US20100288467A1 - Explosion-proof enclosures with active thermal management by heat exchange - Google Patents

Explosion-proof enclosures with active thermal management by heat exchange Download PDF

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Publication number
US20100288467A1
US20100288467A1 US12/466,249 US46624909A US2010288467A1 US 20100288467 A1 US20100288467 A1 US 20100288467A1 US 46624909 A US46624909 A US 46624909A US 2010288467 A1 US2010288467 A1 US 2010288467A1
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US
United States
Prior art keywords
system
housing
heat exchanger
heat
enclosure
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
Application number
US12/466,249
Inventor
Joseph Michael Manahan
Marc Raymond Kozlowski
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Cooper Technologies Co
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Cooper Technologies Co
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Publication date
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Priority to US12/466,249 priority Critical patent/US20100288467A1/en
Assigned to COOPER TECHNOLOGIES COMPANY reassignment COOPER TECHNOLOGIES COMPANY ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: KOZLOWSKI, MARC RAYMOND, MANAHAN, JOSEPH MICHAEL
Publication of US20100288467A1 publication Critical patent/US20100288467A1/en
Application status is Abandoned legal-status Critical

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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F28HEAT EXCHANGE IN GENERAL
    • F28FDETAILS OF HEAT-EXCHANGE AND HEAT-TRANSFER APPARATUS, OF GENERAL APPLICATION
    • F28F9/00Casings; Header boxes; Auxiliary supports for elements; Auxiliary members within casings
    • F28F9/001Casings in the form of plate-like arrangements; Frames enclosing a heat exchange core
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F28HEAT EXCHANGE IN GENERAL
    • F28DHEAT-EXCHANGE APPARATUS, NOT PROVIDED FOR IN ANOTHER SUBCLASS, IN WHICH THE HEAT-EXCHANGE MEDIA DO NOT COME INTO DIRECT CONTACT
    • F28D15/00Heat-exchange apparatus with the intermediate heat-transfer medium in closed tubes passing into or through the conduit walls ; Heat-exchange apparatus employing intermediate heat-transfer medium or bodies
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02KDYNAMO-ELECTRIC MACHINES
    • H02K5/00Casings; Enclosures; Supports
    • H02K5/04Casings or enclosures characterised by the shape, form or construction thereof
    • H02K5/12Casings or enclosures characterised by the shape, form or construction thereof specially adapted for operating in liquid or gas
    • H02K5/136Casings or enclosures characterised by the shape, form or construction thereof specially adapted for operating in liquid or gas explosion-proof
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H05ELECTRIC TECHNIQUES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05KPRINTED CIRCUITS; CASINGS OR CONSTRUCTIONAL DETAILS OF ELECTRIC APPARATUS; MANUFACTURE OF ASSEMBLAGES OF ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
    • H05K7/00Constructional details common to different types of electric apparatus
    • H05K7/20Modifications to facilitate cooling, ventilating, or heating
    • H05K7/20009Modifications to facilitate cooling, ventilating, or heating using a gaseous coolant in electronic enclosures
    • H05K7/202Air circulating in closed loop within enclosure wherein heat is removed through heat-exchangers
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F28HEAT EXCHANGE IN GENERAL
    • F28DHEAT-EXCHANGE APPARATUS, NOT PROVIDED FOR IN ANOTHER SUBCLASS, IN WHICH THE HEAT-EXCHANGE MEDIA DO NOT COME INTO DIRECT CONTACT
    • F28D21/00Heat-exchange apparatus not covered by any of the groups F28D1/00 - F28D20/00
    • F28D2021/0019Other heat exchangers for particular applications; Heat exchange systems not otherwise provided for
    • F28D2021/0028Other heat exchangers for particular applications; Heat exchange systems not otherwise provided for for cooling heat generating elements, e.g. for cooling electronic components or electric devices
    • F28D2021/0029Heat sinks
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F28HEAT EXCHANGE IN GENERAL
    • F28DHEAT-EXCHANGE APPARATUS, NOT PROVIDED FOR IN ANOTHER SUBCLASS, IN WHICH THE HEAT-EXCHANGE MEDIA DO NOT COME INTO DIRECT CONTACT
    • F28D21/00Heat-exchange apparatus not covered by any of the groups F28D1/00 - F28D20/00
    • F28D2021/0019Other heat exchangers for particular applications; Heat exchange systems not otherwise provided for
    • F28D2021/0077Other heat exchangers for particular applications; Heat exchange systems not otherwise provided for for tempering, e.g. with cooling or heating circuits for temperature control of elements

Abstract

Enclosures for use in hazardous areas include heat exchangers for active thermal management. The enclosures are coupled to a device having heat transfer capabilities. Equipment within the enclosures produces heat within the enclosure. The heat exchanger removes heat produced from the equipment and manages the internal temperature of the enclosures to a level suitable for hazardous locations. The enclosures can be actively cooled or heated using the device.

Description

    CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
  • This application is related to U.S. patent application Ser. No. 12/435,807, titled “Explosion-Proof Enclosures with Active Thermal Management Using Sintered Elements” and filed on May 5, 2009, in the name of Joseph Michael Manahan et al, the entire disclosure of which is hereby fully incorporated herein by reference.
  • TECHNICAL FIELD
  • The invention relates generally to explosion-proof enclosures, and, more particularly, to explosion-proof enclosures having active thermal management capabilities using heat exchange.
  • BACKGROUND
  • Automation equipment can be used to preserve the life of devices such as motors and pumps by improving device performance. However, the installation of automation equipment in hazardous or explosive environments typically has been avoided due to the high heat generated by components of the automation equipment, which could result in an explosion. Hazardous area requirements dictate that such equipment must be sealed from the surrounding atmosphere to fully contain any possible sources of ignition within the enclosure, thus preventing propagation of an explosion.
  • The automation equipment could potentially be housed in an explosion-proof enclosure. Currently, explosion-proof enclosures rely on conductive heat transfer for dissipating heat produced by equipment within the enclosure. However, these enclosures do not adequately dissipate the heat produced by the automation equipment within and thus could cause a decrease in the life of the equipment or lead to an explosion within the enclosure. As a result, automation equipment is typically installed outside the boundaries of the hazardous area and long electrical cables are run to the devices within the hazardous area. Several disadvantages to this configuration exist. For example, this configuration results in lack of control at the device, as well as an increase in installation, and/or maintenance costs.
  • Therefore, a need exists in the art for an explosion-proof enclosure having automation and other equipment that can provide active thermal management in a hazardous area.
  • SUMMARY
  • The present invention can satisfy the above-described need by providing enclosures for use in hazardous areas and having heat exchangers. As used herein, the term “heat exchanger” refers to any device that transfers heat from one medium to another or to the environment. The heat exchangers aid in regulating the internal temperature of an enclosure by actively cooling or heating equipment housed within the enclosure.
  • The enclosures of the present invention include a heat exchanger device coupled thereto. In some aspects, the heat exchanger is a thermoelectric cooler, a shell and tube heat exchanger, a plate heat exchanger, or a spiral heat exchanger. The enclosures include equipment housed therein. A heat exchanger is in communication with the internal equipment and external environment, and actively transfers heat from within the enclosure to outside of the enclosure, thereby removing heat produced from the equipment within the enclosure. In certain aspects of the invention, the heat exchanger actively transfers heating from outside the enclosure to within the enclosure, thereby heating the equipment within the enclosure. In certain aspects of the invention, the heat exchanger device are controlled by a control system having a sensor and a controller.
  • The enclosures also can include at least one fan positioned proximate to the heat exchanger device. The fan can be positioned within the enclosure or externally mounted to the enclosure. The fan can be controlled by a control system having a sensor and a controller.
  • These and other aspects, objects, and features of the invention will become apparent to those having ordinary skill in the art upon consideration of the following detailed description of exemplary embodiments exemplifying the best mode for carrying out the invention as presently perceived.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • FIG. 1 is a perspective view of an explosion-proof enclosure with the cover removed according to an exemplary embodiment.
  • FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional view of the explosion-proof enclosure shown in FIG. 1 according to an exemplary embodiment.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF EXEMPLARY EMBODIMENTS
  • This application discloses enclosures having active thermal management capabilities. The enclosures include a heat exchanger that aids in dissipating heat from within the enclosure. The enclosures can be used for both general purposes and in hazardous areas.
  • The present invention may be better understood by reading the following description of non-limiting embodiments with reference to the attached drawings wherein like parts of each of the figures are identified by the same reference characters.
  • FIGS. 1 and 2 are perspective and cross-sectional views of an explosion-proof enclosure 100 with a cover (not shown) removed. The enclosure 100 includes a rectangular housing 102. The housing 102 includes a top wall 102 a, a bottom wall 102 b, two side walls 102 c, a rear wall 102 d, and a cavity 102 e. The housing 102 also includes a flange 102 f extending orthogonally from the top, bottom, and two side walls 102 a, 102 b, 102 c. In certain embodiments, the housing 102 is constructed from aluminum and is a NEMA 7 compliant enclosure for indoor or outdoor use in locations classified as Class I, Groups A, B, C, or D.
  • The enclosure 100 also includes automation equipment 110 positioned within the cavity 102 e and coupled to the rear wall 102 d. In alternative embodiments, the automation equipment 110 can be coupled to the top wall 102 a, the bottom wall 102 b, or one of the side walls 102 c. The automation equipment 110 produces heat within the enclosure 100 which should be dissipated to maintain a desired temperature within the enclosure 100. In certain embodiments, the automation equipment 110 may include a controller, such as a variable frequency drive (VFD) that controls the frequency of electrical power supplied to an external device, such as a pump or a motor (not shown). In certain embodiments, the automation equipment 110 may also include a transformer, a programmable logic controller (PLC), and/or a line reactor.
  • The enclosure 100 also includes a heat exchanger system that includes a heat exchanger 120 and a plate 130. The heat exchanger 120 is coupled to the exterior of the housing 102. The heat exchanger 120 may be coupled to the housing 102 by any suitable means, such as by mating threads or by bolting a flange (not shown) on the heat exchanger 120 to the housing 102. In certain alternative embodiments, the heat exchanger 120 can be positioned in proximity to the housing 102 but not be attached.
  • The plate 130 of the heat exchanger system is positioned within the cavity 102 e. In certain embodiments, the plate 130 is coupled to the automation equipment 110. In certain embodiments, the plate 130 also is coupled to the side wall 102 c. The plate 130 is fabricated from thermally conductive material. Suitable examples of thermally conductive materials include, but are not limited to, copper, aluminum, titanium, stainless steel, other metal alloys, and thermally conductive polymers. In certain embodiments, the plate 130 may be constructed from multiple thin plates. The size and shape of the plate 130 can be configured based on the amount of heating or cooling desired. In certain embodiments, the plate 130 is constructed from copper or aluminum.
  • The heat exchanger 120 is in communication with the plate 130 via inlet pipe 134 and outlet pipe 136. The inlet and outlet pipes 134, 136 are coupled to the heat exchanger 120 to the plate 130 through the side wall 102 c. The inlet and outlet pipes 134, 136 may be sealed within the side wall 102 c so as to maintain the hazardous rating integrity of the enclosure 100. In certain embodiments, the automation equipment releases heat, which is absorbed by the plate 130. A cooled fluid flows from the heat exchanger 120 through the inlet pipe 134. The cooled fluid enters a cavity (not shown) within the plate 130 and absorbs heat from the plate 130 before exiting the enclosure 100 through outlet pipe 136 as a heated fluid. The heated fluid returns to the heat exchanger 120 where it is cooled again before returning to the plate 130 via inlet pipe 134.
  • In certain alternative embodiments, the enclosure 100 may include equipment (not shown) that requires heating. In these instances, a heated fluid flows from the heat exchanger 120 through the inlet pipe 134. The heated fluid enters the cavity (not shown) within the plate 130 and gives off heat to the plate 130, which in turn heats the equipment within the enclosure, before exiting the enclosure 100 through outlet pipe 136 as a cooled fluid. The cooled fluid returns to the heat exchanger 120 where it is heated again before returning to the plate 130 via inlet pipe 134.
  • The heat exchanger systems of the present invention can be any device capable of heating and/or cooling equipment within the enclosure 100 by heat transfer. Suitable examples of heat exchanger devices include, but are not limited to, Peltier devices or thermoelectric coolers, shell and tube heat exchangers, plate heat exchangers, and spiral heat exchangers. In certain embodiments, the heat exchanger devices are integrated into the housing 102 and a first portion of the heat exchanger device interfaces with the interior of the enclosure 100 and a second portion of the heat exchanger device is positioned exterior to the enclosure 100.
  • In certain embodiments, a fan (not shown) may be positioned within the housing 102 and proximate to the plate 130 to facilitate heat transfer. The fan can be powered by an internal power source, such as a battery (not shown), or receive power from a source (not shown) external to the enclosure 100. In certain alternative embodiments, a fan (not shown) may be externally mounted to the housing 102 to facilitate heat transfer. One having ordinary skill in the art will recognize that any number of configurations having a fan are possible.
  • In certain embodiments, the enclosure 100 may include a control system (not shown) for monitoring and controlling the heat exchanger system. In certain embodiments, the control system monitors and controls a fan. The control system generally includes a sensor that is coupled to a controller that controls the heat exchanger system and/or the fan. The sensor actively or passively monitors conditions within the enclosure 100. Based on the conditions within the enclosure 100, the controller can turn on or off the heat exchanger system and/or the fan. For example, the sensor may be a temperature gauge that senses the temperature within the enclosure 100. When the sensor indicates that the temperature within the enclosure 100 is too high, the controller turns on the heat exchanger system and/or a fan inside the enclosure 100 to remove heat from within the housing 102 to an exterior of the housing 102. Similarly, when the sensor indicates that the temperature within the enclosure 100 is low, the controller can turn on the heat exchanger system and/or a fan externally mounted to the enclosure 100 to heat the air within the enclosure 100. In some embodiments, the control system cycles on and off passively. For example, the control system can cycle such that the heat exchanger system and/or a fan is active for ten minutes every thirty minutes. In certain embodiments, the control system includes a sensor capable of detecting humidity changes within the enclosure 100. If the sensor detects that the relative humidity within the enclosure 100 is too high, the control system can turn on a fan inside the enclosure 100. In certain other embodiments, the control system includes a sensor capable of determining whether an explosion has occurred by detecting a rapid temperature or pressure change. Upon detection of an internal explosion, the sensor communicates the state change to the controller which communicates the state change to a local indicator (not shown) or wirelessly to a remote location. One having ordinary skill in the art will recognize that the control system can be programmed any number of ways to meet specifications of a given area and include any number or type of sensors to determine various states within the enclosure 100. In certain embodiments, the control system is controlled wirelessly by a user in a remote location.
  • Therefore, the present invention is well adapted to attain the ends and advantages mentioned as well as those that are inherent therein. The particular embodiments disclosed above are illustrative only, as the present invention may be modified and practiced in different but equivalent manners apparent to a person having ordinary skill in the art and the benefit of the teachings herein. Having described some exemplary embodiments of the present invention, the use of alternative configurations having heat exchangers in communication with an enclosure is within the purview of those in the art. For example, the heat exchanger system can be positioned on any wall of the enclosure or a portion may be external to the enclosure. Additionally, while the present application discusses a single heat exchanger external to the enclosure, it is understood that a number of other heat exchangers may be used based on the heat transfer properties desired and using the teachings described herein. In addition, the exemplary embodiments of the present invention may be used to actively displace cold air from within the enclosures to the atmosphere. While numerous changes may be made by one having ordinary skill in the art, such changes are encompassed within the scope and spirit of this invention as defined by the appended claims. Furthermore, the details of construction or design herein shown do not limit the invention, other than as described in the claims below. It is therefore evident that the particular exemplary embodiments disclosed above may be altered or modified and all such variations are considered within the scope and spirit of the present invention. The terms in the claims have their plain, ordinary meaning unless otherwise explicitly and clearly defined by the patentee.

Claims (22)

1. An enclosure system, comprising:
a housing;
a heat exchanger, the heat exchanger comprising a first heat transfer component in communication with a second heat transfer component, wherein the first heat transfer component is in communication with the inside of the housing, and the second heat transfer component is positioned outside of the housing.
2. The system of claim 1, wherein the heat exchanger is selected from the group consisting of thermoelectric coolers, shell and tube heat exchangers, plate heat exchangers, and spiral heat exchangers.
3. The system of claim 1, wherein the first heat transfer component is positioned inside the housing.
4. The system of claim 1, wherein the first heat transfer component is integrated into a wall of the housing.
5. The system of claim 1, wherein the second heat transfer component is coupled to an exterior of the housing.
6. The system of claim 1, further comprising equipment positioned within the housing, the equipment to be cooled or heated by the heat exchanger.
7. The system of claim 6, wherein the first heat transfer component is coupled to the equipment.
8. The system of claim 6, wherein the first heat transfer component is a cooling plate.
9. The system of claim 1, wherein the housing is sealed.
10. The system of claim 1, further comprising a fan positioned within the housing or externally mounted to the housing.
11. The system of claim 10, further comprising a control system coupled to the fan.
12. The system of claim 1, further comprising a control system coupled to the heat exchanger.
13. An explosion-proof enclosure system, comprising:
a housing having an internal cavity, the housing being sealed in compliance with hazardous area guidelines;
equipment positioned within the cavity;
a thermally conductive plate positioned within the cavity and proximate to the equipment;
a heat exchanger exterior to the housing;
an inlet tube; and
an outlet tube, wherein the inlet tube and the outlet tube each extend through the housing and connect the heat exchanger to the plate.
14. The system of claim 13, wherein the plate comprises an opening therein for receiving a fluid flowing from the inlet tube.
15. The system of claim 13, further comprising a fluid flowing from the heat exchanger, through the inlet tube, to an opening within the plate, through the outlet tube, and back to the heat exchanger.
16. The system of claim 13, wherein at least one of the inlet or outlet tube is spiral.
17. The system of claim 13, wherein the plate comprises multiple plates in communication with each other.
18. The system of claim 13, wherein the equipment is to be heated or cooled by the heat exchanger.
19. The system of claim 13, wherein the inlet and outlet tubes are sealingly coupled to a wall of the housing.
20. The system of claim 13, further comprising a fan positioned within the internal cavity or externally mounted to the housing.
21. The system of claim 20, further comprising a control system coupled to the fan.
22. The system of claim 13, further comprising a control system coupled to the heat exchanger.
US12/466,249 2009-05-14 2009-05-14 Explosion-proof enclosures with active thermal management by heat exchange Abandoned US20100288467A1 (en)

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US12/466,249 US20100288467A1 (en) 2009-05-14 2009-05-14 Explosion-proof enclosures with active thermal management by heat exchange
MX2011012098A MX2011012098A (en) 2009-05-14 2010-04-29 Explosion-proof enclosures with active thermal management by heat exchange.
PCT/US2010/032972 WO2010132211A1 (en) 2009-05-14 2010-04-29 Explosion-proof enclosures with active thermal management by heat exchange
DE112010001984T DE112010001984T5 (en) 2009-05-14 2010-04-29 Explosion-proof enclosures with active heat management by means of heat exchange
CA2761618A CA2761618C (en) 2009-05-14 2010-04-29 Explosion-proof enclosures with active thermal management by heat exchange
BRPI1012138A BRPI1012138A2 (en) 2009-05-14 2010-09-24 heat exchange active thermally managed explosion-proof enclosures
US13/603,208 US9250023B2 (en) 2009-05-14 2012-09-04 Explosion-proof enclosures with active thermal management by heat exchange
US15/012,583 US9863718B2 (en) 2009-05-14 2016-02-01 Explosion-proof enclosures with active thermal management by heat exchange

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US12/466,249 Abandoned US20100288467A1 (en) 2009-05-14 2009-05-14 Explosion-proof enclosures with active thermal management by heat exchange
US13/603,208 Active 2031-03-22 US9250023B2 (en) 2009-05-14 2012-09-04 Explosion-proof enclosures with active thermal management by heat exchange
US15/012,583 Active 2029-07-12 US9863718B2 (en) 2009-05-14 2016-02-01 Explosion-proof enclosures with active thermal management by heat exchange

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US15/012,583 Active 2029-07-12 US9863718B2 (en) 2009-05-14 2016-02-01 Explosion-proof enclosures with active thermal management by heat exchange

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BR (1) BRPI1012138A2 (en)
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MX (1) MX2011012098A (en)
WO (1) WO2010132211A1 (en)

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US9553435B2 (en) 2010-12-22 2017-01-24 Cooper Technologies Company Manifold for controlling airflow within an explosion-proof enclosure
US9668385B2 (en) 2010-12-22 2017-05-30 Cooper Technologies Company Controlling airflow within an explosion-proof enclosure
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CA2761618A1 (en) 2010-11-18
US9250023B2 (en) 2016-02-02
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US20160223271A1 (en) 2016-08-04
CA2761618C (en) 2017-01-03

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