US20100140663A1 - CMOS Compatable fabrication of power GaN transistors on a <100> silicon substrate - Google Patents

CMOS Compatable fabrication of power GaN transistors on a <100> silicon substrate Download PDF

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US20100140663A1
US20100140663A1 US12/315,931 US31593108A US2010140663A1 US 20100140663 A1 US20100140663 A1 US 20100140663A1 US 31593108 A US31593108 A US 31593108A US 2010140663 A1 US2010140663 A1 US 2010140663A1
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Peter J. Hopper
William French
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National Semiconductor Corp
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L29/00Semiconductor devices adapted for rectifying, amplifying, oscillating or switching, or capacitors or resistors with at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. PN junction depletion layer or carrier concentration layer; Details of semiconductor bodies or of electrodes thereof; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor
    • H01L29/02Semiconductor bodies ; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor
    • H01L29/04Semiconductor bodies ; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor characterised by their crystalline structure, e.g. polycrystalline, cubic or particular orientation of crystalline planes
    • H01L29/045Semiconductor bodies ; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor characterised by their crystalline structure, e.g. polycrystalline, cubic or particular orientation of crystalline planes by their particular orientation of crystalline planes
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L29/00Semiconductor devices adapted for rectifying, amplifying, oscillating or switching, or capacitors or resistors with at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. PN junction depletion layer or carrier concentration layer; Details of semiconductor bodies or of electrodes thereof; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor
    • H01L29/02Semiconductor bodies ; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor
    • H01L29/06Semiconductor bodies ; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor characterised by their shape; characterised by the shapes, relative sizes, or dispositions of the semiconductor regions ; characterised by the concentration or distribution of impurities within semiconductor regions
    • H01L29/08Semiconductor bodies ; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor characterised by their shape; characterised by the shapes, relative sizes, or dispositions of the semiconductor regions ; characterised by the concentration or distribution of impurities within semiconductor regions with semiconductor regions connected to an electrode carrying current to be rectified, amplified or switched and such electrode being part of a semiconductor device which comprises three or more electrodes
    • H01L29/0843Source or drain regions of field-effect devices
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L29/00Semiconductor devices adapted for rectifying, amplifying, oscillating or switching, or capacitors or resistors with at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. PN junction depletion layer or carrier concentration layer; Details of semiconductor bodies or of electrodes thereof; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor
    • H01L29/40Electrodes ; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor
    • H01L29/41Electrodes ; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor characterised by their shape, relative sizes or dispositions
    • H01L29/423Electrodes ; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor characterised by their shape, relative sizes or dispositions not carrying the current to be rectified, amplified or switched
    • H01L29/42312Gate electrodes for field effect devices
    • H01L29/42316Gate electrodes for field effect devices for field-effect transistors
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L29/00Semiconductor devices adapted for rectifying, amplifying, oscillating or switching, or capacitors or resistors with at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. PN junction depletion layer or carrier concentration layer; Details of semiconductor bodies or of electrodes thereof; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor
    • H01L29/66Types of semiconductor device ; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor
    • H01L29/66007Multistep manufacturing processes
    • H01L29/66075Multistep manufacturing processes of devices having semiconductor bodies comprising group 14 or group 13/15 materials
    • H01L29/66227Multistep manufacturing processes of devices having semiconductor bodies comprising group 14 or group 13/15 materials the devices being controllable only by the electric current supplied or the electric potential applied, to an electrode which does not carry the current to be rectified, amplified or switched, e.g. three-terminal devices
    • H01L29/66409Unipolar field-effect transistors
    • H01L29/66446Unipolar field-effect transistors with an active layer made of a group 13/15 material, e.g. group 13/15 velocity modulation transistor [VMT], group 13/15 negative resistance FET [NERFET]
    • H01L29/66462Unipolar field-effect transistors with an active layer made of a group 13/15 material, e.g. group 13/15 velocity modulation transistor [VMT], group 13/15 negative resistance FET [NERFET] with a heterojunction interface channel or gate, e.g. HFET, HIGFET, SISFET, HJFET, HEMT
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L29/00Semiconductor devices adapted for rectifying, amplifying, oscillating or switching, or capacitors or resistors with at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. PN junction depletion layer or carrier concentration layer; Details of semiconductor bodies or of electrodes thereof; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor
    • H01L29/66Types of semiconductor device ; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor
    • H01L29/68Types of semiconductor device ; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor controllable by only the electric current supplied, or only the electric potential applied, to an electrode which does not carry the current to be rectified, amplified or switched
    • H01L29/76Unipolar devices, e.g. field effect transistors
    • H01L29/772Field effect transistors
    • H01L29/778Field effect transistors with two-dimensional charge carrier gas channel, e.g. HEMT ; with two-dimensional charge-carrier layer formed at a heterojunction interface
    • H01L29/7786Field effect transistors with two-dimensional charge carrier gas channel, e.g. HEMT ; with two-dimensional charge-carrier layer formed at a heterojunction interface with direct single heterostructure, i.e. with wide bandgap layer formed on top of active layer, e.g. direct single heterostructure MIS-like HEMT
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    • H01L21/00Processes or apparatus adapted for the manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or solid state devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L21/70Manufacture or treatment of devices consisting of a plurality of solid state components formed in or on a common substrate or of parts thereof; Manufacture of integrated circuit devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L21/77Manufacture or treatment of devices consisting of a plurality of solid state components or integrated circuits formed in, or on, a common substrate
    • H01L21/78Manufacture or treatment of devices consisting of a plurality of solid state components or integrated circuits formed in, or on, a common substrate with subsequent division of the substrate into plural individual devices
    • H01L21/82Manufacture or treatment of devices consisting of a plurality of solid state components or integrated circuits formed in, or on, a common substrate with subsequent division of the substrate into plural individual devices to produce devices, e.g. integrated circuits, each consisting of a plurality of components
    • H01L21/8258Manufacture or treatment of devices consisting of a plurality of solid state components or integrated circuits formed in, or on, a common substrate with subsequent division of the substrate into plural individual devices to produce devices, e.g. integrated circuits, each consisting of a plurality of components the substrate being a semiconductor, using a combination of technologies covered by H01L21/8206, H01L21/8213, H01L21/822, H01L21/8252, H01L21/8254 or H01L21/8256
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L29/00Semiconductor devices adapted for rectifying, amplifying, oscillating or switching, or capacitors or resistors with at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. PN junction depletion layer or carrier concentration layer; Details of semiconductor bodies or of electrodes thereof; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor
    • H01L29/02Semiconductor bodies ; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor
    • H01L29/12Semiconductor bodies ; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor characterised by the materials of which they are formed
    • H01L29/20Semiconductor bodies ; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor characterised by the materials of which they are formed including, apart from doping materials or other impurities, only AIIIBV compounds
    • H01L29/2003Nitride compounds

Abstract

In an AlGaN channel transistor formed on a <100> orientation silicon wafer, a hole with walls slanted at 54 degrees is etched into the silicon to provide a <111> orientation substrate surface for forming the AlGaN channel transistor.

Description

    FIELD OF THE INVENTION
  • The invention relates to high voltage transistors. In particular it relates to transistors making use of channel material that has improved carrier mobility and a wider bandgap than silicon, so-called high electron mobility transistors (HEMT).
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • Materials such as GaN provide improved carrier mobility and have a wider band gap than silicon. Therefore the use of GaN as a channel material in the fabrication of transistors has been found to provide transistors with a lower drain-source resistance Rdson. Also, due to the wider band gap the impact ionization is reduced causing the channel breakdown to be much higher. As a result transistors with higher voltage capability can be fabricated or the area of the transistor can be reduced for a given voltage resulting in lower capacitive losses. This allows GaN devices to be run at higher frequencies than silicon transistors of comparable power.
  • The problem with the use of GaN as a channel material is that to date, defect free, useful epitaxial deposition of GaN is achievable only on <111> orientation silicon substrate material, while CMOS is typically processed on <100> orientation wafers. This places practical constraints on using GaN in conjunction with CMOS processing.
  • The present application seeks to address this problem.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • According to the invention there is provided a
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • FIG. 1 shows a cross section through a prior art HEMT,
  • FIG. 2 shows a cross section through a conceptual HEMT of one embodiment of the invention,
  • FIGS. 3 to 12 show cross sections through one embodiment of a HEMT of the invention at various stages of fabrication, and
  • FIG. 13 shows a cross section through another embodiment of a HEMT of the invention.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
  • According to the invention, holes are formed, e.g. by etching, in <100> orientation silicon to provide a pit or hole with side-walls angled to define at least one surface with <111> orientation. This allows the fabrication of a channel made of high mobility, wide bandgap material such as GaN on the <111> orientation surface. In particular, in the case of GaN, pits with 54.74 degree sidewall orientation relative to the vertical plane are etched using a wet etch such as KOH/water/ethanol or using TMAH etch.
  • Another aspect of the invention is to address the drain source resistance Rdson. High voltage applications often make use of power arrays, however as the array increases in size more of the Rdson is dictated by the metal than by the channel resistance. The present invention addresses this problem by making use of a thick copper back-end in one embodiment, as is discussed in greater detail below.
  • In order to better understand the present invention, it is useful to consider the structure of a typical prior art high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) formed on <111> orientation silicon. FIG. 1 shows a section through a typical HEMT transistor formed on <111> orientation silicon substrate. The <111> orientation silicon layer serves as the substrate 100 on which the rest of the transistor is fabricated. Initially a buffer layer 102 is deposited on the substrate 100 followed by a GaN layer 104 that is epitaxially grown on the buffer layer An AlGaN layer 106 is then grown on the GaN layer 104 causing a high electron density accumulation at the interface to define a 2 dimensional electron gas (2 DEG) region 108. In situ Si3Ni4 110 is then formed on the AlGaN 106 followed by the formation of source contact 112, drain contact 114 and gate 116 with ex-situ passivation material 120 between the drain, source and gate. The source and drain contacts diffuse down to the 2 DEG region 108. The present invention, instead starts with <100> orientation silicon as the substrate 200 as shown in FIG. 2 and etches a hole 202 into the substrate 200. In this embodiment in which AlGaN is to be used for the channel material, a hole with sidewalls angled at 54.74 degrees to the vertical is etched using wet etch such as KOH/water/ethanol or using TMAH etch. High electron mobility transistors (HEMT) 210 are then formed on the sidewalls of the hole 202 and a thick backside metal contact 212 is provided for the drain of the transistors, as is discussed in greater detail below. As shown in FIG. 3, a Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) layer 220 is first formed in the substrate 200. Resist 222 is then deposited and patterned to allow n+ region 224 to be formed, which will later serve as the drain, as will become clearer from the discussion below.
  • The next step in the fabrication involves the removal of the remaining resist 222 and the growing of an epitaxial layer 226, as shown in FIG. 4.
  • In FIG. 5 resist 230 is again deposited and patterned to allow n+ region 232 to be formed in the epi layer 226. The n+ region 232 will subsequently form the sources of the transistors 210.
  • The resist 230 is then removed as shown in FIG. 6.
  • At this point the hole 202 is etched by depositing and patterning a resist layer 240. As shown in FIG. 7, the hole 202 cuts through the n+ region 232 to define two n+ regions 242, 244, and extends down into the n+ region 224.
  • The sidewalls of the hole 202 are angled to provide two surfaces with <111> orientation allowing the growth of a GaN layer 250 and an AlGaN layer 252 on the two sidewalls to define a GaN/AlGaN stack 250 on each of the surfaces as shown in FIG. 8. An oxide layer 260 is then deposited in the hole 202 and etched back as shown in FIG. 9.
  • In FIG. 10 gate 262 is deposited on the oxide 260 and etched back to form a gate spacer on which an oxide 264 is deposited and planarized as shown in FIG. 11.
  • As shown in FIG. 12, an n+ sinker 266 is then implanted to connect with the n+ drain region 224, and a drain contact 268 is provided to establish electrical contact with the drain sinker 266. Source contacts 270, 272 are also formed in the oxide 264 to make contact with the n+ source regions 242, and gate contact 274 is formed in the oxide 264 to contact with the gate 262.
  • Instead of establishing the drain contact from the top using a sinker to connect with the n+ drain 224 as shown in FIG. 12, another embodiment establishes a drain contact from the backside by depositing a thick metal layer 280 as shown in FIG. 13. This has the advantage, particularly in large transistor arrays, of reducing the resistance. The resultant structure is similar to the conceptual transistors shown in FIG. 2, however the FIG. 13 embodiment provides for the source contacts 270 lying outside the perimeter of the hole 202, and for a single gate contact 274. Also FIG. 2 does not show the n+ regions of the source and does not provide a gate oxide. Instead the conceptual structure of FIG. 2 provides for two separate gates 210.
  • The present invention thus opens the door to fabricating high voltage transistors with channels made from an increased mobility, wide band gap channel material such as GaN, which is useful for main voltage (110V) applications allowing them to be tied to the grid. One application is for the fabrication of grid-tie inverters on a chip, to reduce the cost and versatility of photo-voltaic (PV) energy production.
  • While the invention was described with respect to a few particular embodiments, it will be appreciated that the exact nature of the structures may vary without departing from the invention as defined by the claims.

Claims (20)

1. A high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) that includes a channel region made from a high carrier mobility material, wherein the high carrier mobility material has a higher carrier mobility than silicon, comprising
a <100> orientation silicon wafer material that is processed to support the high carrier mobility channel region.
2. A HEMT of claim 1, wherein the high carrier mobility material comprises GaN.
3. A HEMT of claim 2, wherein the high carrier mobility material further comprises AlGaN to define a GaN/AlGan stack.
4. A HEMT of claim 1, wherein the <100> orientation silicon wafer material defines a <100> orientation substrate.
5. A HEMT of claim 4, wherein an epitaxial region is grown on top of the <100> orientation substrate, and the epitaxial region is etched to define a hole with at least one <111> orientation surface.
6. A HEMT of claim 5 wherein a SOI layer is formed on the <100> orientation substrate before the epitaxial region is grown.
7. A HEMT of claim 6, wherein the hole is substantially conical in cross-section and defines two <111> orientation surfaces.
8. A HEMT of claim 5, wherein the GaN/AlGaN stack is formed on the at least one <111> orientation surface.
9. A HEMT of claim 7, wherein the GaN/AlGaN stack is formed on the two <111> orientation surfaces.
10. A HEMT of claim 9, wherein a drain region of the HEMT is formed in the epitaxial region at or near the bottom of the epitaxial region.
11. A HEMT of claim 10, wherein a source region is formed in the epitaxial region above the drain region and spaced from the drain region.
12. A HEMT of claim 11, wherein the hole is etched through the source region and at least up to the drain region to define two source regions and at least one drain region.
13. A HEMT of claim 12, wherein the at least one drain region is contacted through at least one sinker.
14. A HEMT of claim 13, wherein the at least one drain region is contacted using a thick metal backend.
15. A HEMT of claim 14, wherein the thick metal back end is a copper back end.
16. A method of making a high electron mobility transistor (HEMT), comprising
using a <100> orientation substrate to define a semiconductor structure and defining at least one <111> orientation surface in the structure for supporting a channel region of a HEMT.
17. A method of claim 16, wherein the <111> orientation surface is formed by etching a substantially conical hole in the structure.
18. A method of claim 17, wherein the hole is etched in an epitaxial layer formed on the <100> orientation substrate.
19. A method of claim 18, wherein at least one drain and at least one source region are formed in the structure by forming vertically spaced doped regions in the epitaxial region to define an upper and a lower doped region.
20. A method of claim 19, wherein the hole is etched through the upper doped region and at least up to the lower doped region.
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US20120305992A1 (en) * 2011-06-06 2012-12-06 Fabio Alessio Marino Hybrid monolithic integration
WO2013176906A1 (en) * 2012-05-23 2013-11-28 Hrl Laboratories, Llc Hemt device and method of manufacturing the same
US8680536B2 (en) 2012-05-23 2014-03-25 Hrl Laboratories, Llc Non-uniform two dimensional electron gas profile in III-Nitride HEMT devices
WO2014051761A1 (en) 2012-09-28 2014-04-03 Intel Corporation High breakdown voltage iii-n depletion mode mos capacitors
US8933487B2 (en) 2012-05-23 2015-01-13 Hrl Laboratories,Llc Controlling lateral two-dimensional electron hole gas HEMT in type III nitride devices using ion implantation through gray scale mask
US20150079738A1 (en) * 2013-06-18 2015-03-19 Stephen P. Barlow Method for producing trench high electron mobility devices
US9059075B2 (en) * 2012-11-15 2015-06-16 International Business Machines Corporation Selective gallium nitride regrowth on (100) silicon
US9379195B2 (en) 2012-05-23 2016-06-28 Hrl Laboratories, Llc HEMT GaN device with a non-uniform lateral two dimensional electron gas profile and method of manufacturing the same
WO2017171700A1 (en) * 2016-03-28 2017-10-05 Intel Corporation Gallium nitride voltage regulator
US10134727B2 (en) 2012-09-28 2018-11-20 Intel Corporation High breakdown voltage III-N depletion mode MOS capacitors
US10312360B2 (en) * 2013-06-18 2019-06-04 Stephen P. Barlow Method for producing trench high electron mobility devices

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US9053930B2 (en) 2012-04-17 2015-06-09 International Business Machines Corporation Heterogeneous integration of group III nitride on silicon for advanced integrated circuits
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US9476933B2 (en) 2013-12-09 2016-10-25 Texas Instruments Incorporated Apparatus and methods for qualifying HEMT FET devices
US10469041B2 (en) 2018-02-01 2019-11-05 Globalfoundries Inc. Gallium nitride (GaN) power amplifiers (PA) with angled electrodes and 100 CMOS and method for producing the same

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US9391144B2 (en) 2012-11-15 2016-07-12 Globalfoundries Inc. Selective gallium nitride regrowth on (100) silicon
US9059075B2 (en) * 2012-11-15 2015-06-16 International Business Machines Corporation Selective gallium nitride regrowth on (100) silicon
US20150079738A1 (en) * 2013-06-18 2015-03-19 Stephen P. Barlow Method for producing trench high electron mobility devices
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