US20100146989A1 - Continuously rotary magnetic refrigerator or heat pump - Google Patents

Continuously rotary magnetic refrigerator or heat pump Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US20100146989A1
US20100146989A1 US11/993,080 US99308006A US2010146989A1 US 20100146989 A1 US20100146989 A1 US 20100146989A1 US 99308006 A US99308006 A US 99308006A US 2010146989 A1 US2010146989 A1 US 2010146989A1
Authority
US
United States
Prior art keywords
magnetocaloric
heat pump
rotating disc
rotating
refrigerator
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
Application number
US11/993,080
Inventor
Peter Williams Egolf
Andrej Kitanovski
Osmann Sari
Ata-Caesar Derrick
Fabrice Gendre
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
HAUTE ECOLE D'INGERIERIE ET DE GESTION DU CANTON DE VAUD (HEIG-VD)
Original Assignee
HAUTE ECOLE D'INGERIERIE ET DE GESTION DU CANTON DE VAUD (HEIG-VD)
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to EP05405393.9 priority Critical
Priority to EP05405393A priority patent/EP1736719A1/en
Application filed by HAUTE ECOLE D'INGERIERIE ET DE GESTION DU CANTON DE VAUD (HEIG-VD) filed Critical HAUTE ECOLE D'INGERIERIE ET DE GESTION DU CANTON DE VAUD (HEIG-VD)
Priority to PCT/CH2006/000324 priority patent/WO2006136042A1/en
Assigned to HAUTE ECOLE D'INGERIERIE ET DE GESTION DU CANTON DE VAUD (HEIG-VD) reassignment HAUTE ECOLE D'INGERIERIE ET DE GESTION DU CANTON DE VAUD (HEIG-VD) ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: DERRICK, ATA-CAESAR, GENDRE, FABRICE, EGOLF, PETER WILLIAMS, KITANOVSKI, ANDREJ, SARI, OSMANN
Publication of US20100146989A1 publication Critical patent/US20100146989A1/en
Application status is Abandoned legal-status Critical

Links

Images

Classifications

    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25BREFRIGERATION MACHINES, PLANTS OR SYSTEMS; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT-PUMP SYSTEMS
    • F25B21/00Machines, plant, or systems, using electric or magnetic effects
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25BREFRIGERATION MACHINES, PLANTS OR SYSTEMS; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT-PUMP SYSTEMS
    • F25B2321/00Details of machines, plants, or systems, using electric or magnetic effects
    • F25B2321/002Details of machines, plants, or systems, using electric or magnetic effects by using magneto-caloric effects
    • F25B2321/0021Details of machines, plants, or systems, using electric or magnetic effects by using magneto-caloric effects with a static fixed magnet
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02BCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO BUILDINGS, e.g. HOUSING, HOUSE APPLIANCES OR RELATED END-USER APPLICATIONS
    • Y02B30/00Energy efficient heating, ventilation or air conditioning [HVAC]
    • Y02B30/60Other technologies for heating or cooling
    • Y02B30/66Magnetic cooling

Abstract

The invention concerns a rotary magnetic refrigerator/heat pump able to operate in a continuously working process, able to be applied in industrial thermal processes and having a high efficiency and a low cost manufacturing. The rotary magnetic refrigerator (10) comprises a magnet (11), a magnetocaloric ring (12) and a fluid conducting subassembly (13). The fluid conducting subassembly (13) comprises a horizontally positioned rotating disc (14), frame-suspended with bearings (15 and 16) in stationary ducts above (17) and below (18), which serve to supply and evacuate a working fluid (19, 20, 21, 22). The rotating disc (14) has two circular arrays of hollow sectors (23 and 24), one close to each of its planar faces. Every hollow sector (23 and 24) comprises a slot (25 and 26) to the adjacent planar surface and to the circumferential surface of the rotating disc (14). The working fluid is introduced axially into the lower hollow sectors through the openings on the lower planar surface, in order to flow out in radial direction through the circumferential openings of the lower array of hollow sectors and back into the disc through the circumferential openings of the upper array of hollow sectors, from where it finally exits the disc axially through the openings of each hollow sector on the upper planar surface.

Description

  • This application is a national stage completion of PCT/CH2006/000324 filed Jun. 15, 2006 which claims priority from EP Application Serial No. 05405393.9 filed Jun. 20, 2005.
  • TECHNICAL FIELD
  • The present invention relates to a continuously rotary magnetic refrigerator or heat pump comprising one partially hollow rotating magnetocaloric ring member, at least one magnetic device provided for generating a predetermined magnetic field, the rotating magnetocaloric ring member rotating through the predetermined magnetic field, and a working fluid conducting subassembly for conducting the working fluid in and out of the partially hollow rotating magnetocaloric ring member.
  • BACKGROUND ART
  • Since Brown G V. [Magnetic heat pumping. U.S. Pat. No. 4,069,028; and Magnetic heat pumping near room temperature. J. App. Phys. 1976, 47, p. 3673-3680] presented the first room-temperature magnetic refrigerator in 1976, a number of “room temperature” refrigerators have been constructed and patented. The concepts of these refrigerators have largely comprised superconducting magnets, which demand enormous investment costs. Since the 1980s, a number of different applications have been proposed. In 2001, the Astronautics Cooperation of America [Zimm C B, Sternberg A, Jastrab A G, Boeder A M, Lawton L M, Chell J J. Rotating bed magnetic refrigeration apparatus and process, U.S. Pat. No. 5,743,095] reported on the world's first “room temperature” magnetic refrigerator operating with magnets.
  • Parallel to the development of magnetic refrigerators, the research on magnetocaloric materials suitable for magnetic refrigeration at room temperature has been going on and has been increasing exponentially since the invention of Gadolinium based alloys at AMES Laboratory [Gschneidner Jr. K A, Pecharsky V K. Active magnetic refrigerants based on Gd—Si—Ge material and refrigeration apparatus and process. U.S. Pat. No. 5,743,095, Pecharsky V K, Gschneidner Jr. K A. Effect of Alloying on the Giant Magnetocaloric Effect of Gd5(Si2Ge2), J. Magnetism and Magnetic Materials 1997, 167, p. 179-184]. Among the various magnetocaloric compounds which have been suggested, those worth emphasizing are based on Manganese [Brück E, Tegus O, Li X W, de Boer F R, Buschow K H J. Magnetic refrigeration-towards room-temperature applications. Physics B 2003, 327, p. 431-437; Wada H, Tamabe Y. Giant magnetocaloric effect of MnAs1-xSbx. Appl. Phy. Lett. 2001, Vol. 79, No. 20, p. 3302-3304], because they exhibit a very large magnetocaloric effect. A review of different types of magnetic refrigerators and magnetocaloric materials may be found in the references [Yu B F, Gao Q, Zhang B, Meng X Z, Chen Z. Review on research of room temperature magnetic refrigeration. International Journal of Refrigeration 2003, 26, p. 1-15], [Tishin A M, Spichkin Y I. The Magnetocaloric Effect and its Applications, Institute of Physics, Series in Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics Publishing 2003] and [Gschneidner K A, Pecharsky V K. Magnetic Refrigeration. Intermetallic Compounds, Principles and Practice, Vol. 3, John Wiley & Sons 2002, p. 519-539].
  • In the last decade, the discovery of new magnetic refrigerants-alloys called magnetocaloric materials with high Currie temperatures and giant magnetocaloric effect (MCE) resulted in the development of numerous applications for magnetic cooling. These developments may be the inauguration of alternative cooling technologies, which could drastically influence the application of conventional cooling techniques. In the quest for cooling technologies that do not need the conventional environmentally benign refrigerants, magnetic refrigeration systems could represent an outstanding solution.
  • Research and development activities of the last twenty years have brought about numerous magnetic refrigerators which operate with a variety of magnetocaloric materials and in different thermodynamic cycles. So far, most magnetic refrigerators function according to the principle of a magnetocaloric material moving through a magnetic field by reciprocating or rotating motion. The majority of early scientific publications refers to the use of superconducting magnets for inducing the temperature change of the magnetocaloric material due to its magnetocaloric effect. Recently the Astronautics Cooperation of America (C. B. Zimm, A. Sternberg, A. G. Jastrab, A. M. Boeder, L. M. Lawton, J. J. Chell Rotating bed magnetic refrigeration apparatus, U.S. Pat. No. 6,526,759, 2003) reported on the construction of the world's first “room temperature” magnetic refrigerator operating with permanent magnets.
  • Permanent magnets have significant advantages when compared to superconducting or conventional electro-magnets. Contrary to electro-magnets, no external power is needed to generate the magnetic field and no heat is generated by dissipation of electric energy. Superconducting magnets, together with a dewar, are excessively costly, and their application in magnetic refrigeration would undermine the competitiveness of this technology. The possibility of running regeneration cycles and cascade systems when using existing magnetocaloric materials allows even the use of permanent magnets with low magnetic fields. Permanent magnets with very high magnetic fields are also being developed progressively (see K. H. Müller, G. Krabbes, J. Fink, S. Gruss, A. Kirchner, G. Fuchs, L. Schultz, New permanent magnets, Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials 2001, 226-230, p. 1370-1376 and Kumada M., Iwashita Y., Antokhing E. A., Issues with permanent magnets. NANOBEAM 2002, Lausanne, Switzerland, Conference web-proceedings), so it appears legitimate to predict that future magnetic refrigerators operating near room temperatures will comprise permanent magnets. An extensive review on existing magnetic refrigeration technologies may be found in the book of Tishin (A. M. Tishin, Y. I. Spichkin, The Magnetocaloric Effect and its Applications, Institute of Physics, Series in Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics Publishing 2003) or in the paper of Yu et al. (Yu B. F., Gao Q., Zhang B., Meng X. Z., Chen Z., Review on research of room temperature magnetic refrigeration. International Journal of Refrigeration 2003, 26, p. 1-15).
  • A prior art device is disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 3,108,444 in which the magnetocaloric material forms a ring rotating through two baths, e.g. a heat source bath and a heat sink bath. In this patent the ring rotates through two baths, e.g. heat source bath and heat sink bath. Another device is disclosed by the Japanese publication JP2001-090953 in which the magnetocaloric material is contained in small chambers and the magnet moves. A further device is disclosed in the publication WO03050456 wherein the magnet moves and additional valves and special switches are needed to provide the flow of the working fluids through the magnetocaloric material.
  • Another device is disclosed by the PCT application WO/0212800 wherein the working fluid is directed to and from the regenerator beds (which together comprise a magnetocaloric ring) by a distribution valve which is connected by conduits to the hot and cold ends of the beds and which rotates with the ring. A limited number of conduits is used for distributing the working fluids, the conduits are connected to the magnetocaloric ring in such a way that the flow is circumferential through the bed and various valves are needed.
  • U.S. Pat. No. 5,249,424 describes in fact a cryogenic apparatus operating usually with helium gas and hydrogen gas as fluid being cooled. This apparatus contains two beds of magnetic material where one is larger and one is smaller, e.g. first stage and a second stage of device. Cooling energy from the first stage is therefore used in the warm part of the first stage as well as partly directed to the cold part of the second stage, etc. By this, a kind of regeneration is performed in each stage. This apparatus is therefore not a single stage or conventional regenerative type of refrigerator, but presents a kind of combination of a regenerative and cascade (two stage) principle.
  • It will be noted also that because of the fluid flowing above and underneath the magnetocaloric material, the distance between the magnet and the magnetocaloric material becomes very large. This gap leads to a very high magnetic resistance and decreases the magnetic induction in the magnetocaloric material.
  • The object of the present invention is not a hydrogen liquefier but concerns a generally applicable magnetic refrigerator or heat pump, which may be applied at any temperature level up to the temperature, where the “record” materials still show the magnetocaloric effect, and numerous kind of fluids are possible to be chosen as transport fluids. The basic principle of this invention is a one stage device, comprised by one ring of magnetocaloric material. This one stage device may be modified to be a regenerative stage. Furthermore, the system can be arranged as cascade as in conventional systems that is not the case in the invention of U.S. Pat. No. 5,249,424. Also the connections and couplings considering fluid transport and heat transfer configurations, the positioning of heat source and sinks are completely different.
  • The device of the invention comprises a single magnetocaloric disc, that means one bed of magnetocaloric material and at minimum one magnet and one stage occurs. Now this configuration may be modified by numerous different kinds of regeneration. Furthermore the manner of supplying a working fluid to the magnetocaloric material is performed by applying a specially designed rotating disc. This disc enables that the working fluids enters and leaves the device parallel to the rotating axis. These fluids enter and leave the magnetocaloric material, which is packed into an attached ring, to this special disc in an optimal configuration (bending) concerning fluid dynamics.
  • Consequently, the type and shape, as well as the occurring domain of the magnetic field induced by the magnets is, in the invention of U.S. Pat. No. 5,249,424, substantially different from that in the present application.
  • PCT publication No. WO 2004/059221 of the same applicant describes an axial machine including a cylindrical body, completely filled with or produced by magnetocaloric material. Since the magnets are differently positioned, the fluids flow differently. Therefore, the free cross section for the fluid is constant and also the mean velocity does not change downstream. In contradiction to this, in the present patent application, the fluid flows radially through a specially designed rotating disc where the free cross section of the disc increases and, therefore, by the continuity of mass the mean velocity decreases.
  • The present patent application presents a special radial machine with a positioning of the magnets close to a magnetocaloric ring, allowing the design of a very small air gap and with a peculiar forth and back flow circuit in the magnetocaloric ring device. A good performance may be obtained with permanent magnets, which do not consume additional energy, but show low magnetic field inductions. Consequently, in a machine including permanent magnets defining a small magnetic resistance, it is necessary to have two gaps (above and underneath the magnetocaloric wheel) so that this machine may be operated economically.
  • Another important difference is the position and the shape of the magnet(s) and the direction of the applied magnetic field. The magnet in WO 2004/059221 performs more or less magnetic field lines perpendicular to the axis, or approximately in azimutal direction, whereas in the present invention, the magnetic field lines are more or less parallel to the axis of the disc.
  • Furthermore, producing a packed bed with different materials in a direction of a temperature directional derivative in the devices presented in the invention is totally different as in the device of WO 2004/059221. This procedure is important as it may substantially increase the coefficient of performance of a machine.
  • The invention described in the abstract of Japanese Patent Application No. 55002872 concerns a servo valve operating device, whereas the present application concerns a magnetocaloric refrigerator or heat pump. Therefore, the purpose of application of a ferrofluid or fluid with a high permeability differs substantially in the two inventions. In the Japanese device the purpose of such a fluid is that the magneto motive force of the electromagnet is smaller by filling the gap with a ferrofluid or fluid showing a high permeability. In the present application the highly permeable fluid in the gap shall guarantee a high magnetic flux density in the magnetocaloric material. Here the magnetic field may be induced by any kind of a magnet: a superconducting magnet, an electromagnet or a permanent magnet.
  • The purpose of this method is obviously very different. For instance such a similar method, based on ferrofluids, is also applied in loudspeakers, which also shows no relation to magnetic valves or the present magnetocaloric application.
  • DISCLOSURE OF INVENTION
  • To overcome the above drawbacks of the prior art devices, an objective of the present invention is to provide a rotary magnetic refrigerator/heat pump (RMR/RMHP), able to operate in a continuously working process, able to be applied in industrial thermal processes, HVAC systems, refrigerators, heat pumps, automobiles, trains, planes and spacecrafts, having a high efficiency and a low cost of manufacturing.
  • The rotary magnetic refrigerator or heat pump of the present invention is characterized in that the working fluid conducting subassembly comprises a central rotating disc designed to allow the working fluid to enter and to leave the subassembly parallel to the rotating axis of the disc and to support the rotating magnetocaloric ring member in defining a small gap between the magnetic device and the said rotating magnetocaloric ring member, this central rotating disc comprising at least two circular arrays of hollow sectors, and means to communicate with the arrays of hollow sectors.
  • According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, each array of hollow sectors of the central rotating disc comprises respectively one opening arranged to allow the working fluid to be introduced or to leave axially the working fluid conducting subassembly and to flow out in radial direction into the rotating disc through circumferential openings of the arrays of hollow sectors.
  • Advantageously, the gap defined between the magnetic device and the partially hollow rotating magnetocaloric ring member is smaller than 0.5 mm.
  • Preferably, the rotating disc is horizontally positioned and frame-suspended with bearings in stationary ducts above and below.
  • The magnetocaloric ring member may advantageously comprise at least one fluid flow separator and the rotating disc may comprise at least one fluid flow separator which provides flow of at least one fluid in and out of the rotating magnetocaloric ring member which is attached to the rotating disc.
  • Preferably the stationary ducts are attached to a casing containing the rotating magnetocaloric ring member and the rotating disc. These stationary ducts comprise a minimum of one fluid flow separator.
  • The magnetocaloric ring may be made of at least one magnetocaloric material or may be layered with different magnetocaloric materials in a direction of a temperature gradient.
  • The magnetocaloric material may be performed as a porous structure, packed bed, as periodic structure.
  • In a variation of the embodiment of the continuously rotary magnetic refrigerator or heat pump comprising more than one partially hollow rotating magnetocaloric ring member and at more than one magnetic device provided for generating a predetermined magnetic field providing a cascade system having several stages, each stage comprise different magnetocaloric material and/or may be also layered in a direction of a temperature gradient.
  • Preferably, a highly magnetic permeable fluid is inserted between magnetocaloric ring member and a housing in order to decrease the effect of a gap.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS
  • FIG. 1A is a cross-sectional view showing a first embodiment of a single stage rotary magnetocaloric refrigerator or heat pump according to the invention;
  • FIG. 1B is a top view showing the rotary magnetocaloric refrigerator or heat pump of FIG. 1A;
  • FIG. 2 is a partial view showing a second embodiment of a rotary magnetocaloric refrigerator or heat pump according to the invention;
  • FIGS. 3A, 3B and 3C show possible arrangements of multiple magnets;
  • FIG. 4A is a top view of a rotating disc with the magnetocaloric ring attached thereto of a single stage rotary magnetocaloric refrigerator or heat pump according to the invention;
  • FIG. 4B is a cross-sectional view cut along line A-A of FIG. 4A;
  • FIG. 4C is a cross-sectional view cut along line B-B of FIG. 4A;
  • FIGS. 5A, 5B, 5C and 5D show some examples of different shapes of flow separators located inside of the rotating magnetocaloric ring member and the central rotating disc;
  • FIGS. 6A and 6B are respectively a cross-sectional view and a top view showing the stationary duct of the rotary magnetocaloric refrigerator or heat pump similar to that of FIG. 1;
  • FIG. 7 is a cross-sectional view showing a third embodiment of a single stage rotary magnetocaloric refrigerator or heat pump with a housing containing a permeable fluid according to the invention;
  • FIG. 8 is a partial cross-sectional view showing a fourth embodiment of a single stage rotary magnetocaloric refrigerator or heat pump according to the invention;
  • FIG. 9A is a diagram showing the Brayton cycle and partial views representing components of the single stage rotary magnetocaloric refrigerator or heat pump according to the invention;
  • FIG. 9B is a partial view representing components of the single stage rotary magnetocaloric refrigerator or heat pump represented by FIG. 9A;
  • FIG. 9C is another partial view representing components of the single stage rotary magnetocaloric refrigerator or heat pump represented by FIG. 9A;
  • FIG. 9D is yet a further partial view representing components of the single stage rotary magnetocaloric refrigerator or heat pump represented by FIG. 9A;
  • FIG. 10A is a diagram showing one approach of the Ericsson thermodynamic cycle of the single stage rotary magnetocaloric refrigerator or heat pump according to the invention;
  • FIG. 10B is a partial view representing components of the single stage rotary magnetocaloric refrigerator or heat pump represented by the diagram of FIG. 10A;
  • FIG. 11 is a diagram showing another approach of the Ericsson thermodynamic cycle;
  • FIG. 12A is a diagram showing one approach of the Carnot cycle;
  • FIG. 12B is a partial view representing components of the single stage rotary magnetocaloric refrigerator or heat pump represented by the diagram of FIG. 12A;
  • FIG. 13 shows another approach of the Carnot cycle;
  • FIG. 14 is a cross-sectional view showing a cascade system comprising three rotary magnetocaloric refrigerators or heat pumps according to the invention;
  • FIG. 15A is a partial view of a single regeneration system applied to a rotary magnetocaloric refrigerator or heat pump according to the invention;
  • FIG. 15B is a partial view of a multiple regeneration system
  • FIG. 15C is a Brayton Cycle of the single regeneration system applied to a rotary magnetocaloric refrigerator or heat pump represented by FIG. 15A;
  • FIG. 15D is a Brayton Cycle of the single regeneration system applied to a rotary magnetocaloric refrigerator or heat pump represented by FIG. 15B;
  • FIG. 16 represents a one pump solution with connections between certain segments of a static conduit; and
  • FIG. 17 represents a diagram corresponding to the solution of FIG. 16.
  • MODES FOR CARRYING OUT THE INVENTION
  • FIGS. 1A and 1B show a schematic design of the rotary magnetic refrigerator 10 in its simplest configuration with the main structural components. The functionality of this refrigerator is based on three main functional subgroups and on a minimum of one working fluid. Preferably two working fluids e.g. heat source and heat sink fluid are used and they may be gases, liquids, nanofluids or suspensions. The three functional subgroups are a magnet 11, a partially hollow magnetocaloric ring 12 rotating through this magnet and a fluid conducting subassembly 13. The fluid conducting subassembly 13 comprises a horizontally positioned rotating disc 14, frame-suspended with bearings 15 and 16 in stationary ducts above 17 and below 18, which serve to supply and evacuate the working fluid or working fluids designated by the arrows 19, 20, 21 and 22. The rotating disc 14 contains two circular arrays of hollow sectors 23 and 24 in its interior, one close to each of its planar faces. Every array of hollow sector 23, respectively 24, has an opening slot 25, respectively 26, to the adjacent planar surface and to the circumferential surface of the rotating disc 14. This allows for the working fluid to be introduced axially into the lower array of hollow sectors through the openings on the lower planar surface, then for the fluid to flow out in radial direction through the circumferential openings of the lower array of hollow sectors and back into the disc through the circumferential openings of the upper array of hollow sectors, from where it finally exits the disc axially through the openings of each hollow sector on the upper planar surface. If there are two or more working fluids, they may flow in the same direction or in opposite direction (e.g. in FIG. 1 the arrows show the case, where heat source and heat sink fluid are flowing in opposite direction). The exchange of fluid in the azimuth direction, which is the direction of rotation in the interior of the disc, is undesirable and prevented by the separators 27 of adjacent hollow sectors. The number of hollow sectors in the rotating disc depends on the application of the refrigerator. The separators 27 may be heat insulated, if necessary. Flow separators are also mounted in the magnetocaloric ring 12 and may be made of magnetocaloric material. Flow separators are also present in the stationary ducts. The number of flow separators, as well as their geometry in the magnetocaloric ring 12, in the rotating disc 14 and in the stationary ducts 17 and 18 depends on the specific application of the refrigerator or heat pump.
  • The rotating disc 14 is rotated by a driving axle 30 at its center. Attached to the circumferential surface of the rotating disc 14 is the magnetocaloric ring 12, which rotates with the disc. This ring comprises a magnetocaloric material in the form of either a packed bed of grains or a porous or periodic structure. The magnetocaloric ring 12 also has flow separators for preventing fluid flow in the azimuth direction. The working fluid exiting the lower or upper, (depending on a direction of the fluid flow) array of hollow sectors of the rotating disc 14 through the interface to the magnetocaloric ring, flows into the voids of the magnetocaloric material, from where it returns to the upper (or lower) array of hollow sectors of the rotating disc 14 through the circumferential surface. The magnet 11 is stationary and defines with the magnetocaloric ring 12 a gap smaller the 0.5 mm (0.0197 in.). It may be conceived to deliver a constant or an altering magnetic field, depending on the application of the refrigerator. The angular range φ of the magnetocaloric ring 12, which is covered by the magnet, may vary depending on the specific application of the refrigerator.
  • FIG. 2 shows an example of a magnet 11 or package of multiple magnets 11 a, 11 b, 11 c, 11 d and 11 e conceived to deliver a uniform or a stepwise incrementing magnetic field.
  • FIGS. 3A, 3B and 3C show some possible arrangements of additional magnets: Two symmetrical magnets 11 aa and 11 bb in FIG. 3A, a single magnet 11 cc with an angular extension of 180° in FIG. 3B and five magnet sectors 11 dd, 11 ee, 11 ff, 11 gg and 11 hh in FIG. 3C.
  • FIGS. 4A, 4B and 4C show the rotating disc 14 with its interior structure attached to the magnetocaloric ring 12. The black arrows 40 in FIG. 40, cross section view along line B-B show the flow of working fluid through the structure of the magnetocaloric ring 12. The rotating disc 14 and the flow separators 27 may be made of any kind of material, but preferably of a material with low heat conductivity. In a special case, the flow separators 27 may be heat insulated. The flow separators 27 may be of different shapes. In a special case, they may be shaped as the blades used in pumps or turbines. The housing surrounding the magnetocaloric ring 12 may be made of any kind of material, but preferably of a magnetocaloric material. The flow separators 27 may have different kinds of shapes. These shapes may differ between the separators 41 in the magnetocaloric ring, in the rotating disc or in the stationary ducts. The shape of the separators in each of these subassemblies should be selected according the specific application of the refrigerator or the heat pump.
  • FIGS. 5A, 5B, 5C and 5D show some examples of different shapes of flow separators 41 in the magnetocaloric ring and in the rotating disc. The shapes of the flow separators in the lower part of the rotating disc may differ from those in the upper part of the rotating disc. This is also valid for the stationary ducts.
  • The stationary ducts 17 and 18 shown in FIG. 1A are presented in more detail in FIGS. 6A and 6B. One end of each stationary duct is provided with bearings 61 and 62 including seals in which the rotating disc 14 is mounted. With this, both ducts 17, 18 remain at rest while the disc with magnetocaloric ring 14 rotates. The stationary ducts 17, 18 comprise flanges 63 for attaching them to an external piping system. The stationary ducts 17, 18 may be made of any kind of material, but preferably of one with very low thermal conductivity. They may be also heat insulated. The flow separators 64 in the stationary ducts generally prevent fluid flow in the azimuth direction and therefore also prevent the mixing of the heat source and heat sink fluids or prevent mixing of fluid at different temperature levels. The concept of the flow separators 64 also simplifies the possible modification of the refrigerator to a regeneration system. The flow separators 64 may have different shapes, depending on the specific application of the refrigerator and on its operating characteristics. The external duct 17 a and internal duct 17 b form a coaxial set of ducts together, with the working fluid(s) flowing in the space between them. The assembly of the rotating disc 14 and the stationary ducts 17, 18 requires a gap at the interface between the flow separators in the stationary ducts and the planar surfaces of the extensions of the rotating disc 14. Through this gap, some amount of the fluids in the individual sectors of the stationary ducts 17, 18 could leak to the neighboring sectors in the azimuth direction. This is undesirable and may be avoided either by dimensioning the gap to the minimum necessary to prevent the touching of rotating and stationary parts, or by applying an adequate sealing device which can ensure minimal leakage through the gap between the rotating and stationary parts, or by an adequately designed geometry of the flow separators at the interface between the rotating disc 14 and stationary ducts 17, 18.
  • Different designs of the refrigerator shown in FIGS. 1A and 1B are presented in FIGS. 7 and 8. In both designs, the rotating disc 14 with the magnetocaloric ring 12 is enclosed in a housing 71 and 72, which is stationary and attached to the magnet poles of the magnet 11. The part of the housing, which is attached to the magnet poles, consists of a highly permeable material, while the other part may be made of any kind of material, but preferably one with very low magnetic permeability. With this, the magnetic flux lines are directed solely through the part of the magnetocaloric ring which must be magnetized. In the gap between the housing and the rotating magnetocaloric ring, a highly permeable fluid is contained, with the purpose of decreasing the adverse effect of the gap on magnetization of the ring. Inevitably, the relative motion between the rotating disc 14 and the stationary housing 71, 72 may cause the permeable fluid between these parts to rotate and mix its “warm” and “cold” regions. This may be prevented by fastening seals to the interior planar surface of the housing at adequate locations or the permeable fluid may be used also a sealing component, captured in a magnetic field.
  • FIG. 8 shows the rotary magnetic refrigerator 10 with the rotating disc 14 and the magnetocaloric ring 12 located in the housing 71, 72 and suspended with bearings 73 in the working fluid ducts 17, 18. Seals 74 are provided between the rotating disc 14 and the housing 71, 72. This design is characterized by the facility of manufacturing and assembling the parts and therefore permits to reduce the expenses.
  • Considering the configuration in FIG. 3B, with the magnetic field assumed to be uniform, the four relevant stages of operation are numbered in the schematics of the refrigerator shown in FIGS. 9B, 9C and 9D. The T-S-diagram in FIG. 9A shows, qualitatively, the corresponding thermodynamic cycle, which the magnetocaloric material undergoes during these four stages of operation. It is assumed a Brayton cycle operating between two isofields (constant magnetic fields) and two adiabats. From position IV. to position L, the working fluid that is the heat source fluid 91 flowing through the voids in the part of the magnetocaloric ring, which is not subjected to the magnetic field, brings heat to that part of the ring. In the process, the temperature of the magnetocaloric material rises, while that of the heat source working fluid drops. As the magnetocaloric ring rotates, it enters the zone where the magnet is situated. Upon entering this zone of constant magnetic field (from position I. with H1=0, to II. with H2>H1), the magnetocaloric material subjected to the magnetic field undergoes adiabatic magnetization and is heated up due to the magnetocaloric effect. From position II. to position III., the working fluid that is the heat sink fluid 92 flowing through the voids in the part of the magnetocaloric ring, which is subjected to the magnetic field, absorbs heat from that part of the ring. In the process, the temperature of the magnetocaloric material drops, while that of the heat sink working fluid rises. In the case of FIGS. 9C and 9D, both working fluids 91 and 92 are flowing in the same direction, but counter current flow is also possible. With special arrangement of piping, also a one fluid solution is possible. Upon exiting the zone of constant magnetic field and entering the zone without magnetic field (from position III. to IV.), the magnetocaloric material undergoes adiabatic demagnetization and is cooled down due to the magnetocaloric effect. The necessary external piping system for the working fluids is attached to the stationary ducts below and above the rotating disc 14.
  • In order for the magnetocaloric material to undergo an Ericsson thermodynamic cycle during the four stages of operation, the system should operate between two isofields and two isotherms represented by FIGS. 10A, 10B. This means isothermal magnetization (I. to II.) and isothermal demagnetization (III. to IV.). Isothermal magnetization requires the magnetocaloric ring to pass through subsequent zones of incrementing magnetic field (or requires a process of magnetization at constant temperature), while isothermal demagnetization requires the magnetocaloric ring to pass through subsequent zones of decreasing magnetic field (or requires a process of demagnetization at constant temperature). For the case of the FIGS. 10A, 10B, we will consider that isothermal magnetization and demagnetization are performed by use of incrementing magnetic field by application of more than one magnet. In FIG. 10B, the four relevant stages of operation are numbered in the schematics of the refrigerator. The T-S-diagram in FIG. 10A shows, qualitatively, the corresponding Ericsson thermodynamic cycle, which the magnetocaloric material undergoes during the four stages of operation. As the magnetocaloric ring 14 rotates, it enters the zone where the first magnet (sector a) is situated. Upon entering this zone, the magnetocaloric material subjected to the magnetic field undergoes adiabatic magnetization and is heated up due to the magnetocaloric effect. The magnetic field increases in each subsequent sector till position II (sectors b, c and II. to III.). Consequently, upon entering the magnetic field of each sector, the magnetocaloric material is heated up due to the repeated adiabatic magnetization and magnetocaloric effect. This may be achieved with multiple magnets. As the magnetocaloric ring 14 passes through these sectors of incrementing magnetic field, the heat sink working fluid flowing through the voids in these parts of the magnetocaloric ring extracts heat from the magnetocaloric material. In the process, the temperature of the magnetocaloric material is decreased in each sector of magnetization, while that of the heat sink working fluid rises. With this procedure, over a certain zone, the magnetocaloric material may be kept at a somewhat constant mean temperature, despite an increasing magnetization of the material. This temperature represents the hot side temperature level of the refrigerator.
  • In the subsequent section II. to III., the heat sink working fluid, which is kept in the volume of the magnetocaloric material, is pumped to the section IV. to I. in order to perform an internal regeneration cycle. Simultaneously, the heat source fluid which is kept in the volume of the magnetocaloric material in the section IV. to I., is pumped to the section II. to III for the internal regeneration process. The transport mechanism to exchange fluids for the regeneration is chosen according to the fluid(s) used and the specific application of the refrigerator. From the cycle state III to IV., the magnetic field decreases in each subsequent sector till position IV (sectors a′, b′ and c′). Upon entering the magnetic field of each sector, the magnetocaloric material is cooled down due to the repeated demagnetization and magnetocaloric effect. As the magnetocaloric material passes through these sectors of decreasing magnetic field, the heat source working fluid flowing through the voids in these parts of the magnetocaloric ring, releases heat to the magnetocaloric material. In the process, the temperature of the magnetocaloric material rises in each sector of demagnetization, while that of the heat source working fluid decreases. With this procedure, over a certain zone, the magnetocaloric material may be kept at a somewhat constant mean temperature, despite the demagnetization of the material. This temperature represents the cold side temperature level of the refrigerator.
  • Another possibility of performing an Ericsson cycle with the isothermal magnetization is represented by the FIG. 11 (I. to II.), and demagnetization (III. to IV.) where the heat sink fluid enters a part of magnetocaloric ring, just before magnetocaloric ring 14 enters the magnetic field and a part of the magnetocaloric ring 14, just after the magnetocaloric ring 14 entered the magnetic field. In the same way, the heat source fluid passes through the magnetocaloric ring 14 just before it exits the magnetic field and the part of magnetocaloric ring, just after the magnetocaloric ring 14 exits the magnetic field.
  • In order for the magnetocaloric material to undergo a Carnot thermodynamic cycle during the four stages of operation, the system should operate between two isotherms and two adiabats as shown by the FIGS. 12A, 12B. The process which the magnetocaloric material undergoes is similar to the one for the Ericsson cycle, with the exception of no zones of regeneration for the Carnot cycle. The “hot” and “cold” temperature levels of the cycle are produced by adiabatic magnetization (I. to II.) and demagnetization (III. to IV.) respectively.
  • Similar as for the case in a FIG. 11, the Carnot cycle may be performed as shown in the FIG. 13. In this case, zones, where roman numbers are placed represent a uniform magnetic field (or zero field in the case of zone I.). Heat source fluid in this case is brought to zones IV. and I. simultaneously and heat sink fluid is brought to zones II. and III. simultaneously. Between III. and IV. and I. and II., the adiabatic demagnetization and adiabatic magnetization respectively occur.
  • All the design and cycle possibilities presented in this paper may be modified to be used in cascade systems as shown in FIG. 14, in multi stage systems, in systems with regeneration or in combinations of these. In a cascade system two or more magnetic refrigerators 10 are combined in a way that the heat source fluid leaving the “cold” side of one refrigerator serves as the heat sink fluid entering the “hot” side of the second refrigerator. Different magnetocaloric materials may be used in each of the stages. Such systems are well known in conventional cooling techniques. However, when using magnetic refrigerators, there is no need for the working fluid to pass through intermediate heat exchangers as happens in the evaporator of the higher stage and condenser of the lower stage in conventional cascade systems. In a multi stage system, the magnetic refrigerators are connected in a parallel manner to increase the cooling power.
  • In systems with regeneration as shown by the FIGS. 15A, 15B, 15C and 15D the working fluid is transported to the part of the magnetocaloric material which is outside the magnetic field from the part of the magnetocaloric ring which is in (or in the lower) magnetic field. And vice versa, the working fluid is transported from the part of the magnetocaloric material outside or in the lower magnetic field to the part of magnetocaloric ring, which is in the magnetic field. This allows an increase in the difference of the temperature levels of the refrigerator. The Brayton cycle with regeneration shown in FIG. 15D operates between two isofields that is constant magnetic fields and two adiabats, as was described for the Brayton cycle in FIG. 9A. Compared to the Brayton cycle without regeneration presented in FIG. 9A, the one with regeneration exhibits a larger difference in the temperature levels of the “cold” side and the “hot” side of the refrigerator. The means of conveying the working fluids for the regeneration through the conduits is chosen according to the fluids used and the specific application of the refrigerator. In order to perform a regeneration process, and therefore increase the temperature difference between heat source and heat sink, only a small part of the device may serve as heat sink or heat source. In this case, the hot source fluid is flowing from the hot source through the rotating disc and attached magnetocaloric ring and exists on the other side of device, back to the hot source. The same operation is performed by the heat sink fluid, at another location of device. Other parts are closed and connected by piping between them. This means, that a fluid from the cold segment (just after the part where a heat source is applied) is flowing to the warm segment (just before the part where a heat source is applied) and so on. The flow of fluids for performing regeneration between segments may be performed by various means.
  • A device as in FIGS. 15A and 15B will require more than one pump to pump the fluids through different sections. One should note that it is possible to couple hot, cold heat exchanger and segments under regeneration into a one-pump system, without need of specially designed valves.
  • One among many possible connections for a “one pump” solution is presented in a FIG. 16. One should note that connections are not showing exact direction of the fluid flow, but only the principle of a process. The fluid flow connection of the bottom side is designated by reference 161, the fluid flow connection of the top side is designated by reference 162 and the fluid flow connection of the regenerated side is designated by reference 163.
  • According to FIG. 16. which is a device for explanatory purpose, there are eight separated segments (not to be mistaken for flow separators) in the static part of the device (conduits). Segments are denoted by the letters A-H. The entering fluid for each segment is denoted by subscript “in”, and the leaving fluid from each segment is denoted by the subscript “out”. CHEX and HHEX represent a cold (heat source) heat exchanger and a hot (heat sink) heat exchanger respectively. The shaded area represents the influence of a magnetic field. The mass conservation law in this case requires following equalities:

  • {dot over (m)} Aout +{dot over (m)} Hout ={dot over (m)} Ain +{dot over (m)} Bin

  • {dot over (m)} Bout +{dot over (m)} Gout ={dot over (m)} Hin +{dot over (m)} Cin

  • {dot over (m)} Cout +{dot over (m)} Fout ={dot over (m)} Gin +{dot over (m)} Din

  • {dot over (m)} Dout +{dot over (m)} CHEX ={dot over (m)} Fin +{dot over (m)} Ein
  • and for each segment: {dot over (m)}out={dot over (m)}in
  • FIG. 17 represents a T-S diagram, corresponding to the solution presented in FIG. 16. For this case, a kind of a Brayton cycle is presented. However the supply of fluids at the same temperature to the segment in the field and the following segment out of the field could lead to an Ericcson-like cycle. Dashed lines represent the temperature level of the fluid, while solid lines represent the magnetocaloric material's temperature and thin solid lines present connections.
  • With this invention a new type of magnetic refrigerator (heat pump) is presented. Basically it operates according to the principle of a magnetocaloric ring rotating through a magnetic field. Customizations of the device allow for it to be operated in different thermodynamic cycles, and in system modes such as cascade systems or systems with regeneration. The device can be applied in industrial thermal processes, HVAC systems, refrigerators, heat pumps, automobiles, trains, planes, spacecrafts, and others.
  • The working fluids enter the device parallel to the rotating axis, then they pass through a rotating disc with a lower and upper internal circular array of hollow sectors which enable the flow of the heat source or heat sink fluid into and out of the magnetocaloric ring, and finally they leave the device again parallel to the rotating axis. Thus the invention enables a fluid flow which is temporally and spatially uninterrupted.

Claims (14)

1-13. (canceled)
14. A rotary magnetic refrigerator and heat pump (10) comprising:
at least one magnetic device (11) for generating a predetermined magnetic field;
a partially hollow rotating magnetocaloric ring member (12) that rotates through the predetermined magnetic field, and
a working fluid conducting subassembly (13) which directs the working fluid into and out of the partially hollow rotating magnetocaloric ring member (12), the working fluid conducting subassembly (13) comprising a central rotating disc (14) for allowing the working fluid to flow into and out of the subassembly (13) in a direction parallel to a rotational axis (30) of the rotating disc (14), the rotating disc (14) supporting the rotating magnetocaloric ring member (12) in defining a small gap between the magnetic device (11) and the rotating magnetocaloric ring member (12), the central rotating disc (14) comprises at least two circular arrays of hollow sectors (23, 24) and means for communicating with the circular arrays of hollow sectors (23, 24)
15. The rotary magnetic refrigerator and heat pump (10) according to claim 14, wherein each of the circular arrays of hollow sectors (23, 24) of the central rotating disc (14) comprises respectively one opening (25; 26) to axially enable the flow of the working fluid into and allow out from the working fluid conducting subassembly (13) such that the working fluid flows out in a radial direction into the rotating disc (14) through circumferential openings of the arrays of hollow sectors (23, 24).
16. The rotary magnetic refrigerator and heat pump (10) according to claim 14, wherein the small gap between the magnetic device (11) and the partially hollow rotating magnetocaloric ring member (12) is smaller than 0.5 mm.
17. The rotary magnetic refrigerator and heat pump (10) according to claim 14, wherein the rotating disc (14) is horizontally positioned and frame-suspended by bearings (15 and 16) in an upper stationary duct (17) and a lower stationary duct (18).
18. The rotary magnetic refrigerator and heat pump (10) according to claim 14, wherein the magnetocaloric ring member (12) comprises at least one fluid flow separator.
19. The rotary magnetic refrigerator and heat pump (10) according to claim 14, wherein the rotating disc (14) comprises at least one fluid flow separator which provides flow of at least one fluid in and out of the rotating magnetocaloric ring member (12) which is attached to the rotating disc (14).
20. The rotary magnetic refrigerator and heat pump (10) according to claim 17, wherein the upper stationary duct (17) and a lower stationary duct (18) are attached to a casing containing the rotating magnetocaloric ring member (12) and the rotating disc (14).
21. The rotary magnetic refrigerator and heat pump (10) according to claim 20, wherein the upper stationary duct (17) and a lower stationary duct (18) comprise at least one fluid flow separator.
22. The rotary magnetic refrigerator and heat pump (10) according to claim 14, wherein the magnetocaloric ring (12) is made of at least one magnetocaloric material.
23. The rotary magnetic refrigerator and heat pump (10) according to claim 22, wherein the magnetocaloric ring (12) is layered with different magnetocaloric materials in a direction of a temperature gradient.
24. The rotary magnetic refrigerator and heat pump (10) according to claim 23, wherein the magnetocaloric material is a packed bed of one of grain, a porous structure and a periodic structure.
25. The rotary magnetic refrigerator and heat pump (10) according to claim 14, further comprising at least one additional partially hollow rotating magnetocaloric ring member (12) and at least one additional magnetic device (11) for generating a predetermined magnetic field and providing a cascade system having several stages, each of the several stages one of comprises a different magnetocaloric material and is layered in a direction of a temperature gradient.
26. The rotary magnetic refrigerator and heat pump (10) according to claim 14, wherein a highly magnetic permeable fluid is inserted between the magnetocaloric ring member (12) and a housing to decrease an effect of the gap.
US11/993,080 2005-06-20 2006-06-15 Continuously rotary magnetic refrigerator or heat pump Abandoned US20100146989A1 (en)

Priority Applications (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
EP05405393.9 2005-06-20
EP05405393A EP1736719A1 (en) 2005-06-20 2005-06-20 Continuously rotary magnetic refrigerator or heat pump
PCT/CH2006/000324 WO2006136042A1 (en) 2005-06-20 2006-06-15 Continuously rotary magnetic refrigerator or heat pump

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US20100146989A1 true US20100146989A1 (en) 2010-06-17

Family

ID=35517597

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US11/993,080 Abandoned US20100146989A1 (en) 2005-06-20 2006-06-15 Continuously rotary magnetic refrigerator or heat pump

Country Status (5)

Country Link
US (1) US20100146989A1 (en)
EP (2) EP1736719A1 (en)
JP (1) JP2008544200A (en)
CA (1) CA2611992A1 (en)
WO (1) WO2006136042A1 (en)

Cited By (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20130081409A1 (en) * 2011-09-30 2013-04-04 General Electric Company Methods and systems for co2 condensation
US20130258593A1 (en) * 2012-03-28 2013-10-03 Delta Electronics, Inc. Thermo-magnetic power generation system
US20140305137A1 (en) * 2013-04-16 2014-10-16 General Electric Company Heat pump with magneto caloric materials and variable magnetic field strength
WO2016020327A1 (en) * 2014-08-06 2016-02-11 Nextpac Heat engine comprising magnetocaloric material of the refrigerating machine or heat pump type
US20160298880A1 (en) * 2015-04-09 2016-10-13 Eberspächer Climate Control Systems GmbH & Co. KG Temperature control unit, especially vehicle temperature control unit
WO2019038719A1 (en) * 2017-08-25 2019-02-28 Astronautics Corporation Of America A drum-type magnetic refrigeration apparatus with multiple bed rings

Families Citing this family (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE102006014596B4 (en) * 2006-03-29 2008-02-14 Webasto Ag Device for cooling the air by using the magnetocaloric effect
FR2924489B1 (en) * 2007-12-04 2015-09-04 Cooltech Applications Generator MAGNETOCALORIC
CN100592008C (en) 2007-12-25 2010-02-24 包头稀土研究院 Room temperature magnetic refrigeration system and uses thereof
EP2108904A1 (en) * 2008-04-07 2009-10-14 Haute Ecole d'Ingénierie et de Gestion du Canton de Vaud (HEIG-VD) A magnetocaloric device, especially a magnetic refrigerator, a heat pump or a power generator
JP5312844B2 (en) * 2008-05-23 2013-10-09 中部電力株式会社 Magnetic refrigeration apparatus
US20130025294A1 (en) * 2011-07-28 2013-01-31 Christian Vogel System and method for carbon dioxide removal
DE102015208696A1 (en) * 2015-05-11 2016-11-17 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft switchgear module
KR101954538B1 (en) * 2017-11-28 2019-03-05 엘지전자 주식회사 A Refrigerator System Using Magnetocaloric Material

Citations (11)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3108444A (en) * 1962-07-19 1963-10-29 Martin Marietta Corp Magneto-caloric cryogenic refrigerator
US4069028A (en) * 1976-11-30 1978-01-17 The United States Of America As Represented By The United States National Aeronautics And Space Administration Magnetic heat pumping
US4107935A (en) * 1977-03-10 1978-08-22 The United States Of America As Represented By The United States Department Of Energy High temperature refrigerator
US4332135A (en) * 1981-01-27 1982-06-01 The United States Of America As Respresented By The United States Department Of Energy Active magnetic regenerator
US4408463A (en) * 1982-01-20 1983-10-11 Barclay John A Wheel-type magnetic refrigerator
US4441325A (en) * 1981-11-27 1984-04-10 Commissariat A L'energie Atomique Refrigerating or heat pumping process and apparatus
US4785636A (en) * 1986-07-11 1988-11-22 Hitachi, Ltd. Magnetic refrigerator and refrigeration method
US4970866A (en) * 1989-12-07 1990-11-20 Sundstrand Corporation Magneto caloric system
US5249424A (en) * 1992-06-05 1993-10-05 Astronautics Corporation Of America Active magnetic regenerator method and apparatus
US5743095A (en) * 1996-11-19 1998-04-28 Iowa State University Research Foundation, Inc. Active magnetic refrigerants based on Gd-Si-Ge material and refrigeration apparatus and process
US6526759B2 (en) * 2000-08-09 2003-03-04 Astronautics Corporation Of America Rotating bed magnetic refrigeration apparatus

Family Cites Families (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JPS552872A (en) * 1979-03-28 1980-01-10 Hitachi Ltd Servo valve operating device
DE3043274A1 (en) * 1980-11-15 1982-07-01 Wabco Fahrzeugbremsen Gmbh magnetic valve
DE3843065A1 (en) * 1988-12-21 1990-06-28 Linde Ag Method and apparatus for the generation of cold by means of a magneto caloric cyclic process
SU1668829A1 (en) * 1989-07-06 1991-08-07 Балашихинское научно-производственное объединение криогенного машиностроения им.40-летия Октября Rotary magnet refrigerator
JPH07259724A (en) * 1994-03-25 1995-10-09 Sharp Corp Thermo-drive motor
CH695836A5 (en) * 2002-12-24 2006-09-15 Ecole D Ingenieurs Du Canton D Method and device for continuously generating cold and heat by magnetic effect.

Patent Citations (11)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3108444A (en) * 1962-07-19 1963-10-29 Martin Marietta Corp Magneto-caloric cryogenic refrigerator
US4069028A (en) * 1976-11-30 1978-01-17 The United States Of America As Represented By The United States National Aeronautics And Space Administration Magnetic heat pumping
US4107935A (en) * 1977-03-10 1978-08-22 The United States Of America As Represented By The United States Department Of Energy High temperature refrigerator
US4332135A (en) * 1981-01-27 1982-06-01 The United States Of America As Respresented By The United States Department Of Energy Active magnetic regenerator
US4441325A (en) * 1981-11-27 1984-04-10 Commissariat A L'energie Atomique Refrigerating or heat pumping process and apparatus
US4408463A (en) * 1982-01-20 1983-10-11 Barclay John A Wheel-type magnetic refrigerator
US4785636A (en) * 1986-07-11 1988-11-22 Hitachi, Ltd. Magnetic refrigerator and refrigeration method
US4970866A (en) * 1989-12-07 1990-11-20 Sundstrand Corporation Magneto caloric system
US5249424A (en) * 1992-06-05 1993-10-05 Astronautics Corporation Of America Active magnetic regenerator method and apparatus
US5743095A (en) * 1996-11-19 1998-04-28 Iowa State University Research Foundation, Inc. Active magnetic refrigerants based on Gd-Si-Ge material and refrigeration apparatus and process
US6526759B2 (en) * 2000-08-09 2003-03-04 Astronautics Corporation Of America Rotating bed magnetic refrigeration apparatus

Cited By (11)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20130081409A1 (en) * 2011-09-30 2013-04-04 General Electric Company Methods and systems for co2 condensation
US20130258593A1 (en) * 2012-03-28 2013-10-03 Delta Electronics, Inc. Thermo-magnetic power generation system
US8754569B2 (en) * 2012-03-28 2014-06-17 Delta Electronics, Inc. Thermo-magnetic power generation system
US20140305137A1 (en) * 2013-04-16 2014-10-16 General Electric Company Heat pump with magneto caloric materials and variable magnetic field strength
US9625185B2 (en) * 2013-04-16 2017-04-18 Haier Us Appliance Solutions, Inc. Heat pump with magneto caloric materials and variable magnetic field strength
WO2016020327A1 (en) * 2014-08-06 2016-02-11 Nextpac Heat engine comprising magnetocaloric material of the refrigerating machine or heat pump type
FR3024768A1 (en) * 2014-08-06 2016-02-12 Nextpac Heat a magnetocaloric material of the refrigerating machine or heat pump type
US20160298880A1 (en) * 2015-04-09 2016-10-13 Eberspächer Climate Control Systems GmbH & Co. KG Temperature control unit, especially vehicle temperature control unit
CN106042823A (en) * 2015-04-09 2016-10-26 埃贝斯佩歇气候控制系统有限责任两合公司 Temperature control unit, especially vehicle temperature control unit
US10145591B2 (en) * 2015-04-09 2018-12-04 Eberspächer Climate Control Systems GmbH & Co. KG Temperature control unit, especially vehicle temperature control unit
WO2019038719A1 (en) * 2017-08-25 2019-02-28 Astronautics Corporation Of America A drum-type magnetic refrigeration apparatus with multiple bed rings

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
CA2611992A1 (en) 2006-12-28
EP1899660A1 (en) 2008-03-19
WO2006136042A1 (en) 2006-12-28
EP1736719A1 (en) 2006-12-27
JP2008544200A (en) 2008-12-04

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
JP4649389B2 (en) Magnetic refrigeration device and a magnetic refrigeration method
JP4879449B2 (en) Rotation-bed magnetic refrigeration apparatus
AU2004286064B2 (en) Device for generating a thermal flux with magneto-caloric material
Bjørk et al. Review and comparison of magnet designs for magnetic refrigeration
ES2323478T3 (en) The heat generator with magnetocaloric material.
US4441325A (en) Refrigerating or heat pumping process and apparatus
US5091361A (en) Magnetic heat pumps using the inverse magnetocaloric effect
JP3670659B2 (en) Active magnetic regenerative heat exchanger device
US9739510B2 (en) Flow-synchronous field motion refrigeration
US5934078A (en) Reciprocating active magnetic regenerator refrigeration apparatus
US8869541B2 (en) Thermal generator with magnetocaloric material and incorporated heat transfer fluid circulation means
CA1095596A (en) High temperature magnetic refrigerator
US8596077B2 (en) Magnetocaloric thermal generator having hot and cold circuits channeled between stacked thermal elements
CN102778074B (en) Thermo-magnetic cycle apparatus
JP5060602B2 (en) Magnetic refrigeration device and a magnetic refrigeration system
US4033734A (en) Continuous, noncyclic magnetic refrigerator and method
CN100436966C (en) Heat generator comprising a magneto-caloric material and thermie generating method
US8209988B2 (en) Magnetic refrigeration device
JP4231022B2 (en) Magnetic refrigeration machine
US6446441B1 (en) Magnetic refrigerator
US4459811A (en) Magnetic refrigeration apparatus and method
US20080236171A1 (en) Magnetic refrigerating device and magnetic refrigerating method
DK2391857T3 (en) Parallel magnetic cooling device and method for cooling
Engelbrecht et al. Experimental results for a novel rotary active magnetic regenerator
JP4303879B2 (en) Magnetic refrigeration apparatus

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
AS Assignment

Owner name: HAUTE ECOLE D INGERIERIE ET DE GESTION DU CANTON D

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:EGOLF, PETER WILLIAMS;KITANOVSKI, ANDREJ;SARI, OSMANN;AND OTHERS;SIGNING DATES FROM 20071212 TO 20071220;REEL/FRAME:020377/0090