US20100276205A1 - Methods of forming earth-boring rotary drill bits - Google Patents

Methods of forming earth-boring rotary drill bits Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US20100276205A1
US20100276205A1 US12831608 US83160810A US2010276205A1 US 20100276205 A1 US20100276205 A1 US 20100276205A1 US 12831608 US12831608 US 12831608 US 83160810 A US83160810 A US 83160810A US 2010276205 A1 US2010276205 A1 US 2010276205A1
Authority
US
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
bit body
shank
portion
method
bit
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
Application number
US12831608
Inventor
James A. Oxford
Jimmy W. Eason
Redd H. Smith
John H. Stevens
Nicholas J. Lyons
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Baker Hughes Inc
Original Assignee
Baker Hughes Inc
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

Links

Images

Classifications

    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B10/00Drill bits
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22FWORKING METALLIC POWDER; MANUFACTURE OF ARTICLES FROM METALLIC POWDER; MAKING METALLIC POWDER
    • B22F7/00Manufacture of composite layers, workpieces, or articles, comprising metallic powder, by sintering the powder, with or without compacting wherein at least one part is obtained by sintering or compression
    • B22F7/06Manufacture of composite layers, workpieces, or articles, comprising metallic powder, by sintering the powder, with or without compacting wherein at least one part is obtained by sintering or compression of composite workpieces or articles from parts, e.g. to form tipped tools
    • B22F7/062Manufacture of composite layers, workpieces, or articles, comprising metallic powder, by sintering the powder, with or without compacting wherein at least one part is obtained by sintering or compression of composite workpieces or articles from parts, e.g. to form tipped tools involving the connection or repairing of preformed parts
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22FWORKING METALLIC POWDER; MANUFACTURE OF ARTICLES FROM METALLIC POWDER; MAKING METALLIC POWDER
    • B22F7/00Manufacture of composite layers, workpieces, or articles, comprising metallic powder, by sintering the powder, with or without compacting wherein at least one part is obtained by sintering or compression
    • B22F7/06Manufacture of composite layers, workpieces, or articles, comprising metallic powder, by sintering the powder, with or without compacting wherein at least one part is obtained by sintering or compression of composite workpieces or articles from parts, e.g. to form tipped tools
    • B22F7/08Manufacture of composite layers, workpieces, or articles, comprising metallic powder, by sintering the powder, with or without compacting wherein at least one part is obtained by sintering or compression of composite workpieces or articles from parts, e.g. to form tipped tools with one or more parts not made from powder
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C29/00Alloys based on carbides, oxides, nitrides, borides, or silicides, e.g. cermets, or other metal compounds, e.g. oxynitrides, sulfides
    • C22C29/02Alloys based on carbides, oxides, nitrides, borides, or silicides, e.g. cermets, or other metal compounds, e.g. oxynitrides, sulfides based on carbides or carbonitrides
    • C22C29/06Alloys based on carbides, oxides, nitrides, borides, or silicides, e.g. cermets, or other metal compounds, e.g. oxynitrides, sulfides based on carbides or carbonitrides based on carbides, but not containing other metal compounds
    • C22C29/08Alloys based on carbides, oxides, nitrides, borides, or silicides, e.g. cermets, or other metal compounds, e.g. oxynitrides, sulfides based on carbides or carbonitrides based on carbides, but not containing other metal compounds based on tungsten carbide
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B10/00Drill bits
    • E21B10/62Drill bits characterised by parts, e.g. cutting elements, which are detachable or adjustable
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22FWORKING METALLIC POWDER; MANUFACTURE OF ARTICLES FROM METALLIC POWDER; MAKING METALLIC POWDER
    • B22F3/00Manufacture of workpieces or articles from metallic powder characterised by the manner of compacting or sintering; Apparatus specially adapted therefor ; Presses and furnaces
    • B22F3/24After-treatment of workpieces or articles
    • B22F2003/245Making recesses, grooves etc on the surface by removing material
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22FWORKING METALLIC POWDER; MANUFACTURE OF ARTICLES FROM METALLIC POWDER; MAKING METALLIC POWDER
    • B22F5/00Manufacture of workpieces or articles from metallic powder characterised by the special shape of the product
    • B22F2005/001Cutting tools, earth boring or grinding tool other than table ware
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22FWORKING METALLIC POWDER; MANUFACTURE OF ARTICLES FROM METALLIC POWDER; MAKING METALLIC POWDER
    • B22F5/00Manufacture of workpieces or articles from metallic powder characterised by the special shape of the product
    • B22F2005/002Tools other than cutting tools
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22FWORKING METALLIC POWDER; MANUFACTURE OF ARTICLES FROM METALLIC POWDER; MAKING METALLIC POWDER
    • B22F2998/00Supplementary information concerning processes or compositions relating to powder metallurgy
    • B22F2998/10Processes characterised by the sequence of their steps

Abstract

Methods of forming earth-boring rotary drill bits include providing a bit body, providing a shank that is configured for attachment to a drill string, and attaching the shank to the bit body. Providing a bit body includes providing a green powder component having a first region having a first composition and a second region having a second, different composition, and at least partially sintering the green powder component. Other methods include providing a powder mixture, pressing the powder mixture to form a green component, and sintering the green component to a final density. A shank is provided that includes an aperture, and a feature is machined in a surface of the bit body. The aperture is aligned with the feature, and a retaining member is inserted through the aperture. An earth-boring bit includes a bit body comprising a particle-matrix composite material including a plurality of hard particles dispersed throughout a matrix material. A shank is attached to the bit body using a retaining member.

Description

    CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION
  • This application is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/271,153, filed Nov. 10, 2005, pending, which application is related to U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/272,439, filed on Nov. 10, 2005, in the name of Redd H. Smith, John H. Stevens, Jim Duggan, Nicholas J. Lyons, Jimmy W. Eason, Jared D. Gladney, James A. Oxford, and Benjamin J. Chrest, and entitled “Earth-Boring Rotary Drill Bits And Methods Of Manufacturing Earth-Boring Rotary Drill Bits Having Particle-Matrix Composite Bit Bodies,” assigned to the assignee of the present application, the entire disclosure of each of which is hereby incorporated herein by reference. The subject matter of this application is also related to the subject matter of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/116,752, filed on Apr. 28, 2005 and entitled “Earth-Boring Bits,” the entire disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • 1. Field of the Invention
  • The present invention generally relates to earth-boring drill bits and other tools that may be used to drill subterranean formations, and to methods of manufacturing such earth-boring drill bits.
  • 2. State of the Art
  • Rotary drill bits are commonly used for drilling bore holes or wells in earth formations. One type of rotary drill bit is the fixed-cutter bit (often referred to as a “drag” bit), which typically includes a plurality of cutting elements secured to a face region of a bit body. Generally, the cutting elements of a fixed-cutter type drill bit have either a disk shape or a substantially cylindrical shape. A cutting surface comprising a hard, super-abrasive material, such as mutually bound particles of polycrystalline diamond, may be provided on a substantially circular end surface of each cutting element. Such cutting elements are often referred to as “polycrystalline diamond compact” (PDC) cutters. Typically, the cutting elements are fabricated separately from the bit body and secured within pockets formed in the outer surface of the bit body. A bonding material such as an adhesive or, more typically, a braze alloy may be used to secure the cutting elements to the bit body. The fixed-cutter drill bit may be placed in a bore hole such that the cutting elements are adjacent the earth formation to be drilled. As the drill bit is rotated, the cutting elements scrape across and shear away the surface of the underlying formation.
  • The bit body of a rotary drill bit typically is secured to a hardened steel shank having an American Petroleum Institute (API) thread connection for attaching the drill bit to a drill string. The drill string includes tubular pipe and equipment segments coupled end to end between the drill bit and other drilling equipment at the surface. Equipment such as a rotary table or top drive may be used for rotating the drill string and the drill bit within the bore hole. Alternatively, the shank of the drill bit may be coupled directly to the drive shaft of a down-hole motor, which then may be used to rotate the drill bit.
  • The bit body of a rotary drill bit may be formed from steel. Alternatively, the bit body may be formed from a particle-matrix composite material. Such bit bodies typically are formed by embedding a steel blank in a carbide particulate material volume, such as particles of tungsten carbide (WC), and infiltrating the particulate carbide material with a matrix material (often referred to as a “binder” material), such as a copper alloy, to provide a bit body substantially formed from a particle-matrix composite material. Drill bits that have a bit body formed from such a particle-matrix composite material may exhibit increased erosion and wear resistance relative to drill bits having steel bit bodies.
  • A conventional drill bit 10 that has a bit body including a particle-matrix composite material is illustrated in FIG. 1. As seen therein, the drill bit 10 includes a bit body 12 that is secured to a steel shank 20. The bit body 12 includes a crown 14, and a steel blank 16 that is embedded in the crown 14. The crown 14 includes a particle-matrix composite material such as, for example, particles of tungsten carbide embedded in a copper alloy matrix material. The bit body 12 is secured to the steel shank 20 by way of a threaded connection 22 and a weld 24 extending around the drill bit 10 on an exterior surface thereof along an interface between the bit body 12 and the steel shank 20. The steel shank 20 includes an API threaded connection portion 28 for attaching the drill bit 10 to a drill string (not shown).
  • The bit body 12 includes wings or blades 30, which are separated by junk slots 32. Internal fluid passageways 42 extend between the face 18 of the bit body 12 and a longitudinal bore 40, which extends through the steel shank 20 and partially through the bit body 12. Nozzle inserts (not shown) may be provided at face 18 of the bit body 12 within the internal fluid passageways 42.
  • A plurality of PDC cutters 34 is provided on the face 18 of the bit body 12. The PDC cutters 34 may be provided along the blades 30 within pockets 36 formed in the face 18 of the bit body 12, and may be supported from behind by buttresses 38, which may be integrally formed with the crown 14 of the bit body 12.
  • The steel blank 16 shown in FIG. 1 is generally cylindrically tubular. Alternatively, the steel blank 16 may have a fairly complex configuration and may include external protrusions corresponding to blades 30 or other features on and extending on the face 18 of the bit body 12.
  • During drilling operations, the drill bit 10 is positioned at the bottom of a well bore hole and rotated while drilling fluid is pumped to the face 18 of the bit body 12 through the longitudinal bore 40 and the internal fluid passageways 42. As the PDC cutters 34 shear or scrape away the underlying earth formation, the formation cutting mixes with and is suspended within the drilling fluid and passes through the junk slots 32 and the annular space between the well bore hole and the drill string to the surface of the earth formation.
  • Conventionally, bit bodies that include a particle-matrix composite material, such as the previously described bit body 12, have been fabricated in graphite molds. The cavities of the graphite molds are conventionally machined with a five-axis machine tool. Fine features are then added to the cavity of the graphite mold by hand-held tools. Additional clay work also may be required to obtain the desired configuration of some features of the bit body. Where necessary, preform elements or displacements (which may comprise ceramic components, graphite components, or resin-coated sand compact components) may be positioned within the mold and used to define the internal passageways 42, cutting element pockets 36, junk slots 32, and other external topographic features of the bit body 12. The cavity of the graphite mold is filled with hard particulate carbide material (such as tungsten carbide, titanium carbide, tantalum carbide, etc.). The preformed steel blank 16 may then be positioned in the mold at the appropriate location and orientation. The steel blank 16 typically is at least partially submerged in the particulate carbide material within the mold.
  • The mold then may be vibrated or the particles otherwise packed to decrease the amount of space between adjacent particles of the particulate carbide material. A matrix material, such as a copper-based alloy, may be melted, and the particulate carbide material may be infiltrated with the molten matrix material. The mold and bit body 12 are allowed to cool to solidify the matrix material. The steel blank 16 is bonded to the particle-matrix composite material forming the crown 14 upon cooling of the bit body 12 and solidification of the matrix material. Once the bit body 12 has cooled, the bit body 12 is removed from the mold and any displacements are removed from the bit body 12. Destruction of the graphite mold typically is required to remove the bit body 12.
  • As previously described, destruction of the graphite mold typically is required to remove the bit body 12. After the bit body 12 has been removed from the mold, the bit body 12 may be secured to the steel shank 20. As the particle-matrix composite material used to form the crown 14 is relatively hard and not easily machined, the steel blank 16 is used to secure the bit body to the shank. Threads may be machined on an exposed surface of the steel blank 16 to provide the threaded connection 22 between the bit body 12 and the steel shank 20. The steel shank 20 may be screwed onto the bit body 12, and the weld 24 then may be provided along the interface between the bit body 12 and the steel shank 20.
  • The PDC cutters 34 may be bonded to the face 18 of the bit body 12 after the bit body 12 has been cast by, for example, brazing, mechanical, or adhesive affixation. Alternatively, the cutters 34 may be bonded to the face 18 of the bit body 12 during furnacing of the bit body if thermally stable synthetic or natural diamonds are employed in the cutters 34.
  • The molds used to cast bit bodies are difficult to machine due to their size, shape, and material composition. Furthermore, manual operations using hand-held tools are often required to form a mold and to form certain features in the bit body after removing the bit body from the mold, which further complicates the reproducibility of bit bodies. These facts, together with the fact that only one bit body can be cast using a single mold, complicate reproduction of multiple bit bodies having consistent dimensions. Due to these inconsistencies, the shape, strength, and ultimately the performance during drilling of each bit body may vary, which makes it difficult to ascertain the life expectancy of a given drill bit. As a result, the drill bits on a drill string are typically replaced more often than is desirable, in order to prevent unexpected drill bit failures, which results in additional costs.
  • As may be readily appreciated from the foregoing description, the process of fabricating a bit body that includes a particle-matrix composite material is a somewhat costly, complex multi-step labor intensive process requiring separate fabrication of an intermediate product (the mold) before the end product (the bit body) can be cast. Moreover, the blanks, molds, and any preforms employed must be individually designed and fabricated. While bit bodies that include particle-matrix composite materials may offer significant advantages over prior art steel body bits in terms of abrasion and erosion-resistance, the lower strength and toughness of such bit bodies prohibit their use in certain applications.
  • Therefore, it would be desirable to provide a method of manufacturing a bit body that includes a particle-matrix composite material that eliminates the need of a mold, and that provides a bit body that can be easily attached to a shank or other component of a drill string. Furthermore, the known methods for forming a bit body that includes a particle-matrix composite material, limit the available compositions to those that include matrix materials that can be melted for infiltrating the particulate carbide material at temperatures that do not degrade the particulate carbide material, steel blank, or thermally stable diamonds contained in the mold assembly. Therefore, it would be desirable to provide a method of manufacturing suitable for producing a bit body that includes a particle-matrix composite material that does not require infiltration of particulate carbide material with a molten matrix material.
  • BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • In one aspect, the present invention includes a method of forming an earth-boring rotary drill bit. The method includes providing a bit body, providing a shank that is configured for attachment to a drill string, and attaching the shank to the bit body. Providing a bit body includes providing a green powder component having a first region having a first material composition and a second region having a second material composition that differs from the first material composition. The green powder component is at least partially sintered.
  • In another aspect, the present invention includes a method of forming an earth-boring rotary drill bit. The method includes providing a bit body and a shank that is configured for attachment to a drill string. The shank includes an outer wall enclosing a longitudinal bore and at least one aperture extending through the outer wall. At least one feature is machined in a surface of the bit body. The aperture extending through the outer wall of the shank is aligned with the feature in the surface of the bit body, and a retaining member is inserted through the aperture extending through the outer wall of the shank. Mechanical interference between the shank, the retaining member, and the feature in the surface of the bit body prevents separation of the bit body from the shank. The bit body is provided by pressing a powder mixture that includes a plurality of particles and a binder material to form a green powder component, which is then sintered to a final density.
  • In yet another aspect, the present invention includes an earth-boring rotary drill bit that includes a bit body and a shank attached to the bit body. The shank includes an outer wall enclosing a longitudinal bore. A retaining member extends through at least a portion of the outer wall of the shank and abuts against at least one surface of the bit body. Mechanical interference between the shank, the retaining member, and the bit body at least partially secures the shank to the bit body. The bit body includes a particle-matrix composite material. The particle-matrix composite material includes a plurality of hard particles dispersed throughout a matrix material. The hard particles may include a material selected from diamond, boron carbide, boron nitride, aluminum nitride, and carbides or borides of the group consisting of W, Ti, Mo, Nb, V, Hf, Zr, and Cr. The matrix material may be selected from the group consisting of iron-based alloys, nickel-based alloys, cobalt-based alloys, titanium-based alloys; iron and nickel-based alloys, iron and cobalt-based alloys, and nickel and cobalt-based alloys.
  • The features, advantages, and alternative aspects of the present invention will be apparent to those skilled in the art from a consideration of the following detailed description considered in combination with the accompanying drawings.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE SEVERAL VIEWS OF THE DRAWINGS
  • While the specification concludes with claims particularly pointing out and distinctly claiming that which is regarded as the present invention, the advantages of this invention may be more readily ascertained from the following description of the invention when read in conjunction with the accompanying drawings in which:
  • FIG. 1 is a partial cross-sectional side view of a conventional rotary drill bit that has a bit body that includes a particle-matrix composite material;
  • FIG. 2 is a partial cross-sectional side view of a rotary drill bit that embodies teachings of the present invention;
  • FIGS. 3A-3J illustrate a method of forming the bit body of the earth-boring rotary drill bit shown in FIG. 2;
  • FIGS. 4A-4C illustrate another method of forming the bit body of the earth-boring rotary drill bit shown in FIG. 2;
  • FIG. 5 is a side view of a shank shown in FIG. 2;
  • FIG. 6 is a cross-sectional view of the shank shown in FIG. 5 taken along section line 6-6 shown therein;
  • FIG. 7 is a cross-sectional side view of another bit body that embodies teachings of the present invention;
  • FIG. 8 is a cross-sectional view of the bit body shown in FIG. 7 taken along section line 8-8 shown therein; and
  • FIG. 9 is a cross-sectional side view of yet another bit body that embodies teachings of the present invention.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
  • The illustrations presented herein, are not meant to be actual views of any particular material, apparatus, system, or method, but are merely idealized representations which are employed to describe the present invention. Additionally, elements common between figures may retain the same numerical designation.
  • The term “green” as used herein means unsintered.
  • The term “green bit body” as used herein means an unsintered structure comprising a plurality of discrete particles held together by a binder material, the structure having a size and shape allowing the formation of a bit body suitable for use in an earth-boring drill bit from the structure by subsequent manufacturing processes including, but not limited to, machining and densification.
  • The term “brown” as used herein means partially sintered.
  • The term “brown bit body” as used herein means a partially sintered structure comprising a plurality of particles, at least some of which have partially grown together to provide at least partial bonding between adjacent particles, the structure having a size and shape allowing the formation of a bit body suitable for use in an earth-boring drill bit from the structure by subsequent manufacturing processes including, but not limited to, machining and further densification. Brown bit bodies may be formed by, for example, partially sintering a green bit body.
  • The term “sintering” as used herein means densification of a particulate component involving removal of at least a portion of the pores between the starting particles (accompanied by shrinkage) combined with coalescence and bonding between adjacent particles.
  • As used herein, the term “[metal]-based alloy” (where [metal] is any metal) means commercially pure [metal] in addition to metal alloys wherein the weight percentage of [metal] in the alloy is greater than the weight percentage of any other component of the alloy.
  • As used herein, the term “material composition” means the chemical composition and microstructure of a material. In other words, materials having the same chemical composition but a different microstructure are considered to have different material compositions.
  • As used herein, the term “tungsten carbide” means any material composition that contains chemical compounds of tungsten and carbon, such as, for example, WC, W2C, and combinations of WC and W2C. Tungsten carbide includes, for example, cast tungsten carbide, sintered tungsten carbide, and macrocrystalline tungsten carbide.
  • An earth-boring rotary drill bit 50 that embodies teachings of the present invention is shown in FIG. 2. The rotary drill bit 50 has a bit body 52 that includes a particle-matrix composite material. The drill bit 50 may also include a shank 70 attached to the bit body 52.
  • The shank 70 includes a generally cylindrical outer wall having an outer surface and an inner surface. The outer wall of the shank 70 encloses at least a portion of a longitudinal bore 66 that extends through the drill bit 50. At least one surface of the outer wall of the shank 70 may be configured for attachment of the shank 70 to the bit body 52. The shank 70 also may include a male or female API threaded connection portion 28 for attaching the drill bit 50 to a drill string (not shown). One or more apertures 72 may extend through the outer wall of the shank 70. These apertures are described in greater detail below.
  • In some embodiments, the bit body 52 of the rotary drill bit 50 may be substantially formed from and composed of a particle-matrix composite material. Furthermore, the composition of the particle-matrix composite material may be selectively varied within the bit body 52 to provide various regions within the bit body that have different, custom tailored physical properties or characteristics.
  • By way of example and not limitation, the bit body 52 may include a first region 54 having a first material composition and a second region 56 having a second, different material composition. The first region 54 may include the longitudinally lower and laterally outward regions of the bit body 52, which are commonly referred to as the “crown” of the bit body 52. The first region 54 may include the face 68 of the bit body 52, which may be configured to carry a plurality of cutting elements, such as PDC cutters 34. For example, a plurality of pockets 36 and buttresses 38 may be provided in or on the face 68 of the bit body 52 for carrying and supporting the PDC cutters 34. Furthermore, a plurality of blades 30 and junk slots 32 may be provided in the first region 54 of the bit body 52. The second region 56 may include the longitudinally upper and laterally inward regions of the bit body 52. The longitudinal bore 66 may extend at least partially through the second region 56 of the bit body 52.
  • The second region 56 may include at least one surface 58 that is configured for attachment of the bit body 52 to the shank 70. By way of example and not limitation, at least one groove 60 may be formed in at least one surface 58 of the second region 56 that is configured for attachment of the bit body 52 to the shank 70. Each groove may correspond to and be aligned with an aperture extending through the outer wall of the shank 70. A retaining member 80 may be provided within each aperture in the shank 70 and each groove 60. Mechanical interference between the shank 70, the retaining member 80, and the bit body 52 may prevent longitudinal separation of the bit body 52 from the shank 70, and may prevent rotation of the bit body 52 about a longitudinal axis L50 of the rotary drill bit 50 relative to the shank 70.
  • In the embodiment shown in FIG. 2, the rotary drill bit 50 includes two retaining members 80. By way of example and not limitation, each retaining member 80 may include an elongated, cylindrical rod that extends through an aperture in the shank 70 and a groove 60 formed in a surface 58 of the bit body 52.
  • The mechanical interference between the shank 70, the retaining member 80, and the bit body 52 may also provide a substantially uniform clearance or gap between a surface of the shank 70 and the surfaces 58 in the second region 56 of the bit body 52. By way of example and not limitation, a substantially uniform gap of between about 50 microns (0.002 inch) and about 150 microns (0.006 inch) may be provided between the shank 70 and the bit body 52 when the retaining members 80 are disposed within the apertures in the shank 70 and the grooves 60 in the bit body 52.
  • A brazing material 82 such as, for example, a silver-based or nickel-based metal alloy may be provided in the substantially uniform gap between the shank 70 and the surfaces 58 in the second region 56 of the bit body 52. As an alternative to brazing, or in addition to brazing, a weld 24 may be provided around the rotary drill bit 50 on an exterior surface thereof along an interface between the bit body 52 and the steel shank 70. The weld 24 and the brazing material 82 may be used to further secure the shank 70 to the bit body 52. In this configuration, if the brazing material 82 in the substantially uniform gap between the shank 70 and the surfaces 58 in the second region 56 of the bit body 52 and the weld 24 should fail while the drill bit 50 is located at the bottom of a well bore-hole during a drilling operation, the retaining members 80 may prevent longitudinal separation of the bit body 52 from the shank 70, thereby preventing loss of the bit body 52 in the well bore-hole.
  • As previously stated, the first region 54 of the bit body 52 may have a first material composition and the second region 56 of the bit body 52 may have a second, different material composition. The first region 54 may include a particle-matrix composite material. The second region 56 of the bit body 52 may include a metal, a metal alloy, or a particle-matrix composite material. By way of example and not limitation, the material composition of the first region 54 may be selected to exhibit higher erosion and wear-resistance than the material composition of the second region 56. The material composition of the second region 56 may be selected to facilitate machining of the second region 56. The manner in which the physical properties may be tailored to facilitate machining of the second region 56 may be at least partially dependent of the method of machining that is to be used. For example, if it is desired to machine the second region 56 using conventional turning, milling, and drilling techniques, the material composition of the second region 56 may be selected to exhibit lower hardness and higher ductility. Alternatively, if it is desired to machine the second region 56 using ultrasonic machining techniques, which may include the use of ultrasonically induced vibrations delivered to a tool, the composition of the second region 56 may be selected to exhibit a higher hardness and a lower ductility. In some embodiments, the material composition of the second region 56 may be selected to exhibit higher fracture toughness than the material composition of the first region 54. In yet other embodiments, the material composition of the second region 56 may be selected to exhibit physical properties that are tailored to facilitate welding of the second region 56. By way of example and not limitation, the material composition of the second region 56 may be selected to facilitate welding of the second region 56 to the shank 70. It is understood that the various regions of the bit body 52 may have material compositions that are selected or tailored to exhibit any desired particular physical property or characteristic, and the present invention is not limited to selecting or tailoring the material compositions of the regions to exhibit the particular physical properties or characteristics described herein.
  • Certain physical properties and characteristics of a composite material (such as hardness) may be defined using an appropriate rule of mixtures, as is known in the art. Other physical properties and characteristics of a composite material may be determined without resort to the rule of mixtures. Such physical properties may include, for example, erosion and wear resistance.
  • The particle-matrix composite material of the first region 54 may include a plurality of hard particles dispersed randomly throughout a matrix material. The hard particles may comprise diamond or ceramic materials such as carbides, nitrides, oxides, and borides (including boron carbide (B4C)). More specifically, the hard particles may comprise carbides and borides made from elements such as W, Ti, Mo, Nb, V, Hf, Ta, Cr, Zr, Al, and Si. By way of example and not limitation, materials that may be used to form hard particles include tungsten carbide (WC, W2C), titanium carbide (TiC), tantalum carbide (TaC), titanium diboride (TiB2), chromium carbides, titanium nitride (TiN), vanadium carbide (VC), aluminium oxide (Al2O3), aluminium nitride (AlN), boron nitride (BN), and silicon carbide (SiC). Furthermore, combinations of different hard particles may be used to tailor the physical properties and characteristics of the particle-matrix composite material. The hard particles may be formed using techniques known to those of ordinary skill in the art. Most suitable materials for hard particles are commercially available and the formation of the remainder is within the ability of one of ordinary skill in the art.
  • The matrix material of the particle-matrix composite material may include, for example, cobalt-based, iron-based, nickel-based, iron and nickel-based, cobalt and nickel-based, iron and cobalt-based, aluminum-based, copper-based, magnesium-based, and titanium-based alloys. The matrix material may also be selected from commercially pure elements such as cobalt, aluminum, copper, magnesium, titanium, iron, and nickel. By way of example and not limitation, the matrix material may include carbon steel, alloy steel, stainless steel, tool steel, Hadfield manganese steel, nickel or cobalt superalloy material, and low thermal expansion iron- or nickel-based alloys such as INVAR®. As used herein, the term “superalloy” refers to an iron-, nickel-, and cobalt-based alloys having at least 12% chromium by weight. Additional exemplary alloys that may be used as matrix material include austenitic steels, nickel-based superalloys such as INCONEL® 625M or Rene 95, and INVAR® type alloys having a coefficient of thermal expansion that closely matches that of the hard particles used in the particular particle-matrix composite material. More closely matching the coefficient of thermal expansion of matrix material with that of the hard particles offers advantages such as reducing problems associated with residual stresses and thermal fatigue. Another exemplary matrix material is a Hadfield austenitic manganese steel (Fe with approximately 12% Mn by weight and 1.1% C by weight).
  • The material composition of the second region 56 of the bit body may include, for example, any of the previously described matrix materials of the particle-matrix composite material used for the first region 54 of the bit body 52. Alternatively, the material composition of the second region 56 of the bit body 52 may include a particle-matrix composite material in which hard particles are randomly dispersed throughout a matrix material. The hard particles and the matrix materials may be selected from those previously described in relation to the first region 54 of the bit body 52. The material composition of the second region 56 of the bit body 52, however, may be selected to facilitate machining of the second region 56 using conventional machining techniques. Such conventional machining techniques may include, for example, turning, milling, and drilling techniques, which may be used to configure the second region 56 of the bit body 52 for attachment to the shank 70. For example, features such as the grooves 60 may be machined in one or more surfaces 58 of the second region 56 of the bit body 52 to configure the second region 56 of the bit body 52 for attachment to the shank 70.
  • In one embodiment of the present invention, the first region 54 of the bit body 52 may be substantially formed from and composed of a particle-matrix composite material. The particle-matrix composite material may include a plurality of -400 ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) mesh tungsten carbide particles. As used herein, the phrase “-400 ASTM mesh particles” means particles that pass through an ASTM No. 400 mesh screen as defined in ASTM specification E11-04 entitled Standard Specification for Wire Cloth and Sieves for Testing Purposes. Such tungsten carbide particles may have a maximum diameter of less than about 38 microns. The matrix material may include a cobalt-based metal alloy comprising greater than about 95% cobalt by weight. The tungsten carbide particles may comprise between about 60% and about 95% by weight of the particle-matrix composite material, and the matrix material may comprise between about 5% and about 40% by weight of the particle-matrix composite material. More particularly, the tungsten carbide particles may comprise between about 75% and about 85% by weight of the particle-matrix composite material, and the matrix material may comprise between about 15% and about 25% by weight of the particle-matrix composite material.
  • The second region 56 of the bit body 52 may be substantially formed from and composed of the same material used as matrix material in the particle-matrix composite material of the first region 54.
  • In another embodiment of the present invention, both the first region 54 and the second region 56 of the bit body 52 may be substantially formed from and composed of a particle-matrix composite material.
  • By way of example and not limitation, the particle-matrix composite material of the first region 54 may include a plurality of -635 ASTM mesh tungsten carbide particles. As used herein, the phrase “-635 ASTM mesh particles” means particles that pass through an ASTM No. 635 mesh screen as defined in ASTM specification E11-04 entitled Standard Specification for Wire Cloth and Sieves for Testing Purposes. Such tungsten carbide particles may have a maximum diameter of less than about 20 microns. For example, the particle-matrix composite material of the first region 54 may include a plurality of tungsten carbide particles having a diameter in a range extending from about 0.5 microns to about 10 microns. The matrix material may include a nickel and cobalt-based metal alloy comprising about 50% nickel by weight and about 50% cobalt by weight. The tungsten carbide particles may comprise between about 60% and about 95% by weight of the particle-matrix composite material of the first region 54, and the matrix material may comprise between about 5% and about 40% by weight of the particle-matrix composite material of the first region 54. More particularly, the tungsten carbide particles may comprise between about 75% and about 85% by weight of the particle-matrix composite material of the first region 54, and the matrix material may comprise between about 15% and about 25% by weight of the particle-matrix composite material of the first region 54.
  • Furthermore, the particle-matrix composite material of the second region 56 may include a plurality of -635 ASTM mesh tungsten carbide particles. Such tungsten carbide particles may have a maximum diameter of less than about 20 microns. For example, the particle-matrix composite material of the second region 56 may include a plurality of tungsten carbide particles having a diameter in a range extending from about 0.5 microns to about 10 microns. The matrix material of the second region 56 may be substantially identical to the matrix material of the particle-matrix composite material of the first region 54. Alternatively, the matrix material of the particle-matrix composite material of the second region 56 may differ from the matrix material of the particle-matrix composite material of the first region 54. The tungsten carbide particles may comprise between about 65% and about 70% by weight of the particle-matrix composite material of the second region 56, and the matrix material may comprise between about 30% and about 35% by weight of the particle-matrix composite material of the second region 56.
  • FIGS. 3A-3J illustrate a method of forming the bit body 52. Generally, the bit body 52 of the rotary drill bit 50 may be formed by separately forming the first region 54 and the second region 56 as brown structures, assembling the brown structures together to provide a unitary brown bit body, and sintering the unitary brown bit body to a desired final density.
  • Referring to FIG. 3A, a first powder mixture 89 may be pressed in a mold or die 86 using a movable piston or plunger 88. The first powder mixture 89 may include a plurality of hard particles and a plurality of particles comprising a matrix material. The hard particles and the matrix material may be selected from those previously described in relation to FIG. 2. Optionally, the powder mixture 89 may further include additives commonly used when pressing powder mixtures such as, for example, binders for providing lubrication during pressing and for providing structural strength to the pressed powder component, plasticizers for making the binder more pliable, and lubricants or compaction aids for reducing inter-particle friction.
  • The die 86 may include an inner cavity having surfaces shaped and configured to form at least some surfaces of the first region 54 of the bit body 52. The plunger 88 may also have surfaces configured to form or shape at least some of the surfaces of the first region 54 of the bit body 52. Inserts or displacements 87 may be positioned within the die 86 and used to define the internal fluid passageways 42. Additional displacements 87 (not shown) may be used to define cutting element pockets 36, junk slots 32, and other topographic features of the first region 54 of the bit body 52.
  • The plunger 88 may be advanced into the die 86 at high force using mechanical or hydraulic equipment or machines to compact the first powder mixture 89 within the die 86 to form a first green powder component 90, shown in FIG. 3B. The die 86, plunger 88, and the first powder mixture 89 optionally may be heated during the compaction process.
  • In alternative methods of pressing the powder mixture 89, the powder mixture 89 may be pressed with substantially isostatic pressures inside a pressure chamber using methods known to those of ordinary skill in the art.
  • The first green powder component 90 shown in FIG. 3B may include a plurality of particles (hard particles and particles of matrix material) held together by a binder material provided in the powder mixture 89 (FIG. 3A), as previously described. Certain structural features may be machined in the green powder component 90 using conventional machining techniques including, for example, turning techniques, milling techniques, and drilling techniques. Hand held tools also may be used to manually form or shape features in or on the green powder component 90. By way of example and not limitation, junk slots 32 (FIG. 2) may be machined or otherwise formed in the green powder component 90.
  • The first green powder component 90 shown in FIG. 3B may be at least partially sintered. For example, the green powder component 90 may be partially sintered to provide a first brown structure 91 shown in FIG. 3C, which has less than a desired final density. Prior to sintering, the green powder component 90 may be subjected to moderately elevated temperatures to aid in the removal of any fugitive additives that were included in the powder mixture 89 (FIG. 3A), as previously described. Furthermore, the green powder component 90 may be subjected to a suitable atmosphere tailored to aid in the removal of such additives. Such atmospheres may include, for example, hydrogen gas at a temperature of about 500° C.
  • Certain structural features may be machined in the first brown structure 91 using conventional machining techniques including, for example, turning techniques, milling techniques, and drilling techniques. Hand held tools may also be used to manually form or shape features in or on the brown structure 91. By way of example and not limitation, cutter pockets 36 may be machined or otherwise formed in the brown structure 91 to form a shaped brown structure 92 shown in FIG. 3D.
  • Referring to FIG. 3E, a second powder mixture 99 may be pressed in a mold or die 96 using a movable piston or plunger 98. The second powder mixture 99 may include a plurality of particles comprising a matrix material, and optionally may include a plurality of hard particles. The matrix material and the hard particles may be selected from those previously described in relation to FIG. 2. Optionally, the powder mixture 99 may further include additives commonly used when pressing powder mixtures such as, for example, binders for providing lubrication during pressing and for providing structural strength to the pressed powder component, plasticizers for making the binder more pliable, and lubricants or compaction aids for reducing inter-particle friction.
  • The die 96 may include an inner cavity having surfaces shaped and configured to form at least some surfaces of the second region 56 of the bit body 52. The plunger 98 may also have surfaces configured to form or shape at least some of the surfaces of the second region 56 of the bit body 52. One or more inserts or displacements 97 may be positioned within the die 96 and used to define the internal fluid passageways 42. Additional displacements 97 (not shown) may be used to define other topographic features of the second region 56 of the bit body 52 as necessary.
  • The plunger 98 may be advanced into the die 96 at high force using mechanical or hydraulic equipment or machines to compact the second powder mixture 99 within the die 96 to form a second green powder component 100, shown in FIG. 3F. The die 96, plunger 98, and the second powder mixture 99 optionally may be heated during the compaction process.
  • In alternative methods of pressing the powder mixture 99, the powder mixture 99 may be pressed with substantially isostatic pressures inside a pressure chamber using methods known to those of ordinary skill in the art.
  • The second green powder component 100 shown in FIG. 3F may include a plurality of particles (particles of matrix material, and optionally, hard particles) held together by a binder material provided in the powder mixture 99 (FIG. 3E), as previously described. Certain structural features may be machined in the green powder component 100 as necessary using conventional machining techniques including, for example, turning techniques, milling techniques, and drilling techniques. Hand held tools also may be used to manually form or shape features in or on the green powder component 100.
  • The second green powder component 100 shown in FIG. 3F may be at least partially sintered. For example, the green powder component 100 may be partially sintered to provide a second brown structure 101 shown in FIG. 3G, which has less than a desired final density. Prior to sintering, the green powder component 100 may be subjected to moderately elevated temperatures to burn off or remove any fugitive additives that were included in the powder mixture 99 (FIG. 3E), as previously described.
  • Certain structural features may be machined in the second brown structure 101 as necessary using conventional machining techniques including, for example, turning techniques, milling techniques, and drilling techniques. Hand held tools may also be used to manually form or shape features in or on the brown structure 101.
  • The brown structure 101 shown in FIG. 3G then may be inserted into the previously formed shaped brown structure 92 shown in FIG. 3D to provide a unitary brown bit body 106 shown in FIG. 3H. The unitary brown bit body 106 then may be fully sintered to a desired final density to provide the previously described bit body 52 shown in FIG. 2. As sintering involves densification and removal of porosity within a structure, the structure being sintered will shrink during the sintering process. A structure may experience linear shrinkage of between 10% and 20% during sintering. As a result, dimensional shrinkage must be considered and accounted for when designing tooling (molds, dies, etc.) or machining features in structures that are less than fully sintered.
  • In an alternative method, the green powder component 100 shown in FIG. 3F may be inserted into or assembled with the green powder component 90 shown in FIG. 3B to form a green bit body. The green bit body then may be machined as necessary and sintered to a desired final density. The interfacial surfaces of the green powder component 90 and the green powder component 100 may be fused or bonded together during sintering processes. Alternatively, the green bit body may be partially sintered to a brown bit body. Shaping and machining processes may be performed on the brown bit body as necessary, and the resulting brown bit body then may be sintered to a desired final density.
  • The material composition of the first region 54 (and therefore, the composition of the first powder mixture 89 shown in FIG. 3A) and the material composition of the second region 56 (and therefore, the composition of the second powder mixture 99 shown in FIG. 3E) may be selected to exhibit substantially similar shrinkage during the sintering processes.
  • The sintering processes described herein may include conventional sintering in a vacuum furnace, sintering in a vacuum furnace followed by a conventional hot isostatic pressing process, and sintering immediately followed by isostatic pressing at temperatures near the sintering temperature (often referred to as sinter-HIP). Furthermore, the sintering processes described herein may include subliquidus phase sintering. In other words, the sintering processes may be conducted at temperatures proximate to but below the liquidus line of the phase diagram for the matrix material. For example, the sintering processes described herein may be conducted using a number of different methods known to one of ordinary skill in the art such as the Rapid Omnidirectional Compaction (ROC) process, the Ceracon™ process, hot isostatic pressing (HIP), or adaptations of such processes.
  • Broadly, and by way of example only, sintering a green powder compact using the ROC process involves presintering the green powder compact at a relatively low temperature to only a sufficient degree to develop sufficient strength to permit handling of the powder compact. The resulting brown structure is wrapped in a material such as graphite foil to seal the brown structure. The wrapped brown structure is placed in a container, which is filled with particles of a ceramic, polymer, or glass material having a substantially lower melting point than that of the matrix material in the brown structure. The container is heated to the desired sintering temperature, which is above the melting temperature of the particles of a ceramic, polymer, or glass material, but below the liquidus temperature of the matrix material in the brown structure. The heated container with the molten ceramic, polymer, or glass material (and the brown structure immersed therein) is placed in a mechanical or hydraulic press, such as a forging press, that is used to apply pressure to the molten ceramic or polymer material. Isostatic pressures within the molten ceramic, polymer, or glass material facilitate consolidation and sintering of the brown structure at the elevated temperatures within the container. The molten ceramic, polymer, or glass material acts to transmit the pressure and heat to the brown structure. In this manner, the molten ceramic, polymer, or glass acts as a pressure transmission medium through which pressure is applied to the structure during sintering. Subsequent to the release of pressure and cooling, the sintered structure is then removed from the ceramic, polymer, or glass material. A more detailed explanation of the ROC process and suitable equipment for the practice thereof is provided by U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,094,709, 4,233,720, 4,341,557, 4,526,748, 4,547,337, 4,562,990, 4,596,694, 4,597,730, 4,656,002 4,744,943 and 5,232,522, the disclosure of each of which patents is incorporated herein by reference.
  • The CERACON™ process, which is similar to the aforementioned ROC process, may also be adapted for use in the present invention to fully sinter brown structures to a final density. In the CERACON™ process, the brown structure is coated with a ceramic coating such as alumina, zirconium oxide, or chrome oxide. Other similar, hard, generally inert, protective, removable coatings may also be used. The coated brown structure is fully consolidated by transmitting at least substantially isostatic pressure to the coated brown structure using ceramic particles instead of a fluid media as in the ROC process. A more detailed explanation of the CERACON™ process is provided by U.S. Pat. No. 4,499,048, the disclosure of which patent is incorporated herein by reference.
  • As previously described, the material composition of the second region 56 of the bit body 52 may be selected to facilitate the machining operations performing on the second region 56, even in the fully sintered state. After sintering the unitary brown bit body 106 shown in FIG. 3H to the desired final density, certain features may be machined in the fully sintered structure to provide the bit body 52, which is shown separate from the shank 70 (FIG. 2) in FIG. 3I. For example, the surfaces 58 of the second region 56 of the bit body 52 may be machined to provide elements or features for attaching the shank 70 (FIG. 2) to the bit body 52. By way of example and not limitation, two grooves 60 may be machined in a surface 58 of the second region 56 of the bit body 52, as shown in FIG. 3I. Each groove 60 may have, for example, a semi-circular cross section. Furthermore, each groove 60 may extend radially around a portion of the second region 56 of the bit body 52, as illustrated in FIG. 3J. In this configuration, the surface of the second region 56 of the bit body 52 within each groove 60 may have a shape comprising an angular section of a partial toroid. As used herein, the term “toroid” means a surface generated by a closed curve (such as a circle) rotating about, but not intersecting or containing, an axis disposed in a plane that includes the closed curve. Alternatively, the surface of the second region 56 of the bit body 52 within each groove 60 may have a shape that substantially forms a partial cylinder. The two grooves 60 may be located on substantially opposite sides of the second region 56 of the bit body 52, as shown in FIG. 3J.
  • As described herein, the first region 54 and the second region 56 of the drill bit 52 may be separately formed in the brown state and assembled together to faun a unitary brown structure, which can then be sintered to a desired final density. In alternative methods of forming the bit body 52, the first region 54 may be formed by pressing a first powder mixture in a die to form a first green powder component, adding a second powder mixture to the same die and pressing the second powder mixture within the die together with the first powder component of the first region 54 to form a monolithic green bit body. Furthermore, a first powder mixture and a second powder mixture may be provided in a single die and simultaneously pressed to form a monolithic green bit body. The monolithic green bit body then may be machined as necessary and sintered to a desired final density. Alternatively, the monolithic green bit body may be partially sintered to a brown bit body. Shaping and machining processes may be performed on the brown bit body as necessary, and the resulting brown bit body then may be sintered to a desired final density. The monolithic green bit body may be formed in a single die using two different plungers, such as the plunger 88 shown in FIG. 3A and the plunger 98 shown in FIG. 3E. Furthermore, additional powder mixtures may be provided as necessary to provide any desired number of regions within the bit body 52 having a material composition.
  • FIGS. 4A-4C illustrate another method of forming the bit body 52. Generally, the bit body 52 of the rotary drill bit 50 may be formed by pressing the previously described first powder mixture 89 (FIG. 3A) and the previously described second powder mixture 99 (FIG. 3E) to form a generally cylindrical monolithic green bit body 110 or billet, as shown in FIG. 4A. By way of example and not limitation, the generally cylindrical monolithic green bit body 110 may be formed by isostatically pressing the first powder mixture 89 and the second powder mixture 99 together in a pressure chamber.
  • By way of example and not limitation, the first powder mixture 89 and the second powder mixture 99 may be provided within a container. The container may include a fluid-tight deformable member, such as, for example, a substantially cylindrical bag comprising a deformable polymer material. The container (with the first powder mixture 89 and the second powder mixture 99 contained therein) may be provided within a pressure chamber. A fluid, such as, for example, water, oil, or gas (such as, for example, air or nitrogen) may be pumped into the pressure chamber using a pump. The high pressure of the fluid causes the walls of the deformable member to deform. The pressure may be transmitted substantially uniformly to the first powder mixture 89 and the second powder mixture 99. The pressure within the pressure chamber during isostatic pressing may be greater than about 35 megapascals (about 5,000 pounds per square inch). More particularly, the pressure within the pressure chamber during isostatic pressing may be greater than about 138 megapascals (20,000 pounds per square inch). In alternative methods, a vacuum may be provided within the container and a pressure greater than about 0.1 megapascal (about 15 pounds per square inch), may be applied to the exterior surfaces of the container (by, for example, the atmosphere) to compact the first powder mixture 89 and the second powder mixture 99. Isostatic pressing of the first powder mixture 89 and the second powder mixture 99 may form the generally cylindrical monolithic green bit body 110 shown in FIG. 4A, which can be removed from the pressure chamber after pressing.
  • The generally cylindrical monolithic green bit body 110 shown in FIG. 4A may be machined or shaped as necessary. By way of example and not limitation, the outer diameter of an end of the generally cylindrical monolithic green bit body 110 may be reduced to form the shaped monolithic green bit body 112 shown in FIG. 4B. For example, the generally cylindrical monolithic green bit body 110 may be turned on a lathe to form the shaped monolithic green bit body 112. Additional machining or shaping of the generally cylindrical monolithic green bit body 110 may be performed as necessary or desired. Alternatively, the generally cylindrical monolithic green bit body 110 may be turned on a lathe to ensure that the monolithic green bit body 110 is substantially cylindrical without reducing the outer diameter of an end thereof or otherwise changing the shape of the monolithic green bit body 110.
  • The shaped monolithic green bit body 112 shown in FIG. 4B then may be partially sintered to provide a brown bit body 114 shown in FIG. 4C. The brown bit body 114 then may be machined as necessary to form a structure substantially identical to the previously described shaped unitary brown bit body 106 shown in FIG. 3H. By way of example and not limitation, the longitudinal bore 66 and internal fluid passageways 42 (FIG. 3H) may be formed in the brown bit body 114 (FIG. 4C) by, for example, using a machining process. A plurality of pockets 36 for PDC cutters 34 also may be machined in the brown bit body 114 (FIG. 4C). Furthermore, at least one surface 58 (FIG. 3H) that is configured for attachment of the bit body to the shank may be machined in the brown bit body 114 (FIG. 4C).
  • After the brown bit body 114 shown in FIG. 4C has been machined to form a structure substantially identical to the shaped unitary brown bit body 106 shown in FIG. 3H, the structure may be further sintered to a desired final density and certain additional features may be machined in the fully sintered structure as necessary to provide the bit body 52, as previously described.
  • Referring again to FIG. 2, the shank 70 may be attached to the bit body 52 by providing a brazing material 82 such as, for example, a silver-based or nickel-based metal alloy in the gap between the shank 70 and the surfaces 58 in the second region 56 of the bit body 52. As an alternative to brazing, or in addition to brazing, a weld 24 may be provided around the rotary drill bit 50 on an exterior surface thereof along an interface between the bit body 52 and the steel shank 70. The brazing material 82 and the weld 24 may be used to secure the shank 70 to the bit body 52.
  • In alternative methods, structures or features that provide mechanical interference may be used in addition to, or instead of, the brazing material 82 and weld 24 to secure the shank 70 to the bit body 52. An example of such a method of attaching a shank 70 to the bit body 52 is described below with reference to FIG. 2 and FIGS. 5-6. Referring to FIG. 5, two apertures 72 may be provided through the shank 70, as previously described in relation to FIG. 2. Each aperture 72 may have a size and shape configured to receive a retaining member 80 (FIG. 2) therein. By way of example and not limitation, each aperture 72 may have a substantially cylindrical cross section and may extend through the shank 70 along an axis L72, as shown in FIG. 6. The location and orientation of each aperture 72 in the shank 70 may be such that each axis L72 lies in a plane that is substantially perpendicular to the longitudinal axis L50 of the drill bit 50, but does not intersect the longitudinal axis L50 of the drill bit 50.
  • When a retaining member 80 is inserted through an aperture 72 of the shank 70 and a groove 60, the retaining member 80 may abut against a surface of the second region 56 of the bit body 52 within the groove 60 along a line of contact if the groove 60 has a shape comprising an angular section of a partial toroid, as shown in FIGS. 3I and 3J. If the groove 60 has a shape that substantially forms a partial cylinder, however, the retaining member 80 may abut against an area on the surface of the second region 56 of the bit body 52 within the groove 60.
  • In some embodiments, each retaining member 80 may be secured to the shank 70. By way of example and not limitation, if each retaining member 80 includes an elongated, cylindrical rod as shown in FIG. 2, the ends of each retaining member 80 may be welded to the shank 70 along the interface between the end of each retaining member 80 and the shank 70. In other embodiments, a brazing or soldering material (not shown) may be provided between the ends of each retaining member 80 and the shank 70. In still other embodiments, threads may be provided on an exterior surface of each end of each retaining member and cooperating threads may be provided on surfaces of the shank 70 within the apertures 72.
  • Referring again to FIG. 2, the brazing material 82 such as, for example, a silver-based or nickel-based metal alloy may be provided in the substantially uniform gap between the shank 70 and the surfaces 58 in the second region 56 of the bit body 52. The weld 24 may be provided around the rotary drill bit 50 on an exterior surface thereof along an interface between the bit body 52 and the steel shank 70. The weld 24 and the brazing material 82 may be used to further secure the shank 70 to the bit body 52. In this configuration, if the brazing material 82 in the substantially uniform gap between the shank 70 and the surfaces 58 in the second region 56 of the bit body 52 and the weld 24 should fail while the drill bit 50 is located at the bottom of a well bore-hole during a drilling operation, the retaining members 80 may prevent longitudinal separation of the bit body 52 from the shank 70, thereby preventing loss of the bit body 52 in the well bore-hole.
  • In alternative methods of attaching the shank 70 to the bit body 52, only one retaining member 80 or more than two retaining members 80 may be used to attach the shank 70 to the bit body 52. In yet other embodiments, a threaded connection may be provided between the second region 56 of the bit body 52 and the shank 70. As the material composition of the second region 56 of the bit body 52 may be selected to facilitate machining thereof even in the fully sintered state, threads having precise dimensions may be machined on the second region 56 of the bit body 52. In additional embodiments, the interface between the shank 70 and the bit body 52 may be substantially tapered. Furthermore, a shrink fit or a press fit may be provided between the shank 70 and the bit body 52.
  • In the embodiment shown in FIG. 2, the bit body 52 includes two distinct regions having material compositions with an identifiable boundary or interface therebetween. In alternative embodiments, the material composition of the bit body 52 may be continuously varied between regions within the bit body 52 such that no boundaries or interfaces between regions are readily identifiable. In additional embodiments, the bit body 52 may include more than two regions having material compositions, and the spatial location of the various regions having material compositions within the bit body 52 may be varied.
  • FIG. 7 illustrates an additional bit body 150 that embodies teachings of the present invention. The bit body 150 includes a first region 152 and a second region 154. As best seen in the cross-sectional view of the bit body 150 shown in FIG. 8, the interface between the first region 152 and the second region 154 may generally follow the topography of the exterior surface of the first region 152. For example, the interface may include a plurality of longitudinally extending ridges 156 and depressions 158 corresponding to the blades 30 and junk slots 32 that may be provided on and in the exterior surface of the bit body 150. In such a configuration, blades 30 on the bit body 150 may be less susceptible to fracture when a torque is applied to a drill bit comprising the bit body 150 during a drilling operation.
  • FIG. 9 illustrates yet another bit body 160 that embodies teachings of the present invention. The bit body 160 also includes a first region 162 and a second region 164. The first region 162 may include a longitudinally lower region of the bit body 160, and the second region 164 may include a longitudinally upper region of the bit body 160. Furthermore, the interface between the first region 162 and the second region 164 may include a plurality of radially extending ridges and depressions (not shown), which may make the bit body 160 less susceptible to fracture along the interface when a torque is applied to a drill bit comprising the bit body 160 during a drilling operation.
  • The methods of forming earth-boring rotary drill bits described herein may allow the formation of novel drill bits having bit bodies that include particle-matrix composite materials that exhibit superior erosion and wear-resistance, strength, and fracture toughness relative to known particle-matrix composite drill bits. Furthermore, the methods described herein allow for the attachment of a shank to a bit body that is substantially composed of a particle-matrix composite material and formed by methods other than liquid matrix infiltration. The methods allow for attachment of the shank to the bit body with proper alignment and concentricity provided therebetween. The methods described herein allow for improved attachment of a shank to a bit body having at least a crown region that includes a particle-matrix composite material by precision machining at least a surface of the bit body, the surface being configured for attachment of the bit body to the shank.
  • While the present invention has been described herein with respect to certain preferred embodiments, those of ordinary skill in the art will recognize and appreciate that it is not so limited. Rather, many additions, deletions and modifications to the preferred embodiments may be made without departing from the scope of the invention as hereinafter claimed. In addition, features from one embodiment may be combined with features of another embodiment while still being encompassed within the scope of the invention as contemplated by the inventors. Further, the invention has utility in drill bits and core bits having different and various bit profiles as well as cutter types.

Claims (20)

  1. 1. A method of forming a fixed cutter earth-boring rotary drill bit, the method comprising:
    providing a bit body comprising:
    pressing a powder mixture to form a green bit body;
    sintering the green bit body and forming the bit body, the bit body comprising a particle-matrix composite material having a final density; and
    fixedly attaching a shank to the bit body such that relative movement between the shank and the bit body is at least substantially precluded during drilling operations, the shank configured for attachment to a drill string, fixedly attaching the shank to the bit body comprising:
    positioning at least a portion of the shank and at least a portion of the bit body such that one of the at least a portion of the shank and the at least a portion of the bit body is located circumferentially about the other of the at least a portion of the shank and the at least a portion of the bit body;
    providing a retaining member at an interface between the at least a portion of the shank and the at least a portion of the bit body, mechanical interference between the retaining member, the at least a portion of the shank, and the at least a portion of the bit body precluding longitudinal separation between the shank and the bit body.
  2. 2. The method of claim 1, wherein positioning at least a portion of the shank and at least a portion of the bit body such that one of the at least a portion of the shank and the at least a portion of the bit body is located circumferentially about the other of the at least a portion of the shank and the at least a portion of the bit body comprises positioning at least a portion of an inner surface of the shank circumferentially about a portion of the bit body.
  3. 3. The method of claim 2, further comprising:
    providing an aperture extending at least partially through the shank; and
    providing at least one recess in the bit body; and
    wherein providing the retaining member at the interface between the at least a portion of the shank and the at least a portion of the bit body comprises positioning the retaining member within the aperture extending at least partially through the shank and within the at least one recess in the bit body.
  4. 4. The method of claim 3, wherein fixedly attaching the shank to the bit body further comprises selecting the retaining member to comprise an elongated rod.
  5. 5. The method of claim 4, wherein fixedly attaching the shank to the bit body further comprises positioning the elongated rod to extend through the aperture extending at least partially through the shank, through the at least one recess in the bit body, and through another aperture extending at least partially through the shank.
  6. 6. The method of claim 1, wherein providing the retaining member at the interface between the at least a portion of the shank and the at least a portion of the bit body comprises providing a substantially uniform gap between at least one surface of the shank and at least one surface of the bit body.
  7. 7. The method of claim 6, wherein providing the substantially uniform gap comprises forming the substantially uniform gap to be between about 50 microns (0.002 inch) and about 150 microns (0.006 inch).
  8. 8. The method of claim 1, further comprising providing a brazing alloy between the at least a portion of the shank and the at least a portion of the bit body.
  9. 9. The method of claim 1, further comprising welding an interface between the shank and the bit body.
  10. 10. The method of claim 1, further comprising:
    formulating the powder mixture to comprise:
    a plurality of particles comprising a matrix material, the matrix material selected from the group consisting of cobalt-based alloys, iron-based alloys, nickel-based alloys, cobalt and nickel-based alloys, iron and nickel-based alloys, iron and cobalt-based alloys, aluminum-based alloys, copper-based alloys, magnesium-based alloys, and titanium-based alloys; and
    a plurality of hard particles comprising a material selected from diamond, boron carbide, boron nitride, aluminum nitride, and carbides or borides of the group consisting of W, Ti, Mo, Nb, V, Hf, Zr, and Cr.
  11. 11. The method of claim 10, wherein formulating the powder mixture further comprises selecting the plurality of particles comprising the matrix material to comprise a matrix material selected from the group consisting of nickel-based alloys, cobalt-based alloys, and nickel and cobalt-based alloys.
  12. 12. The method of claim 1, further comprising machining the at least one feature in a surface of the bit body.
  13. 13. The method of claim 12, wherein machining the at least one feature in the surface of the bit body comprises machining at least one groove in the surface of the bit body, the method further comprising positioning at least a portion of the retaining member within the at least one groove.
  14. 14. The method of claim 1, wherein sintering the green bit body comprises:
    partially sintering the green bit body to form a brown bit body;
    machining at least one feature in the brown bit body; and
    sintering the brown bit body to the final density.
  15. 15. The method of claim 1, wherein sintering the green bit body comprises subliquidus phase sintering.
  16. 16. The method of claim 1, wherein pressing the powder mixture to form the green bit body comprises isostatically pressing the powder mixture.
  17. 17. The method of claim 16, wherein isostatically pressing the powder mixture comprises pressing the powder mixture with a liquid.
  18. 18. The method of claim 16, wherein isostatically pressing the powder mixture comprises pressing the powder mixture with pressure greater than about 35 megapascals (about 5,000 pounds per square inch).
  19. 19. A fixed cutter earth-boring rotary drill bit, comprising:
    a bit body at least substantially comprised of a pressed and sintered bit body comprising a particle-matrix composite material; and
    a shank configured for attachment to a drill string fixedly attached to the bit body such that relative movement between the shank and the bit body is at least substantially precluded during drilling operations, at least a portion of the shank and at least a portion of the bit body positioned such that one of the at least a portion of the shank and the at least a portion of the bit body is located circumferentially about the other of the at least a portion of the shank and the at least a portion of the bit body; and
    a retaining member at an interface between the at least a portion of the shank and the at least a portion of the bit body;
    wherein mechanical interference between the retaining member, the at least a portion of the shank, and the at least a portion of the bit body precludes longitudinal separation between the shank and the bit body.
  20. 20. The fixed cutter earth-boring rotary drill bit of claim 19, wherein mechanical interference between the retaining member, the at least a portion of the shank, and the at least a portion of the bit body precludes relative rotational movement between the shank and the bit body
US12831608 2005-11-10 2010-07-07 Methods of forming earth-boring rotary drill bits Abandoned US20100276205A1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US11271153 US7802495B2 (en) 2005-11-10 2005-11-10 Methods of forming earth-boring rotary drill bits
US12831608 US20100276205A1 (en) 2005-11-10 2010-07-07 Methods of forming earth-boring rotary drill bits

Applications Claiming Priority (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US12831608 US20100276205A1 (en) 2005-11-10 2010-07-07 Methods of forming earth-boring rotary drill bits
US14325056 US9192989B2 (en) 2005-11-10 2014-07-07 Methods of forming earth-boring tools including sinterbonded components
US14874639 US9700991B2 (en) 2005-11-10 2015-10-05 Methods of forming earth-boring tools including sinterbonded components

Related Parent Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US11271153 Continuation US7802495B2 (en) 2005-11-10 2005-11-10 Methods of forming earth-boring rotary drill bits

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US20100276205A1 true true US20100276205A1 (en) 2010-11-04

Family

ID=37872343

Family Applications (2)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US11271153 Active 2027-01-24 US7802495B2 (en) 2005-11-10 2005-11-10 Methods of forming earth-boring rotary drill bits
US12831608 Abandoned US20100276205A1 (en) 2005-11-10 2010-07-07 Methods of forming earth-boring rotary drill bits

Family Applications Before (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US11271153 Active 2027-01-24 US7802495B2 (en) 2005-11-10 2005-11-10 Methods of forming earth-boring rotary drill bits

Country Status (6)

Country Link
US (2) US7802495B2 (en)
EP (1) EP1960630B1 (en)
CN (1) CN101356340A (en)
CA (1) CA2630917C (en)
RU (1) RU2412326C2 (en)
WO (1) WO2007058905A1 (en)

Cited By (18)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20100288561A1 (en) * 2009-05-13 2010-11-18 Baker Hughes Incorporated Hybrid drill bit
US20100320001A1 (en) * 2009-06-18 2010-12-23 Baker Hughes Incorporated Hybrid bit with variable exposure
US20110120269A1 (en) * 2008-05-02 2011-05-26 Baker Hughes Incorporated Modular hybrid drill bit
US8141664B2 (en) 2009-03-03 2012-03-27 Baker Hughes Incorporated Hybrid drill bit with high bearing pin angles
US8191635B2 (en) 2009-10-06 2012-06-05 Baker Hughes Incorporated Hole opener with hybrid reaming section
US8678111B2 (en) 2007-11-16 2014-03-25 Baker Hughes Incorporated Hybrid drill bit and design method
RU2534164C1 (en) * 2013-07-18 2014-11-27 Федеральное государственное бюджетное учреждение науки Институт физико-технических проблем Севера им. В.П. Ларионова Сибирского отделения Российской академии наук Diamond bit manufacturing method
US8950514B2 (en) 2010-06-29 2015-02-10 Baker Hughes Incorporated Drill bits with anti-tracking features
US8978786B2 (en) 2010-11-04 2015-03-17 Baker Hughes Incorporated System and method for adjusting roller cone profile on hybrid bit
US9004198B2 (en) 2009-09-16 2015-04-14 Baker Hughes Incorporated External, divorced PDC bearing assemblies for hybrid drill bits
US9085074B2 (en) 2011-03-22 2015-07-21 Black & Decker Inc. Chisels
USD734792S1 (en) 2013-03-15 2015-07-21 Black & Decker Inc. Drill bit
USD737875S1 (en) 2013-03-15 2015-09-01 Black & Decker Inc. Drill bit
US9333564B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2016-05-10 Black & Decker Inc. Drill bit
US9353575B2 (en) 2011-11-15 2016-05-31 Baker Hughes Incorporated Hybrid drill bits having increased drilling efficiency
US9476259B2 (en) 2008-05-02 2016-10-25 Baker Hughes Incorporated System and method for leg retention on hybrid bits
US9782857B2 (en) 2011-02-11 2017-10-10 Baker Hughes Incorporated Hybrid drill bit having increased service life
US10107039B2 (en) 2014-05-23 2018-10-23 Baker Hughes Incorporated Hybrid bit with mechanically attached roller cone elements

Families Citing this family (94)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20080101977A1 (en) * 2005-04-28 2008-05-01 Eason Jimmy W Sintered bodies for earth-boring rotary drill bits and methods of forming the same
US9428822B2 (en) 2004-04-28 2016-08-30 Baker Hughes Incorporated Earth-boring tools and components thereof including material having hard phase in a metallic binder, and metallic binder compositions for use in forming such tools and components
US20050211475A1 (en) 2004-04-28 2005-09-29 Mirchandani Prakash K Earth-boring bits
US20060024140A1 (en) * 2004-07-30 2006-02-02 Wolff Edward C Removable tap chasers and tap systems including the same
US7798256B2 (en) 2005-03-03 2010-09-21 Smith International, Inc. Fixed cutter drill bit for abrasive applications
US7472764B2 (en) * 2005-03-25 2009-01-06 Baker Hughes Incorporated Rotary drill bit shank, rotary drill bits so equipped, and methods of manufacture
US8637127B2 (en) 2005-06-27 2014-01-28 Kennametal Inc. Composite article with coolant channels and tool fabrication method
US7687156B2 (en) 2005-08-18 2010-03-30 Tdy Industries, Inc. Composite cutting inserts and methods of making the same
US7597159B2 (en) * 2005-09-09 2009-10-06 Baker Hughes Incorporated Drill bits and drilling tools including abrasive wear-resistant materials
US7703555B2 (en) 2005-09-09 2010-04-27 Baker Hughes Incorporated Drilling tools having hardfacing with nickel-based matrix materials and hard particles
US8002052B2 (en) 2005-09-09 2011-08-23 Baker Hughes Incorporated Particle-matrix composite drill bits with hardfacing
CA2662966C (en) 2006-08-30 2012-11-13 Baker Hughes Incorporated Methods for applying wear-resistant material to exterior surfaces of earth-boring tools and resulting structures
US7997359B2 (en) 2005-09-09 2011-08-16 Baker Hughes Incorporated Abrasive wear-resistant hardfacing materials, drill bits and drilling tools including abrasive wear-resistant hardfacing materials
US20070098977A1 (en) * 2005-10-27 2007-05-03 General Electric Company Soft magnetic materials and methods of making
US7913779B2 (en) * 2005-11-10 2011-03-29 Baker Hughes Incorporated Earth-boring rotary drill bits including bit bodies having boron carbide particles in aluminum or aluminum-based alloy matrix materials, and methods for forming such bits
US7776256B2 (en) 2005-11-10 2010-08-17 Baker Huges Incorporated Earth-boring rotary drill bits and methods of manufacturing earth-boring rotary drill bits having particle-matrix composite bit bodies
US7807099B2 (en) * 2005-11-10 2010-10-05 Baker Hughes Incorporated Method for forming earth-boring tools comprising silicon carbide composite materials
RU2008145097A (en) * 2006-04-17 2010-05-27 Бейкер Хьюз Инкорпорейтед (Us) Chisel rotary drilling method and system for its control
EP2024599B1 (en) 2006-04-27 2011-06-08 TDY Industries, Inc. Modular fixed cutter earth-boring bits and modular fixed cutter earth-boring bit bodies
WO2008085616A3 (en) * 2006-11-30 2008-11-20 Boart Longyear Fiber-containing diamond-impregnated cutting tools
US9540883B2 (en) 2006-11-30 2017-01-10 Longyear Tm, Inc. Fiber-containing diamond-impregnated cutting tools and methods of forming and using same
US7775287B2 (en) * 2006-12-12 2010-08-17 Baker Hughes Incorporated Methods of attaching a shank to a body of an earth-boring drilling tool, and tools formed by such methods
US7841259B2 (en) * 2006-12-27 2010-11-30 Baker Hughes Incorporated Methods of forming bit bodies
US8069936B2 (en) * 2007-02-23 2011-12-06 Baker Hughes Incorporated Encapsulated diamond particles, materials and impregnated diamond earth-boring bits including such particles, and methods of forming such particles, materials, and bits
US20080223622A1 (en) * 2007-03-13 2008-09-18 Duggan James L Earth-boring tools having pockets for receiving cutting elements therein and methods of forming such pockets and earth-boring tools
US8047309B2 (en) * 2007-03-14 2011-11-01 Baker Hughes Incorporated Passive and active up-drill features on fixed cutter earth-boring tools and related systems and methods
US7846551B2 (en) 2007-03-16 2010-12-07 Tdy Industries, Inc. Composite articles
US7905161B2 (en) * 2007-06-20 2011-03-15 Longyear Tm, Inc. Process of drill bit manufacture
US8915166B2 (en) * 2007-07-27 2014-12-23 Varel International Ind., L.P. Single mold milling process
US8268452B2 (en) * 2007-07-31 2012-09-18 Baker Hughes Incorporated Bonding agents for improved sintering of earth-boring tools, methods of forming earth-boring tools and resulting structures
US9662733B2 (en) * 2007-08-03 2017-05-30 Baker Hughes Incorporated Methods for reparing particle-matrix composite bodies
US20090032571A1 (en) * 2007-08-03 2009-02-05 Baker Hughes Incorporated Methods and systems for welding particle-matrix composite bodies
US7836980B2 (en) * 2007-08-13 2010-11-23 Baker Hughes Incorporated Earth-boring tools having pockets for receiving cutting elements and methods for forming earth-boring tools including such pockets
US7909121B2 (en) * 2008-01-09 2011-03-22 Smith International, Inc. Polycrystalline ultra-hard compact constructions
US8790439B2 (en) 2008-06-02 2014-07-29 Kennametal Inc. Composite sintered powder metal articles
JP2011523681A (en) 2008-06-02 2011-08-18 ティーディーワイ・インダストリーズ・インコーポレーテッド Cemented carbide - metal alloy composite
US7703556B2 (en) 2008-06-04 2010-04-27 Baker Hughes Incorporated Methods of attaching a shank to a body of an earth-boring tool including a load-bearing joint and tools formed by such methods
US8079429B2 (en) * 2008-06-04 2011-12-20 Baker Hughes Incorporated Methods of forming earth-boring tools using geometric compensation and tools formed by such methods
US8770324B2 (en) 2008-06-10 2014-07-08 Baker Hughes Incorporated Earth-boring tools including sinterbonded components and partially formed tools configured to be sinterbonded
US20090301788A1 (en) * 2008-06-10 2009-12-10 Stevens John H Composite metal, cemented carbide bit construction
US20090311124A1 (en) * 2008-06-13 2009-12-17 Baker Hughes Incorporated Methods for sintering bodies of earth-boring tools and structures formed during the same
US20090321145A1 (en) * 2008-06-26 2009-12-31 Kennametal Inc. Threaded nozzle for a cutter bit
US8261632B2 (en) * 2008-07-09 2012-09-11 Baker Hughes Incorporated Methods of forming earth-boring drill bits
US8353369B2 (en) 2008-08-06 2013-01-15 Atlas Copco Secoroc, LLC Percussion assisted rotary earth bit and method of operating the same
US8763728B2 (en) * 2008-08-06 2014-07-01 Atlas Copco Secoroc, LLC Percussion assisted rotary earth bit and method of operating the same
US20100192475A1 (en) * 2008-08-21 2010-08-05 Stevens John H Method of making an earth-boring metal matrix rotary drill bit
US20100193255A1 (en) * 2008-08-21 2010-08-05 Stevens John H Earth-boring metal matrix rotary drill bit
US8322465B2 (en) 2008-08-22 2012-12-04 TDY Industries, LLC Earth-boring bit parts including hybrid cemented carbides and methods of making the same
US8025112B2 (en) 2008-08-22 2011-09-27 Tdy Industries, Inc. Earth-boring bits and other parts including cemented carbide
US8220566B2 (en) * 2008-10-30 2012-07-17 Baker Hughes Incorporated Carburized monotungsten and ditungsten carbide eutectic particles, materials and earth-boring tools including such particles, and methods of forming such particles, materials, and tools
US9206651B2 (en) * 2008-10-30 2015-12-08 Baker Hughes Incorporated Coupling members for coupling a body of an earth-boring drill tool to a drill string, earth-boring drilling tools including a coupling member, and related methods
US7900718B2 (en) * 2008-11-06 2011-03-08 Baker Hughes Incorporated Earth-boring tools having threads for affixing a body and shank together and methods of manufacture and use of same
US20100155148A1 (en) * 2008-12-22 2010-06-24 Baker Hughes Incorporated Earth-Boring Particle-Matrix Rotary Drill Bit and Method of Making the Same
US9139893B2 (en) * 2008-12-22 2015-09-22 Baker Hughes Incorporated Methods of forming bodies for earth boring drilling tools comprising molding and sintering techniques
US8201648B2 (en) * 2009-01-29 2012-06-19 Baker Hughes Incorporated Earth-boring particle-matrix rotary drill bit and method of making the same
US8689910B2 (en) * 2009-03-02 2014-04-08 Baker Hughes Incorporated Impregnation bit with improved cutting structure and blade geometry
US20100230176A1 (en) * 2009-03-10 2010-09-16 Baker Hughes Incorporated Earth-boring tools with stiff insert support regions and related methods
US20100230177A1 (en) * 2009-03-10 2010-09-16 Baker Hughes Incorporated Earth-boring tools with thermally conductive regions and related methods
US8225890B2 (en) * 2009-04-21 2012-07-24 Baker Hughes Incorporated Impregnated bit with increased binder percentage
US8381844B2 (en) 2009-04-23 2013-02-26 Baker Hughes Incorporated Earth-boring tools and components thereof and related methods
US8272816B2 (en) 2009-05-12 2012-09-25 TDY Industries, LLC Composite cemented carbide rotary cutting tools and rotary cutting tool blanks
US8087478B2 (en) * 2009-06-05 2012-01-03 Baker Hughes Incorporated Cutting elements including cutting tables with shaped faces configured to provide continuous effective positive back rake angles, drill bits so equipped and methods of drilling
US8201610B2 (en) 2009-06-05 2012-06-19 Baker Hughes Incorporated Methods for manufacturing downhole tools and downhole tool parts
US20110000718A1 (en) * 2009-07-02 2011-01-06 Smith International, Inc. Integrated cast matrix sleeve api connection bit body and method of using and manufacturing the same
US20110005841A1 (en) * 2009-07-07 2011-01-13 Baker Hughes Incorporated Backup cutting elements on non-concentric reaming tools
US8308096B2 (en) 2009-07-14 2012-11-13 TDY Industries, LLC Reinforced roll and method of making same
US20110100714A1 (en) * 2009-10-29 2011-05-05 Moss William A Backup cutting elements on non-concentric earth-boring tools and related methods
US9643236B2 (en) 2009-11-11 2017-05-09 Landis Solutions Llc Thread rolling die and method of making same
US8893828B2 (en) * 2009-11-18 2014-11-25 Smith International, Inc. High strength infiltrated matrix body using fine grain dispersions
US8950518B2 (en) * 2009-11-18 2015-02-10 Smith International, Inc. Matrix tool bodies with erosion resistant and/or wear resistant matrix materials
US8616307B2 (en) * 2009-12-16 2013-12-31 Smith International, Inc. Thermally stable diamond bonded materials and compacts
US8881791B2 (en) 2010-04-28 2014-11-11 Baker Hughes Incorporated Earth-boring tools and methods of forming earth-boring tools
CN103003010A (en) 2010-05-20 2013-03-27 贝克休斯公司 Methods of forming at least a portion of earth-boring tools, and articles formed by such methods
CN103003011A (en) 2010-05-20 2013-03-27 贝克休斯公司 Methods of forming at least a portion of earth-boring tools
CN102985197A (en) * 2010-05-20 2013-03-20 贝克休斯公司 Methods of forming at least a portion of earth-boring tools, and articles formed by such methods
EP2585669B1 (en) * 2010-06-24 2018-01-03 Baker Hughes, a GE company, LLC Cutting elements for earth-boring tools, earth-boring tools including such cutting elements, and methods of forming cutting elements for earth-boring tools
US8911522B2 (en) 2010-07-06 2014-12-16 Baker Hughes Incorporated Methods of forming inserts and earth-boring tools
US9567807B2 (en) 2010-10-05 2017-02-14 Baker Hughes Incorporated Diamond impregnated cutting structures, earth-boring drill bits and other tools including diamond impregnated cutting structures, and related methods
RU2596932C2 (en) * 2011-05-23 2016-09-10 Варель Ероп С.А.С. Matrix drilling bit for operation in severe conditions
US8800848B2 (en) 2011-08-31 2014-08-12 Kennametal Inc. Methods of forming wear resistant layers on metallic surfaces
WO2013040381A3 (en) 2011-09-16 2013-06-27 Baker Hughes Incorporated Methods of attaching a polycrystalline diamond compact to a substrate and cutting elements formed using such methods
US9016406B2 (en) 2011-09-22 2015-04-28 Kennametal Inc. Cutting inserts for earth-boring bits
RU2602852C2 (en) * 2011-10-14 2016-11-20 Варел Интернэшнл Инд., Л.П. Use of tubular rod made of tungsten carbide for reinforcing of polycrystalline diamond composite matrix
US9079247B2 (en) 2011-11-14 2015-07-14 Baker Hughes Incorporated Downhole tools including anomalous strengthening materials and related methods
US9016363B2 (en) * 2012-05-08 2015-04-28 Baker Hughes Incorporated Disintegrable metal cone, process of making, and use of the same
US8997897B2 (en) 2012-06-08 2015-04-07 Varel Europe S.A.S. Impregnated diamond structure, method of making same, and applications for use of an impregnated diamond structure
US9523244B2 (en) * 2012-11-21 2016-12-20 Scientific Drilling International, Inc. Drill bit for a drilling apparatus
US9140072B2 (en) 2013-02-28 2015-09-22 Baker Hughes Incorporated Cutting elements including non-planar interfaces, earth-boring tools including such cutting elements, and methods of forming cutting elements
CA2907671A1 (en) * 2013-04-02 2014-10-09 Varel International Ind., L.P. Methodologies for manufacturing short matrix bits
CN103691960B (en) * 2013-12-25 2016-02-17 苏州新锐合金工具股份有限公司 Double carbide substrate and its preparation method
US9598911B2 (en) 2014-05-09 2017-03-21 Baker Hughes Incorporated Coring tools and related methods
FR3035808A1 (en) * 2015-05-04 2016-11-11 Snecma Process for manufacturing a part from elements made by shaping a mixture of metal powder or ceramics and at least one binder
CN105728732B (en) * 2016-04-19 2017-10-10 桂林特邦新材料有限公司 Diamond drill gauge jack tooling and material gauge material embedding method
CN107806326A (en) * 2017-10-25 2018-03-16 成都科盛石油科技有限公司 High-strength steel-tooth cone

Citations (97)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1954166A (en) * 1931-07-31 1934-04-10 Grant John Rotary bit
US2299207A (en) * 1941-02-18 1942-10-20 Bevil Corp Method of making cutting tools
US2507439A (en) * 1946-09-28 1950-05-09 Reed Roller Bit Co Drill bit
US2819959A (en) * 1956-06-19 1958-01-14 Mallory Sharon Titanium Corp Titanium base vanadium-iron-aluminum alloys
US2819958A (en) * 1955-08-16 1958-01-14 Mallory Sharon Titanium Corp Titanium base alloys
US2906654A (en) * 1954-09-23 1959-09-29 Abkowitz Stanley Heat treated titanium-aluminumvanadium alloy
US3368881A (en) * 1965-04-12 1968-02-13 Nuclear Metals Division Of Tex Titanium bi-alloy composites and manufacture thereof
US3471921A (en) * 1965-12-23 1969-10-14 Shell Oil Co Method of connecting a steel blank to a tungsten bit body
US3660050A (en) * 1969-06-23 1972-05-02 Du Pont Heterogeneous cobalt-bonded tungsten carbide
US3757879A (en) * 1972-08-24 1973-09-11 Christensen Diamond Prod Co Drill bits and methods of producing drill bits
US3880971A (en) * 1973-12-26 1975-04-29 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Controlling shrinkage caused by sintering of high alumina ceramic materials
US3987859A (en) * 1973-10-24 1976-10-26 Dresser Industries, Inc. Unitized rotary rock bit
US4017480A (en) * 1974-08-20 1977-04-12 Permanence Corporation High density composite structure of hard metallic material in a matrix
US4047828A (en) * 1976-03-31 1977-09-13 Makely Joseph E Core drill
US4094709A (en) * 1977-02-10 1978-06-13 Kelsey-Hayes Company Method of forming and subsequently heat treating articles of near net shaped from powder metal
US4128136A (en) * 1977-12-09 1978-12-05 Lamage Limited Drill bit
US4134759A (en) * 1976-09-01 1979-01-16 The Research Institute For Iron, Steel And Other Metals Of The Tohoku University Light metal matrix composite materials reinforced with silicon carbide fibers
US4157122A (en) * 1977-06-22 1979-06-05 Morris William A Rotary earth boring drill and method of assembly thereof
US4198233A (en) * 1977-05-17 1980-04-15 Thyssen Edelstahlwerke Ag Method for the manufacture of tools, machines or parts thereof by composite sintering
US4221270A (en) * 1978-12-18 1980-09-09 Smith International, Inc. Drag bit
US4229638A (en) * 1975-04-01 1980-10-21 Dresser Industries, Inc. Unitized rotary rock bit
US4233720A (en) * 1978-11-30 1980-11-18 Kelsey-Hayes Company Method of forming and ultrasonic testing articles of near net shape from powder metal
US4252202A (en) * 1979-08-06 1981-02-24 Purser Sr James A Drill bit
US4255165A (en) * 1978-12-22 1981-03-10 General Electric Company Composite compact of interleaved polycrystalline particles and cemented carbide masses
US4306139A (en) * 1978-12-28 1981-12-15 Ishikawajima-Harima Jukogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Method for welding hard metal
US4341557A (en) * 1979-09-10 1982-07-27 Kelsey-Hayes Company Method of hot consolidating powder with a recyclable container material
US4389952A (en) * 1980-06-30 1983-06-28 Fritz Gegauf Aktiengesellschaft Bernina-Machmaschinenfabrik Needle bar operated trimmer
US4398952A (en) * 1980-09-10 1983-08-16 Reed Rock Bit Company Methods of manufacturing gradient composite metallic structures
US4453605A (en) * 1981-04-30 1984-06-12 Nl Industries, Inc. Drill bit and method of metallurgical and mechanical holding of cutters in a drill bit
US4499048A (en) * 1983-02-23 1985-02-12 Metal Alloys, Inc. Method of consolidating a metallic body
US4499958A (en) * 1983-04-29 1985-02-19 Strata Bit Corporation Drag blade bit with diamond cutting elements
US4499795A (en) * 1983-09-23 1985-02-19 Strata Bit Corporation Method of drill bit manufacture
US4503009A (en) * 1982-05-08 1985-03-05 Hitachi Powdered Metals Co., Ltd. Process for making composite mechanical parts by sintering
US4526748A (en) * 1980-05-22 1985-07-02 Kelsey-Hayes Company Hot consolidation of powder metal-floating shaping inserts
US4547337A (en) * 1982-04-28 1985-10-15 Kelsey-Hayes Company Pressure-transmitting medium and method for utilizing same to densify material
US4552232A (en) * 1984-06-29 1985-11-12 Spiral Drilling Systems, Inc. Drill-bit with full offset cutter bodies
US4554130A (en) * 1984-10-01 1985-11-19 Cdp, Ltd. Consolidation of a part from separate metallic components
US4562990A (en) * 1983-06-06 1986-01-07 Rose Robert H Die venting apparatus in molding of thermoset plastic compounds
US4596694A (en) * 1982-09-20 1986-06-24 Kelsey-Hayes Company Method for hot consolidating materials
US4597730A (en) * 1982-09-20 1986-07-01 Kelsey-Hayes Company Assembly for hot consolidating materials
US4620600A (en) * 1983-09-23 1986-11-04 Persson Jan E Drill arrangement
US4630693A (en) * 1985-04-15 1986-12-23 Goodfellow Robert D Rotary cutter assembly
US4656002A (en) * 1985-10-03 1987-04-07 Roc-Tec, Inc. Self-sealing fluid die
US4667756A (en) * 1986-05-23 1987-05-26 Hughes Tool Company-Usa Matrix bit with extended blades
US4686080A (en) * 1981-11-09 1987-08-11 Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. Composite compact having a base of a hard-centered alloy in which the base is joined to a substrate through a joint layer and process for producing the same
US4694919A (en) * 1985-01-23 1987-09-22 Nl Petroleum Products Limited Rotary drill bits with nozzle former and method of manufacturing
US4743515A (en) * 1984-11-13 1988-05-10 Santrade Limited Cemented carbide body used preferably for rock drilling and mineral cutting
US4744943A (en) * 1986-12-08 1988-05-17 The Dow Chemical Company Process for the densification of material preforms
US4774211A (en) * 1983-08-08 1988-09-27 International Business Machines Corporation Methods for predicting and controlling the shrinkage of ceramic oxides during sintering
US4809903A (en) * 1986-11-26 1989-03-07 United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Air Force Method to produce metal matrix composite articles from rich metastable-beta titanium alloys
US4838366A (en) * 1988-08-30 1989-06-13 Jones A Raymond Drill bit
US4871377A (en) * 1986-07-30 1989-10-03 Frushour Robert H Composite abrasive compact having high thermal stability and transverse rupture strength
US4881431A (en) * 1986-01-18 1989-11-21 Fried. Krupp Gesellscahft mit beschrankter Haftung Method of making a sintered body having an internal channel
US4884477A (en) * 1988-03-31 1989-12-05 Eastman Christensen Company Rotary drill bit with abrasion and erosion resistant facing
US4889017A (en) * 1984-07-19 1989-12-26 Reed Tool Co., Ltd. Rotary drill bit for use in drilling holes in subsurface earth formations
US4919013A (en) * 1988-09-14 1990-04-24 Eastman Christensen Company Preformed elements for a rotary drill bit
US4923512A (en) * 1989-04-07 1990-05-08 The Dow Chemical Company Cobalt-bound tungsten carbide metal matrix composites and cutting tools formed therefrom
US4956012A (en) * 1988-10-03 1990-09-11 Newcomer Products, Inc. Dispersion alloyed hard metal composites
US4968348A (en) * 1988-07-29 1990-11-06 Dynamet Technology, Inc. Titanium diboride/titanium alloy metal matrix microcomposite material and process for powder metal cladding
US4981665A (en) * 1986-08-22 1991-01-01 Stemcor Corporation Hexagonal silicon carbide platelets and preforms and methods for making and using same
US5000273A (en) * 1990-01-05 1991-03-19 Norton Company Low melting point copper-manganese-zinc alloy for infiltration binder in matrix body rock drill bits
US5030598A (en) * 1990-06-22 1991-07-09 Gte Products Corporation Silicon aluminum oxynitride material containing boron nitride
US5032352A (en) * 1990-09-21 1991-07-16 Ceracon, Inc. Composite body formation of consolidated powder metal part
US5049450A (en) * 1990-05-10 1991-09-17 The Perkin-Elmer Corporation Aluminum and boron nitride thermal spray powder
US5090491A (en) * 1987-10-13 1992-02-25 Eastman Christensen Company Earth boring drill bit with matrix displacing material
US5101692A (en) * 1989-09-16 1992-04-07 Astec Developments Limited Drill bit or corehead manufacturing process
US5150636A (en) * 1991-06-28 1992-09-29 Loudon Enterprises, Inc. Rock drill bit and method of making same
US5161898A (en) * 1991-07-05 1992-11-10 Camco International Inc. Aluminide coated bearing elements for roller cutter drill bits
US5232522A (en) * 1991-10-17 1993-08-03 The Dow Chemical Company Rapid omnidirectional compaction process for producing metal nitride, carbide, or carbonitride coating on ceramic substrate
US5281260A (en) * 1992-02-28 1994-01-25 Baker Hughes Incorporated High-strength tungsten carbide material for use in earth-boring bits
US5286685A (en) * 1990-10-24 1994-02-15 Savoie Refractaires Refractory materials consisting of grains bonded by a binding phase based on aluminum nitride containing boron nitride and/or graphite particles and process for their production
US5311958A (en) * 1992-09-23 1994-05-17 Baker Hughes Incorporated Earth-boring bit with an advantageous cutting structure
US5322139A (en) * 1993-07-28 1994-06-21 Rose James K Loose crown underreamer apparatus
US5333699A (en) * 1992-12-23 1994-08-02 Baroid Technology, Inc. Drill bit having polycrystalline diamond compact cutter with spherical first end opposite cutting end
US5348806A (en) * 1991-09-21 1994-09-20 Hitachi Metals, Ltd. Cermet alloy and process for its production
US5372777A (en) * 1991-04-29 1994-12-13 Lanxide Technology Company, Lp Method for making graded composite bodies and bodies produced thereby
US5373907A (en) * 1993-01-26 1994-12-20 Dresser Industries, Inc. Method and apparatus for manufacturing and inspecting the quality of a matrix body drill bit
US5433280A (en) * 1994-03-16 1995-07-18 Baker Hughes Incorporated Fabrication method for rotary bits and bit components and bits and components produced thereby
US5439068A (en) * 1994-08-08 1995-08-08 Dresser Industries, Inc. Modular rotary drill bit
US5439608A (en) * 1993-07-12 1995-08-08 Kondrats; Nicholas Methods for the collection and immobilization of dust
US5443337A (en) * 1993-07-02 1995-08-22 Katayama; Ichiro Sintered diamond drill bits and method of making
US5455000A (en) * 1994-07-01 1995-10-03 Massachusetts Institute Of Technology Method for preparation of a functionally gradient material
US5467669A (en) * 1993-05-03 1995-11-21 American National Carbide Company Cutting tool insert
US5479997A (en) * 1993-07-08 1996-01-02 Baker Hughes Incorporated Earth-boring bit with improved cutting structure
US5482670A (en) * 1994-05-20 1996-01-09 Hong; Joonpyo Cemented carbide
US5484468A (en) * 1993-02-05 1996-01-16 Sandvik Ab Cemented carbide with binder phase enriched surface zone and enhanced edge toughness behavior and process for making same
US5506055A (en) * 1994-07-08 1996-04-09 Sulzer Metco (Us) Inc. Boron nitride and aluminum thermal spray powder
US5541006A (en) * 1994-12-23 1996-07-30 Kennametal Inc. Method of making composite cermet articles and the articles
US5543235A (en) * 1994-04-26 1996-08-06 Sintermet Multiple grade cemented carbide articles and a method of making the same
US5560440A (en) * 1993-02-12 1996-10-01 Baker Hughes Incorporated Bit for subterranean drilling fabricated from separately-formed major components
US5586612A (en) * 1995-01-26 1996-12-24 Baker Hughes Incorporated Roller cone bit with positive and negative offset and smooth running configuration
US5593474A (en) * 1988-08-04 1997-01-14 Smith International, Inc. Composite cemented carbide
US5641029A (en) * 1995-06-06 1997-06-24 Dresser Industries, Inc. Rotary cone drill bit modular arm
US5740872A (en) * 1996-07-01 1998-04-21 Camco International Inc. Hardfacing material for rolling cutter drill bits
US20010000591A1 (en) * 1997-03-21 2001-05-03 Tibbitts Gordon A. Bit torque limiting device
US6338390B1 (en) * 1999-01-12 2002-01-15 Baker Hughes Incorporated Method and apparatus for drilling a subterranean formation employing drill bit oscillation
US6474424B1 (en) * 1998-03-26 2002-11-05 Halliburton Energy Services, Inc. Rotary cone drill bit with improved bearing system

Family Cites Families (89)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
NL275996A (en) 1961-09-06
US4738322A (en) * 1984-12-21 1988-04-19 Smith International Inc. Polycrystalline diamond bearing system for a roller cone rock bit
DE3751506D1 (en) 1986-10-20 1995-10-12 Baker Hughes Inc Connecting poli crystalline diamond shaped bodies at low pressure.
GB8709437D0 (en) 1987-04-21 1987-05-28 Cledisc Int Bv Rotary drilling device
ES2042744T3 (en) * 1987-06-15 1993-12-16 Eolas Irish Science & Tech Device for display layout.
US6453899B1 (en) 1995-06-07 2002-09-24 Ultimate Abrasive Systems, L.L.C. Method for making a sintered article and products produced thereby
GB9301458D0 (en) 1993-01-26 1993-03-17 London Scandinavian Metall Metal matrix alloys
US5332522A (en) * 1993-04-29 1994-07-26 The University Of Rochester Thermotropic chiral nematic liquid crystalline copolymers
US5563107A (en) 1993-04-30 1996-10-08 The Dow Chemical Company Densified micrograin refractory metal or solid solution solution (mixed metal) carbide ceramics
US5441121A (en) 1993-12-22 1995-08-15 Baker Hughes, Inc. Earth boring drill bit with shell supporting an external drilling surface
US5980602A (en) 1994-01-19 1999-11-09 Alyn Corporation Metal matrix composite
US6284014B1 (en) 1994-01-19 2001-09-04 Alyn Corporation Metal matrix composite
US6209420B1 (en) 1994-03-16 2001-04-03 Baker Hughes Incorporated Method of manufacturing bits, bit components and other articles of manufacture
US5778301A (en) 1994-05-20 1998-07-07 Hong; Joonpyo Cemented carbide
DE4424885A1 (en) 1994-07-14 1996-01-18 Cerasiv Gmbh Full ceramic drill
US5606895A (en) * 1994-08-08 1997-03-04 Dresser Industries, Inc. Method for manufacture and rebuild a rotary drill bit
US5753160A (en) 1994-10-19 1998-05-19 Ngk Insulators, Ltd. Method for controlling firing shrinkage of ceramic green body
US6051171A (en) 1994-10-19 2000-04-18 Ngk Insulators, Ltd. Method for controlling firing shrinkage of ceramic green body
US5762843A (en) 1994-12-23 1998-06-09 Kennametal Inc. Method of making composite cermet articles
US5679445A (en) 1994-12-23 1997-10-21 Kennametal Inc. Composite cermet articles and method of making
GB9500659D0 (en) 1995-01-13 1995-03-08 Camco Drilling Group Ltd Improvements in or relating to rotary drill bits
US5589268A (en) 1995-02-01 1996-12-31 Kennametal Inc. Matrix for a hard composite
DE19512146A1 (en) 1995-03-31 1996-10-02 Inst Neue Mat Gemein Gmbh A process for producing ceramic composites schwindungsangepaßten
WO1996035817A1 (en) 1995-05-11 1996-11-14 Amic Industries Limited Cemented carbide
US5697462A (en) 1995-06-30 1997-12-16 Baker Hughes Inc. Earth-boring bit having improved cutting structure
US6214134B1 (en) 1995-07-24 2001-04-10 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Air Force Method to produce high temperature oxidation resistant metal matrix composites by fiber density grading
US5662183A (en) 1995-08-15 1997-09-02 Smith International, Inc. High strength matrix material for PDC drag bits
US5641921A (en) 1995-08-22 1997-06-24 Dennis Tool Company Low temperature, low pressure, ductile, bonded cermet for enhanced abrasion and erosion performance
US6063333A (en) 1996-10-15 2000-05-16 Penn State Research Foundation Method and apparatus for fabrication of cobalt alloy composite inserts
GB2307918B (en) 1995-12-05 1999-02-10 Smith International Pressure molded powder metal "milled tooth" rock bit cone
GB9603402D0 (en) 1996-02-17 1996-04-17 Camco Drilling Group Ltd Improvements in or relating to rotary drill bits
US5880382A (en) 1996-08-01 1999-03-09 Smith International, Inc. Double cemented carbide composites
GB2315777B (en) 1996-08-01 2000-12-06 Smith International Double cemented carbide composites
US5765095A (en) 1996-08-19 1998-06-09 Smith International, Inc. Polycrystalline diamond bit manufacturing
US6073518A (en) 1996-09-24 2000-06-13 Baker Hughes Incorporated Bit manufacturing method
US5904212A (en) 1996-11-12 1999-05-18 Dresser Industries, Inc. Gauge face inlay for bit hardfacing
US5897830A (en) 1996-12-06 1999-04-27 Dynamet Technology P/M titanium composite casting
EP0966550B1 (en) 1997-03-10 2001-10-04 Widia GmbH Hard metal or cermet sintered body and method for the production thereof
US5865571A (en) 1997-06-17 1999-02-02 Norton Company Non-metallic body cutting tools
US6068070A (en) 1997-09-03 2000-05-30 Baker Hughes Incorporated Diamond enhanced bearing for earth-boring bit
US5967248A (en) 1997-10-14 1999-10-19 Camco International Inc. Rock bit hardmetal overlay and process of manufacture
GB2330787B (en) 1997-10-31 2001-06-06 Camco Internat Methods of manufacturing rotary drill bits
DE19806864A1 (en) 1998-02-19 1999-08-26 Beck August Gmbh Co The reaming tool and process for its preparation
US6220117B1 (en) 1998-08-18 2001-04-24 Baker Hughes Incorporated Methods of high temperature infiltration of drill bits and infiltrating binder
US6241036B1 (en) 1998-09-16 2001-06-05 Baker Hughes Incorporated Reinforced abrasive-impregnated cutting elements, drill bits including same
US6287360B1 (en) 1998-09-18 2001-09-11 Smith International, Inc. High-strength matrix body
GB9822979D0 (en) 1998-10-22 1998-12-16 Camco Int Uk Ltd Methods of manufacturing rotary drill bits
JP3559717B2 (en) 1998-10-29 2004-09-02 トヨタ自動車株式会社 Method of manufacturing the engine valve
GB2384016B (en) 1999-01-12 2003-10-15 Baker Hughes Inc Earth drilling device with oscillating rotary drag bit
US6454030B1 (en) * 1999-01-25 2002-09-24 Baker Hughes Incorporated Drill bits and other articles of manufacture including a layer-manufactured shell integrally secured to a cast structure and methods of fabricating same
US6200514B1 (en) 1999-02-09 2001-03-13 Baker Hughes Incorporated Process of making a bit body and mold therefor
US6254658B1 (en) 1999-02-24 2001-07-03 Mitsubishi Materials Corporation Cemented carbide cutting tool
US6454025B1 (en) 1999-03-03 2002-09-24 Vermeer Manufacturing Company Apparatus for directional boring under mixed conditions
WO2000077267A1 (en) 1999-06-11 2000-12-21 Kabushiki Kaisha Toyota Chuo Kenkyusho Titanium alloy and method for producing the same
US6375706B2 (en) 1999-08-12 2002-04-23 Smith International, Inc. Composition for binder material particularly for drill bit bodies
CA2391933A1 (en) 1999-11-16 2001-06-28 Triton Systems, Inc. Laser fabrication of discontinuously reinforced metal matrix composites
US6511265B1 (en) 1999-12-14 2003-01-28 Ati Properties, Inc. Composite rotary tool and tool fabrication method
US6474425B1 (en) 2000-07-19 2002-11-05 Smith International, Inc. Asymmetric diamond impregnated drill bit
US6592985B2 (en) 2000-09-20 2003-07-15 Camco International (Uk) Limited Polycrystalline diamond partially depleted of catalyzing material
WO2002050324A1 (en) 2000-12-20 2002-06-27 Kabushiki Kaisha Toyota Chuo Kenkyusho Titanium alloy having high elastic deformation capacity and method for production thereof
US6454028B1 (en) 2001-01-04 2002-09-24 Camco International (U.K.) Limited Wear resistant drill bit
DE60203581D1 (en) 2001-10-22 2005-05-12 Kobe Steel Ltd Alfa-beta titanium alloy
US7556668B2 (en) 2001-12-05 2009-07-07 Baker Hughes Incorporated Consolidated hard materials, methods of manufacture, and applications
KR20030052618A (en) 2001-12-21 2003-06-27 대우종합기계 주식회사 Method for joining cemented carbide to base metal
US7381283B2 (en) 2002-03-07 2008-06-03 Yageo Corporation Method for reducing shrinkage during sintering low-temperature-cofired ceramics
JP4280539B2 (en) 2002-06-07 2009-06-17 東邦チタニウム株式会社 Method of manufacturing a titanium alloy
US7410610B2 (en) 2002-06-14 2008-08-12 General Electric Company Method for producing a titanium metallic composition having titanium boride particles dispersed therein
US20040007393A1 (en) * 2002-07-12 2004-01-15 Griffin Nigel Dennis Cutter and method of manufacture thereof
JP3945455B2 (en) 2002-07-17 2007-07-18 株式会社豊田中央研究所 Powder compact, methods powder molding, sintered metal and manufacturing method thereof
US6766870B2 (en) 2002-08-21 2004-07-27 Baker Hughes Incorporated Mechanically shaped hardfacing cutting/wear structures
US7250069B2 (en) 2002-09-27 2007-07-31 Smith International, Inc. High-strength, high-toughness matrix bit bodies
US6742608B2 (en) 2002-10-04 2004-06-01 Henry W. Murdoch Rotary mine drilling bit for making blast holes
US20040200805A1 (en) 2002-12-06 2004-10-14 Ulland William Charles Metal engraving method, article, and apparatus
US7044243B2 (en) 2003-01-31 2006-05-16 Smith International, Inc. High-strength/high-toughness alloy steel drill bit blank
US20060032677A1 (en) 2003-02-12 2006-02-16 Smith International, Inc. Novel bits and cutting structures
US7048081B2 (en) 2003-05-28 2006-05-23 Baker Hughes Incorporated Superabrasive cutting element having an asperital cutting face and drill bit so equipped
US7270679B2 (en) 2003-05-30 2007-09-18 Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc. Implants based on engineered metal matrix composite materials having enhanced imaging and wear resistance
US7625521B2 (en) 2003-06-05 2009-12-01 Smith International, Inc. Bonding of cutters in drill bits
US20040245024A1 (en) 2003-06-05 2004-12-09 Kembaiyan Kumar T. Bit body formed of multiple matrix materials and method for making the same
US20050084407A1 (en) 2003-08-07 2005-04-21 Myrick James J. Titanium group powder metallurgy
US7384443B2 (en) 2003-12-12 2008-06-10 Tdy Industries, Inc. Hybrid cemented carbide composites
US7066286B2 (en) 2004-03-25 2006-06-27 Baker Hughes Incorporated Gage surface scraper
US20050268746A1 (en) 2004-04-19 2005-12-08 Stanley Abkowitz Titanium tungsten alloys produced by additions of tungsten nanopowder
US20050211475A1 (en) 2004-04-28 2005-09-29 Mirchandani Prakash K Earth-boring bits
US20060016521A1 (en) 2004-07-22 2006-01-26 Hanusiak William M Method for manufacturing titanium alloy wire with enhanced properties
JP4468767B2 (en) 2004-08-26 2010-05-26 日本碍子株式会社 Shrinkage control method of a ceramic molded body
DE102004042437A1 (en) * 2004-08-31 2006-03-16 Claas Selbstfahrende Erntemaschinen Gmbh A header for harvesters
US7513320B2 (en) 2004-12-16 2009-04-07 Tdy Industries, Inc. Cemented carbide inserts for earth-boring bits
US7687156B2 (en) 2005-08-18 2010-03-30 Tdy Industries, Inc. Composite cutting inserts and methods of making the same

Patent Citations (99)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1954166A (en) * 1931-07-31 1934-04-10 Grant John Rotary bit
US2299207A (en) * 1941-02-18 1942-10-20 Bevil Corp Method of making cutting tools
US2507439A (en) * 1946-09-28 1950-05-09 Reed Roller Bit Co Drill bit
US2906654A (en) * 1954-09-23 1959-09-29 Abkowitz Stanley Heat treated titanium-aluminumvanadium alloy
US2819958A (en) * 1955-08-16 1958-01-14 Mallory Sharon Titanium Corp Titanium base alloys
US2819959A (en) * 1956-06-19 1958-01-14 Mallory Sharon Titanium Corp Titanium base vanadium-iron-aluminum alloys
US3368881A (en) * 1965-04-12 1968-02-13 Nuclear Metals Division Of Tex Titanium bi-alloy composites and manufacture thereof
US3471921A (en) * 1965-12-23 1969-10-14 Shell Oil Co Method of connecting a steel blank to a tungsten bit body
US3660050A (en) * 1969-06-23 1972-05-02 Du Pont Heterogeneous cobalt-bonded tungsten carbide
US3757879A (en) * 1972-08-24 1973-09-11 Christensen Diamond Prod Co Drill bits and methods of producing drill bits
US3987859A (en) * 1973-10-24 1976-10-26 Dresser Industries, Inc. Unitized rotary rock bit
US3880971A (en) * 1973-12-26 1975-04-29 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Controlling shrinkage caused by sintering of high alumina ceramic materials
US4017480A (en) * 1974-08-20 1977-04-12 Permanence Corporation High density composite structure of hard metallic material in a matrix
US4229638A (en) * 1975-04-01 1980-10-21 Dresser Industries, Inc. Unitized rotary rock bit
US4047828A (en) * 1976-03-31 1977-09-13 Makely Joseph E Core drill
US4134759A (en) * 1976-09-01 1979-01-16 The Research Institute For Iron, Steel And Other Metals Of The Tohoku University Light metal matrix composite materials reinforced with silicon carbide fibers
US4094709A (en) * 1977-02-10 1978-06-13 Kelsey-Hayes Company Method of forming and subsequently heat treating articles of near net shaped from powder metal
US4198233A (en) * 1977-05-17 1980-04-15 Thyssen Edelstahlwerke Ag Method for the manufacture of tools, machines or parts thereof by composite sintering
US4157122A (en) * 1977-06-22 1979-06-05 Morris William A Rotary earth boring drill and method of assembly thereof
US4128136A (en) * 1977-12-09 1978-12-05 Lamage Limited Drill bit
US4233720A (en) * 1978-11-30 1980-11-18 Kelsey-Hayes Company Method of forming and ultrasonic testing articles of near net shape from powder metal
US4221270A (en) * 1978-12-18 1980-09-09 Smith International, Inc. Drag bit
US4255165A (en) * 1978-12-22 1981-03-10 General Electric Company Composite compact of interleaved polycrystalline particles and cemented carbide masses
US4306139A (en) * 1978-12-28 1981-12-15 Ishikawajima-Harima Jukogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Method for welding hard metal
US4252202A (en) * 1979-08-06 1981-02-24 Purser Sr James A Drill bit
US4341557A (en) * 1979-09-10 1982-07-27 Kelsey-Hayes Company Method of hot consolidating powder with a recyclable container material
US4526748A (en) * 1980-05-22 1985-07-02 Kelsey-Hayes Company Hot consolidation of powder metal-floating shaping inserts
US4389952A (en) * 1980-06-30 1983-06-28 Fritz Gegauf Aktiengesellschaft Bernina-Machmaschinenfabrik Needle bar operated trimmer
US4398952A (en) * 1980-09-10 1983-08-16 Reed Rock Bit Company Methods of manufacturing gradient composite metallic structures
US4453605A (en) * 1981-04-30 1984-06-12 Nl Industries, Inc. Drill bit and method of metallurgical and mechanical holding of cutters in a drill bit
US4686080A (en) * 1981-11-09 1987-08-11 Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. Composite compact having a base of a hard-centered alloy in which the base is joined to a substrate through a joint layer and process for producing the same
US4547337A (en) * 1982-04-28 1985-10-15 Kelsey-Hayes Company Pressure-transmitting medium and method for utilizing same to densify material
US4503009A (en) * 1982-05-08 1985-03-05 Hitachi Powdered Metals Co., Ltd. Process for making composite mechanical parts by sintering
US4597730A (en) * 1982-09-20 1986-07-01 Kelsey-Hayes Company Assembly for hot consolidating materials
US4596694A (en) * 1982-09-20 1986-06-24 Kelsey-Hayes Company Method for hot consolidating materials
US4499048A (en) * 1983-02-23 1985-02-12 Metal Alloys, Inc. Method of consolidating a metallic body
US4499958A (en) * 1983-04-29 1985-02-19 Strata Bit Corporation Drag blade bit with diamond cutting elements
US4562990A (en) * 1983-06-06 1986-01-07 Rose Robert H Die venting apparatus in molding of thermoset plastic compounds
US4774211A (en) * 1983-08-08 1988-09-27 International Business Machines Corporation Methods for predicting and controlling the shrinkage of ceramic oxides during sintering
US4499795A (en) * 1983-09-23 1985-02-19 Strata Bit Corporation Method of drill bit manufacture
US4620600A (en) * 1983-09-23 1986-11-04 Persson Jan E Drill arrangement
US4552232A (en) * 1984-06-29 1985-11-12 Spiral Drilling Systems, Inc. Drill-bit with full offset cutter bodies
US4889017A (en) * 1984-07-19 1989-12-26 Reed Tool Co., Ltd. Rotary drill bit for use in drilling holes in subsurface earth formations
US4554130A (en) * 1984-10-01 1985-11-19 Cdp, Ltd. Consolidation of a part from separate metallic components
US4743515A (en) * 1984-11-13 1988-05-10 Santrade Limited Cemented carbide body used preferably for rock drilling and mineral cutting
US4694919A (en) * 1985-01-23 1987-09-22 Nl Petroleum Products Limited Rotary drill bits with nozzle former and method of manufacturing
US4630693A (en) * 1985-04-15 1986-12-23 Goodfellow Robert D Rotary cutter assembly
US4656002A (en) * 1985-10-03 1987-04-07 Roc-Tec, Inc. Self-sealing fluid die
US4881431A (en) * 1986-01-18 1989-11-21 Fried. Krupp Gesellscahft mit beschrankter Haftung Method of making a sintered body having an internal channel
US4667756A (en) * 1986-05-23 1987-05-26 Hughes Tool Company-Usa Matrix bit with extended blades
US4871377A (en) * 1986-07-30 1989-10-03 Frushour Robert H Composite abrasive compact having high thermal stability and transverse rupture strength
US4981665A (en) * 1986-08-22 1991-01-01 Stemcor Corporation Hexagonal silicon carbide platelets and preforms and methods for making and using same
US4809903A (en) * 1986-11-26 1989-03-07 United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Air Force Method to produce metal matrix composite articles from rich metastable-beta titanium alloys
US4744943A (en) * 1986-12-08 1988-05-17 The Dow Chemical Company Process for the densification of material preforms
US5090491A (en) * 1987-10-13 1992-02-25 Eastman Christensen Company Earth boring drill bit with matrix displacing material
US4884477A (en) * 1988-03-31 1989-12-05 Eastman Christensen Company Rotary drill bit with abrasion and erosion resistant facing
US4968348A (en) * 1988-07-29 1990-11-06 Dynamet Technology, Inc. Titanium diboride/titanium alloy metal matrix microcomposite material and process for powder metal cladding
US5593474A (en) * 1988-08-04 1997-01-14 Smith International, Inc. Composite cemented carbide
US4838366A (en) * 1988-08-30 1989-06-13 Jones A Raymond Drill bit
US4919013A (en) * 1988-09-14 1990-04-24 Eastman Christensen Company Preformed elements for a rotary drill bit
US4956012A (en) * 1988-10-03 1990-09-11 Newcomer Products, Inc. Dispersion alloyed hard metal composites
US4923512A (en) * 1989-04-07 1990-05-08 The Dow Chemical Company Cobalt-bound tungsten carbide metal matrix composites and cutting tools formed therefrom
US5101692A (en) * 1989-09-16 1992-04-07 Astec Developments Limited Drill bit or corehead manufacturing process
US5000273A (en) * 1990-01-05 1991-03-19 Norton Company Low melting point copper-manganese-zinc alloy for infiltration binder in matrix body rock drill bits
US5049450A (en) * 1990-05-10 1991-09-17 The Perkin-Elmer Corporation Aluminum and boron nitride thermal spray powder
US5030598A (en) * 1990-06-22 1991-07-09 Gte Products Corporation Silicon aluminum oxynitride material containing boron nitride
US5032352A (en) * 1990-09-21 1991-07-16 Ceracon, Inc. Composite body formation of consolidated powder metal part
US5286685A (en) * 1990-10-24 1994-02-15 Savoie Refractaires Refractory materials consisting of grains bonded by a binding phase based on aluminum nitride containing boron nitride and/or graphite particles and process for their production
US5372777A (en) * 1991-04-29 1994-12-13 Lanxide Technology Company, Lp Method for making graded composite bodies and bodies produced thereby
US5150636A (en) * 1991-06-28 1992-09-29 Loudon Enterprises, Inc. Rock drill bit and method of making same
US5161898A (en) * 1991-07-05 1992-11-10 Camco International Inc. Aluminide coated bearing elements for roller cutter drill bits
US5348806A (en) * 1991-09-21 1994-09-20 Hitachi Metals, Ltd. Cermet alloy and process for its production
US5232522A (en) * 1991-10-17 1993-08-03 The Dow Chemical Company Rapid omnidirectional compaction process for producing metal nitride, carbide, or carbonitride coating on ceramic substrate
US5281260A (en) * 1992-02-28 1994-01-25 Baker Hughes Incorporated High-strength tungsten carbide material for use in earth-boring bits
US5311958A (en) * 1992-09-23 1994-05-17 Baker Hughes Incorporated Earth-boring bit with an advantageous cutting structure
US5333699A (en) * 1992-12-23 1994-08-02 Baroid Technology, Inc. Drill bit having polycrystalline diamond compact cutter with spherical first end opposite cutting end
US5373907A (en) * 1993-01-26 1994-12-20 Dresser Industries, Inc. Method and apparatus for manufacturing and inspecting the quality of a matrix body drill bit
US5484468A (en) * 1993-02-05 1996-01-16 Sandvik Ab Cemented carbide with binder phase enriched surface zone and enhanced edge toughness behavior and process for making same
US5560440A (en) * 1993-02-12 1996-10-01 Baker Hughes Incorporated Bit for subterranean drilling fabricated from separately-formed major components
US5467669A (en) * 1993-05-03 1995-11-21 American National Carbide Company Cutting tool insert
US5443337A (en) * 1993-07-02 1995-08-22 Katayama; Ichiro Sintered diamond drill bits and method of making
US5479997A (en) * 1993-07-08 1996-01-02 Baker Hughes Incorporated Earth-boring bit with improved cutting structure
US5439608A (en) * 1993-07-12 1995-08-08 Kondrats; Nicholas Methods for the collection and immobilization of dust
US5322139A (en) * 1993-07-28 1994-06-21 Rose James K Loose crown underreamer apparatus
US5433280A (en) * 1994-03-16 1995-07-18 Baker Hughes Incorporated Fabrication method for rotary bits and bit components and bits and components produced thereby
US5544550A (en) * 1994-03-16 1996-08-13 Baker Hughes Incorporated Fabrication method for rotary bits and bit components
US5543235A (en) * 1994-04-26 1996-08-06 Sintermet Multiple grade cemented carbide articles and a method of making the same
US5482670A (en) * 1994-05-20 1996-01-09 Hong; Joonpyo Cemented carbide
US5455000A (en) * 1994-07-01 1995-10-03 Massachusetts Institute Of Technology Method for preparation of a functionally gradient material
US5506055A (en) * 1994-07-08 1996-04-09 Sulzer Metco (Us) Inc. Boron nitride and aluminum thermal spray powder
US5439068A (en) * 1994-08-08 1995-08-08 Dresser Industries, Inc. Modular rotary drill bit
US5439068B1 (en) * 1994-08-08 1997-01-14 Dresser Ind Modular rotary drill bit
US5541006A (en) * 1994-12-23 1996-07-30 Kennametal Inc. Method of making composite cermet articles and the articles
US5586612A (en) * 1995-01-26 1996-12-24 Baker Hughes Incorporated Roller cone bit with positive and negative offset and smooth running configuration
US5641029A (en) * 1995-06-06 1997-06-24 Dresser Industries, Inc. Rotary cone drill bit modular arm
US5740872A (en) * 1996-07-01 1998-04-21 Camco International Inc. Hardfacing material for rolling cutter drill bits
US20010000591A1 (en) * 1997-03-21 2001-05-03 Tibbitts Gordon A. Bit torque limiting device
US6474424B1 (en) * 1998-03-26 2002-11-05 Halliburton Energy Services, Inc. Rotary cone drill bit with improved bearing system
US6338390B1 (en) * 1999-01-12 2002-01-15 Baker Hughes Incorporated Method and apparatus for drilling a subterranean formation employing drill bit oscillation

Cited By (29)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US8678111B2 (en) 2007-11-16 2014-03-25 Baker Hughes Incorporated Hybrid drill bit and design method
US9476259B2 (en) 2008-05-02 2016-10-25 Baker Hughes Incorporated System and method for leg retention on hybrid bits
US20110120269A1 (en) * 2008-05-02 2011-05-26 Baker Hughes Incorporated Modular hybrid drill bit
US8356398B2 (en) * 2008-05-02 2013-01-22 Baker Hughes Incorporated Modular hybrid drill bit
US8141664B2 (en) 2009-03-03 2012-03-27 Baker Hughes Incorporated Hybrid drill bit with high bearing pin angles
US8459378B2 (en) 2009-05-13 2013-06-11 Baker Hughes Incorporated Hybrid drill bit
US9670736B2 (en) 2009-05-13 2017-06-06 Baker Hughes Incorporated Hybrid drill bit
US20100288561A1 (en) * 2009-05-13 2010-11-18 Baker Hughes Incorporated Hybrid drill bit
US8157026B2 (en) 2009-06-18 2012-04-17 Baker Hughes Incorporated Hybrid bit with variable exposure
US20100320001A1 (en) * 2009-06-18 2010-12-23 Baker Hughes Incorporated Hybrid bit with variable exposure
US8336646B2 (en) 2009-06-18 2012-12-25 Baker Hughes Incorporated Hybrid bit with variable exposure
US9982488B2 (en) 2009-09-16 2018-05-29 Baker Hughes Incorporated External, divorced PDC bearing assemblies for hybrid drill bits
US9556681B2 (en) 2009-09-16 2017-01-31 Baker Hughes Incorporated External, divorced PDC bearing assemblies for hybrid drill bits
US9004198B2 (en) 2009-09-16 2015-04-14 Baker Hughes Incorporated External, divorced PDC bearing assemblies for hybrid drill bits
US8191635B2 (en) 2009-10-06 2012-06-05 Baker Hughes Incorporated Hole opener with hybrid reaming section