distractor with ratchet mechanism
US20060232408A1 (en) * 2005-04-18 2006-10-19 Sdgi Holdings, Inc. Method and apparatus for implant identification
US20060271112A1 (en) * 2004-11-15 2006-11-30 Martinson James B Instrumented orthopedic and other medical implants
US20070219561A1 (en) * 2006-03-20 2007-09-20 Perception Raisonnement Action En Medecine Distractor system
US20070234819A1 (en) * 2006-03-29 2007-10-11 Farid Amirouche Force monitoring system
US7295724B2 (en) * 2004-03-01 2007-11-13 University Of Washington Polymer based distributive waveguide sensor for pressure and shear measurement
US20070272747A1 (en) * 2006-05-25 2007-11-29 Woods Sherrod A Method and system for managing inventories of orthopaedic implants
US7587945B2 (en) * 2004-06-15 2009-09-15 Synthes Usa, Llc Device for measuring tibio-femoral force amplitudes and force locations in total knee arthroplasty
US7615055B2 (en) * 2005-03-31 2009-11-10 Depuy Products, Inc. Method and apparatus for use in balancing ligaments of a knee
US7632283B2 (en) * 2002-09-30 2009-12-15 Depuy Products, Inc. Modified system and method for intraoperative tension assessment during joint arthroplasty

Family Cites Families (211)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US517488A (en) * 1894-04-03 Trator op carl h
US757602A (en) * 1903-06-23 1904-04-19 Robert W Dodge Heating stove or furnace.
US758945A (en) * 1904-02-12 1904-05-03 William Buzby Tyler Process of treating pictures.
US3495149A (en) * 1965-05-27 1970-02-10 William H Swain Commutating inductor for use in silicon controlled rectifier power controllers
US3611297A (en) * 1969-06-09 1971-10-05 Oak Electro Netics Corp Remote control receiver using a frequency counter approach
US3727616A (en) * 1971-06-15 1973-04-17 Gen Dynamics Corp Electronic system for the stimulation of biological systems
US3958078A (en) * 1974-08-30 1976-05-18 Ithaco, Inc. X-ray inspection method and apparatus
US4127110A (en) * 1976-05-24 1978-11-28 Huntington Institute Of Applied Medical Research Implantable pressure transducer
US4092597A (en) * 1976-08-10 1978-05-30 International Telephone & Telegraph Corporation Confirmation circuit for a two-way communication system
US4198987A (en) * 1978-01-09 1980-04-22 Cain Clarence P Measuring system including elements implantable beneath the skin
US4361154A (en) * 1978-07-28 1982-11-30 Massachusetts Institute Of Technology Method for establishing, in vivo, bone strength
JPS6128336B2 (en) * 1979-04-26 1986-06-30 Kunyasu Furuhira
JPS5855591B2 (en) * 1979-07-19 1983-12-10 Fuanatsuku Kk
US4277758A (en) * 1979-08-09 1981-07-07 Taga Electric Company, Limited Ultrasonic wave generating apparatus with voltage-controlled filter
US4271371A (en) * 1979-09-26 1981-06-02 Kabushiki Kaisha Morita Seisakusho Driving system for an ultrasonic piezoelectric transducer
DE3006106A1 (en) * 1980-02-19 1981-08-27 Siemens Ag Ultrasonic transmitter
JPS5743700U (en) * 1980-08-25 1982-03-10
US4453162A (en) * 1982-05-10 1984-06-05 Telectronics Pty. Ltd. Efficient and fast-switching telemetry transmitter
JPS6412132B2 (en) * 1982-07-06 1989-02-28 Iwata Erekutoritsuku Kk
US4480485A (en) * 1982-10-01 1984-11-06 Panametrics, Inc. Acoustic flowmeter with envelope midpoint tracking
US4510812A (en) * 1982-12-20 1985-04-16 Dunegan Corporation Apparatus for acoustic emission detection including a waveguide made of aluminum or beryllium oxide
FR2567705B1 (en) * 1984-07-13 1986-11-14 Thomson Csf piezoelectric transducer and pressure sensor using such a transducer
GB8418213D0 (en) * 1984-07-17 1984-08-22 Fisco Electronics Ltd Distance sensing
US4986281A (en) * 1984-08-23 1991-01-22 Starkey Laboratories, Inc. Method for obtaining a signal for analyzing human and animal joint functions
US4850962A (en) * 1984-12-04 1989-07-25 Medical Devices Group, Inc. Implantable hearing aid and method of improving hearing
US4646754A (en) * 1985-02-19 1987-03-03 Seale Joseph B Non-invasive determination of mechanical characteristics in the body
JPS62194652A (en) * 1986-02-21 1987-08-27 Hitachi Ltd Semiconductor device
US4857893A (en) * 1986-07-18 1989-08-15 Bi Inc. Single chip transponder device
JPH0479589B2 (en) * 1987-04-03 1992-12-16 Matsushita Electric Works Ltd
EP0299906A3 (en) * 1987-07-16 1990-06-13 The University Of Melbourne In-vivo bone quality measurement
FR2621433B1 (en) * 1987-10-06 1989-12-08 Thomson Semiconducteurs Method for expansion of an analog signal and device for carrying out the METHOD
EP0407587A4 (en) * 1988-09-30 1992-03-11 Kabushiki Kaisha Komatsu Seisakusho Pressure sensor
US4899761A (en) * 1988-03-31 1990-02-13 Brown Mark D Apparatus and method for measuring spinal instability
US4930511A (en) * 1988-05-11 1990-06-05 Lunar Radiation, Inc. Ultrasonic densitometer device and method
US6517487B1 (en) * 1995-03-01 2003-02-11 Lunar Corporation Ultrasonic densitometer with opposed single transducer and transducer array
US5042489A (en) * 1988-05-11 1991-08-27 Lunar Corporation Ultrasonic densitometer device and method
US5603325A (en) * 1988-05-11 1997-02-18 Lunar Corporation Ultrasonic densitometer with width compensation
US4866986A (en) * 1988-09-15 1989-09-19 Sonoscan, Inc. Method and system for dual phase scanning acoustic microscopy
US4902958A (en) * 1988-11-14 1990-02-20 Progressive Dynamics, Inc. Incandescent light regulation and intensity controller
US5400788A (en) * 1989-05-16 1995-03-28 Hewlett-Packard Apparatus that generates acoustic signals at discrete multiple frequencies and that couples acoustic signals into a cladded-core acoustic waveguide
US6515593B1 (en) * 1995-02-15 2003-02-04 Izex Technologies, Inc. Communication system for an instrumented orthopedic restraining device and method therefor
US5119676A (en) * 1991-09-03 1992-06-09 The Babcock & Wilcox Company Ultrasonic method and apparatus for determining water level in a closed vessel
US5335664A (en) * 1991-09-17 1994-08-09 Casio Computer Co., Ltd. Monitor system and biological signal transmitter therefor
GB9200218D0 (en) * 1992-01-07 1992-02-26 Univ Bradford Method and apparatus for the identification of species
US5259384A (en) * 1992-07-30 1993-11-09 Kaufman Jonathan J Ultrasonic bone-assessment apparatus and method
US5260910A (en) * 1992-10-15 1993-11-09 Milltronics Ltd. High resolution acoustic pulse-echo ranging system
US5289436A (en) * 1992-10-22 1994-02-22 General Electric Company Ultrasonic waveguide
US5491604A (en) * 1992-12-11 1996-02-13 The Regents Of The University Of California Q-controlled microresonators and tunable electronic filters using such resonators
US5291090A (en) * 1992-12-17 1994-03-01 Hewlett-Packard Company Curvilinear interleaved longitudinal-mode ultrasound transducers
US5456724A (en) * 1993-12-15 1995-10-10 Industrial Technology Research Institute Load sensor for bone graft
US5650571A (en) * 1995-03-13 1997-07-22 Freud; Paul J. Low power signal processing and measurement apparatus
US5876265A (en) * 1995-04-26 1999-03-02 Fujitsu Limited End point polishing apparatus and polishing method
US5733292A (en) * 1995-09-15 1998-03-31 Midwest Orthopaedic Research Foundation Arthroplasty trial prosthesis alignment devices and associated methods
US5669914A (en) 1996-02-16 1997-09-23 Board Of Regents Of The University Of Colorado Rotation alignment instrument
US5879301A (en) * 1996-02-16 1999-03-09 Orthologic Corp. Ultrasonic bone assessment method and apparatus
US5651363A (en) * 1996-02-16 1997-07-29 Orthologic Corporation Ultrasonic bone assessment method and apparatus
US5686882A (en) * 1996-02-20 1997-11-11 Giani; Sandra M. Silent alarm band
US5911159A (en) * 1996-11-07 1999-06-08 New Mexico State University Technology Transfer Corporation Resin cure monitoring
US6296385B1 (en) * 1997-05-12 2001-10-02 Mississippi State University Apparatus and method for high temperature viscosity and temperature measurements
US6072784A (en) * 1997-07-25 2000-06-06 At&T Corp. CDMA mobile station wireless transmission power management with adaptive scheduling priorities based on battery power level
US5900592A (en) * 1997-08-29 1999-05-04 Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corp. Load sensing system
JP3436871B2 (en) * 1997-10-23 2003-08-18 株式会社東芝 Communication resource management method and node apparatus
US6348058B1 (en) * 1997-12-12 2002-02-19 Surgical Navigation Technologies, Inc. Image guided spinal surgery guide, system, and method for use thereof
US6431175B1 (en) * 1997-12-30 2002-08-13 Remon Medical Technologies Ltd. System and method for directing and monitoring radiation
EP1047339A2 (en) * 1998-01-14 2000-11-02 Metra Biosystems, Inc. Apparatus and method for ultrasonic bone assessment
US6546277B1 (en) * 1998-04-21 2003-04-08 Neutar L.L.C. Instrument guidance system for spinal and other surgery
US6614395B2 (en) * 1998-07-24 2003-09-02 Trimble Navigation Limited Self-calibrating electronic distance measurement instrument
US6670913B1 (en) * 1998-07-24 2003-12-30 Trimble Navigation Limited Self-calibrating electronic distance measurement instrument
US6165142A (en) * 1998-09-21 2000-12-26 Roho, Inc. Biomedical apparatus
US6364825B1 (en) * 1998-09-24 2002-04-02 St. Croix Medical, Inc. Method and apparatus for improving signal quality in implantable hearing systems
US6115636A (en) * 1998-12-22 2000-09-05 Medtronic, Inc. Telemetry for implantable devices using the body as an antenna
JP3077688B1 (en) * 1999-02-12 2000-08-14 日本電気株式会社 The organic thin film el panel and manufacturing method thereof
JP3817965B2 (en) * 1999-04-21 2006-09-06 富士ゼロックス株式会社 Detecting device
US7080554B2 (en) * 1999-04-28 2006-07-25 Nexense Ltd. High-precision measuring method and apparatus
US20020133094A1 (en) * 1999-05-03 2002-09-19 Access Wellness And Physical Therapy Soft tissue diagnostic apparatus and method
US7173722B1 (en) * 1999-05-25 2007-02-06 Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd Method and system for printing a photograph
US6312381B1 (en) * 1999-09-14 2001-11-06 Acuson Corporation Medical diagnostic ultrasound system and method
US6436101B1 (en) * 1999-10-13 2002-08-20 James S. Hamada Rasp for use in spine surgery
US7478108B2 (en) * 1999-12-06 2009-01-13 Micro Strain, Inc. Data collection using sensing units and separate control units with all power derived from the control units
US6352532B1 (en) * 1999-12-14 2002-03-05 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Active load control of ultrasonic surgical instruments
WO2001045561A1 (en) * 1999-12-22 2001-06-28 Tensor B.V. Method and device for monitoring a muscle or group of muscles
US7095981B1 (en) * 2000-04-04 2006-08-22 Great American Technologies Low power infrared portable communication system with wireless receiver and methods regarding same
JP2001321343A (en) * 2000-05-12 2001-11-20 Misaki:Kk Health index measuring device
JP3824848B2 (en) * 2000-07-24 2006-09-20 シャープ株式会社 Communication apparatus and communication method
WO2002015769A3 (en) * 2000-08-25 2002-06-27 Cleveland Clinic Foundation Apparatus and method for assessing loads on adjacent bones
US6443891B1 (en) * 2000-09-20 2002-09-03 Medtronic, Inc. Telemetry modulation protocol system for medical devices
WO2002030264A3 (en) * 2000-10-10 2003-07-17 Microchips Inc Microchip reservoir devices using wireless transmission of power and data
US6571787B2 (en) * 2001-03-12 2003-06-03 Roger P. Remaklus Kisser button, particularly for shorter archery bows
US7195654B2 (en) 2001-03-29 2007-03-27 The Lubrizol Corporation Gasoline additive concentrate composition and fuel composition and method thereof
WO2003009753A3 (en) * 2001-07-26 2005-12-15 Bouton Chad Detection of fluids in tissue
US7347817B2 (en) * 2001-08-02 2008-03-25 Given Imaging Ltd. Polarized in vivo imaging device, system and method
US20030069644A1 (en) * 2001-10-05 2003-04-10 Nebojsa Kovacevic Dual-tray teletibial implant
WO2003048808A3 (en) * 2001-10-25 2003-10-23 Carl V Nelson Wide area metal detection (wamd) system and method for security screening crowds
EP1316780B1 (en) * 2001-11-28 2016-12-28 Krohne AG Ultrasonic flow meter
US6993393B2 (en) * 2001-12-19 2006-01-31 Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc. Telemetry duty cycle management system for an implantable medical device
WO2003061756A3 (en) 2002-01-23 2003-10-16 Univ California Implantable thermal treatment method and apparatus
WO2003090630A3 (en) * 2002-04-25 2004-04-08 Tyco Healthcare Surgical instruments including micro-electromechanical systems (mems)
US7308614B2 (en) * 2002-04-30 2007-12-11 Honeywell International Inc. Control sequencing and prognostics health monitoring for digital power conversion and load management
DK174756B1 (en) * 2002-06-30 2003-10-20 Siemens Flow Instr As A method for measuring the flow by means of an ultrasonic flow meter
US7060075B2 (en) * 2002-07-18 2006-06-13 Biosense, Inc. Distal targeting of locking screws in intramedullary nails
US7591854B2 (en) 2002-09-30 2009-09-22 Depuy Products, Inc. Apparatus, system and method for intraoperative performance analysis during joint arthroplasty
US7009526B2 (en) * 2002-10-02 2006-03-07 Battelle Memorial Institute RFID system and method including tag ID compression
US6842106B2 (en) * 2002-10-04 2005-01-11 Battelle Memorial Institute Challenged-based tag authentication model
WO2004041066A3 (en) * 2002-10-30 2004-08-05 Mekanika Inc Apparatus and method for measuring instability of a motion segment unit of a spine
JP4195276B2 (en) * 2002-11-27 2008-12-10 古野電気株式会社 Ultrasonic transmitting device, the ultrasonic transmitting and receiving apparatus and sonar
CN101095282B (en) * 2002-12-10 2011-09-28 Nxp股份有限公司 Transducer and electronic device
JP4004396B2 (en) * 2002-12-19 2007-11-07 オリンパス株式会社 The ultrasonic transducer
EP1615158B1 (en) * 2002-12-24 2014-08-27 Panasonic Corp Non-contact IC card reading/writing apparatus
US6739068B1 (en) * 2003-01-06 2004-05-25 Pilling Weck Incorporated Pliers with jaw spacing and load measuring readings
DE10300938B4 (en) * 2003-01-13 2005-12-15 Infineon Technologies Ag Converter circuit for a limiter receiver structure and method of signal conversion in a limiter receiver structure
US7660623B2 (en) * 2003-01-30 2010-02-09 Medtronic Navigation, Inc. Six degree of freedom alignment display for medical procedures
GB0302519D0 (en) * 2003-02-04 2003-03-05 Trw Ltd Improvements in fluid monitoring
US7533571B2 (en) * 2003-02-13 2009-05-19 Nexense Ltd. Apparatus for making high-sensitivity measurements of various parameters, and sensors particularly useful in such apparatus
US8745541B2 (en) 2003-03-25 2014-06-03 Microsoft Corporation Architecture for controlling a computer using hand gestures
WO2004089240A3 (en) * 2003-04-04 2007-11-01 Bharadwaj Ananthan Artificial disc prosthesis
US7470288B2 (en) * 2003-07-11 2008-12-30 Depuy Products, Inc. Telemetric tibial tray
WO2005007025A3 (en) * 2003-07-11 2006-01-12 Depuy Products Inc In vivo joint implant cycle counter
US7173749B2 (en) * 2003-08-04 2007-02-06 California Institute Of Technology Opto-electronic feedback for stabilizing oscillators
US7668201B2 (en) * 2003-08-28 2010-02-23 Symbol Technologies, Inc. Bandwidth management in wireless networks
US8295920B2 (en) 2003-10-24 2012-10-23 Medrad, Inc. System for detecting fluid changes and sensoring devices therefor
US7396336B2 (en) * 2003-10-30 2008-07-08 Sherwood Services Ag Switched resonant ultrasonic power amplifier system
DE102004006501A1 (en) * 2004-02-10 2005-09-01 Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin Component and method for assembling an implant assembly
JP4300521B2 (en) * 2004-02-12 2009-07-22 富士フイルム株式会社 Electromagnetic induction tag and part selection system and component selection process
JP4368219B2 (en) * 2004-02-20 2009-11-18 日本電波工業株式会社 Crystal oscillator, the oscillation method and a heater
US7482732B2 (en) * 2004-02-26 2009-01-27 Mnt Innovations Pty Ltd Layered surface acoustic wave sensor
WO2005098731A3 (en) * 2004-03-29 2006-08-10 Peter T German Systems and methods to determine elastic properties of materials
US7638924B2 (en) * 2004-03-31 2009-12-29 Murata Manufacturing Co., Ltd. Method of driving ultrasonic transducer
DE102004034337A1 (en) 2004-04-14 2005-11-03 Biotronik Gmbh & Co. Kg Electrotherapy device
US7531002B2 (en) * 2004-04-16 2009-05-12 Depuy Spine, Inc. Intervertebral disc with monitoring and adjusting capabilities
US7190237B2 (en) * 2004-05-27 2007-03-13 Continental Automotive, Inc. Open-loop start-up method for a resonating device
US7794499B2 (en) * 2004-06-08 2010-09-14 Theken Disc, L.L.C. Prosthetic intervertebral spinal disc with integral microprocessor
WO2006022993A3 (en) * 2004-06-10 2006-12-21 Ndi Medical Llc Implantable generator for muscle and nerve stimulation
WO2006010037A3 (en) * 2004-07-08 2007-01-25 Deborah Schenberger Strain monitoring system and apparatus
JP4476062B2 (en) * 2004-07-23 2010-06-09 アンデン株式会社 Vehicle-mounted control unit
US7658753B2 (en) 2004-08-03 2010-02-09 K Spine, Inc. Device and method for correcting a spinal deformity
US7559951B2 (en) 2004-09-30 2009-07-14 Depuy Products, Inc. Adjustable, remote-controllable orthopaedic prosthesis and associated method
US20060069436A1 (en) * 2004-09-30 2006-03-30 Depuy Spine, Inc. Trial disk implant
CN102664686B (en) * 2004-12-02 2014-12-24 日本电信电话株式会社 Electric field communication transceiver
DE202004019489U1 (en) * 2004-12-17 2005-05-25 Cherry Gmbh Inductive sensor unit
US7384403B2 (en) 2004-12-17 2008-06-10 Depuy Products, Inc. Wireless communication system for transmitting information from a medical device
JP4979019B2 (en) * 2005-01-18 2012-07-18 アルマ レーザーズ エルティディ. Improved systems and methods for biological tissue heating with Rf energy
US20060161051A1 (en) * 2005-01-18 2006-07-20 Lauralan Terrill-Grisoni Method of computer-assisted ligament balancing and component placement in total knee arthroplasty
WO2006084239A3 (en) * 2005-02-04 2007-06-21 Jared E D Bernheim Implanted prosthetic device
US20060184248A1 (en) * 2005-02-17 2006-08-17 Edidin Avram A Percutaneous spinal implants and methods
US20060206014A1 (en) * 2005-03-13 2006-09-14 Nexense Ltd. Ear probe particularly for measuring various physiological conditions particularly blood pressure, temperature and/or respiration
WO2006105098A3 (en) 2005-03-29 2007-11-22 Martin Roche Body parameter detecting sensor and method for detecting body parameters
DE102005019306B4 (en) * 2005-04-26 2011-09-01 Disetronic Licensing Ag Energy-optimized data transmission of a medical device
US20060271199A1 (en) * 2005-05-20 2006-11-30 Johnson Lanny L Navigational markers in implants
US7454972B2 (en) * 2005-09-07 2008-11-25 Luna Innovations Incorporated Method and apparatus for acoustically weighing moving loads
US7769947B2 (en) * 2005-09-30 2010-08-03 Intel Corporation Management of data redundancy based on power availability in mobile computer systems
US20070129776A1 (en) * 2005-10-20 2007-06-07 Light Sciences Llc External wearable light therapy treatment systems
US8494805B2 (en) 2005-11-28 2013-07-23 Orthosensor Method and system for assessing orthopedic alignment using tracking sensors
US8000926B2 (en) 2005-11-28 2011-08-16 Orthosensor Method and system for positional measurement using ultrasonic sensing
US7725288B2 (en) 2005-11-28 2010-05-25 Navisense Method and system for object control
US8098544B2 (en) 2005-11-29 2012-01-17 Orthosensor, Inc. Method and system for enhancing accuracy in ultrasonic alignment
US20070128577A1 (en) * 2005-12-05 2007-06-07 Ultradent Products, Inc. Dental curing lights including a capacitor power source
US8169185B2 (en) * 2006-01-31 2012-05-01 Mojo Mobility, Inc. System and method for inductive charging of portable devices
US7993269B2 (en) * 2006-02-17 2011-08-09 Medtronic, Inc. Sensor and method for spinal monitoring
US8016859B2 (en) * 2006-02-17 2011-09-13 Medtronic, Inc. Dynamic treatment system and method of use
US20070233267A1 (en) * 2006-03-29 2007-10-04 Farid Amirouche Application of neural networks to prosthesis fitting and balancing in joints
DE102006025476B4 (en) * 2006-05-30 2015-05-28 Otto Bock Healthcare Gmbh The orthopedic device
WO2008036444A3 (en) * 2006-06-09 2008-07-17 Ultra Scan Corp Acoustic waveguide plate
US8838251B2 (en) * 2006-07-28 2014-09-16 Medtronic, Inc. Variable implantable medical device power characteristics based upon data or device type
US7643879B2 (en) * 2006-08-24 2010-01-05 Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc. Integrated cardiac rhythm management system with heart valve
US8421642B1 (en) 2006-08-24 2013-04-16 Navisense System and method for sensorized user interface
US20080088047A1 (en) * 2006-10-12 2008-04-17 Mold-Masters Limited Apparatus and method for a hot runner injection molding system
FR2908576A1 (en) * 2006-11-14 2008-05-16 Canon Kk Method, device and software application for scheduling a transmission of packets of a data flow
US20080133016A1 (en) 2006-11-30 2008-06-05 Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc. Spinal arthroplasty device compatible with neural integrity monitoring
US20080228231A1 (en) * 2007-01-19 2008-09-18 University Of Southern California Acoustic Back-Scattering Sensing Screw for Preventing Spine Surgery Complications
US20080191584A1 (en) * 2007-02-08 2008-08-14 Malkin Matthew C Spring disc energy harvester apparatus and method
US9270025B2 (en) * 2007-03-09 2016-02-23 Proteus Digital Health, Inc. In-body device having deployable antenna
US8821511B2 (en) 2007-03-15 2014-09-02 General Electric Company Instrument guide for use with a surgical navigation system
CN100576711C (en) * 2007-03-29 2009-12-30 雅米科技股份有限公司 Induction power system
WO2008120215A3 (en) 2007-04-02 2008-12-18 Shmuel Beck Intra-articular implant for treating irregularities in cartilage surfaces
US7737372B2 (en) * 2007-06-13 2010-06-15 Scaletron Industries, Ltd. Leak and spill containment scale
US20090005708A1 (en) 2007-06-29 2009-01-01 Johanson Norman A Orthopaedic Implant Load Sensor And Method Of Interpreting The Same
JP5057902B2 (en) * 2007-09-06 2012-10-24 株式会社リコー The charge control circuit
KR101087909B1 (en) * 2007-10-01 2011-11-30 올림푸스 가부시키가이샤 Capsule medical device and capsule medical system
US20090167719A1 (en) 2007-11-02 2009-07-02 Woolley Richard D Gesture commands performed in proximity but without making physical contact with a touchpad
US8384780B1 (en) * 2007-11-28 2013-02-26 Flir Systems, Inc. Infrared camera systems and methods for maritime applications
EP2248274A4 (en) * 2008-02-01 2015-10-07 Smith & Nephew Inc System and method for communicating with an implant
US8641664B2 (en) * 2008-03-27 2014-02-04 St. Jude Medical, Atrial Fibrillation Division, Inc. Robotic catheter system with dynamic response
WO2009146090A1 (en) * 2008-04-01 2009-12-03 Cardiomems, Inc. Strain monitoring system and apparatus
US8029566B2 (en) * 2008-06-02 2011-10-04 Zimmer, Inc. Implant sensors
CA2729109A1 (en) * 2008-07-09 2010-01-14 David W. Baarman Wireless charging system
US8414592B2 (en) 2008-07-11 2013-04-09 Q-Spine, Llc Spinal measuring device and distractor
US8111108B2 (en) * 2008-07-29 2012-02-07 Sand9, Inc. Micromechanical resonating devices and related methods
CA2736525A1 (en) 2008-09-10 2010-03-18 OrthAlign, Inc. Hip surgery systems and methods
US20110166491A1 (en) * 2008-09-10 2011-07-07 University Of Tsukuba Biological signal measuring wearing device and wearable motion assisting apparatus
US20100100010A1 (en) * 2008-10-21 2010-04-22 General Electric Company Implantable device system
US20100100011A1 (en) 2008-10-22 2010-04-22 Martin Roche System and Method for Orthopedic Alignment and Measurement
WO2010051490A1 (en) * 2008-10-30 2010-05-06 Synvasive Technology, Inc. Force sensing distal femoral alignment system and method of use
US8444564B2 (en) * 2009-02-02 2013-05-21 Jointvue, Llc Noninvasive diagnostic system
US20100277392A1 (en) * 2009-04-30 2010-11-04 Yen-Wei Hsu Capacitor
US20100331738A1 (en) * 2009-06-30 2010-12-30 Orthosensor Integrated sensor and interconnect for measuring a parameter of the muscular-skeletal system
US20100331679A1 (en) * 2009-06-30 2010-12-30 Orthosensor Pulsed echo sensing device and method for an orthopedic joint
US8421479B2 (en) * 2009-06-30 2013-04-16 Navisense Pulsed echo propagation device and method for measuring a parameter
US8714009B2 (en) * 2010-06-29 2014-05-06 Orthosensor Inc. Shielded capacitor sensor system for medical applications and method
US8696756B2 (en) * 2010-06-29 2014-04-15 Orthosensor Inc. Muscular-skeletal force, pressure, and load measurement system and method
US8701484B2 (en) * 2010-06-29 2014-04-22 Orthosensor Inc. Small form factor medical sensor structure and method therefor
US8826733B2 (en) * 2009-06-30 2014-09-09 Orthosensor Inc Sensored prosthetic component and method
US8539830B2 (en) * 2010-06-29 2013-09-24 Orthosensor Inc. High precision sensing for parameter measurement of bone density
US8679186B2 (en) * 2010-06-29 2014-03-25 Ortho Sensor Inc. Hermetically sealed prosthetic component and method therefor
US8427176B2 (en) * 2009-06-30 2013-04-23 Orthosensor Inc Pulsed waveguide sensing device and method for measuring a parameter
US20110160616A1 (en) * 2009-06-30 2011-06-30 Orthosensor System and method for orthopedic load and location sensing
US8746062B2 (en) * 2010-06-29 2014-06-10 Orthosensor Inc. Medical measurement system and method
US9696809B2 (en) 2009-11-05 2017-07-04 Will John Temple Scrolling and zooming of a portable device display with device motion
US9011448B2 (en) * 2009-12-31 2015-04-21 Orthosensor Inc. Orthopedic navigation system with sensorized devices
US8979758B2 (en) * 2010-06-29 2015-03-17 Orthosensor Inc Sensing module for orthopedic load sensing insert device
US9332943B2 (en) * 2011-09-23 2016-05-10 Orthosensor Inc Flexible surface parameter measurement system for the muscular-skeletal system
US9462964B2 (en) * 2011-09-23 2016-10-11 Orthosensor Inc Small form factor muscular-skeletal parameter measurement system

Patent Citations (37)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5197488A (en) * 1991-04-05 1993-03-30 N. K. Biotechnical Engineering Co. Knee joint load measuring instrument and joint prosthesis
US5470354A (en) * 1991-11-12 1995-11-28 Biomet Inc. Force sensing apparatus and method for orthopaedic joint reconstruction
US5688279A (en) * 1992-09-01 1997-11-18 Depuy Orthopedics, Inc. Alignment guide for a bone cutting block
US5871018A (en) * 1995-12-26 1999-02-16 Delp; Scott L. Computer-assisted surgical method
US5683396A (en) * 1996-02-20 1997-11-04 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Orthopaedic cutting instrumentation with cam locking arrangement
US6856141B2 (en) * 1999-04-28 2005-02-15 Nexense Ltd. High-precision measuring method and apparatus
US6621278B2 (en) * 1999-04-28 2003-09-16 Nexense Ltd. High-precision measuring method and apparatus
US6171252B1 (en) * 1999-04-29 2001-01-09 Medtronic, Inc. Pressure sensor with increased sensitivity for use with an implantable medical device
US20020029784A1 (en) * 1999-06-11 2002-03-14 Izex Technologies, Inc. Database management for an orthopedic treatment system
US6583630B2 (en) * 1999-11-18 2003-06-24 Intellijoint Systems Ltd. Systems and methods for monitoring wear and/or displacement of artificial joint members, vertebrae, segments of fractured bones and dental implants
US6245109B1 (en) * 1999-11-18 2001-06-12 Intellijoint Systems, Ltd. Artificial joint system and method utilizing same for monitoring wear and displacement of artificial joint members
US6714763B2 (en) * 2000-01-24 2004-03-30 Microstrain, Inc Micropower differential sensor measurement
US6701174B1 (en) * 2000-04-07 2004-03-02 Carnegie Mellon University Computer-aided bone distraction
US7001346B2 (en) * 2001-11-14 2006-02-21 Michael R. White Apparatus and methods for making intraoperative orthopedic measurements
US20040019382A1 (en) * 2002-03-19 2004-01-29 Farid Amirouche System and method for prosthetic fitting and balancing in joints
US7575602B2 (en) * 2002-03-19 2009-08-18 The Board Of Trustees Of The University Of Illinois System and method for prosthetic fitting and balancing in joints
US6821299B2 (en) * 2002-07-24 2004-11-23 Zimmer Technology, Inc. Implantable prosthesis for measuring six force components
US20040113790A1 (en) * 2002-09-23 2004-06-17 Hamel Michael John Remotely powered and remotely interrogated wireless digital sensor telemetry system
US7256695B2 (en) * 2002-09-23 2007-08-14 Microstrain, Inc. Remotely powered and remotely interrogated wireless digital sensor telemetry system
US7632283B2 (en) * 2002-09-30 2009-12-15 Depuy Products, Inc. Modified system and method for intraoperative tension assessment during joint arthroplasty
US20050010301A1 (en) * 2003-07-11 2005-01-13 Disilvestro Mark R. In vivo joint space measurement device and method
US7195645B2 (en) * 2003-07-11 2007-03-27 Depuy Products, Inc. In vivo joint space measurement device and method
US20050020941A1 (en) * 2003-07-24 2005-01-27 Samih Tarabichi Dynamic spacer for total knee arthroplasty
US20050177169A1 (en) * 2004-02-06 2005-08-11 Synvasive Technology, Inc. Dynamic knee balancer
US7578821B2 (en) * 2004-02-06 2009-08-25 Synvasive Technology, Inc. Dynamic knee balancer with pressure sensing
US7442196B2 (en) * 2004-02-06 2008-10-28 Synvasive Technology, Inc. Dynamic knee balancer
US7295724B2 (en) * 2004-03-01 2007-11-13 University Of Washington Polymer based distributive waveguide sensor for pressure and shear measurement
US7587945B2 (en) * 2004-06-15 2009-09-15 Synthes Usa, Llc Device for measuring tibio-femoral force amplitudes and force locations in total knee arthroplasty
US20060058798A1 (en) * 2004-08-24 2006-03-16 Roman Shawn D Bone distractor with ratchet mechanism
US7097662B2 (en) * 2004-08-25 2006-08-29 Ut-Battelle, Llc In-vivo orthopedic implant diagnostic device for sensing load, wear, and infection
US20060047283A1 (en) * 2004-08-25 2006-03-02 Evans Boyd M Iii In-vivo orthopedic implant diagnostic device for sensing load, wear, and infection
US20060271112A1 (en) * 2004-11-15 2006-11-30 Martinson James B Instrumented orthopedic and other medical implants
US7615055B2 (en) * 2005-03-31 2009-11-10 Depuy Products, Inc. Method and apparatus for use in balancing ligaments of a knee
US20060232408A1 (en) * 2005-04-18 2006-10-19 Sdgi Holdings, Inc. Method and apparatus for implant identification
US20070219561A1 (en) * 2006-03-20 2007-09-20 Perception Raisonnement Action En Medecine Distractor system
US20070234819A1 (en) * 2006-03-29 2007-10-11 Farid Amirouche Force monitoring system
US20070272747A1 (en) * 2006-05-25 2007-11-29 Woods Sherrod A Method and system for managing inventories of orthopaedic implants

Cited By (77)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US8057479B2 (en) 2003-06-09 2011-11-15 OrthAlign, Inc. Surgical orientation system and method
US8057482B2 (en) 2003-06-09 2011-11-15 OrthAlign, Inc. Surgical orientation device and method
US8974467B2 (en) 2003-06-09 2015-03-10 OrthAlign, Inc. Surgical orientation system and method
US8888786B2 (en) 2003-06-09 2014-11-18 OrthAlign, Inc. Surgical orientation device and method
US9572586B2 (en) 2008-07-24 2017-02-21 OrthAlign, Inc. Systems and methods for joint replacement
US8998910B2 (en) 2008-07-24 2015-04-07 OrthAlign, Inc. Systems and methods for joint replacement
US9855075B2 (en) 2008-07-24 2018-01-02 OrthAlign, Inc. Systems and methods for joint replacement
US9192392B2 (en) 2008-07-24 2015-11-24 OrthAlign, Inc. Systems and methods for joint replacement
US8911447B2 (en) 2008-07-24 2014-12-16 OrthAlign, Inc. Systems and methods for joint replacement
US9931059B2 (en) 2008-09-10 2018-04-03 OrthAlign, Inc. Hip surgery systems and methods
US8974468B2 (en) 2008-09-10 2015-03-10 OrthAlign, Inc. Hip surgery systems and methods
US20100331682A1 (en) * 2009-06-30 2010-12-30 Orthosensor Device and method for advanced low-power management of a sensor to measure a parameter of the muscular-skeletal system
US9358136B2 (en) 2009-06-30 2016-06-07 Orthosensor Inc. Shielded capacitor sensor system for medical applications and method
US9492116B2 (en) 2009-06-30 2016-11-15 Orthosensor Inc. Prosthetic knee joint measurement system including energy harvesting and method therefor
US9289163B2 (en) 2009-06-30 2016-03-22 Orthosensor Inc. Prosthetic component for monitoring synovial fluid and method
US8826733B2 (en) 2009-06-30 2014-09-09 Orthosensor Inc Sensored prosthetic component and method
US8707782B2 (en) 2009-06-30 2014-04-29 Orthosensor Inc Prosthetic component for monitoring synovial fluid and method
US9226694B2 (en) 2009-06-30 2016-01-05 Orthosensor Inc Small form factor medical sensor structure and method therefor
US9839390B2 (en) 2009-06-30 2017-12-12 Orthosensor Inc. Prosthetic component having a compliant surface
US9119733B2 (en) 2009-06-30 2015-09-01 Orthosensor Inc. Shielded prosthetic component
US9357964B2 (en) 2009-06-30 2016-06-07 Orthosensor Inc. Hermetically sealed prosthetic component and method therefor
US9492115B2 (en) 2009-06-30 2016-11-15 Orthosensor Inc. Sensored prosthetic component and method
US9345449B2 (en) 2009-06-30 2016-05-24 Orthosensor Inc Prosthetic component for monitoring joint health
US9345492B2 (en) 2009-06-30 2016-05-24 Orthosensor Inc. Shielded capacitor sensor system for medical applications and method
US8118815B2 (en) 2009-07-24 2012-02-21 OrthAlign, Inc. Systems and methods for joint replacement
US9271756B2 (en) 2009-07-24 2016-03-01 OrthAlign, Inc. Systems and methods for joint replacement
US9775725B2 (en) 2009-07-24 2017-10-03 OrthAlign, Inc. Systems and methods for joint replacement
US9339226B2 (en) 2010-01-21 2016-05-17 OrthAlign, Inc. Systems and methods for joint replacement
US20120157884A1 (en) * 2010-06-29 2012-06-21 Orthosensor Medical measurement system and method
US8516884B2 (en) 2010-06-29 2013-08-27 Orthosensor Inc. Shielded prosthetic component
US8661893B2 (en) 2010-06-29 2014-03-04 Orthosensor Inc. Prosthetic component having a compliant surface
US20120191206A1 (en) * 2010-06-29 2012-07-26 Orthosensor Hermetically sealed prosthetic component and method therefor
US8746062B2 (en) * 2010-06-29 2014-06-10 Orthosensor Inc. Medical measurement system and method
US8720270B2 (en) 2010-06-29 2014-05-13 Ortho Sensor Inc. Prosthetic component for monitoring joint health
US8714009B2 (en) 2010-06-29 2014-05-06 Orthosensor Inc. Shielded capacitor sensor system for medical applications and method
US8679186B2 (en) * 2010-06-29 2014-03-25 Ortho Sensor Inc. Hermetically sealed prosthetic component and method therefor
US20120157885A1 (en) * 2010-06-29 2012-06-21 Orthosensor Muscular-skeletal force, pressure, and load measurement system and method
US8701484B2 (en) 2010-06-29 2014-04-22 Orthosensor Inc. Small form factor medical sensor structure and method therefor
US8696756B2 (en) * 2010-06-29 2014-04-15 Orthosensor Inc. Muscular-skeletal force, pressure, and load measurement system and method
US9462964B2 (en) * 2011-09-23 2016-10-11 Orthosensor Inc Small form factor muscular-skeletal parameter measurement system
US20130079671A1 (en) * 2011-09-23 2013-03-28 Orthosensor Self-contained muscular-skeletal parameter measurement system having shims to adjust height
US8690888B2 (en) 2011-09-23 2014-04-08 Orthosensor Inc. Modular active spine tool for measuring vertebral load and position of load
US9839374B2 (en) 2011-09-23 2017-12-12 Orthosensor Inc. System and method for vertebral load and location sensing
US9161717B2 (en) 2011-09-23 2015-10-20 Orthosensor Inc. Orthopedic insert measuring system having a sealed cavity
US9332943B2 (en) 2011-09-23 2016-05-10 Orthosensor Inc Flexible surface parameter measurement system for the muscular-skeletal system
US8777877B2 (en) 2011-09-23 2014-07-15 Orthosensor Inc. Spine tool for measuring vertebral load and position of load
US8945133B2 (en) 2011-09-23 2015-02-03 Orthosensor Inc Spinal distraction tool for load and position measurement
US20130079669A1 (en) * 2011-09-23 2013-03-28 Orthosensor Small form factor muscular-skeletal parameter measurement system
US8784339B2 (en) 2011-09-23 2014-07-22 Orthosensor Inc Spinal instrument for measuring load and position of load
US20130079670A1 (en) * 2011-09-23 2013-03-28 Orthosensor Self-contained muscular-skeletal parameter measurement system having un-loaded or lightly loaded cavity
US9937062B2 (en) 2011-09-23 2018-04-10 Orthosensor Inc Device and method for enabling an orthopedic tool for parameter measurement
WO2013044117A1 (en) * 2011-09-23 2013-03-28 Orthosensor A self-contained muscular-skeletal parameter measurement system having a first and second support structure
US9414940B2 (en) 2011-09-23 2016-08-16 Orthosensor Inc. Sensored head for a measurement tool for the muscular-skeletal system
US8911448B2 (en) 2011-09-23 2014-12-16 Orthosensor, Inc Device and method for enabling an orthopedic tool for parameter measurement
US8926530B2 (en) 2011-09-23 2015-01-06 Orthosensor Inc Orthopedic insert measuring system for having a sterilized cavity
US20130226034A1 (en) * 2012-02-27 2013-08-29 Orthosensor Inc. Measurement device for the muscular-skeletal system having load distribution plates
US9844335B2 (en) * 2012-02-27 2017-12-19 Orthosensor Inc Measurement device for the muscular-skeletal system having load distribution plates
US9271675B2 (en) 2012-02-27 2016-03-01 Orthosensor Inc. Muscular-skeletal joint stability detection and method therefor
US9259179B2 (en) 2012-02-27 2016-02-16 Orthosensor Inc. Prosthetic knee joint measurement system including energy harvesting and method therefor
US9622701B2 (en) 2012-02-27 2017-04-18 Orthosensor Inc Muscular-skeletal joint stability detection and method therefor
US9549742B2 (en) 2012-05-18 2017-01-24 OrthAlign, Inc. Devices and methods for knee arthroplasty
US9649160B2 (en) 2012-08-14 2017-05-16 OrthAlign, Inc. Hip replacement navigation system and method
US9757051B2 (en) 2012-11-09 2017-09-12 Orthosensor Inc. Muscular-skeletal tracking system and method
US9615887B2 (en) 2013-03-18 2017-04-11 Orthosensor Inc. Bone cutting system for the leg and method therefor
US9642676B2 (en) 2013-03-18 2017-05-09 Orthosensor Inc System and method for measuring slope or tilt of a bone cut on the muscular-skeletal system
US9936898B2 (en) 2013-03-18 2018-04-10 Orthosensor Inc. Reference position tool for the muscular-skeletal system and method therefor
US9566020B2 (en) 2013-03-18 2017-02-14 Orthosensor Inc System and method for assessing, measuring, and correcting an anterior-posterior bone cut
US9408557B2 (en) 2013-03-18 2016-08-09 Orthosensor Inc. System and method to change a contact point of the muscular-skeletal system
US9820678B2 (en) * 2013-03-18 2017-11-21 Orthosensor Inc Kinetic assessment and alignment of the muscular-skeletal system and method therefor
US9339212B2 (en) 2013-03-18 2016-05-17 Orthosensor Inc Bone cutting system for alignment relative to a mechanical axis
US9492238B2 (en) 2013-03-18 2016-11-15 Orthosensor Inc System and method for measuring muscular-skeletal alignment to a mechanical axis
US20140277526A1 (en) * 2013-03-18 2014-09-18 Orthosensor Inc Kinetic assessment and alignment of the muscular-skeletal system and method therefor
US9265447B2 (en) 2013-03-18 2016-02-23 Orthosensor Inc. System for surgical information and feedback display
US20180000380A1 (en) * 2013-03-18 2018-01-04 Orthosensor Inc Kinetic assessment and alignment of the muscular-skeletal system and method therefor
US9259172B2 (en) 2013-03-18 2016-02-16 Orthosensor Inc. Method of providing feedback to an orthopedic alignment system
US9456769B2 (en) 2013-03-18 2016-10-04 Orthosensor Inc. Method to measure medial-lateral offset relative to a mechanical axis
US20160310297A1 (en) * 2015-04-22 2016-10-27 John Anes Universal force sensor for medical applications

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
US20100331681A1 (en) 2010-12-30 application
US8516907B2 (en) 2013-08-27 grant
US8424384B2 (en) 2013-04-23 grant
US20100331736A1 (en) 2010-12-30 application
US9301720B2 (en) 2016-04-05 grant
US20100331687A1 (en) 2010-12-30 application
US20100331633A1 (en) 2010-12-30 application
US20100332152A1 (en) 2010-12-30 application
US20100331894A1 (en) 2010-12-30 application
US8245583B2 (en) 2012-08-21 grant
US20140135624A1 (en) 2014-05-15 application
US20100331734A1 (en) 2010-12-30 application
US20100326187A1 (en) 2010-12-30 application
US20140148676A1 (en) 2014-05-29 application
US8421479B2 (en) 2013-04-16 grant
US20100331680A1 (en) 2010-12-30 application
US20100327848A1 (en) 2010-12-30 application
US8146422B2 (en) 2012-04-03 grant
US20100326211A1 (en) 2010-12-30 application
US20100331733A1 (en) 2010-12-30 application
US20100326210A1 (en) 2010-12-30 application
US20100331683A1 (en) 2010-12-30 application
US20100331685A1 (en) 2010-12-30 application
US9492119B2 (en) 2016-11-15 grant
US20100328098A1 (en) 2010-12-30 application
US9125627B2 (en) 2015-09-08 grant
US20100326194A1 (en) 2010-12-30 application
US9592010B2 (en) 2017-03-14 grant
US20100331704A1 (en) 2010-12-30 application
US20100331682A1 (en) 2010-12-30 application
US20100331735A1 (en) 2010-12-30 application
US8668646B2 (en) 2014-03-11 grant
US8490488B2 (en) 2013-07-23 grant
US8337428B2 (en) 2012-12-25 grant
US20100328077A1 (en) 2010-12-30 application
US8324975B2 (en) 2012-12-04 grant
US8690929B2 (en) 2014-04-08 grant
US8689647B2 (en) 2014-04-08 grant
US20120283600A1 (en) 2012-11-08 application
US20100331718A1 (en) 2010-12-30 application
US9402583B2 (en) 2016-08-02 grant
US9943265B2 (en) 2018-04-17 grant
US20100331663A1 (en) 2010-12-30 application

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US7412897B2 (en) Device for measuring tibio-femoral force amplitudes and force locations in total knee arthroplasty
US5425775A (en) Method for measuring patellofemoral forces
US6821299B2 (en) Implantable prosthesis for measuring six force components
US6554781B1 (en) Spinal monitor apparatus and method
US20060032314A1 (en) Strain sensing system
US6092530A (en) Remotely interrogated implant device with sensor for detecting accretion of biological matter
US20030069644A1 (en) Dual-tray teletibial implant
US20040011137A1 (en) Strain sensing system
US7381223B2 (en) Dual-tray prosthesis
US6610096B2 (en) Prosthetic implants having enhanced utility
US8141437B2 (en) Force monitoring system
US20090264894A1 (en) Method of designing orthopedic implants using in vivo data
Frossard et al. Monitoring of the load regime applied on the osseointegrated fixation of a trans-femoral amputee: a tool for evidence-based practice
US7435232B2 (en) Noninvasive tissue assessment
US8494805B2 (en) Method and system for assessing orthopedic alignment using tracking sensors
Graichen et al. Hip endoprosthesis for in vivo measurement of joint force and temperature
US20110004076A1 (en) System and method for communicating with an implant
US8421642B1 (en) System and method for sensorized user interface
US6034296A (en) Implantable bone strain telemetry sensing system and method
US6583630B2 (en) Systems and methods for monitoring wear and/or displacement of artificial joint members, vertebrae, segments of fractured bones and dental implants
US20100198067A1 (en) Noninvasive Diagnostic System
US6706005B2 (en) Apparatus and method for assessing loads on adjacent bones
US7328131B2 (en) Implantable pedometer
Graichen et al. Implantable 9-channel telemetry system for in vivo load measurements with orthopedic implants
US20070276294A1 (en) Strain monitoring system and apparatus

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
AS Assignment

Owner name: ORTHOSENSOR, FLORIDA

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:STEIN, MARC;ELLIS, JIM;REEL/FRAME:024907/0572

Effective date: 20100630

AS Assignment

Owner name: ORTHOSENSOR, FLORIDA

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:STEIN, MARC;ELLIS, JIM;SIGNING DATES FROM 20110112 TO 20120209;REEL/FRAME:027691/0949