US20090031640A1 - Roof Flashing Connections - Google Patents

Roof Flashing Connections Download PDF

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Publication number
US20090031640A1
US20090031640A1 US12/067,621 US6762106A US2009031640A1 US 20090031640 A1 US20090031640 A1 US 20090031640A1 US 6762106 A US6762106 A US 6762106A US 2009031640 A1 US2009031640 A1 US 2009031640A1
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US
United States
Prior art keywords
roof
flashing
penetrating structure
portion
resilient
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
Application number
US12/067,621
Inventor
Stuart Elmes
Kak Thong Tan
Martin Davies
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Viridian Concepts Ltd
Original Assignee
Viridian Concepts Ltd
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to GB0159286.9 priority Critical
Priority to GB0519286A priority patent/GB2430943B/en
Application filed by Viridian Concepts Ltd filed Critical Viridian Concepts Ltd
Priority to PCT/GB2006/003487 priority patent/WO2007034171A1/en
Assigned to VIRIDIAN CONCEPTS LTD reassignment VIRIDIAN CONCEPTS LTD ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: TAN, KOK THONG, DAVIES, MARTIN, ELMES, STUART
Publication of US20090031640A1 publication Critical patent/US20090031640A1/en
Application status is Abandoned legal-status Critical

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Classifications

    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04DROOF COVERINGS; SKY-LIGHTS; GUTTERS; ROOF-WORKING TOOLS
    • E04D13/00Special arrangements or devices in connection with roof coverings; Protection against birds; Roof drainage; Sky-lights
    • E04D13/02Roof-covering aspects of dormer windows
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04DROOF COVERINGS; SKY-LIGHTS; GUTTERS; ROOF-WORKING TOOLS
    • E04D13/00Special arrangements or devices in connection with roof coverings; Protection against birds; Roof drainage; Sky-lights
    • E04D13/03Sky-lights; Domes; Ventilating sky-lights
    • E04D13/0305Supports or connecting means for sky-lights of flat or domed shape
    • E04D13/031Supports or connecting means for sky-lights of flat or domed shape characterised by a frame for connection to an inclined roof
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04DROOF COVERINGS; SKY-LIGHTS; GUTTERS; ROOF-WORKING TOOLS
    • E04D13/00Special arrangements or devices in connection with roof coverings; Protection against birds; Roof drainage; Sky-lights
    • E04D13/14Junctions of roof sheathings to chimneys or other parts extending above the roof
    • E04D13/147Junctions of roof sheathings to chimneys or other parts extending above the roof specially adapted for inclined roofs
    • E04D13/1473Junctions of roof sheathings to chimneys or other parts extending above the roof specially adapted for inclined roofs specially adapted to the cross-section of the parts extending above the roof
    • E04D13/1475Junctions of roof sheathings to chimneys or other parts extending above the roof specially adapted for inclined roofs specially adapted to the cross-section of the parts extending above the roof wherein the parts extending above the roof have a generally rectangular cross-section
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24SSOLAR HEAT COLLECTORS; SOLAR HEAT SYSTEMS
    • F24S20/00Solar heat collectors specially adapted for particular uses or environments
    • F24S20/60Solar heat collectors integrated in fixed constructions, e.g. in buildings
    • F24S20/67Solar heat collectors integrated in fixed constructions, e.g. in buildings in the form of roof constructions
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24SSOLAR HEAT COLLECTORS; SOLAR HEAT SYSTEMS
    • F24S80/00Details, accessories or component parts of solar heat collectors not provided for in groups F24S10/00-F24S70/00
    • F24S80/30Arrangements for connecting the fluid circuits of solar collectors with each other or with other components, e.g. pipe connections; Fluid distributing means, e.g. headers
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24SSOLAR HEAT COLLECTORS; SOLAR HEAT SYSTEMS
    • F24S80/00Details, accessories or component parts of solar heat collectors not provided for in groups F24S10/00-F24S70/00
    • F24S80/40Casings
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24SSOLAR HEAT COLLECTORS; SOLAR HEAT SYSTEMS
    • F24S80/00Details, accessories or component parts of solar heat collectors not provided for in groups F24S10/00-F24S70/00
    • F24S80/70Sealing means
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02BCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO BUILDINGS, e.g. HOUSING, HOUSE APPLIANCES OR RELATED END-USER APPLICATIONS
    • Y02B10/00Integration of renewable energy sources in buildings
    • Y02B10/20Solar thermal
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/40Solar thermal energy
    • Y02E10/44Heat exchange systems

Abstract

A roof-penetrating structure for incorporating into a roof, the structure including a portion extending along one or more sides of the roof-penetrating structure for receiving an edge section of one or more sheets of flashing to provide a weather-proof connection therebetween; said portion including one or more resilient members such that, in use, the insertion of flashing into said portion automatically forces at least one of said one or more resilient members into a configuration in which they are biased against the flashing.

Description

  • The present invention relates to a technique for connecting a roof-penetrating structure to roof flashing, such as, for example, that used to create a weathertight seal between a roof window or solar panel and a roof covering such as tiles, slates or shingles.
  • The use of pre-formed flashing kits is well known in roof windows. The skilful and time-consuming job of forming lead sheet on site to make a weathertight seal between the window and the roof covering is replaced with a factory manufactured kit of parts, often made by pressing or roll forming pre-painted aluminium sheet. The kit is normally supplied in four parts—two side gutters and sections to go around the top and bottom. This approach has also been applied to solar panels.
  • Conventional approaches for joining roof flashing to the upstand of a roof-penetrating body are illustrated in FIGS. 1-3.
  • One approach, shown in FIG. 1, is to provide side gutters, and top and bottom flashing components as a continuous part of the product—pre attached in the factory. The gutter (4) between the upstand of the roof penetrating structure (2) and the tile (3) is formed by a flashing (1) that is a continuous part of the cover glass. A flexible seal (5) may be present to provide a conforming fit with the shape of the tile. This approach has particularly been adopted for roof windows and solar panels with thermoformed clear plastic covers.
  • With this approach, the flashing needs to be made more robust (for handling) than it needs to be for durability once installed. Also, different types of flashing may be needed for different roof coverings, requiring the manufacturer to produce different versions of the roof-penetrating structure incorporating the different types of flashing.
  • A second approach, shown in FIG. 2, provides a separate flashing (1) that tucks up under a skirt (7) on the rooflight or solar panel. The glazing (6) is now a separate part. Gravity keeps water out, and a return fold (8) on the flashing prevents wind-driven rain from entering.
  • With this approach, the flashing needs to be rotated into position, which can limit the acceptable geometry for the flashing and the skirt. Also, flashing corner pieces are particularly difficult to fit in without significant distortion of the flashing being required.
  • The skirt can be made a separate component that is removed prior to pushing the flashing against the side of the roof window, and then clipped back into place. Whilst this can alleviate the difficulty mentioned above, it does add to the complexity of fitment and manufacture.
  • A third approach, illustrated in FIG. 3, is to have a removable cover (9) on the window or solar panel. This is removed to allow the flashing to engage, and then reaffixed with nails or screws (10) to cover the flashing.
  • This arrangement is cheap to produce, but requires the roofing contractor to disassemble and reassemble components. This can be time consuming, and there is also the risk of the disassembled components being dropped before reassembly. This approach has particularly been used with wooden frames, where nails or screws can be used to attach the cover through the flashing.
  • It is an aim of the invention to provide a new technique of connecting a roof flashing to a roof-light, solar panel or other roof penetrating structure which is simple and quick whilst providing a weather-tight and durable connection.
  • According to one aspect of the present invention, there is provided a roof-penetrating structure for incorporating into a roof, the structure including a portion extending along one or more sides of the roof-penetrating structure for receiving an edge section of one or more sheets of flashing to provide a weather-proof connection therebetween; said portion including one or more resilient members such that, in use, the insertion of flashing into said portion automatically forces at least one of said one or more resilient members into a configuration in which they are biased against the flashing.
  • In one embodiment, the resilient member(s) comprise at least one pair of resilient flap members extending from opposing sides of said portion; said pair of resilient flap members overlap with each other in their relaxed configuration; a plurality of said pairs of resilient flap members are positioned at increasing distances in the direction of insertion of the flashing; and the resilient flap members partially point in the direction of insertion of the flashing in their relaxed configuration.
  • In one embodiment, said portion is a component fitted into a recess in a base structure of said roof-penetrating structure; said component is provided with barbs which act to resist its removal from said recess; and said recess extends continuously around the roof-penetrating structure; said portion is a continuous component fitted about said base structure and into said recess; and said component is an extruded component.
  • In one embodiment, the resilient member(s) comprises bristles extending from opposing sides of said portion.
  • In one embodiment, said portion defines a resilient convex end-stop, which, in use, partially inverts when the edge of the flashing is forced against it.
  • There is also provided a solar panel or roof window comprising a roof-penetrating structure as described above.
  • The present invention also provides a method of incorporating a roof-penetrating structure as described above into a roof, the method comprising inserting the edge of at least one sheet of flashing into said portion, and creating a weather-proof connection between said sheet of flashing and said roof.
  • The present invention also provides a kit comprising a roof-penetrating structure for incorporating into a roof and one or more sheets of flashing, the structure including a portion extending along one or more sides of the roof-penetrating structure for receiving an edge section of said one or more sheets of flashing to provide a weather-proof connection therebetween; said portion including one or more resilient members such that, in use, the insertion of flashing into said portion automatically forces at least one of said one or more resilient members into a configuration in which they are biased against the flashing.
  • According to another aspect of the present invention, there is provided a sheet of flashing for incorporating a roof-penetrating structure in a roof, said sheet of flashing including an edge section for inserting into a receiving portion of a roof-penetrating structure to provide a weather-proof connection therebetween; said edge section of said sheet of flashing being provided with one or more resilient members such that, in use, the insertion of the sheet of flashing into said receiving portion of said roof-penetrating structure automatically forces at least one of said one or more resilient members into a configuration in which they are biased against the receiving portion.
  • The present invention also provides a method of incorporating a roof-penetrating structure into a roof, the method comprising inserting said edge section of a sheet of flashing described in the preceding paragraph into a receiving portion of a roof-penetrating structure, and creating a weather-proof connection between said sheet of flashing and said roof.
  • The present invention also provides a kit comprising a roof penetrating structure and one or more sheets of flashing for incorporating said roof-penetrating structure in a roof, said one or more sheets of flashing including an edge section for inserting into a receiving portion of a roof-penetrating structure to provide a weather-proof connection therebetween; said edge section being provided with one or more resilient members such that, in use, the insertion of said one or more sheets of flashing into said receiving portion of said roof-penetrating structure automatically forces at least one of said one or more resilient members into a configuration in which they are biased against the receiving portion.
  • Hereunder follows a detailed description of embodiments of the invention, by way of example only, with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which:
  • FIGS. 1-3 are cross-sectional views of the gutter formed by the flashing between the roof penetrating structure and the roof covering according to the above-described conventional approaches.
  • FIG. 4 is a cross-sectional view similar to FIGS. 1-3 for an embodiment of the present invention.
  • FIG. 5 is a cross-sectional view of an example of the flashing gasket of FIG. 4.
  • FIG. 6 shows the flashing gasket of FIG. 5 with the flashing inserted.
  • FIG. 7 is a cross-sectional view of another example of the flashing gasket of FIG. 4.
  • FIG. 8 shows the flashing gasket of FIG. 7 with the flashing inserted.
  • FIG. 9 is a cross-sectional view of a third example of the flashing gasket of FIG. 4 with inward facing bristles.
  • FIG. 10 is a cross sectional view similar to FIGS. 1-3 for an alternative embodiment of the present invention.
  • In one embodiment of the invention, shown in cross-section in FIG. 4, a weather tight seal is made between the upstand of a solar panel, rooflight, or other roof penetrating structure (2), and a roof covering such as a tiles (3) by forming a gutter (4) with a flashing (1). The roof penetrating structure is provided with a continuous slot (11) around the outside face of its upstand (2). The slot is shaped to receive a flexible gasket (12). To secure the gasket into the slot, a barb (13) on the outside face of the gasket mates with a corresponding rebate in the slot.
  • The gasket plug is of a generally U-shaped section formed with a series of lips (14) extending into the centre, such that when a thin sheet of flashing material (1) is pushed into it, they are deflected to form a series of seals against the upper and lower faces of the sheet.
  • If the lips are made to extend beyond the centre line of the gasket, then discrepancies in the height of the flashing can be accommodated. The use of a spaced apart series of lips disrupts the path of capillarity, so water will not penetrate beyond the end of the contact face of the first lip by this mechanism. If the lips are angled towards the closed end of the gasket they deform easily by bending when the flashing is pushed in, but resist pull out.
  • It can be seen that the advantage of this design is the ease with which the flashing is fitted. The flashing is simply pushed into the slot in the gasket until it stops against the side of the upstand, thus providing clear feedback to the fitter that it is properly in place.
  • An alternative design of gasket has an inlet cover that hangs down below the top edge of the flashing (16). The inlet cover is shaped so that as the flashing is pushed past it, a protrusion prevents its further rotation by interfering with the first lip. Once the flashing is pushed to its maximum extent, the inlet cover springs down against the flashing. This feature is useful to prevent against wind pressure opening the lips. Positive pressure on the outside acts to press the inlet cover harder against the flashing.
  • In places the flashing sections overlap each other, and there is a double thickness of flashing material pushed into the gasket. The gasket cannot perfectly conform to the change in thickness at each end of the overlap section. Consequently there will be a small gap between the flexible lips and the top and bottom faces of the flashing at these points (although the gap and the top and the gap at the bottom will be offset by the distance of the overlap). A compressible convex shape (15) at the end of the recess in the gasket seals against the edge of the flashing and provides a continuous seal at all points.
  • One variation of this embodiment would have the inside faces of the gasket made up of bristles (17), with their free end facing towards the centre. This variation could better conform to step changes in the flashing material, such as those described above.
  • Examples of suitable materials for the gasket plug are rubber and EPDM (ethylene propylene diene monomer) synthetic rubber. It can be formed by extrusion, and joined with moulded mitred corners to form a continuous loop. The design is particularly well suited to connecting the flashing to a frame formed by extrusion, for example one of aluminium. However, the slot could also be formed by routing in wood, or forming steel or aluminium sheet by roll forming.
  • An alternative embodiment of the invention, shown in FIG. 10, includes a flashing with a gasket attached to its edge (18). The fitment procedure would then be to push the flashing and gasket into a receiving slot (11) in the upstand of the roof penetrating structure.
  • With the techniques described above, a standardised roof window or solar panel can be produced that can be used with a variety of different flashing kits.
  • The above detailed description of embodiments of the present invention is provided by way of example only, and various modifications can be made to these embodiments without departing from the scope of the invention
  • The applicant draws attention to the fact that the present invention may include any feature or combination of features disclosed herein either implicitly or explicitly or any generalisation thereof, without limitation to the scope of any definitions set out above.

Claims (18)

1-19. (canceled)
20. A roof-penetrating structure for incorporating into a roof, the structure including a portion extending along one or more sides of the roof-penetrating structure for receiving an edge section of one or more sheets of flashing to provide a weather-proof connection therebetween; said portion including one or more resilient members such that, in use, the insertion of flashing into said portion automatically forces at least one of said one or more resilient members into a configuration in which they are biased against the flashing.
21. A roof-penetrating structure according to claim 20, wherein the resilient member(s) comprise at least one pair of resilient flap members extending from opposing sides of said portion.
22. A roof-penetrating structure according to claim 21, wherein said pair of resilient flap members overlap with each other in their relaxed configuration.
23. A roof-penetrating structure according to claim 21, including a plurality of said pairs of resilient flap members positioned at increasing distances in the direction of insertion of the flashing.
24. A roof-penetrating structure according to claim 21, wherein the resilient flap members partially point in the direction of insertion of the flashing in their relaxed configuration.
25. A roof-penetrating structure according to claim 20, wherein said portion is a component fitted into a recess in a base structure of said roof-penetrating structure.
26. A roof-penetrating structure according to claim 25, wherein said component is provided with barbs which act to resist its removal from said recess.
27. A roof-penetrating structure according to claim 25, wherein said recess extends continuously around the roof-penetrating structure, and said portion is a continuous component fitted about said base structure and into said recess.
28. A roof-penetrating structure according to claim 25, wherein said component is an extruded component.
29. A roof-penetrating structure according to claim 20, wherein the resilient member(s) comprises bristles extending from opposing sides of said portion.
30. A roof-penetrating structure according to claim 20, wherein said portion defines a resilient convex end-stop, which, in use, partially inverts when the edge of the flashing is forced against it.
31. A roof-penetrating structure according to claim 20, which is a solar panel or a roof window.
32. A roof-penetrating structure according to claim 20, which is incorporated into a roof by inserting the edge of at least one sheet of flashing into said portion, and creating a weather-proof connection between said sheet of flashing and said roof.
33. A kit comprising a roof-penetrating structure for incorporating into a roof and one or more sheets of flashing, the structure including a portion extending along one or more sides of the roof-penetrating structure for receiving an edge section of said one or more sheets of flashing to provide a weather-proof connection therebetween; said portion including one or more resilient members such that, in use, the insertion of flashing into said portion automatically forces at least one of said one or more resilient members into a configuration in which they are biased against the flashing.
34. A sheet of flashing for incorporating a roof-penetrating structure in a roof, said sheet of flashing including an edge section for inserting into a receiving portion of a roof-penetrating structure to provide a weather-proof connection therebetween; said edge section of said sheet of flashing being provided with one or more resilient members such that, in use, the insertion of the sheet of flashing into said receiving portion of said roof-penetrating structure automatically forces at least one of said one or more resilient members into a configuration in which they are biased against the receiving portion.
35. A sheet of flashing according to claim 34, which is used to incorporate a roof-penetrating structure into a roof by inserting said edge section into a receiving portion of a roof-penetrating structure, and creating a weather-proof connection between said sheet of flashing and said roof.
36. A kit comprising a roof penetrating structure and one or more sheets of flashing for incorporating said roof-penetrating structure in a roof, said one or more sheets of flashing including an edge section for inserting into a receiving portion of a roof-penetrating structure to provide a weather-proof connection therebetween; said edge section being provided with one or more resilient members such that, in use, the insertion of said one or more sheets of flashing into said receiving portion of said roof-penetrating structure automatically forces at least one of said one or more resilient members into a configuration in which they are biased against the receiving portion.
US12/067,621 2005-09-21 2006-09-20 Roof Flashing Connections Abandoned US20090031640A1 (en)

Priority Applications (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GB0159286.9 2005-09-21
GB0519286A GB2430943B (en) 2005-09-21 2005-09-21 Roof flashing connections comprising resilient member
PCT/GB2006/003487 WO2007034171A1 (en) 2005-09-21 2006-09-20 Roof flashing connections

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US20090031640A1 true US20090031640A1 (en) 2009-02-05

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ID=35335221

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US12/067,621 Abandoned US20090031640A1 (en) 2005-09-21 2006-09-20 Roof Flashing Connections

Country Status (4)

Country Link
US (1) US20090031640A1 (en)
EP (1) EP1937911A1 (en)
GB (1) GB2430943B (en)
WO (1) WO2007034171A1 (en)

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US20110220596A1 (en) * 2009-03-20 2011-09-15 Northern States Metals Company Support system for solar panels
US8528265B1 (en) * 2010-02-18 2013-09-10 Innovations & Ideas, Llc Laminate system
US20130333306A1 (en) * 2012-06-15 2013-12-19 Dana Gavin Baron Termination pocket for deck
US8839573B2 (en) 2011-02-11 2014-09-23 Northern States Metals Company Spring clip
US9303663B2 (en) 2013-04-11 2016-04-05 Northern States Metals Company Locking rail alignment system
US9416992B2 (en) 2014-02-28 2016-08-16 Sunpower Corporation End clamps for solar systems
US20160244972A1 (en) * 2013-03-15 2016-08-25 Certainteed Corporation Roofing flashings and roofing systems and photovoltaic roofing systems using the same
USD767785S1 (en) * 2015-01-13 2016-09-27 Cottonwood Metals, Inc. Wall panel edge trim
USD767786S1 (en) * 2015-01-13 2016-09-27 Cottonwood Metals, Inc. Wall panel edge trim
US9512620B2 (en) 2012-03-30 2016-12-06 Sunpower Corporation Active fire-blocking wind deflector
US9531319B2 (en) 2013-12-23 2016-12-27 Sunpower Corporation Clamps for solar systems
US9813015B1 (en) 2016-06-29 2017-11-07 Sunpower Corporation End clamp for mounting solar module to rail

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WO2009095694A1 (en) * 2008-02-01 2009-08-06 Keystone Lintels Limited Apron flashing for window
DE102008064302B4 (en) * 2008-12-20 2011-01-20 Roto Frank Ag window
DE102009021542A1 (en) * 2009-05-15 2010-12-02 Roto Frank Ag Component arrangement
PL223391B1 (en) 2010-10-29 2016-10-31 Fakro Pp Spółka Z Ograniczoną Odpowiedzialnością Flange with a fastening lock, sealing the connection between the roof cover with the roof penetrating construction
FR2977302B1 (en) * 2011-06-30 2017-08-04 Poujoulat Improvement in solar installations destinies is being posed on a portion of the surface of a sloping support structure
FI123865B (en) * 2011-10-06 2013-11-29 Sk Tuote Oy The brick roof feed-through connection piece metal cladding
PL69474Y1 (en) 2015-08-21 2017-11-30 Fakro Pp Spółka Z Ograniczoną Odpowiedzialnością Sealing flange with the side element, shielding the outer side and upper surfaces of the roof window frame side stile
GB2541927A (en) * 2015-09-04 2017-03-08 Viridian Concepts Ltd Photovoltaic roof covering
GB2550968B (en) * 2016-06-03 2019-04-03 John Boyle Timothy Sealing adaptor for windows and or panels in a roof

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GB2430943A (en) 2007-04-11
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GB2430943B (en) 2010-08-04
WO2007034171A1 (en) 2007-03-29

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