US20090159927A1 - Integrated circuit device and method for its production - Google Patents

Integrated circuit device and method for its production Download PDF

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US20090159927A1
US20090159927A1 US11/963,057 US96305707A US2009159927A1 US 20090159927 A1 US20090159927 A1 US 20090159927A1 US 96305707 A US96305707 A US 96305707A US 2009159927 A1 US2009159927 A1 US 2009159927A1
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charge compensation
zones
compensation zones
nearly
electrode
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Armin Willmeroth
Winfried Kaindl
Carolin Tolksdorf
Michael Rueb
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Infineon Technologies Austria AG
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    • HELECTRICITY
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    • H01L29/66Types of semiconductor device ; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor
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    • H01L29/76Unipolar devices, e.g. field effect transistors
    • H01L29/772Field effect transistors
    • H01L29/78Field effect transistors with field effect produced by an insulated gate
    • H01L29/7801DMOS transistors, i.e. MISFETs with a channel accommodating body or base region adjoining a drain drift region
    • H01L29/7802Vertical DMOS transistors, i.e. VDMOS transistors
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    • H01L29/0611Semiconductor bodies ; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor characterised by their shape; characterised by the shapes, relative sizes, or dispositions of the semiconductor regions ; characterised by the concentration or distribution of impurities within semiconductor regions characterised by particular constructional design considerations, e.g. for preventing surface leakage, for controlling electric field concentration or for internal isolations regions for preventing surface leakage or controlling electric field concentration for increasing or controlling the breakdown voltage of reverse biased devices
    • H01L29/0615Semiconductor bodies ; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor characterised by their shape; characterised by the shapes, relative sizes, or dispositions of the semiconductor regions ; characterised by the concentration or distribution of impurities within semiconductor regions characterised by particular constructional design considerations, e.g. for preventing surface leakage, for controlling electric field concentration or for internal isolations regions for preventing surface leakage or controlling electric field concentration for increasing or controlling the breakdown voltage of reverse biased devices by the doping profile or the shape or the arrangement of the PN junction, or with supplementary regions, e.g. junction termination extension [JTE]
    • H01L29/063Reduced surface field [RESURF] pn-junction structures
    • H01L29/0634Multiple reduced surface field (multi-RESURF) structures, e.g. double RESURF, charge compensation, cool, superjunction (SJ), 3D-RESURF, composite buffer (CB) structures
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    • H01L29/083Anode or cathode regions of thyristors or gated bipolar-mode devices
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    • H01L29/70Bipolar devices
    • H01L29/72Transistor-type devices, i.e. able to continuously respond to applied control signals
    • H01L29/739Transistor-type devices, i.e. able to continuously respond to applied control signals controlled by field-effect, e.g. bipolar static induction transistors [BSIT]
    • H01L29/7393Insulated gate bipolar mode transistors, i.e. IGBT; IGT; COMFET
    • H01L29/7395Vertical transistors, e.g. vertical IGBT
    • H01L29/7396Vertical transistors, e.g. vertical IGBT with a non planar surface, e.g. with a non planar gate or with a trench or recess or pillar in the surface of the emitter, base or collector region for improving current density or short circuiting the emitter and base regions
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    • H01L29/0642Isolation within the component, i.e. internal isolation
    • H01L29/0649Dielectric regions, e.g. SiO2 regions, air gaps
    • H01L29/0653Dielectric regions, e.g. SiO2 regions, air gaps adjoining the input or output region of a field-effect device, e.g. the source or drain region
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    • H01L29/0692Surface layout
    • H01L29/0696Surface layout of cellular field-effect devices, e.g. multicellular DMOS transistors or IGBTs
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    • H01L29/417Electrodes ; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor characterised by their shape, relative sizes or dispositions carrying the current to be rectified, amplified or switched
    • H01L29/41725Source or drain electrodes for field effect devices
    • H01L29/41766Source or drain electrodes for field effect devices with at least part of the source or drain electrode having contact below the semiconductor surface, e.g. the source or drain electrode formed at least partially in a groove or with inclusions of conductor inside the semiconductor
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    • H01L29/42312Gate electrodes for field effect devices
    • H01L29/42316Gate electrodes for field effect devices for field-effect transistors
    • H01L29/4232Gate electrodes for field effect devices for field-effect transistors with insulated gate
    • H01L29/42364Gate electrodes for field effect devices for field-effect transistors with insulated gate characterised by the insulating layer, e.g. thickness or uniformity
    • H01L29/42368Gate electrodes for field effect devices for field-effect transistors with insulated gate characterised by the insulating layer, e.g. thickness or uniformity the thickness being non-uniform

Abstract

An integrated circuit device includes a semiconductor body fitted with a first electrode and a second electrode on opposite surfaces. A control electrode on an insulating layer controls channel regions of body zones for a current flow between the two electrodes. A drift section adjoining the channel regions comprises drift zones and charge compensation zones. A part of the charge compensation zones includes conductively connected charge compensation zones electrically connected to the first electrode. Another part includes nearly-floating charge compensation zones, so that an increased control electrode surface has a monolithically integrated additional capacitance CZGD in a cell region of the semiconductor device.

Description

    BACKGROUND
  • Owing to their very low internal capacitance, present-day power semiconductor devices have an extremely high switching speed. This high switching speed is not always an advantage. Compensation devices, in particular, switch noticeably faster and more steeply than conventional MOSFET devices. In non-optimised applications, however, the very steep di/dt may in a shut-down process on parasitic inductances of the application circuit generate very high voltage peaks, which can destroy the semiconductor device. There is further a risk that vibrations may be caused in the shut-down process by the steep di/dt, which would affect the EMC (electromagnetic compatibility).
  • The di/dt can be limited by a larger switching resistor, which, however, slows down the overall switching process as an additional component. As a result, the advantage of fast switching and the reduced switching losses associated therewith can be lost completely or even reversed by the series-connected switching resistor, as the time constant resulting from the internal switching resistor and the internal capacitance between a control electrode of the semiconductor device and an output electrode is on the one hand increased by the series-connected additional switching resistor, thus attenuating or slowing down the switching process, while on the other hand switching losses increase noticeably as a result of the additional ohmic resistance.
  • SUMMARY
  • A semiconductor device includes a semiconductor body fitted with a first electrode and a second electrode on opposite surfaces. A control electrode on an insulating layer controls channel regions of body zones for a current flow between the two electrodes. A drift section adjoining the channel region includes drift zones and charge compensation zones. A part of the charge compensation zones includes conductively connected charge compensation zones electrically connected to the first electrode. Another part includes nearly-floating charge compensation zones, so that an increased control electrode surface has a monolithically integrated additional capacitance CZGD in a cell region of the semiconductor device.
  • The gate-drain capacitance may be increased without requiring any additional chip area and without adding additional bond wires or new edges to the existing semiconductor device processes by the use of charge compensation regions which in part are not connected to the source potential, but terminate under a gatepoly layer. The feed-through of the semiconductor device is generally not affected by the presence of nearly-floating charge compensation zones.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • The accompanying drawings are included to provide a further understanding of the present invention and are incorporated in and constitute a part of this specification. The drawings illustrate the embodiments of the present invention and together with the description serve to explain the principles of the invention. Other embodiments of the present invention and many of the intended advantages of the present invention will be readily appreciated as they become better understood by reference to the following detailed description. The elements of the drawings are not necessarily to scale relative to each other. Like reference numerals designate corresponding similar parts.
  • FIG. 1 illustrates a diagrammatical vertical cross-section through a part of a semiconductor device according to an embodiment.
  • FIG. 2 illustrates a diagrammatic horizontal section of a cell region along intersecting plane A-A in FIG. 1.
  • FIG. 3 illustrates a diagrammatic vertical section of a cell region along intersecting plane B-B in FIG. 2.
  • FIG. 4 illustrates a diagrammatic horizontal section of a cell region of a semiconductor device according to a further embodiment.
  • FIG. 5 illustrates the behavior of the feedback capacitance CGD and the output capacitance CDS.
  • FIG. 6 illustrates further graphs of the feedback capacitance CGD and the output capacitance CDS.
  • FIG. 7 illustrates a diagrammatic cross-section through a part of a semiconductor device according to a further embodiment.
  • FIG. 8 illustrates the behavior of the feedback capacitance CGD and the output capacitance CDS of a semiconductor device of an embodiment according to FIG. 7.
  • FIG. 9 illustrates the behavior of the feedback capacitance CGD and the output capacitance CDS of a MOSFET structure.
  • FIG. 10 illustrates a diagrammatic cross-section through a part of a semiconductor device according to a further embodiment.
  • FIG. 11 illustrates a diagrammatic cross-section through a part of a semiconductor device according to a further embodiment.
  • FIG. 12 illustrates a horizontal section of a cell region along intersecting plane A-A in FIG. 11.
  • FIG. 13 illustrates a diagrammatic cross-section through a part of a semiconductor device according to a further embodiment.
  • FIG. 14 illustrates a diagrammatic top view of a structure with a relatively large surface area of a polysilicon layer.
  • FIG. 15 illustrates a diagrammatic top view of a structure with a surface area of a polysilicon layer which has been reduced relative to FIG. 14.
  • FIG. 16 illustrates a diagrammatic cross-section through a part of a semiconductor device according to a further embodiment.
  • FIG. 17 illustrates a diagrammatic view illustrating the behavior of the gate charge QG.
  • FIG. 18 illustrates a diagrammatic horizontal arrangement of a cell region in an embodiment according to FIG. 16.
  • FIG. 19 illustrates a diagrammatic view of the shut-down behavior of a MOSFET.
  • FIG. 20 illustrates a diagrammatic view of the shut-down behavior of a semiconductor device according to FIG. 16.
  • FIG. 21 illustrates an enlarged section of the diagram according to FIG. 19.
  • FIG. 22 illustrates an enlarged section of the diagram according to FIG. 21.
  • FIG. 23 illustrates a diagrammatic horizontal arrangement of a cell region of a semiconductor device of a further embodiment.
  • FIG. 24 illustrates a diagrammatic arrangement of a cell region of a semiconductor device of a further embodiment.
  • FIG. 25 illustrates a diagrammatic arrangement of a cell region of a further embodiment.
  • FIG. 26 illustrates a diagrammatic arrangement of a cell region of a semiconductor device of a further embodiment.
  • FIG. 27 illustrates a diagrammatic cross-section through a part of a semiconductor device according to a further embodiment.
  • FIG. 28 illustrates a horizontal section of a cell region along intersecting plane A-A in FIG. 23.
  • FIG. 29 illustrates a diagrammatic cross-section through a part of a semiconductor device according to a further embodiment.
  • FIG. 30 illustrates a diagrammatic section through a cell region of a semiconductor device according to a further embodiment.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION
  • In the following Detailed Description, reference is made to the accompanying drawings, which form a part hereof, and in which is shown by way of illustration specific embodiments in which the invention may be practiced. In this regard, directional terminology, such as “top,” “bottom,” “front,” “back,” “leading,” “trailing,” etc., is used with reference to the orientation of the Figure(s) being described. Because components of embodiments of the present invention can be positioned in a number of different orientations, the directional terminology is used for purposes of illustration and is in no way limiting. It is to be understood that other embodiments may be utilized and structural or logical changes may be made without departing from the scope of the present invention. The following detailed description, therefore, is not to be taken in a limiting sense, and the scope of the present invention is defined by the appended claims.
  • FIG. 1 illustrates a diagrammatical cross-section through a part of an integrated circuit, or semiconductor device 1 according to an embodiment. The semiconductor device 1 includes a semiconductor body 2, which is provided on opposite surfaces with a first electrode 3 on its front side 31 and a second electrode 4 on its back side 32. A control electrode 5 on an insulating layer 6 with a typical thickness up to a few 10 nm controls channel regions 7 of body zones 8 in the semiconductor body 2 for a current flow between the two electrodes 3 and 4.
  • A drift section 9 adjoining the channel regions 7 includes drift zones 10 and charge compensation zones 11. A part of the charge compensation zones 11 is represented by conductively connected charge compensation zones 12 electrically connected to the first electrode 3 in this embodiment. Another part is represented by nearly-floating charge compensation zones 13.
  • The term “nearly-floating charge compensation zones 13” in this context denotes floating charge compensation zones 13 which are only capacitively coupled as well as charge compensation zones 13 which are connected, via monolithically integrated high-impedance bridges in the semiconductor body, to adjacent body zones 8 or to adjacent electrically connected charge compensation zones 12 contacted with low impedance by the first electrode 3 through suitable vias. Nearly-floating charge compensation zones 13 which do not terminate in a body zone are indicated by broken lines in FIG. 1. As a result, an additional poly surface connected to gate potential forms a monolithically integrated additional capacitance CZGD in a cell region 15 of the semiconductor device 1.
  • The nearly-floating charge compensation zones 13 not terminating in a body zone therefore provide for an additional feedback capacitance CZGD as a result of the increased poly surface connected to gate potential above an insulating layer 6. The insulating layer 6 between an enlarged control electrode 5 and the nearly-floating charge compensation zones 13, of which only one is illustrated in FIG. 1, represents the dielectric of the additional capacitance CZGD. Above the control electrode 5, there is an intermediate insulating layer 20, on which a metal layer 19 for the first electrode 3 is located, wherein there is no provision for a through-hole from the first electrode 3 to the nearly-floating charge compensation zones 13.
  • In the region of the nearly-floating charge compensation zones 13 on the front side 29 of the semiconductor body 2, this results in a sequence of layers including a structured dielectric layer 6 made of a gate oxide material 17. In the region of the enlarged control electrode 5 and the nearly-floating charge compensation zones 13, the dielectric layer 6 forms the dielectric for the additional capacitance. The structured highly conductive polysilicon layer 16 placed thereon includes a connecting zone 14 of the control electrode 5 while simultaneously acting as a capacitor plate of the additional capacitance. This is followed by a structured layer of intermediate oxide 20 and finally, as a cover for the semiconductor device regions, a metal layer 19 with connecting zones 26 of the first electrode 3, which in the present case represents a source electrode S of a MOSFET.
  • The individual connecting zones 14 in the cell region 15 of the control electrode 5 can be merged into a gate electrode G via the structured polysilicon layer. In addition, a metallization layer 33 on the back side 32 represents a drain electrode D in the vertical MOSFET of the illustrated embodiment. Between the metallization layer 33 on the back side 32 of the semiconductor body 2 and the drift section 9 of the semiconductor body 2, a substrate 34 may be provided which is doped more highly than the drift section 9 of the semiconductor body 2.
  • A simulated potential distribution in a avalanche situation shows that the nearly-floating charge compensation zones 13 without vias and connection to the first electrode 3 are, just as the other electrically connected charge compensation zones 12 with contact to the first electrode 3, depleted, so that there are no substantial differences in potential and field distribution. The only difference lies in the fact that the structure of this embodiment has a slightly more positive potential at the upper end than the structure wherein all charge compensation zones 11 are electrically coupled to the source electrode S. The electric field in the nearly-floating charge compensation zone 13 has to be designed such that an avalanche situation is completely excluded.
  • The simulation was further able to verify the influence of the structure of a semi-conductor device 1 according to the invention on the on resistance RON. The drift zones 10 adjacent to the nearly-floating charge compensation zones 13 are now no longer fed by two channels 7, but by only one channel 7 as illustrated in FIG. 1. As the on resistance RON of a MOSFET is essentially determined by the length of the drift section 9 and the conductivity of the drift zones 10, the difference in the on resistance RON between a MOSFET with electrically connected charge compensation zones 12 and a MOSFET according to the present embodiment is negligible. During the simulation, for example, an increase of approximately 1% in the on resistance RON was detected in a switched-on device with a gate voltage of 10 V and an on-state voltage of 3 V.
  • When a high voltage is applied, the charge compensation zones 12 of the structure according to the present embodiment operate at negative potential. Although the drift zones 10 have a potential of a few volts at their upper ends directly below the control electrode 5, and although the upper end of the nearly-floating charge compensation zones 13 can also reach this potential, the capacitance between the charge compensation zones 13 and the control electrode 5 is only able to store a part of the displaced holes as the drift zones 10 are depleted. When the semiconductor device 1 is switched on, these stored holes are able to discharge the charge compensation zones 13, but not completely. This can be remedied by a high-impedance layer between a charge compensation zone 12 electrically connected to source and the nearly-floating charge compensation zone 13, as illustrated in FIGS. 11 to 13.
  • FIG. 2 illustrates a diagrammatic horizontal section of a cell region 15 along intersecting plane A-A in FIG. 1. The charge compensation zones 11 are p-type pillar in an n-type drift zone 10, wherein a part of the charge compensation zones 12 is conductively connected to the first electrode 3 in the form of a source electrode S via body zones 7 as illustrated by continuously drawn circles in the drawing, while the nearly-floating charge compensation zones 13 are indicated by circles drawn in broken lines.
  • In this cell region 15, a checker-board pattern 22 of the charge compensation zones 11 is illustrated, wherein nearly-floating charge compensation zones 13 alternate with electrically connected charge compensation zones 12 as on a checkerboard, but the cell field 15 is bounded by electrically connected charge compensation zones 12 in its edge region. The individually arranged nearly-floating charge compensation zones 13 have only a relatively small surface area at the upper end of the structure, which is able to accommodate and store the holes of the pillar-shaped charge compensation zones in the off-state.
  • FIG. 3 illustrates a diagrammatic vertical section through a cell region 15 along intersecting plane B-B in FIG. 2. The pillar-shaped nearly-floating charge compensation zones 13 are once again indicated by broken lines, while the electrically connected charge compensation zones 12 are indicated by continuous lines. The drift zones 10 located in between are n-doped, while the adjacent complementary charge compensation zones 11 are p-doped.
  • If, as illustrated in FIG. 4, several nearly-floating charge compensation zones 13 are merged, the ratio between a pillar charge and the available gate oxide surface becomes more favorable than in FIGS. 2 and 3. The complete pillar charge on the back side of the gate oxide can therefore be puffered more easily and involving a lower voltage increase.
  • A method for the production of a plurality of semiconductor chips includes the following: A semiconductor wafer is first structured from a semiconductor body 2 with semiconductor device structures in semiconductor chip positions. These semiconductor chip positions may include MOSFET and/or IGBT structures with connecting zones 26 of a first electrode 3 and connecting zones 27 of a second electrode 4. Between the two electrodes 3 and 4, a drift section 9 is located, the drift section 9 including drift zones 10 of a first conduction type and charge compensation zones 11 of a conduction type complementing the first conduction type.
  • A portion of the charge compensation zones 11 is arranged nearly-floating in a cell region 15. To a semiconductor body 2 of this structure, a structured dielectric layer 6 is applied, which insulates connecting zones 14 of a control electrode 5 via channel regions 7 of a body zone 8 and which partially extends across the nearly-floating charge compensation zones 13. A structured electrically conductive layer 16 is then applied to this dielectric layer 6, the electrically conductive layer 16 being made of a highly doped and therefore highly conductive polysilicon material.
  • The electrically conductive layer 16 forms the connecting zones 14 of the control electrode 5. The control electrode 5 and the nearly-floating charge compensation zones 13 act together to provide an additional capacitance CZGD of the semiconductor device 1 within the cell region 15. This additional capacitance CZGD supports the feedback capacitance CGD of the semiconductor device 1 and results in a softer switching behavior of the semiconductor device 1. The dielectric layer 6, which acts as the dielectric of the this additional capacitance CZGD and is used as a gate oxide 17, can be produced by using thermal oxidation of the semiconductor material.
  • In the region of the nearly-floating charge compensation zones 13, a succession of layers is applied to the front side 31 of the semiconductor body 2; this includes the dielectric layer 6, the electrically conductive layer 16, an intermediate insulating layer 20 and finally a metal layer 19. The intermediate insulating layer 20 can be produced by using the application of silicon oxide or silicon nitride.
  • FIG. 4 illustrates a diagrammatic horizontal section of a cell region 15 of a semiconductor device 100 according to a further embodiment. In this further embodiment the cell region 15 of the semiconductor device 100 includes nearly-floating charge compensation zones 13 arranged in contiguous groups 23, which are once again indicated by circles drawn in broken lines and are surrounded by electrically connected charge compensation zones 12. Compared to the checkerboard pattern illustrated in FIG. 2, the ratio of the numbers of nearly-floating charge compensation zones 13 and of electrically connected charge compensation zones 12 is lower. This further reduces the minimum difference from prior art in regard to the on resistance RON, because a greater number of charge compensation zones 11 is conductively connected. This reduction of the number of nearly-floating charge compensation zones 13 becomes possible if the nearly-floating charge compensation zones 13 are not made to extend completely to the front side 31 of the semiconductor body 2. The following diagrams illustrate the effect of the embodiments on the feedback capacitance CGD.
  • FIG. 5 illustrates the behavior of the feedback capacitance CGD and the output capacitance CDS of a MOSFET structure with electrically connected charge compensation zones in the field region. In the reference configuration on which this diagram is based, all charge compensation zones of the field region are conductively connected to the source potential via the body zone. FIG. 5 plots the drain voltage UD in volts on the abscissa and indicates the feedback capacitance CGD by the continuous line and the output capacitance CDS by the dotted line. On the ordinate, capacitance values are given in Fahrenheit in the logarithmic scale. Both capacitance curves are therefore voltage-dependent, the feedback capacitance CGD having minimum values in the range of 0.5 μF.
  • FIG. 6 illustrates further curves of the feedback capacitance CGD and the output capacitance CDS in variously active nearly-floating charge compensation zones. While the behavior of the output capacitance CDS in dependence on output voltage QD remains virtually unchanged, the curve illustrated for the feedback capacitance CGD as illustrated in FIG. 5 is displaced towards considerably higher capacitance values. The minimum value is approximately 0.9 pF, if the nearly-floating charge compensation zones include highly doped near-surface regions, and can be increased further to values of almost 3 pF, if nearly-floating charge compensation zones without highly doped near-surface regions are provided, as indicated by the broken line. Efficiency is improved further if a near-surface trench structure with a depth of a few micrometers is arranged around the nearly-floating charge compensation zones 13, as illustrated in FIG. 7.
  • FIG. 7 illustrates a diagrammatic cross-section through a part of a semiconductor device 110 according to a further embodiment. Components of the same function as those illustrated in the preceding figures are identified by the same reference numbers and not explained again.
  • This embodiment differs from the semiconductor device 1 illustrated in FIG. 1 in that the nearly-floating charge compensation zones 13 are surrounded by a trench 18 with a depth of approximately 1 μm, which is filled with a dielectric. This trench, which is also referred to as oxide trench, prevents the draining of holes. As a result, the potential at this point increases in the off-state, for example, at an avalanche voltage of 730 V, from the 4 V referred to above to approximately 40 V. This effectively prevents an avalanche situation in the nearly-floating charge compensation zones 13, while on the other hand the oxide or the dielectric layer 6 is highly loaded towards the control electrode 5. However, the number of the holes now stored is sufficient to discharge the nearly-floating charge compensation zones 13 completely when the structure is switched on.
  • FIG. 8 illustrates the behavior of the feedback capacitance CGD and the output capacitance CDS of a semiconductor device of an embodiment according to FIG. 7. In the diagram of FIG. 8, the feedback capacitance CGD is once again indicated by a continuous line. Compared to the case illustrated in FIG. 9 with nearly-floating charge compensation zones and highly doped near-surface regions of the said nearly-floating charge compensation zones, a significant increase in the feedback capacitance CGD is once again obtained.
  • This diagram illustrates clearly that the feedback capacitance CGD is significantly increased by the storage of the holes. For braking the semiconductor device 110 according to FIG. 7 in the switching process, just a few nearly-floating charge compensation zones per semiconductor chip would be sufficient, which in turn further reduces the effect of this modification according to the invention on the on resistance RON. This means that the number of nearly-floating charge compensation zones can be reduced further compared to the conductively connected charge compensation zones in the semiconductor device or in the cell region of the semiconductor device.
  • FIG. 9 illustrates the behavior of the feedback capacitance CGD and the output capacitance CDS in semiconductor devices wherein, although nearly-floating charge compensation zones are provided, these nearly-floating charge compensation zones are not surrounded by trenches filled with a dielectric for the storage of holes.
  • FIG. 10 illustrates a diagrammatic cross-section through a part of a semiconductor device 120 according to a further embodiment. Components of the same function as those illustrated in the preceding figures are identified by the same reference numbers and not explained again.
  • This semiconductor device 120 differs from the semiconductor devices described above in that a high-impedance connecting layer 21 is provided, which provides for a high-impedance bridge for connecting the nearly-floating charge compensation zones 13 to a body zone 8 illustrated in the drawing near the surface of the semiconductor body 2. In the actual switch-on process, this high-impedance layer 21 prevents the dropping of the nearly-floating charge compensation zones 13 of the structure according to the invention to a low negative potential.
  • This diagram further illustrates that the near-surface regions 24 of the charge compensation zones can be terminated with a relatively high complementary doping. On the other hand, it is possible to leave the charge compensation zones 11, in particular the nearly-floating charge compensation zones 13, without a highly-doped termination, so that these are solely represented by the implanted base regions 39. Technologically this is even, being the simpler solution, because it does not involve any additional photographic technology. In the lithographic process for the electrode 16, the region above the nearly-floating pillar is not opened up, so that the structures develop automatically as in the case of the preceding embodiments.
  • As the following figures illustrate, however, in further embodiments to install the high-impedance layer 21 near the surface may be omitted.
  • FIG. 11 illustrates a diagrammatic cross-section through a part of a semiconductor device 130 according to a further embodiment. This embodiment differs from the preceding variants in that a high-impedance, complementary-type layer 21 is located within the semiconductor body 2 between the nearly-floating charge compensation zones 13 and the conductively connected charge compensation zones 12. The two-dimensional structure of this high-impedance bridge in the form of a high-impedance layer 21 can be chosen as desired. FIG. 12 illustrates an embodiment.
  • FIG. 12 illustrates a horizontal section of a cell region 15 along intersecting plane A-A in FIG. 11. The semiconductor body 2 includes high-impedance layers 21, which connect all of the nearly-floating charge compensation zones 13 to one another, the nearly-floating charge compensation zones 13 being, by using an interconnection with a high-impedance layer 21, connected with high impedance to conductively connected charge compensation zones 12, thus implementing the advantages of this embodiment as described above.
  • FIG. 13 illustrates a diagrammatic cross-section through a part of a semiconductor device 140 according to a further embodiment. This embodiment differs from the preceding embodiment in that a high-impedance bridge in form of a high-impedance layer 21 with complementary doping is provided in the base region of the nearly-floating charge compensation zones 13 to provide a bridge to a conductively connected charge compensation zone 12 in the interior of the semiconductor body 2.
  • The deceleration of the semiconductor device due to its higher feedback capacitance also increases its input capacitance Ciss, which is made up of the gate-drain capacitance CGD and the gate-source capacitance CGS. This relationship is illustrated by the next two figures.
  • FIG. 14 illustrates a diagrammatic top view of a structure with a relatively large surface area of a polysilicon layer 35 for gate electrodes, wherein the polysilicon layer 35 forms a connecting zone 14 of the control electrode, which is interspersed with rectangular vias 28. Conductively connected charge compensation zones 12 in the form of pillars are located below the vias 28. These pillars are surrounded by an n-type material of the drift zone. Owing to the large polysilicon surface area, a high gate charge develops at the same time and has to be dissipated when the semiconductor device is switched off, with the result that a high gate charge causes a long switching delay when the semiconductor device is switched off.
  • A high gate charge therefore places a load on the driver without having a beneficial effect on the switching ramps of the semiconductor device. Although FIG. 14 illustrates that the large poly surface makes a noticeably softer switching behavior possible, it also results in a relatively high gate charge. If the vias 28 are enlarged, the polysilicon surface becomes smaller, thus reducing the feedback capacitance CGD.
  • FIG. 15 illustrates a diagrammatic top view of a structure with a surface area of a polysilicon layer 35 for the contact region of the control electrode or the gate electrodes which has been reduced relative to FIG. 14. Each of the vias 28 extends across two charge compensation zones, whereby the surface area of the polysilicon layer is reduced and, owing to the proportionality of the surface areas, the feedback capacitance CGD is likewise reduced, which may, however, result in a correspondingly “rough” switching behavior of the semiconductor device.
  • The gate charge, on the other hand, is significantly reduced in the embodiment according to FIG. 15, which benefits the switching behavior of the semiconductor device. In order to utilise nevertheless the advantages of an enlarged polysilicon surface as illustrated in FIG. 14 and to avoid the disadvantages of an increased gate charge, FIG. 16 illustrates further semiconductor device 150. With a virtually unchanged high feedback capacitance CGD, which slows the switch-on behavior of the semiconductor device, this semiconductor device 150 avoids a “rough switching behavior” by providing a thicker dielectric layer 25 in the region of the drift zone, which is thicker than the gate oxide 17 in the channel region 7 of the body zone 2.
  • With the structure of a semiconductor device 150 according to a further embodiment as illustrated in FIG. 16, it is possible to obtain a high feedback capacitance CGD at the end of the Miller phase, i.e. in the switch-off process, because this part of the feedback capacitance CGD determines the time response du/dt. Before this point, however the feedback capacitance CGD should be as low as possible, as the gate charge places a load on the driver without any beneficial effect on the switching ramps.
  • As FIG. 16 illustrates, the feedback capacitance CGD is made up of a series-connection of a capacitance 36 determined by the space charge region and a capacitance 37 depending on the thicker insulating layer 25. As in series-connected arrangements the lower capacitance—in the present case the capacitance 36 of the space charge region—is the critical factor, the feedback capacitance CGD is hardly affected by the additional thickness of the oxide or insulating layer in the insulating region 25. The feedback capacitance CGD remains virtually unchanged by any thickening of the insulating layer 25 at the point indicated in FIG. 16. The result is a lower gate charge.
  • The gate charge is largely determined by a phase between UGS=UTH (gate-source voltage=threshold voltage) and UGS=10 V (operating voltage at the control electrode or the gate). In this phase there is accumulation on the surface 31 of the semiconductor body. The capacitance is therefore calculated from the poly surface area of the electrically conductive layer 16 and the oxide thickness 30. An increase in the oxide thickness 30 to a significant proportion of the surface area of the electrically conductive layer 16 results in a significant reduction of this capacitance and thus of the gate charge. This effect is illustrated in FIG. 17.
  • FIG. 17 illustrates the behavior of the gate charge QG with and without a thicker oxide layer above the drift zone of a semiconductor device. The broken line represents the gate charge for a structure with a thicker oxide layer. The continuous line with a noticeable Miller plateau represents the gate charge with an oxide layer above the drift zone or the nearly-floating charge compensation zones of the later embodiments which is less thick, as provided for the channel regions of the body zones.
  • FIG. 18 illustrates a diagrammatic horizontal arrangement of a cell region 15 with charge compensation zones 11 in an embodiment according to FIG. 16. Owing to the greater oxide thickness 30, the regions are arranged in strips above the drift zone 10 between the charge compensation zones 12 and cause the gate charge to remain low. In principle, completely different structures can be used for the greater oxide thickness 30 of the insulating material between the electrically conducting layer connected to gate potential and the drift zone 10 located below with the nearly-floating charge compensation zones not illustrated in FIG. 18.
  • FIG. 19 illustrates a diagrammatic view of the shut-down behavior of a MOSFET without a greater thickness of the insulating layer in the region of the drift zones. The continuous line represents the behavior of the gate voltage UG during the shut-down process. The dotted line illustrates the increase in the gate-source voltage at the end of the Miller plateau 38 following the lowering of the gate charge. The dot-dash line finally illustrates the behavior of the drain current ID, first in the on-state and then its reduction to 0 after a delay time.
  • FIG. 20 illustrates a diagrammatic view of the shut-down behavior of a semiconductor device according to FIG. 16, the semiconductor device now having a lower gate charge as a result of the greater layer thickness above the drift zone. The delay time in the shut-down process is noticeably shortened, and the Miller plateau 38 is shorter as well, whereby a noticeably shortened storage time of the structure according to the invention is achieved in the shut-down process of the semiconductor device.
  • FIG. 21 illustrates an enlarged section of the diagram according to FIG. 19. FIG. 22 is a correspondingly enlarged section of the diagram according to FIG. 21. These enlarged sections illustrate clearly that there are no significant differences in edge steepness, which remains virtually unchanged in spite of the increased layer thickness above the drift zones.
  • FIG. 23 illustrates a diagrammatic horizontal arrangement of a cell region 15 of a semiconductor device 160 of a further embodiment. The semiconductor device 160 includes conductively connected charge compensation zones 12 and regions of a thicker insulating layer 25. In this semiconductor device 160, the regions of a thicker insulating layer 25 are strip-shaped and only provided between each second row of the conductively connected charge compensation zones 12.
  • FIG. 24 illustrates a diagrammatic arrangement of a cell region 15 of a semiconductor device 170 of a further embodiment. The semiconductor device 170 includes conductively connected charge compensation zones 12 and regions of a thicker insulating layer 25. The regions with the thicker insulating layer 25 are however located at entirely different points of the cell region 15, in order to illustrate that different geometrical arrangements can be used for the thicker insulating layer 25 to obtain a suitably low gate charge for an optimum shut-down behavior of the semiconductor device 170.
  • FIG. 25 illustrates a diagrammatic arrangement of a cell region 15 of a semiconductor device 180 of a further embodiment. The semiconductor device 180 includes conductively connected charge compensation zones 12 and regions of a thicker insulating layer 25. These regions with a thicker insulating layer 25 partially extend across the charge compensation zones, so that the thickening extends over the body zone. In these overlapping regions it is impossible to form a channel in the body zone. By using the thicker oxide, it is therefore possible to vary the transconductance of the transistor.
  • While the thicker insulating layer 25 is designed as square areas in FIG. 25, FIG. 26 illustrates a further embodiment, this being a semiconductor device 190 with a circular thick insulating layer 25, which likewise partially overlaps body zones or conductively connected charge compensation zones 12.
  • FIG. 27 illustrates a diagrammatic cross-section through a part of a semiconductor device 200 according to a further embodiment. In this embodiment the thicker insulating layer 25 is located in regions where there are nearly-floating charge compensation zones of the semiconductor body 2. Components of the same function as those illustrated in the preceding figures are identified by the same reference numbers and not explained again. In the channel region 7 of the body zone 8, the insulating layer has a reduced thickness 29, while a thicker insulating layer 25 is provided above the drift zone 10 and the nearly-floating charge compensation zones 13 in order to reduce the gate charge without affecting the effect of the increased feedback capacitance CGD.
  • FIG. 28 illustrates a horizontal section of a cell region 15 along intersecting plane A-A in FIG. 27. Regions of a greater oxide thickness 30 and thus of a thicker insulating layer 25 are surrounded by continuous lines, the thicker insulating layer 25 being located above the nearly-floating charge compensation zones 13 in this semiconductor device 200.
  • FIG. 29 illustrates a diagrammatic cross-section through a part of a semiconductor device 210 according to a further embodiment. This embodiment differs from the previously described embodiments in that a trench structure 18 filled with a dielectric surrounds the nearly-floating charge compensation zones 13, and in that a greater oxide thickness 30 is provided for the insulating layer 25 above the drift zone 10 and the pillar-shaped nearly-floating charge compensation zones 13.
  • FIG. 30 illustrates a diagrammatic section through a cell region 15 of a semiconductor device 220 according to a further embodiment, wherein groups of nearly-floating charge compensation zones 13 are provided in the cell region, with a thicker insulating layer 25 located above.
  • Although specific embodiments have been illustrated and described herein, it will be appreciated by those of ordinary skill in the art that a variety of alternate and/or equivalent implementations may be substituted for the specific embodiments illustrated and described without departing from the scope of the present invention. This application is intended to cover any adaptations or variations of the specific embodiments discussed herein. Therefore, it is intended that this invention be limited only by the claims and the equivalents thereof.

Claims (24)

1. An integrated circuit device comprising:
a semiconductor body with a first electrode and a second electrode located on opposite surfaces of the semiconductor body;
a control electrode on an insulating layer, which controls channel regions of body zones in the semiconductor body for a current flow between the two electrodes;
a drift section adjoining the channel regions and comprising drift zones and charge compensation zones; and
a part of the charge compensation zones comprising conductively connected charge compensation zones electrically connected to the first electrode and another part comprising nearly-floating charge compensation zones, so that an increased control electrode surface has a monolithically integrated additional capacitance CZGD in a cell region of the semiconductor device.
2. The integrated circuit device of claim 1, wherein the drift zones comprise a first conduction type and the charge compensation zones comprise a conduction type complementing the first conduction type.
3. The integrated circuit device of claim 1, wherein the first electrode is a source electrode, the second electrode is a drain electrode and the control electrode is a gate electrode of a power MOSFET device.
4. The integrated circuit device of claim 1, wherein the nearly-floating charge compensation zones are located below a conductive layer connected to control electrode potential to provide additional capacitance in the semiconductor body and are insulated from the said conductive layer by an insulating layer comprising the dielectric of the additional capacitance.
5. The integrated circuit device of claim 1, wherein the insulating layer comprising the dielectric of the additional capacitance and located above the nearly-floating charge compensation zones is thicker than the insulating layer towards the channel region.
6. The integrated circuit device of claim 1, wherein the nearly-floating charge compensation zones are surrounded by a trench filled with dielectric near the surface of the semiconductor body.
7. The integrated circuit device of claim 1, wherein the region of the nearly-floating charge compensation zones is additionally covered by a metal layer with the potential of the first electrode and is insulated against the electrically conductive layer of the additional capacitance by an intermediate insulating layer.
8. The integrated circuit device of claim 1, wherein the nearly-floating charge compensation zones are electrically connected to one another or to a body zone or to one of the conductively connected charge compensation zones by a layer of the second conduction type within the semiconductor.
9. The integrated circuit device of claim 1, wherein the conductively connected and the nearly-floating charge compensation zones are arranged in a checkerboard pattern within the cell region, and wherein the cell region is surrounded by conductively connected charge compensation zones.
10. The integrated circuit device of claim 1, wherein contiguous groups of nearly-floating charge compensation zones are surrounded by conductively connected charge compensation zones.
11. The integrated circuit device of claim 1, wherein conductively connected charge compensation zones are doped more highly near the surface than in the remaining region of the drift section and the nearly-floating charge compensation zones do not comprise this more highly doped region.
12. An integrated circuit device comprising:
a semiconductor body with a first electrode and a second electrode located on opposite surfaces of the semiconductor body;
a control electrode on an insulating layer to control channel regions in adjacent body zones in the semiconductor body for a current flow between the two electrodes;
a drift section adjoining the channel between the two electrodes and comprising drift zones and charge compensation zones,
the insulating layer being thicker in the region between the control electrode and the drift zones than in the region between the control electrode and the channel regions of the body zone.
13. The integrated circuit device of claim 12, wherein the thicker insulating layer is arranged in strips between rows or rows of body zones.
14. The integrated circuit device of claim 12, wherein the thicker insulating layer is evenly distributed between groups of body zones in the cell region of the semiconductor device.
15. The integrated circuit device of claim 12, wherein the thicker insulating layer partially extends across the body zones for the adjustment of a transistor transconductance.
16. The integrated circuit device of claim 12, wherein the control electrode is an insulated gate electrode of a power MOSFET or IGBT and wherein the second electrode is a drain electrode of a MOSFET or the collector electrode of an IGBT.
17. A method comprising:
structuring a semiconductor wafer from a semiconductor body with semiconductor device structures in semiconductor chip positions, which comprise MOSFET and/or IGBT structures with connecting zones of a first electrode and connecting zones of a second electrode, between which a drift section is located, wherein the drift section comprises drift zones of a first conduction type and charge compensation zones of a conduction type complementing the first conduction type, a portion of the charge compensation zones being arranged to be nearly-floating in a cell region;
applying structured dielectric layer which insulates connecting zones of a control electrode and partially extends across the nearly-floating charge compensation zones;
applying electrically conductive layer on the dielectric layer, wherein the electrically conductive layer forms the connecting zones of the control electrode, the electrically conductive layer together with the control electrode and the nearly-floating charge compensation zones forming a monolithically integrated additional capacitance CZGD within the cell region of the semiconductor device.
18. The method of claim 17, wherein a thinner structured dielectric layer is applied in the region of the connecting zones of the control electrode above channel regions than above the nearly-floating charge compensation zones.
19. The method of claim 17, wherein, when the structured dielectric layer is applied in the region of the connecting zones above channel regions, the structured electrically conductive layer is used as gate oxide.
20. The method of claim 17, wherein, before the dielectric layer is applied around the nearly-floating charge compensation zones, a trench is produced near the surface in the semiconductor body, which is then filled with the dielectric material as the structured dielectric layer is applied.
21. The method of claim 17, wherein, in the region of the nearly-floating charge compensation zones, the layers are applied to the front side of the dielectric body in the sequence of dielectric layer, intermediate insulating layer and metal layer.
22. The method of claim 17, wherein, before the application of the structured dielectric layer in the region of the nearly-floating charge compensation zones, a layer of the second conduction type is introduced into the semiconductor body, which extends to an adjacent body zone or to a conductively connected charge compensation zone.
23. The method of claim 22, wherein contiguous groups of nearly-floating charge compensation zones are formed, which are surrounded by conductively connected charge compensation zones.
24. The method of claim 17, wherein a higher concentration of doping material is used for conductively connected charge compensation zones in a near-surface region than in the remaining region of the drift section, and wherein there is no such increased doping in the near-surface region for the nearly-floating charge compensation zones.
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