US20080299375A1 - ALxGayIn1-x-yN substrate, cleaning method of AIxGayIn1-x-yN substrate, AIN substrate, and cleaning method of AIN substrate - Google Patents

ALxGayIn1-x-yN substrate, cleaning method of AIxGayIn1-x-yN substrate, AIN substrate, and cleaning method of AIN substrate Download PDF

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US20080299375A1
US20080299375A1 US12/149,776 US14977608A US2008299375A1 US 20080299375 A1 US20080299375 A1 US 20080299375A1 US 14977608 A US14977608 A US 14977608A US 2008299375 A1 US2008299375 A1 US 2008299375A1
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substrate
peak area
ga
1s
aln
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Tomoki Uemura
Keiji Ishibashi
Shinsuke Fujiwara
Hideaki Nakahata
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Sumitomo Electric Industries Ltd
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Sumitomo Electric Industries Ltd
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Priority to JP2004195506A priority patent/JP2006016249A/en
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Priority to US11/148,239 priority patent/US7387989B2/en
Application filed by Sumitomo Electric Industries Ltd filed Critical Sumitomo Electric Industries Ltd
Priority to US12/149,776 priority patent/US20080299375A1/en
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C30CRYSTAL GROWTH
    • C30BSINGLE-CRYSTAL-GROWTH; UNIDIRECTIONAL SOLIDIFICATION OF EUTECTIC MATERIAL OR UNIDIRECTIONAL DEMIXING OF EUTECTOID MATERIAL; REFINING BY ZONE-MELTING OF MATERIAL; PRODUCTION OF A HOMOGENEOUS POLYCRYSTALLINE MATERIAL WITH DEFINED STRUCTURE; SINGLE CRYSTALS OR HOMOGENEOUS POLYCRYSTALLINE MATERIAL WITH DEFINED STRUCTURE; AFTER-TREATMENT OF SINGLE CRYSTALS OR A HOMOGENEOUS POLYCRYSTALLINE MATERIAL WITH DEFINED STRUCTURE; APPARATUS THEREFOR
    • C30B33/00After-treatment of single crystals or homogeneous polycrystalline material with defined structure
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T428/00Stock material or miscellaneous articles
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Abstract

An AlxGayIn1-x-yN substrate in which particles having a grain size of at least 0.2 μm on a surface of the AlxGayIn1-x-yN substrate are at most 20 in number when a diameter of the AlxGayIn1-x-yN substrate is two inches, and a cleaning method with which the AlxGayIn1-x-yN substrate can be obtained are provided. Further, an AlxGayIn1-x-yN substrate in which, in a photoelectron spectrum of a surface of the AlxGayIn1-x-yN substrate by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy with a detection angle of 10°, a ratio between a peak area of C1s electrons and a peak area of N1s electrons (C1s electron peak area/N1s electron peak area) is at most 3, and a cleaning method with which the AlxGayIn1-x-yN substrate can be obtained are provided. Still further, an AlN substrate in which, in a photoelectron spectrum of a surface of the AlN substrate by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy with a detection angle of 10°, a ratio between a peak area of Al2s electrons and a peak area of N1s electrons (Al2s electron peak area/N1s electron peak area) is at most 0.65 and a cleaning method with which the AlN substrate can be obtained are provided.

Description

    BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • 1. Field of the Invention
  • The present invention relates to an AlxGayIn1-x-yN (0<x≦1, 0≦y≦1, x+y≦1) substrate and a cleaning method of the AlxGayIn1-x-yN (0<x≦1, 0≦y≦1, x+y≦1) substrate. The present invention also relates to an AlN substrate with which an epitaxial film of low haze level can stably be grown, and a cleaning method of the AlN substrate. In this specification, AlxGayIn1-x-yN (0<x≦1, 0≦y≦1, x+y≦1) is abbreviated as AlxGayIn1-x-yN.
  • 2. Description of the Background Art
  • An AlxGayIn1-x-yN substrate can be suitably used as a substrate for various semiconductor devices such as optical devices and/or electronic devices.
  • A representative growth method of an AlxGayIn1-x-yN crystal is HVPE (Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy) method, and an AlxGayIn1-x-yN substrate can be manufactured from the AlxGayIn1-x-yN crystal. By growing various epitaxial films on the surface of AlxGayIn1-x-yN substrate, semiconductor devices such as optical devices and/or electronic devices can be obtained.
  • Among AlxGayIn1-x-yN substrates, an AlN substrate has an energy bandgap of 6.2 eV, a thermal conductivity of about 3.3 WK−1cm−1 and high electric resistance, and therefore it is receiving attention as a substrate for various semiconductor devices such as optical devices and/or electronic devices.
  • The AlN substrate can be manufactured from an AlN crystal grown through HVPE method or sublimation method. By growing various epitaxial films on the surface of the AlN substrate, semiconductor devices such as optical devices and/or electronic devices can be obtained.
  • For example, a light emitting diode obtained by growing an AlGaN film and the like on an AlN substrate is disclosed in Toshio Nishida et al., “GaN-free transparent ultraviolet light-emitting diodes”, 2003, Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 82, No. 1. Additionally, a light emitting diode formed on a bulk AlN substrate is disclosed in Toshio Nishida et al., “The Characteristics of UV-LED Grown on Bulk AlN Substrate Under Large Current Injection”, the 51st spring meeting of the Japan Society of Applied Physics and Related Societies, extended abstracts, March 2004, p. 409.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • When an epitaxial film is grown on the surface of an AlxGayIn1-x-yN substrate, sometimes an epitaxial film of low quality with a large amount of defects and/or tarnishes is grown. A semiconductor device using such an epitaxial film of low quality has poor device characteristics, and therefore there is a need for stably growing an epitaxial film of high quality with few defects and/or tarnishes.
  • Accordingly, in order to stably grow an epitaxial film of high quality with few defects and/or tarnishes, particles and/or organic substances attached to the surface of an AlxGayIn1-x-yN substrate have been removed by cleaning. However, since there is no conventional art reference that refers to the degree of removing the particles and/or organic substances on the surface of an AlxGayIn1-x-yN substrate and the standard thereof is unclear, there has been a problem that variations in the surface condition of AlxGayIn1-x-yN substrates directly lead to variations in the quality of epitaxial films.
  • Additionally, when an epitaxial film is grown on the surface of an AlN substrate, sometimes an epitaxial film with high haze level is grown. A semiconductor device using such an epitaxial film with high haze level has poor device characteristics, and therefore there is a need for stably growing an epitaxial film with low haze level.
  • Accordingly, in order to stably grow an epitaxial film with low haze level, an AlN substrate has been cleaning. However, since the standard of the surface of an AlN substrate that can stably grow an epitaxial film with low haze level is unclear, there has been a problem that variations in the surface condition of AlxGayIn1-x-yN substrates directly lead to variations in the quality of epitaxial films.
  • An object of the present invention is to provide an AlxGayIn1-x-yN substrate with which an epitaxial film of high quality can stably be grown, and a cleaning method for obtaining the AlxGayIn1-x-yN substrate. Further object of the present invention is to provide an AlN substrate with which an epitaxial film with low haze level can be grown, and a cleaning method for obtaining the AlN substrate.
  • The present invention is directed to an AlxGayIn1-x-yN substrate in which particles having a grain size of at least 0.2 μm on a surface of the AlxGayIn1-x-yN substrate are at most 20 in number when a diameter of the AlxGayIn1-x-yN substrate is two inches. Here, in the present specification, an AlxGayIn1-x-yN substrate refers to a nitride crystal substrate containing aluminum (Al), and it may contain gallium (Ga) and/or indium (In) in addition to aluminum and nitrogen.
  • Further, the present invention is directed to a cleaning method of an AlxGayIn1-x-yN substrate, in which the AlxGayIn1-x-yN substrate is soaked in a cleaning solution made of one selected from the group consisting of an ammonia water, an ammonia hydroxide/hydrogen peroxide mixture and an organoalkali aqueous solution while being subjected to ultrasound, whereby particles having a grain size of at least 0.2 μm on a surface of the AlxGayIn1-x-yN substrate are made to be at most 20 in number when a diameter of said AlxGayIn1-x-yN substrate is two inches.
  • Here, preferably in the cleaning method of the AlxGayIn1-x-yN substrate of the present invention, as the cleaning solution, one of an ammonia water having an ammonia concentration of at least 0.5 weight percent, an ammonia hydroxide/hydrogen peroxide mixture having a hydrogen peroxide solution concentration of at least 0.1 weight percent and an ammonia concentration of at least 0.1 weight percent, and an organoalkali aqueous solution having an organoalkali concentration of at least 0.5 weight percent is used.
  • In the cleaning method of an AlxGayIn1-x-yN substrate of the present invention, preferably the organoalkali aqueous solution is organoalkali dissolved in water, the organoalkali being one of tetramethylammonium hydroxide and 2-hydroxyethyl trimethylammonium hydroxide.
  • Further, in the cleaning method of an AlxGayIn1-x-yN substrate of the present invention, a soaking time of the AlxGayIn1-x-yN substrate is at least 30 seconds.
  • Still further, the present invention is directed to an AlxGayIn1-x-yN substrate in which, in a photoelectron spectrum of a surface of the AlxGayIn1-x-yN substrate by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy with a detection angle of 10°, a ratio between a peak area of C1s electrons and a peak area of N1s electrons (C1s electron peak area/N1s electron peak area) is at most 3.
  • Still further, the present invention is directed to a cleaning method of an AlxGayIn1-x-yN substrate in which the AlxGayIn1-x-yN substrate is soaked in an acid solution, whereby, in a photoelectron spectrum of a surface of the AlxGayIn1-x-yN substrate by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy with a detection angle of 10°, a ratio between a peak area of C1s electrons and a peak area of N1s electrons (C1s electron peak area/N1s electron peak area) is made to be at most 3.
  • Here, preferably in the cleaning method of an AlxGayIn1-x-yN substrate of the present invention, the acid solution is made of at least one selected from the group consisting of hydrofluoric acid, hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid, or made of a mixture of at least one selected from the group consisting of hydrofluoric acid, hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid and a hydrogen peroxide solution.
  • Further, preferably in the cleaning method of an AlxGayIn1-x-yN substrate of the present invention, when the acid solution is made of at least one selected from the group consisting of hydrofluoric acid, hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid, a total concentration of hydrofluoric acid, hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid in the acid solution is at least 0.5 weight percent, and when the acid solution is made of a mixture of at least one selected from the group consisting of hydrofluoric acid, hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid and a hydrogen peroxide solution, a total concentration of hydrofluoric acid, hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid in the acid solution is at least 0.1 weight percent, while a concentration of the hydrogen peroxide solution is at least 0.1 weight percent.
  • Still further, preferably in the cleaning method of an AlxGayIn1-x-yN substrate of the present invention, a soaking time of the AlxGayIn1-x-yN substrate is at least 30 seconds.
  • The present invention is directed to an AlN substrate in which, in a photoelectron spectrum of a surface of the AlN substrate by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy with a detection angle of 10°, a ratio between a peak area of Al2s electrons and a peak area of N1s electrons (Al2s electron peak area/N1s electron peak area) is at most 0.65.
  • Further, the present invention is directed to a cleaning method of an AlN substrate, in which the AlN substrate is soaked in an acid solution, whereby, in a photoelectron spectrum of a surface of the AlN substrate by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy with a detection angle of 10°, a ratio between a peak area of Al2s electrons and a peak area of N1s electrons (Al2s electron peak area/N1s electron peak area) is made to be at most 0.65.
  • Here, preferably in the cleaning method of an AlN substrate of the present invention, the acid solution is made of at least one selected the group consisting of nitric acid, phosphoric acid and acetic acid.
  • Further, preferably in the cleaning method of an AlN substrate of the present invention, a concentration of the acid solution is at least 0.5 weight percent.
  • Further, preferably in the cleaning method of an AlN substrate of the present invention, a soaking time of the AlN substrate is at least 40 seconds.
  • According to the present invention, an AlxGayIn1-x-yN substrate with which an epitaxial film of high quality can stably be grown and a cleaning method for obtaining the AlxGayIn1-x-yN substrate can be provided.
  • Further, according to the present invention, an AlN substrate with which an epitaxial film with low haze level can be grown and a cleaning method for obtaining the AlN substrate can be provided.
  • The foregoing and other objects, features, aspects and advantages of the present invention will become more apparent from the following detailed description of the present invention when taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • FIGS. 1 and 2 are schematic diagrams illustrating one example of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy with a detection angle of 10° according to the present invention.
  • FIG. 3 is a schematic cross-sectional view of a cleaning apparatus used in Example 1.
  • FIG. 4 shows the relationship between the number of particles and the number of defects in an epitaxial film grown on the surface of an AlN substrate in Example 1.
  • FIG. 5 is a schematic cross-sectional view of a cleaning apparatus used in Example 2.
  • FIG. 6 is a schematic cross-sectional view of a cleaning apparatus used in Example 3.
  • FIG. 7 shows the relationship between the ratio between a peak area of Al2s electrons and a peak area of N1s electrons (Al2s electron peak area/N1s electron peak area) on an AlN substrate after cleaning and the haze level of an epitaxial film grown on the surface of the AlN substrate in Example 3.
  • DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS
  • The present invention is directed to an AlxGayIn1-x-yN substrate in which particles having a grain size of at least 0.2 μm on a surface of the AlxGayIn1-x-yN substrate are at most 20 in number when a diameter of the AlxGayIn1-x-yN substrate is two inches. This is based on the findings of the present inventors that an epitaxial film with few defects and of high quality can be grown when particles having a grain size of at least 0.2 μm on the surface of an AlxGayIn1-x-yN substrate are controlled to be as above in number.
  • Here, the number of particles on the surface of the AlxGayIn1-x-yN substrate is calculated by counting all the particles having a grain size of at least 0.2 μm on the surface of the AlxGayIn1-x-yN substrate, and then converting the number of the particles being counted into a value where the diameter of the AlxGayIn1-x-yN substrate is assumed to be two inches. Accordingly, in the present invention, the size of an AlxGayIn1-x-yN substrate is not limited. For example, an AlxGayIn1-x-yN substrate having a diameter of four inches is four times greater in area than an AlxGayIn1-x-yN substrate having a diameter of two inches. Therefore, when the AlxGayIn1-x-yN substrate having a diameter of four inches is used, ¼ of the total number of particles on the surface corresponds to the number of particles as used herein. It is noted that the particles are counted using a conventionally known substrate surface inspecting apparatus of light scattering scheme or the like. Additionally, the material of the particles is not specifically limited.
  • The present invention is directed to a cleaning method in which an AlxGayIn1-x-yN substrate is soaked in a cleaning solution selected from the group consisting of an ammonia water, an ammonia hydroxide/hydrogen peroxide mixture and an organoalkali aqueous solution while being subjected to ultrasound, whereby particles having a grain size of at least 0.2 μm on a surface of the AlxGayIn1-x-yN substrate are made to be at most 20 in number when a diameter of the AlxGayIn1-x-yN substrate is two inches.
  • Here, the an ammonia hydroxide/hydrogen peroxide mixture refers to a mixture of a hydrogen peroxide solution and an ammonia water. Additionally, the organoalkali aqueous solution refers to organoalkali dissolved in water, and it is preferable to use as the organoalkali one of tetramethylammonium hydroxide expressed by structural formula (1) below, and 2-hydroxyethyl trimethylammonium hydroxide expressed by structural formula (2) below.
  • Figure US20080299375A1-20081204-C00001
  • When an ammonia water is used as the cleaning solution, preferably the concentration of ammonia relative to the whole cleaning solution is at least 0.5 weight percent. When an ammonia hydroxide/hydrogen peroxide mixture is used as the cleaning solution, preferably the concentration of a hydrogen peroxide solution relative to the whole cleaning solution is at least 0.1 weight percent and the concentration of ammonia is at least 0.1 weight percent. When an organoalkali aqueous solution is used as the cleaning solution, preferably the concentration of organoalkali relative to the whole cleaning solution is at least 0.5 weight percent. By defining the concentration of the cleaning solution as above, the number of particles on the surface of an AlxGayIn1-x-yN substrate tends to be controlled more stably as above.
  • Preferably, the soaking time of an AlxGayIn1-x-yN substrate in a cleaning solution is at least 30 seconds. In this case, as the AlxGayIn1-x-yN substrate is sufficiently soaked in the cleaning solution, the number of particles on the surface of an AlxGayIn1-x-yN substrate tends to be controlled more stably as above. Here, the soaking time of the AlxGayIn1-x-yN substrate is the time period from the time point at which the cleaning liquid is subjected to ultrasound.
  • Further, the present invention is directed to an AlxGayIn1-x-yN substrate in which, in a photoelectron spectrum of a surface of the AlxGayIn1-x-yN substrate by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy with a detection angle of 10°, the ratio between a peak area of C1s electrons and a peak area of N1s electrons (C1s electron peak area/N1s electron peak area) is at most 3. This is based on the findings of the present inventors that an epitaxial film of high quality without any tarnish can be grown when the ratio between the peak area of C1s electrons and the peak area of N1s electrons is controlled as above. Here, the ratio between a peak area of C1s electrons and a peak area of N1s electrons in a photoelectron spectrum of a surface of the AlxGayIn1-x-yN substrate by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) with a detection angle of 10° indicates the amount of organic substances on the surface of the AlxGayIn1-x-yN substrate relative to nitrogen near the surface of the AlxGayIn1-x-yN substrate. By controlling the ratio thereof as above, an epitaxial film of high quality without any tarnish can be grown.
  • Here, C1s electrons refers to electrons of 1s orbit of C (carbon), while N1s electrons refers to electrons of 1s orbit of N (nitrogen). As shown in FIG. 1, by irradiation of X-ray 61, C1s electrons and N1s electrons on the surface of AlxGayIn1-x-yN substrate 51 are released as photoelectrons 71. Thereafter, photoelectrons 71 released with an angle of 10° relative to the surface of AlxGayIn1-x-yN substrate 51 is detected by a detector 81 (detection angle 10°) to obtain the photoelectron spectrum. The ratio between a peak area of C1s electrons and a peak area of N1s electrons of this photoelectron spectrum is determined.
  • Further, the present invention is directed to a cleaning method in which an AlxGayIn1-x-yN substrate is soaked in an acid solution, whereby, in a photoelectron spectrum of a surface of the AlxGayIn1-x-yN substrate by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy with a detection angle of 10°, the ratio between a peak area of C1s electrons and a peak area of N1s electrons (C1s electron peak area/N1s electron peak area) is made to be at most 3.
  • Here, preferably the acid solution is at least one selected from the group consisting of hydrofluoric acid, hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid. Further preferably, the acid solution is a mixture of at least one selected from the group consisting of hydrofluoric acid, hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid and a hydrogen peroxide solution. In this case, the ratio between the peak area of C1s electrons and the peak area of N1s electrons in a photoelectron spectrum as above tends to be controlled to be at most 3 more stably.
  • Further, preferably, when the acid solution is made of at least one selected from the group consisting of hydrofluoric acid, hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid, the total concentration of hydrofluoric acid, hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid in the acid solution is at least 0.5 weight percent. Further, preferably, when the acid solution is made of a mixture of at least one selected from the group consisting of hydrofluoric acid, hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid and a hydrogen peroxide solution, the total concentration of hydrofluoric acid, hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid in the acid solution is at least 0.1 weight percent, while the concentration of a hydrogen peroxide solution is at least 0.1 weight percent. In this case, the ratio between the peak area of C1s electrons and the peak area of N1s electrons in a photoelectron spectrum as above tends to be controlled to be at most three further stably.
  • Preferably, the soaking time of the AlxGayIn1-x-yN substrate in the acid solution is also at least 30 seconds. In this case, as the AlxGayIn1-x-yN substrate is sufficiently soaked in the acid solution, the ratio between the peak area of C1s electrons and the peak area of N1s electrons as above tends to be controlled as above more stably.
  • Further, the present invention is directed to an AlN substrate in which, in a photoelectron spectrum of a surface of the AlN substrate by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) with a detection angle of 10°, the ratio between a peak area of Al2s electrons and a peak area of N1s electrons (Al2s electron peak area/N1s electron peak area) is at most 0.65. This is based on the findings of the present inventors that an epitaxial film with low haze level can be grown when the ratio between the peak area of Al2s electrons and the peak area of N1s electrons is controlled as above.
  • When an epitaxial film is grown using MOVPE method (Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxial Growth method) or MBE method (Molecular Beam Epitaxy method) on an AlN substrate, the surface of the AlN substrate is heated before growing the film. As N (nitrogen) in the surface of the AlN substrate is volatilized more than Al (aluminum) by the heating of the surface of the AlN substrate, much Al is contained in the chemical composition of the surface of the AlN substrate when the epitaxial film is grown. Accordingly, by making the chemical composition of the surface of the AlN substrate to contain much N in advance, an epitaxial film with low haze level can be grown. This is based on the findings of the present inventors that, as the standard of the surface of the AlN substrate, an AlN substrate, of which ratio between the peak area of Al2s electrons and a peak area of N1s electrons in a photoelectron spectrum of a surface of the AlN substrate by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) with a detection angle of 10° is at most 0.65, may be used.
  • Here, Al2s electrons refer to electrons of 2s orbit of Al, while N1s electrons refer to electrons of 1s orbit of N. As shown in FIG. 2, by irradiation of X-ray 62, Al2s electrons and N1s electrons on the surface of AlN substrate 52 are released as photoelectrons 72. Thereafter, photoelectrons 72 released with an angle of 10° relative to the surface of AlN substrate 52 is detected by a detector 82 (detection angle 10°) to obtain the photoelectron spectrum. The ratio between a peak area of Al2s electrons and a peak area of N1s electrons of this photoelectron spectrum is determined.
  • Further, the present invention is directed to, a cleaning method in which an AlN substrate is soaked in an acid solution, whereby, in a photoelectron spectrum of a surface of the AlN substrate by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy with a detection angle of 10°, the ratio between a peak area of Al2s electrons and a peak area of N1s electrons (Al2s electron peak area/N1s electron peak area) is made to be at most 0.65.
  • Here, preferably, the acid solution is made of at least one of hydrofluoric acid, hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid, or a mixture solution made of at least two of these acid. In this case, the ratio between the peak area of Al2s electrons and the peak area of N1s electrons as above tends to be controlled to be at most 0.65 more stably.
  • Further, preferably, the concentration of the acid solution is at least 0.5 weight percent relative to the whole acid solution. In this case, the ratio between the peak area of Al2s electrons and the peak area of N1s electrons in a photoelectron spectrum as above tends to be controlled to be at most 0.65 further stably.
  • Preferably, the soaking time of the AlN substrate in the acid solution is at least 40 seconds. In this case, as the AlN substrate is sufficiently soaked in the acid solution, the ratio between the peak area of Al2s electrons and the peak area of N1s electrons as above tends to be controlled as above more stably.
  • EMBODIMENT Example 1
  • First, 50 pieces of AlN substrates having a diameter of two inches were prepared, each obtained by mirror-grinding an AlN crystal grown through HVPE method and thereafter removing a damage layer due to the mirror grinding. Here, the 50 pieces of AlN substrates each have a thickness of 400 μm, and the surface of an AlN substrate is a plane 2° off from orientation (0001).
  • Next, using a cleaning apparatus shown in the schematic cross-sectional view of FIG. 3, the 50 pieces of AlN substrates were cleaned with respective different soaking time periods. Here, a cleaning bath 13 shown in FIG. 3 was filled with tetramethylammonium hydroxide aqueous solution in various concentrations as a cleaning solution 23. Ultrasound 33 at a frequency of 900 kHz was applied to cleaning solution 23, in which AlN substrates 43 were soaked, with the same condition as to each of 50 pieces of AlN substrates 43.
  • Then, for each AlN substrate after cleaning, the number of particles having a grain size of at least 0.2 μm on the surface of the AlN substrate was counted with a substrate surface inspection apparatus of the light scattering scheme.
  • Thereafter, an epitaxial film formed of an AlN crystal of 1 μm thickness was grown on the surface of each of the 50 pieces of AlN substrates under the same condition through MOVPE method (Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxial Growth method). Then, with the same substrate surface inspection apparatus as above, the number of defects of the epitaxial films was counted.
  • FIG. 4 shows the result of this experiment. In FIG. 4, the abscissa indicates the number of particles having a grain size of at least 0.2 μm on the surface of AlN substrate after cleaning counted in a manner described above, while the ordinate indicates the number of defects counted for the epitaxial film grown on the surface of the AlN substrate, corresponding to the number of particles of the abscissa.
  • As can be seen from FIG. 4, when the number of particles having a grain size of at least 0.2 μm on the surface of an AlN substrate having a diameter of two inches was made to be at most 20, the number of defects in the epitaxial film grown on that surface is less than 50. Thus, as compared to a case with the particles more than 20, the epitaxial film of high quality with less defects was obtained.
  • The AlN substrate, in which the number of particles having a grain size of at least 0.2 μm on the surface is at most 20, was the one cleaned with the cleaning solution in which the concentration of tetramethylammonium hydroxide relative to the whole cleaning solution was made to be at least 0.5 weight percent and with the soaking time of at least 30 seconds.
  • While the AlN substrates were used in Example 1 above, it is considered that the similar result can be obtained when AlxGayIn1-x-yN substrates other than the AlN substrates are used. Additionally, the thickness and plane orientation of the AlN substrate are not limited as described above, and a result similar to Example 1 can be obtained with arbitrary values.
  • Example 2
  • First, similarly to Example 1, 50 pieces of AlN substrates having a diameter of two inches were prepared, each obtained by mirror-grinding an AlN crystal and thereafter removing a damage layer due to the mirror grinding. Here, the 50 pieces of AlN substrates each have a thickness of 400 μm, and the surface of an AlN substrate is a plane 2° off from orientation (0001).
  • Next, using a cleaning apparatus shown in the schematic cross-sectional view of FIG. 5, the 50 pieces of AlN substrates were cleaned with respective different soaking time periods. Here, a cleaning bath 15 shown in FIG. 5 was filled with hydrochloric acid in various concentrations as an acid solution 25 to soak respective AlN substrates 45.
  • Then, for each AlN substrate after cleaning, a photoelectron spectrum of the surface of the AlN substrate was measured by an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy apparatus employing Kα ray of Mg as X-ray source with a detection angle of 10° to calculate the ratio between a peak area of C1s electrons and a peak area of N1s electrons (C1s electron peak area/N1s electron peak area).
  • Thereafter, on the surface of each of 50 pieces of AlN substrates, an epitaxial film formed of an AlN crystal of 1 μm thickness was grown under the same condition through MOVPE method. Then, for each epitaxial film thus grown, whether tarnishes are present or not was visually evaluated based on the standard below. The epitaxial films with tarnishes were counted for each category (C1s electron peak area/N1s electron peak area) shown in Table 1. The result is shown in Table 1.
  • TABLE 1 (C1s electron peak area/N1s electron peak area) greater than 3 and at most 3 at most 5 greater than 5 The number of AlN 0/15 5/27 7/8 substrates with tarnishes/Total number of AlN substrates
  • Evaluation Standard for the Presence of Tarnishes
  • Tarnish present—a portion of an epitaxial film is not finished as a mirror surface
  • Tarnish not present—an epitaxial film is entirely finished as a mirror surface
  • As can be seen from Table 1, there was a tendency that the smaller ratio between the peak area of C1s electrons and the peak area of N1s electrons (C1s electron peak area/N1s electron peak area) corresponds to less tarnishes. In special, when the ratio is at most 3, no tarnishes were present on the epitaxial film, and the epitaxial film of high quality was grown.
  • The AlN substrate, in which the ratio between the peak area of C1s electrons and the peak area of N1s electrons (C1s electron peak area/N1s electron peak area) was at most 3, was the one cleaned with the cleaning solution in which the concentration of hydrochloric acid relative to the whole cleaning solution was made to be at least 0.5 weight percent and with the soaking time of at least 30 seconds.
  • While the AlN substrates were used in Example 2 above, it is considered that the similar result can be obtained when AlxGayIn1-x-yN substrates other than the AlN substrates are used. Additionally, the thickness and plane orientation of the AlN substrate are not limited as described above, and a result similar as Example 2 can be obtained with arbitrary values.
  • Example 3
  • First, 50 pieces of AlN substrates having a diameter of two inches were prepared, each obtained by mirror-grinding an AlN crystal grown through HVPE method and thereafter removing a damage layer due to the mirror grinding. Here, the 50 pieces of AlN substrates each have a thickness of 400 μm and the surface of an AlN substrate is a plane 20 off from orientation (0001).
  • Next, using a cleaning apparatus shown in the schematic cross-sectional view of FIG. 6, the 50 pieces of AlN substrates were each cleaned. Here, a cleaning bath 16 shown in FIG. 6 was filled with mixture solution of nitric acid, phosphoric acid and acetic acid in various concentrations as a cleaning solution 26 to clean AlN substrates 46 with various different cleaning time periods.
  • Then, for each AlN substrate after cleaning, a photoelectron spectrum of the surface of the AlN substrate was measured by an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy apparatus employing Kα ray of Mg as X-ray source with a detection angle of 10° to calculate the ratio between a peak area of Al2s electrons and a peak area of N1s electrons (Al2s electron peak area/N1s electron peak area).
  • Thereafter, an epitaxial film formed of an AlN crystal of 1 μm thickness was grown on the surface of each of 50 pieces of AlN substrates under the same condition through MOVPE method. Then, with a substrate surface inspection apparatus of the light scattering scheme, the haze level was evaluated for each epitaxial film thus grown. The result is shown in FIG. 7. In FIG. 7, the abscissa indicates the ratio between a peak area of Al2s electrons and a peak area of N1s electrons (Al2s electron peak area/N1s electron peak area) of the AlN substrate after cleaning obtained by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy apparatus, while the ordinate indicates the haze level of an epitaxial film grown on each AlN substrate having (Al2s electron peak area/N1s electron peak area) of the abscissa.
  • As can be seen from FIG. 7, there was a tendency that the smaller ratio between the peak area of Al2s electrons and the peak area of N1s electrons (Al2s electron area/N1s electron peak area) corresponds to lower haze level of an epitaxial film. In special, when the ratio is at most 0.65, the haze level of the epitaxial film is lower than 2 ppm, and an excellent epitaxial film was grown.
  • The AlN substrate, in which the ratio between the peak area of Al2s electrons and the peak area of N1s electrons (Al2s electron peak area/N1s electron peak area) was at most 0.65, was the one cleaned with the acid solution in which the concentration of nitric acid, phosphoric acid and acetic acid relative to the whole cleaning solution was made to be at least 0.5 weight percent and with the soaking time of at least 40 seconds.
  • While the mixture solution of nitric acid, phosphoric acid and acetic acid was used in Example 3 above, it is considered that the similar result can be obtained when one of nitric acid, phosphoric acid and acetic acid, or a mixture solution made of two of these acid is used.
  • Additionally, the thickness and plane orientation of the AlN substrate are not limited as described above, and a result similar to Example 3 can be obtained with arbitrary values.
  • The present invention may suitably be used in the manufacture of a semiconductor device using an AlxGayIn1-x-yN substrate. Further, the present invention may suitably be used in the manufacture of a semiconductor device using an AlN substrate is used.
  • Although the present invention has been described and illustrated in detail, it is clearly understood that the same is by way of illustration and example only and is not to be taken by way of limitation, the spirit and scope of the present invention being limited only by the terms of the appended claims.

Claims (6)

1. An AlxGayIn1-x-yN substrate, wherein
particles having a grain size of at least 0.2 μm on a surface of said AlxGayIn1-x-yN substrate are at most 20 in number when a diameter of said AlxGayIn1-x-yN substrate is two inches.
2-5. (canceled)
6. An AlxGayIn1-x-yN substrate, wherein
in a photoelectron spectrum of a surface of said AlxGayIn1-x-yN substrate by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy with a detection angle of 10°, a ratio between a peak area of C1s electrons and a peak area of N1s electrons (C1s electron peak area/N1s electron peak area) is at most 3.
7-10. (canceled)
11. An AlN substrate, wherein
in a photoelectron spectrum of a surface of said AlN substrate by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy with a detection angle of 10°, a ratio between a peak area of Al2s electrons and a peak area of N1s electrons (Al2s electron peak area/N1s electron peak area) is at most 0.65.
12-15. (canceled)
US12/149,776 2004-07-01 2008-05-08 ALxGayIn1-x-yN substrate, cleaning method of AIxGayIn1-x-yN substrate, AIN substrate, and cleaning method of AIN substrate Abandoned US20080299375A1 (en)

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JP2004195506A JP2006016249A (en) 2004-07-01 2004-07-01 AlxXGayIn1-x-yN SUBSTRATE AND CLEANING METHOD FOR THE SAME
JP2004-195506(P) 2004-07-01
US11/148,239 US7387989B2 (en) 2004-07-01 2005-06-09 AlxGayInl−x−yN substrate, cleaning method of AlxGayInl−x−yN substrate, AlN substrate, and cleaning method of AlN substrate
US12/149,776 US20080299375A1 (en) 2004-07-01 2008-05-08 ALxGayIn1-x-yN substrate, cleaning method of AIxGayIn1-x-yN substrate, AIN substrate, and cleaning method of AIN substrate

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JP2008037705A (en) * 2006-08-07 2008-02-21 Sumitomo Electric Ind Ltd Gaxin1-xn substrate and method of cleaning gaxin1-xn substrate
US7901960B2 (en) 2006-10-19 2011-03-08 Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. Group III nitride substrate, epitaxial layer-provided substrate, methods of manufacturing the same, and method of manufacturing semiconductor device
US8283694B2 (en) 2006-10-19 2012-10-09 Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. GaN substrate, epitaxial layer-provided substrate, methods of manufacturing the same, and method of manufacturing semiconductor device
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