US20080287800A1 - Doppler motion sensor apparatus and method of using same - Google Patents

Doppler motion sensor apparatus and method of using same Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US20080287800A1
US20080287800A1 US12/119,339 US11933908A US2008287800A1 US 20080287800 A1 US20080287800 A1 US 20080287800A1 US 11933908 A US11933908 A US 11933908A US 2008287800 A1 US2008287800 A1 US 2008287800A1
Authority
US
United States
Prior art keywords
device
sensing device
acoustic energy
transducers
method
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
Application number
US12/119,339
Inventor
Dan Gur Furman
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Cardio Art Tech Ltd
Original Assignee
Cardio Art Tech Ltd
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to PCT/IL2006/001416 priority Critical patent/WO2007066343A2/en
Priority to IL185609 priority
Priority to IL185609A priority patent/IL185609D0/en
Application filed by Cardio Art Tech Ltd filed Critical Cardio Art Tech Ltd
Assigned to CARDIO ART TECHNOLOGIES, LTD. reassignment CARDIO ART TECHNOLOGIES, LTD. ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: FURMAN, DAN GUR
Priority claimed from US12/206,885 external-priority patent/US20090048518A1/en
Publication of US20080287800A1 publication Critical patent/US20080287800A1/en
Priority claimed from PCT/IB2009/006078 external-priority patent/WO2009138880A2/en
Assigned to MEDTRONIC NAVIGATION ISRAEL LTD. reassignment MEDTRONIC NAVIGATION ISRAEL LTD. SECURITY AGREEMENT Assignors: CARDIO ART TECHNOLOGIES LTD.
Application status is Abandoned legal-status Critical

Links

Images

Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B8/00Diagnosis using ultrasonic, sonic or infrasonic waves
    • A61B8/06Measuring blood flow
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/0002Remote monitoring of patients using telemetry, e.g. transmission of vital signals via a communication network
    • A61B5/0031Implanted circuitry
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/02Detecting, measuring or recording pulse, heart rate, blood pressure or blood flow; Combined pulse/heart-rate/blood pressure determination; Evaluating a cardiovascular condition not otherwise provided for, e.g. using combinations of techniques provided for in this group with electrocardiography or electroauscultation; Heart catheters for measuring blood pressure
    • A61B5/0205Simultaneously evaluating both cardiovascular conditions and different types of body conditions, e.g. heart and respiratory condition
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/02Detecting, measuring or recording pulse, heart rate, blood pressure or blood flow; Combined pulse/heart-rate/blood pressure determination; Evaluating a cardiovascular condition not otherwise provided for, e.g. using combinations of techniques provided for in this group with electrocardiography or electroauscultation; Heart catheters for measuring blood pressure
    • A61B5/024Detecting, measuring or recording pulse rate or heart rate
    • A61B5/0245Detecting, measuring or recording pulse rate or heart rate by using sensing means generating electric signals, i.e. ECG signals
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B8/00Diagnosis using ultrasonic, sonic or infrasonic waves
    • A61B8/12Diagnosis using ultrasonic, sonic or infrasonic waves in body cavities or body tracts, e.g. by using catheters
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/0002Remote monitoring of patients using telemetry, e.g. transmission of vital signals via a communication network
    • A61B5/0004Remote monitoring of patients using telemetry, e.g. transmission of vital signals via a communication network characterised by the type of physiological signal transmitted
    • A61B5/0008Temperature signals
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/145Measuring characteristics of blood in vivo, e.g. gas concentration, pH value; Measuring characteristics of body fluids or tissues, e.g. interstitial fluid, cerebral tissue
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B8/00Diagnosis using ultrasonic, sonic or infrasonic waves
    • A61B8/02Measuring pulse or heart rate
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B8/00Diagnosis using ultrasonic, sonic or infrasonic waves
    • A61B8/04Measuring blood pressure
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61NELECTROTHERAPY; MAGNETOTHERAPY; RADIATION THERAPY; ULTRASOUND THERAPY
    • A61N1/00Electrotherapy; Circuits therefor
    • A61N1/18Applying electric currents by contact electrodes
    • A61N1/32Applying electric currents by contact electrodes alternating or intermittent currents
    • A61N1/36Applying electric currents by contact electrodes alternating or intermittent currents for stimulation
    • A61N1/362Heart stimulators
    • A61N1/37Monitoring; Protecting
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61NELECTROTHERAPY; MAGNETOTHERAPY; RADIATION THERAPY; ULTRASOUND THERAPY
    • A61N1/00Electrotherapy; Circuits therefor
    • A61N1/18Applying electric currents by contact electrodes
    • A61N1/32Applying electric currents by contact electrodes alternating or intermittent currents
    • A61N1/38Applying electric currents by contact electrodes alternating or intermittent currents for producing shock effects
    • A61N1/39Heart defibrillators
    • A61N1/3925Monitoring; Protecting

Abstract

An apparatus for, and method of, sensing characteristics of a vessel and a fluid conveyed therein.

Description

    CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
  • The present application claims priority to and is a continuation-in-part of Israel Patent Application No. 185609 filed Aug. 30, 2007, titled “MULTI FUNCTION SENSSOR,” and International Patent Application No. PCT/IL2006/001416 filed Dec. 10, 2006, titled “IMPLANTABLE BIOSENSING DEVICE AND HEALTH MONITORING SYSTEM AND METHOD INCLUDING SAME,” which claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. No. 60/748,218 filed Dec. 8, 2005, titled “WIRELESS INTEGRATED TRANSMITTER AND SENSOR,” the disclosures of which are expressly incorporated by reference herein.
  • The present application is related to U.S. Utility Patent Application Serial No. (unknown) titled “OPTICAL SENSOR APPARATUS AND METHOD OF USING SAME” filed on even date herewith, Attorney Docket No. CAT-P0001, U.S. Utility Patent Application Serial No. (unknown) titled “INTEGRATED HEART MONITORING DEVICE AND METHOD OF USING SAME” filed on even date herewith, Attorney Docket No. CAT-P0004, and U.S. Utility Patent Application Serial No. (unknown) titled “METHOD AND SYSTEM FOR MONITORING A HEALTH CONDITION” filed on even date herewith, Attorney Docket No. CAT-P0005, the entire disclosure of each application being expressly incorporated by reference herein.
  • FIELD OF THE INVENTION
  • The present invention relates to sensing devices and, more specifically, to sensing devices for sensing the velocity of fluids.
  • BACKGROUND AND SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • For medical reasons, in vivo parameters of a patient may need to be monitored over a period of time. Heart arrhythmias are changes in the normal sequence of electrical impulses that cause the heart to pump blood through the body. Continuous monitoring may be required to detect arrhythmias because abnormal heart impulse changes might only occur sporadically. With continuous monitoring, medical personnel can characterize cardiac conditions and establish a proper course of treatment.
  • One prior art device that measures heart rate is the “Reveal” monitor by Medtronic (Minneapolis, Minn., USA). This device comprises an implantable heart monitor used, for example, in determining if syncope (fainting) in a patient is related to a heart rhythm problem. The Reveal monitor continuously monitors the rate and rhythm of the heart for up to 14 months. After waking from a fainting episode, the patient places a recording device external to the skin over the implanted Reveal monitor and presses a button to transfer data from the monitor to the recording device. The recording device is provided to a physician who analyzes the information stored therein to determine whether abnormal heart rhythm has been recorded. The use of the recording device is neither automatic nor autonomic, and therefore requires either the patient to be conscious or another person's intervention to transfer the information from the monitor to the recording device.
  • Another known type of implantable monitoring device is a transponder-type device, in which a transponder is implanted in a patient and is subsequently accessed with a hand-held electromagnetic reader in a non-invasive manner. An example of the latter type of device is described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,833,603.
  • A sensing device for acquiring signals and computing measurements is disclosed herein. In one embodiment of the invention, the sensing device includes a sensor having one or more transducers for transmitting and receiving acoustic energy and converting the received acoustic energy into one or more signals. The sensor is positioned facing a side of a vessel. A computing device operates the sensor and processes the plurality of signals to obtain measurement values. The sensor and the computing device are enclosed in a housing.
  • A method for acquiring signals and computing measurements is also disclosed herein. One embodiment of the method comprises the steps of providing a sensing device as disclosed in the paragraph above, transmitting acoustic energy from the one or more transducers, receiving acoustic energy from the one or more transducers to obtain one or more signals, processing the one or more signals to obtain measurement values, and analyzing the measurement values to obtain a parameter value indicative of a characteristic of the fluid.
  • In another embodiment according to the invention, a device for acoustically measuring a characteristic of at least one of a blood vessel and blood flowing through the blood vessel is provided. The device includes a housing having a first side and a second side, a sensor assembly, and a computing device. The sensor assembly is mounted to the housing and includes one or more transducers for transmitting acoustic energy through the first side of the housing, receiving acoustic energy though the first side of the housing, and converting the acoustic energy into signals. The computing device is configured to activate the one or more transducers and interpret the signals to determine the characteristic. The housing encloses the sensor and the computing device.
  • The features of this invention, and the manner of attaining them, will become more apparent and the invention itself will be better understood by reference to the following description of embodiments of the invention taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • FIGS. 1A is a schematic side view of a sensing device according to one embodiment of the invention.
  • FIGS. 1B is an outwardly-facing view of the sensing device of FIG. 1.
  • FIGS. 1C is a perspective view of the sensing device of FIG. 1.
  • FIG. 2 and 3 are schematic side views of the sensing device of FIG. 1 and a vessel.
  • FIG. 4 is a schematic top-side view of a Doppler sensor according to one embodiment of the invention.
  • FIG. 5 is a conceptual vector representation of wave and fluid flow orientations.
  • FIGS. 6A-6D are schematic front, side, top, and perspective views, respectively, of a Doppler sensor according to another embodiment of the invention.
  • FIG. 7 is a schematic top view of a Doppler sensor according to another embodiment of the invention.
  • FIG. 8 is a conceptual view of a system adapted to transmit and receive communication signals from the sensing device of FIG. 1.
  • FIG. 9 is a flow-chart of a method according to the invention.
  • FIG. 10 is a schematic representation of a cardiac cycle.
  • Corresponding reference characters indicate corresponding parts throughout the several views. Although the drawings represent embodiments of the present invention, the drawings are not necessarily to scale and certain features may be exaggerated in order to better illustrate and explain the present invention. The exemplifications set out herein illustrate embodiments of the invention in several forms and such exemplification is not to be construed as limiting the scope of the invention in any manner.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF EMBODIMENTS OF THE INVENTION
  • The embodiments discussed below are not intended to be exhaustive or limit the invention to the precise forms disclosed in the following detailed description. Rather, the embodiments are chosen and described so that others skilled in the art may utilize their teachings.
  • FIG. 1A illustrates a sensing device 1 according to one embodiment of the invention. Sensing device 1 generally includes a plurality of components including a Doppler sensor 60, a computing device 20, a communication device 30, and an energy storage device 40, each of the components mounted on a board 80 and being in electronic communication with computing device 20. The components are enclosed in a housing 90. In one embodiment, energy storage device 40 is adapted to receive electromagnetic energy waves 44 from an external energy source 46.
  • In one embodiment according to the invention, sensing device 1 is adapted to determine a physiological condition of a patient. By “patient” it is meant a person or animal whose physiological condition is measured by sensing device 1. Although the invention disclosed herein is described in the medical context, the teachings disclosed herein are equally applicable in other contexts where compact data acquisition assemblies are desirable to perform measurements over time. For example, sensor assemblies according to the invention may be desirable in submersed or difficult to reach applications, in dangerous environments, in applications having weight and size restrictions, in field research activities, and so on.
  • In one embodiment according to the invention, sensing device 1 is implanted subcutaneously in the patient's body. It should be understood, however, that sensing device 1 may be implanted at different locations using various implantation techniques. For example, sensing device 1 may be implanted within the chest cavity beneath the rib cage. Housing 90 may be formed in the shape of a circular or oval disc, with dimensions roughly the same as two stacked quarter dollar coins. Of course, housing 90 may be configured in a variety of other shapes, depending upon the application. It may include four outwardly projecting loops 92, shown in FIGS. 1B and 1C, for receiving sutures in order to fix the assembly subcutaneously within the patient's body. More or fewer loops 92 may be provided depending upon the shape of housing 90. When so fixed, Doppler sensor 60 is positioned facing inwardly while an energy coupler, which is described with particularity below, faces outwardly.
  • In another embodiment of a sensing device 1 according to the invention, Doppler sensor 60 and other features of the sensing device 1 are integrated with an implanted cardiac device such as a pacemaker, a Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (CRT) device, an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD), etc. In one embodiment, integration may be achieved by combining the components of the sensing device and the cardiac device. If the cardiac device includes a computing device, for example, the algorithms that carry out the methods according to the invention may be incorporated with the computing device of the cardiac device instead of adding a second computing device. In a similar manner, energy storage and communication devices may be combined to avoid duplication. In one embodiment, some components of the sensing device are included within the housing and some components are included with the cardiac device. The cardiac device and the components in the housing are operably connected.
  • In another embodiment, sensing device 1 is positioned externally to the patient's body. A support member is provided to support sensing device 1 externally to the body. The support member may be permanently or temporarily coupled to sensing device 1. In one embodiment, the support member comprises an adhesive layer for adhesively coupling the support member to the patient's body. In another embodiment, the support member comprises a belt, which may be elastic, for holding sensing device 1 against the patient's body.
  • Sensing device 1 may be implanted subcutaneously or positioned on the patient with the aid of an external mapping system such as an ultrasound machine. Proper placement ensures that a vessel of interest is located within the sensing range of sensing device 1. Where the vessel of interest is the aorta, sensing device 1 may be positioned on the chest or back of the patient in a location that reduces interference by the ribs of the measurements acquired in the manner described herein.
  • 1. Doppler Sensor
  • A Doppler sensor comprises one or more transducers for insonating an object and receiving reflected ultrasonic waves. The velocity of a fluid of interest may be determined by directing an insonifying wave of ultrasonic energy towards the fluid at a known angle, measuring the frequency shift of the reflected ultrasound energy, and then calculating the velocity of the fluid. The Doppler frequency shift is proportional to the component of the velocity vector that is parallel to the insonifying wave. The velocity v of the fluid is determined by the following equation:

  • v=f d ·c/(2·f·cos θ)
  • where c is the velocity of sound in blood, f is the frequency of the insonifying wave, θ is the angle between the wave and the velocity vector, and fd is Doppler frequency shift.
  • A transducer is a device which converts acoustic energy into electrical signals and vice-versa. Frequency shifts may be calculated by a variety of methods depending on the method of operation of the transducer(s). In one method of operation, the Doppler sensor may be a continuous wave sensor. A continuous wave Doppler sensor includes a transducer for transmitting ultrasonic waves and a transducer for receiving ultrasonic waves. The frequency shift in this method is measured directly by comparing the two waves. In another method, a pulsed wave Doppler sensor may be used. A pulsed wave Doppler sensor has a single transducer for transmitting and for receiving ultrasonic waves. After transmitting a wave, the Doppler sensor switches from a transmitting to a receiving mode of operation. The frequency shift is measured by comparing phase shifts between subsequently received waves. A plurality of waves transmitted and received in sequence are necessary to calculate the phase shifts. Well known algorithms, such as the Kasai or the cross-correlation algorithms, may be used to obtain the phase shift between the received and transmitted pulses.
  • Transducers may comprise coils, piezo-electric materials, and other suitable transducers. Transducers may be focused so as to transmit a narrow wave, or beam, of acoustic energy. Transducers may also transmit broad, or unfocused, waves of acoustic energy. Two or more transducers may be combined in a linear array to transmit an acoustic wave capable of insonating a large area with a desirable amount of energy. By large it is meant an area larger than what may be insonated with a single transducer. Linear arrays may be connected such that they may be driven as if they comprised a single transducer. Linear arrays may also be connected such that each transducer segment operates as an independent transducer.
  • FIG. 2 illustrates the relationship between a vessel 3 conveying blood 4 having haemoglobin in red blood cells 5 and Doppler sensor 60 according to one embodiment of the invention. Doppler sensor 60 has transducer 61 positioned facing towards a fluid 4 conveyed by vessel 3. A wave 62 transmitted by transducer 61 is shown propagating along a direction indicated by centerline 63 which is perpendicular to the surface of transducer 61. Arrow 6 indicates the direction of fluid 4 flow in vessel 3. While Doppler sensor 60 is described herein to describe its function in sensing assembly 1, other Doppler sensors described herein perform the same function and, in general, references to Doppler sensor 60 in this and related patent applications are equally applicable to other Doppler sensors described herein.
  • In one embodiment according to the invention, a driver device, e.g., a pulse generator, provides an output corresponding to a desired frequency. The output may be amplified by an amplifier, such as a transistor, integrated with computing device 20 or provided externally of computing device 20. The output may comprise a wave form. Computing device 20 may provide the frequency generation function. In an alternative embodiment, a voltage is provided by the driver device to the transducer corresponding to a desired ultrasonic frequency and the transducer converts the electrical energy into acoustic energy in the form of an ultrasonic wave.
  • In one embodiment according to the invention, sensing device 1 has a communication port for connecting to, and exchanging information with, other devices. Connector 85 is shown. The operation of connector 85, which is connected to other components of sensing device 1, is described in more detail further below with reference to FIG. 8.
  • FIG. 3 illustrates a reflected ultrasonic wave 64. Wave 64 is shown propagating along a direction indicated by centerline 63. Wave 64 propagates in a direction opposite that of wave 62. Wave 64 also has a frequency that is different from the frequency of wave 62. The difference is determined by the selection of transducers. In one embodiment, wave 62 is a continuous wave and wave 64 is reflected contemporaneously with wave 62. In another embodiment, wave 62 is a pulsed wave transmitted by transducer A before reflected wave 64 reaches transducer A. Computing device 20 may direct transducer A to transmit wave 62 and measure the time required for wave 64 to reach transmitter A. The waves travel through soft tissue at a known constant velocity. The distance from transducer A along centerline 63 to vessel 3 may be calculated from the travel time between the transmission of wave 62 and reception of wave 64.
  • FIG. 4 illustrates Doppler sensor 70 including linear array transducers A, B and C according to one embodiment of the invention. Doppler sensor 70 may be coupled or integrated with other components of sensing device 1. Each of transducers A, B and C is operably connected with a driver device (not shown) that powers each transducer causing each transducer to transmit an ultrasonic wave capable of travelling a certain distance to the fluid of interest and, upon reaching the fluid, reflecting a phase-shifted wave. Each of transducers A, B and C may be driven at a different frequency to distinguish the source of the reflected waves received by Doppler sensor 70. For convenience, each transducer in a linear array is referred to herein as a transducer segment. In the embodiment shown, each linear array transducer comprises five transducer segments. Transducer segments may be operably connected to be activated separately or concurrently. Separate activation of one or more transducer segments is desirable to limit power consumption. More than one transducer segment may be activated concurrently to broaden the reach of the transmitted wave. Of course, if all segments in a linear array are activated, the linear array operates as a single transducer. Doppler sensor 70 may comprise three such transducers.
  • Transducers A, B and C are disposed at an angle relative to each other. In one embodiment show in FIG. 4, transducers B and C are disposed at a 45 degree angle relative to transducer A and at 90 degrees relative to each other. Transducers may be positioned at different angles relative to other transducers. The positions, and angles, are selected to orient acoustic energy in directions which optimally reflect acoustic energy from a vessel. Selection is based, at least in part, on the anatomy of the patient. The anatomy of the patient may determine where to position sensing device 1, e.g., externally or implanted, positioned in front or back, and the position of sensing device 1 will determine the distance from a Doppler sensor to the vessel of interest. In one embodiment, transducers B and C are disposed at a 30 degree angle relative to transducer A and at 120 degrees relative to each other.
  • Transducer A includes segments A1 -A5, transducer B includes segments B1-B5, and transducer C includes segments C1-C5. Each segment may transmit and receive ultrasonic energy in the form of waves. The arrows originating at each segment and projecting perpendicularly to the segment represent the direction of waves transmitted by each segment. Further, arrows 72, 74, and 76 represent the directions of waves produced by transducers A, B and C, in aggregate, respectively. The frequency of the acoustic energy is selected as a function of the distance between the transducer and the target fluid. Transducers may be energized, generally, at frequencies ranging between 2-10 MHz to reach blood conveying vessels at distances ranging, generally, between 3-20 cm, after passing through the soft tissues of the patient. In one embodiment, each of transducers A, B and C is energized at a frequency ranging between 2-10 MHz. In another embodiment, one or more segments of transducer A are energized at a frequency of 5 MHz, one or more segments of transducer B are energized at a frequency of 4.5 MHz, and one or more segments of transducer C are energized at a frequency of 5.5 MHz. A reflected wave may be measured at each segment of a linear array transducer. Each segment may be energized sequentially and may be energized a plurality of times.
  • The Doppler shift, or frequency shift, is proportional to the component of the velocity vector parallel to the impinging wave. Since the Doppler shift depends from the cosine of the angle θ between the wave and the velocity vector, and the cosine function ranges between 0 and 1, signals produced by waves oriented parallel to the velocity vector produce optimal signals. In one embodiment according to the invention, computing device 20 produces signals only from waves where the angle θ=θ1 is less than or equal to 20 degrees. FIG. 5 shows conceptually the relationship between velocity vector 6 and waves having directions 72, 74 and 76 presented previously in FIG. 4. FIG. 5 also shows four arrows disposed at angle θ1 relative to velocity vector 6. Arrow 74 is shown forming an angle with respect to velocity vector 6 which is smaller than θ1. Consequently, waves oriented in the direction represented by arrow 74, in this case waves produced by linear array transducer B may generate usable signals. In contrast, waves oriented in the directions represented by arrows 72 and 76, corresponding to transducers A and C, will not produce usable signals.
  • In one embodiment of the invention, sensing device 1 includes an optical sensor assembly configured to detect the position and diameter of a vessel. Sensing device 1 may determine, based upon the position of the vessel, which transducers will not produce usable signals and, to save energy, will only transmit ultrasonic waves from transducers that may produce usable signals.
  • To increase the range of the Dopper sensor, additional transducers may be provided disposed different angles so that one or more of the transducers may be positioned at angles which produce waves oriented at angles that are less than or equal to 20 degrees relative to the velocity vector. In one embodiment, three transducers are arranged in the shape of a K to enable Doppler sensor 70 to obtain a sufficient number of signals even when the relative position of Doppler sensor 70 and vessel 3 change slightly with time or other factors such as a patient's activity level and posture. Reflected waves produced by one transducer may be received by more than one transducer transducer. However, since waves have frequencies corresponding to each transmitting transducer, Doppler sensor 70 is able to selectively filter signals based on the relative position of the corresponding transmitting transducer and its transmission frequency so that the Doppler shifts may be properly identified. The frequency shift corresponds to velocity as well as to direction of flow.
  • In one embodiment, signals from waves received by segments of linear array transducers A, B and C are filtered out when waves impinge on vessels other than the vessel of interest. The location of vessels other than the vessel of interest may be obtained in the same manner as relative position data is obtained which will be explained below. In another embodiment, computing device 20 first determines the angle θ for each segment and selectively energizes segments of transducers A, B and C only when the angle θ of a segment may generate usable signals, thereby saving energy. Furthermore, if all segments of a transducer may produce a usable signal, computing device 20 may limit the number of signals produced to save energy. For example, if all five segments are positioned to produce a usable signal, computing device 20 may select three signals to conserve 40% of the energy necessary to generate five signals.
  • When multiple transducers comprising coils are positioned in close proximity, each transducer may interfere with the operation of the other transducers. Interference may be neutralized by an appropriate filter algorithm. However, filtering in this manner requires additional memory and energy to process the algorithm. FIGS. 6A-6D illustrate a Doppler sensor according to another embodiment of the invention. Doppler sensor 170 includes transducers 171, 172 and 173 having coils 176, 177 and 178, respectively. FIGS. 6A, 6B, 6C and 6D are front, side, top, and perspective views, respectively, of Doppler sensor 171. Transducers 171, 172 and 173 enclose coils 176, 177 and 178 on three sides designated by symbol X with material configured to block electromagnetic waves, and on a fourth side designated by symbol Y with material configured to allow electromagnetic waves to pass through. Side Y is referred to herein as an electromagnetic window. Blocking material may be any suitable material including a metal, and non-blocking material may be any suitable material such as plastic. The blocking material physically eliminates interference between coils 176, 177 and 178 thereby saving energy and enabling further miniaturization of sensing device 1 by reducing memory requirements. Transducers 171, 172 and 173 are stacked rather than being laid on a common plane. Computational requirements to compensate for stacking, e.g., introducing a third-dimension to the geometric distance calculations, consume negligible resources. In many cases, stacking effects may be ignored altogether due to their negligible effect.
  • FIG. 7 illustrates a Doppler sensor according to yet another embodiment of the invention. Doppler sensor 270 includes transducers 271-279 which may be single or linear array transducers. Transducers 271-279 are positioned in the shape of three K's to provide a broader sensing reach without increasing the profile of sensing device 1 and, thus, without introducing stacking variables to the calculations. More or fewer transducers may be used to suit the shape of the housing and the location where sensing device 1 is placed. In the embodiment shown, transducers 271, 274, and 277 comprise the base of the three K-shaped arrays. Transducers 271 and 277 are disposed at 30 degree angles with respect to transducer 274, and each is disposed at 45 degree angles with respect to the remaining two legs of each K-shape array.
  • As discussed previously, the calculation of blood velocity requires knowledge of the incident angle θ between waves and vessel 3. Incident angle and other data characterizing the relative position of vessel 3 and a Doppler sensor may be obtained in various ways. Once obtained, it may be stored in memory as reference values. In one embodiment, the relative position data may be provided to computing device 20 through communication device 30 by an external device. The external device may transmit wirelessly communication signals to communication device 30 containing relative position data. In another embodiment, the relative position data may be provided to computing device 20 through communication device 30 by another implanted device. Other implanted devices include, without limitation, a pacemaker, a Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (CRT) device, an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD), etc. In yet another embodiment, the relative position data may be provided to computing device 20 by another sensor or sensor assembly included in sensing device 1. A sensor assembly for detecting the relative position of a vessel is provided in the above-referenced related U.S. Utility Patent Application titled “OPTICAL SENSOR APPARATUS AND METHOD OF USING SAME.” Once the selected signals have been determined, computing device 20 computes a blood velocity value by comparing the frequency of transmitted and received waves according to well known frequency-shift and angle algorithms or tables.
  • In another embodiment of a sensing device 1 according to the invention, a Doppler sensor and other features of the sensing device 1 are integrated with an implanted cardiac device such as a pacemaker, a Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (CRT) device, an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD), etc.
  • While sensing device 1 may be programmed to perform a measurement of blood velocity relatively infrequently to conserve power (e.g., once or twice per day), it should be understood that as battery technology improves, power conservation will be less of an issue, and measurements may be made more frequently. Moreover, when sensing device 1 is not implanted (i.e., is worn by the patient externally), power may be provided to sensing device 1 through connector 85, thereby eliminating the need to conserve power and permitting frequent or even continuous measurements.
  • 2. Computing Device
  • Computing device 20 comprises a plurality of components. While components are described herein as if they were independent components, the components may be combined in a single device such as an application specific integrated circuit. Computing device 20 includes a processor, a memory, a program, inputs and outputs. The memory may include, but is not limited to, RAM, ROM, EEPROM, flash memory or other memory technology. The processor and memory may be constructed in an integrated circuit. The integrated circuit may include one or more of Doppler sensors 60, 70, 170 and 270, and communication device 30. Further, computing device 20 may include A/D and/or D/A converters on an integrated circuit. Alternatively, A/D and/or D/A converters may be provided separately.
  • The program represents computer instructions directing the processor to perform tasks responsive to data. The program resides in the memory. Data, including reference data and measurement data, also resides in the memory. Reference data may be stored in ROM or it may be stored in RAM so that it may be modified over time, either in response to external inputs or in response to characteristics of measurement data collected over time. Protocols for responding to measurement values may also be provided. Protocols may be stored in permanent memory or may be stored in non-permanent memory such as RAM.
  • Computing device 20 controls the Doppler sensor 60, 70, 170, or 270 and communication device 30 through inputs and outputs. Computing device 20 may control the number, frequency, power level and transmission of waves by the Doppler sensor 60, 70, 170, or 270 to obtain the desired measurements using the least amount of energy.
  • FIG. 8 discloses a system 300 for exchanging information with sensing device 1. System 300 includes sensing device 1 having, optionally, connector 85 (shown in FIG. 1A). System 300 may also include a computer 302, a docking station 304 operably coupled to computer 302 via cable 303, a telephone 306. In one embodiment of the invention, system 300 transmits and receives communication signals wirelessly to/from sensing device 1 based on processing performed by computing device 20.
  • Connector 85 is adapted to plug into docking station 304. Sensing device 1 is shown docked on docking station 304. While docked, sensing device 1 may charge energy storage device 40. The docking station is operably coupled to computer 302 to update the programs and reference values stored in the memory of computing device 20 prior to placing sensing device 1 on, or in, the patient. In another embodiment, sensing device 2 is positioned externally to the patient and connector 85 is operationally coupled to an energy source to power sensing device 2 and prevent depletion of energy storage device 40.
  • In a further embodiment according to the invention, additional sensors and devices may be coupled to sensing device 1 through connector 85. Other sensors and devices may include, without limitation, additional sensor assemblies 2, temperature sensors, pressure sensors, and accelerometers. The other devices may or may not include a computing device. Other devices may also be incorporated with sensing device 1 within housing 90. An integrated sensing device is disclosed in the above-referenced related U.S. Utility Patent Application titled “INTEGRATED HEART MONITORING DEVICE AND METHOD OF USING SAME.” The operation of sensing device 1 may be adapted to operate the additional sensors and devices by downloading into the memory of computing device 20 modified programs adapted to operate them. Downloading may occur while computing device 20 is docked in the docking station. Alternatively, new programs may be downloaded wirelessly through computing device 40.
  • FIG. 9 is a flowchart illustrating one routine of the program performed by computing device 20 according to one embodiment of the invention. At step 400, computing device 20 obtains transducer signals representative of fluid velocity from a Doppler sensor. In one embodiment, transducer signals include voltage and frequency. It should be understood that velocity signals result from waves produced by a reflecting object. In the case of blood velocity, the objects are red blood cells. It is generally understood that the velocity of red blood cells in blood accurately represent blood velocity.
  • Step 400 may be initiated based on cardiac cycle data to define blood velocity at a particular point in the cardiac cycle. Step 400 may also be initiated in response to an external command received through communication device 30 or as a result of detection of an abnormal condition by sensing device 1. Each of transducers A, B and C are energized sequentially. In one embodiment, transducer A transmits a wave and then switches to receive mode. Doppler sensor 70 detects the reflected waves in a manner determined by the configuration of transducer A. Transducers B and C are activated in the same manner, in sequence. In another embodiment, each transducer comprises a transmitting element and a receiving element and the transducer may, thus, be activated to simultaneously transmit and receive acoustic energy. The labelling of transducers or the energizing order are unimportant. More or fewer transducers may be utilized. The number and orientation of transducers are chosen to obtain data at angles relative to vessel 3 which produce sufficient data for the intended purpose.
  • At step 402, computing device 20 processes the signals to obtain measurement values. Processing may involve removing inherent signal noise, converting signals from analog to digital form, scaling, filtering out non-selected waves, and otherwise conditioning the detected signals to convert them to measurement values. In one embodiment, measurements obtained during one cardiac cycle are averaged to obtain an average blood velocity. In another embodiment, the high and low value measurements obtained during one cardiac cycle are averaged to obtain an average blood velocity. An ECG may be used to estimate when blood flows at a maximum or minimum velocity. After processing, measured values may be stored in memory or may be analyzed to first determine whether the values should be retained. Steps 400 and 402 may be repeated as necessary to obtain sufficient measurement values to compute the desired parameters in accordance with the teachings provided herein.
  • To save energy, it is desirable to operate Doppler sensor 70 only when it is reasonably certain that a suitable signal will be obtained. In one embodiment according to the invention, low-power consumption sensors may be used to ascertain the angle of the vessel of interest relative to each transducer before Doppler sensor 70 is activated. In one embodiment, sensing device 1 includes an infrared sensor assembly 2, described with particularity in the above-referenced related U.S. Utility Patent Application titled “OPTICAL SENSOR APPARATUS AND METHOD OF USING SAME.” Sensor assembly 2 ascertains that sensing device 1 is positioned such that waves transmitted from transducers of the Doppler sensor intersect the velocity vector of blood at an angle approximately equal, or less than, 20 degrees. Transducers which are not positioned properly are not energized.
  • At step 404, computing device 20 analyzes the measurement values. Analysis may include calculation of parameter data and/or diagnosis based on measurement values. Parameter data refers to computed values such as fluid velocity, cardiac output, cardiac rhythm, etc. Diagnosis refers to the comparison of parameter values to reference values to detect an abnormal condition in the patient. Reference values are normal or expected values for the measured parameters for a particular patient. If an abnormal condition is detected, computing device 20 may communicate an alert rather than communicating measurement values as they are collected (consuming unnecessary power) or waiting to transmit measurement values until the memory is full or a predetermined transmission time is reached (exposing the patient to unnecessary danger during the waiting period).
  • Steps 400, 402 and 404 may be performed concurrently. The apparatus and methods of calculating velocity described above are useful in calculating the velocity of blood and other fluids. The velocity calculations in the case of continuous fluid flow do not require further calculations. However, if fluid flow is cyclical rather than continuous, additional measurements and calculations are desirable to more completely characterize flow and to diagnose abnormal conditions based on flow characteristics.
  • Blood velocity at a point in time depends on where that point in time is relative to the cardiac cycle of the patient. The cardiac cycle has an electrical component and a flow component. The electrical component refers to the electrical waves that cause the heart muscle to pump. The waves pass through the body and can be measured with a probe comprising electrodes that contact the body. An ECG is a good way to measure cardiac rhythms, particularly abnormal rhythms. An ECG is not, however, a reliable means for measuring the pumping ability of the heart.
  • FIG. 10 illustrates an ECG graph 500 of electrical activity of the heart showing two cardiac cycles. A typical ECG consists of a P wave, a QRS complex and a T wave. An isoelectric line 502 separates a T wave and the following P wave. A PR interval 504 is measured from the beginning of the P wave to the beginning of the QRS complex. It is usually between 120 and 200 msec long. A QRS complex is about 60 to 100 msec long. The ST segment connects the QRS complex and the T wave. A typical ST segment lasts about 80 msec. In one embodiment, sensing device 1 includes an ECG sensor and an algorithm for detecting the T wave, the QRS complex and the P wave.
  • Cardiac cycle may be obtained in various ways. In one embodiment, cardiac cycle may be provided to computing device 20 through communication device 30 by an external device. The external device may transmit wirelessly communication signals to communication device 30 containing cardiac cycle data. In another embodiment, the cardiac cycle data may be provided to computing device 20 through communication device 30 by another implanted device. Other implanted devices include, without limitation, a pacemaker, a Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (CRT) device, an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD), etc.
  • In one embodiment, cardiac cycle data may be provided to computing device 20 by another sensor or sensor assembly included in sensing device 1. A sensor assembly for detecting the cardiac cycle is provided in the above-referenced related U.S. Utility Patent Application titled “OPTICAL SENSOR APPARATUS AND METHOD OF USING SAME.” In a further embodiment, cardiac cycle data may be provided to computing device 20 by an ECG sensor. A sensor assembly including an ECG sensor is provided in the above-referenced related U.S. Utility Patent Application titled “INTEGRATED HEART MONITORING DEVICE AND METHOD OF USING SAME.”
  • In one embodiment according to the invention, steps 400, 402 and 404 are repeated in groups comprising several measurements taken in short succession to characterize systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The repetitions provide blood velocity values at proximal points in time during a cardiac cycle. The groups of repetitions (e.g., five samples) may be timed based on cardiac cycle information to obtain blood velocity corresponding to systolic and diastolic pressures. The systolic arterial pressure is defined as the peak pressure in the arteries, which occurs near the beginning of the cardiac cycle. The diastolic arterial pressure is the lowest pressure (at the resting phase of the cardiac cycle). The time of the systolic and diastolic pressures may be estimated to predict maximum and minimum blood velocity.
  • As is further explained in the above-referenced related U.S. Utility Patent Application titled “INTEGRATED HEART MONITORING DEVICE AND METHOD OF USING SAME,” from velocity measurements obtained at a time corresponding to systolic and diastolic pressures, and other information such as vessel cross-section, sensing device 1 may compute systolic and diastolic blood pressure. In one embodiment, sensing device 1 generates five velocity measurements at the time estimated to correspond to systolic pressure and an additional five at the time estimated to correspond to diastolic pressure. Sensing device 1 may compare measurements within a group to determine a rate of change consistent or inconsistent with the expected change in blood velocity. Upon detecting unexpected changes indicating an abnormality, sensing device 1 may perform a function as described below.
  • Reference values may include target values and acceptable variation ranges or limits. Reference values may also include values of measurements obtained from other sensors or from other devices through communication device 30 including, without limitation, relative position values.
  • Parameter values may indicate an abnormality when they fall outside reference target values or ranges. In some embodiments, parameter values may produce a statistic such as, for example, a moving average, and an abnormality would be detected when the parametric statistic differs from a reference statistic by more than an expected amount. If parameter data differs from expected values by more than a predetermined amount, computing device 20 may initiate a new measurement cycle to verify the parametric data before diagnosing an abnormality.
  • One abnormal medical condition is cardiac arrhythmia. Computing device 20 may be configured to perform an analysis of the measurement values to determine, for example, whether the cardiac rhythm is irregular indicating arrhythmia.
  • Additional abnormal medical conditions may be detected using values obtained externally or from additional sensors. Additional sensors which may be included in sensing device 1 are disclosed in the above-referenced related U.S. Utility Patent Applications titled “OPTICAL SENSOR APPARATUS AND METHOD OF USING SAME,” “INTEGRATED HEART MONITORING DEVICE AND METHOD OF USING SAME” and “METHOD AND SYSTEM FOR MONITORING A HEALTH CONDITION.”
  • At step 406, computing device 20 transmits an alert if an abnormal condition is detected, particularly a condition determined to be a serious or dangerous condition according to a prescribed protocol. The alert may be used to actuate an alarm or to alert the patient to take remedial action. A remedial action may be terminating or reducing physical activity. The alert may also provide global positioning (GPS) information to an emergency service. Referring to FIG. 6, the abnormal condition, when found to be present, may also be displayed on a computer 36 and/or transmitted via communication device 30 to a caregiver. The alert may comprise a text message or a code corresponding to the condition. Computing device 20 may also initiate a new measurement cycle and measure on a continuous basis in response to the detection of an abnormal condition.
  • At step 408, computing device 20 may initiate a treatment. Sensing device 1 may receive, through communication device 30, an external command to perform a treatment in response to the alert. Optionally, based on the protocol, an abnormal condition may also be used to direct a device adapted to provide treatment to deliver such treatment. Treatment may include, for example, an electric shock or a drug delivery.
  • At step 410, the parameter values or other information are communicated to an external device. Step 410 may be performed concurrently with any of the above steps. The parameter values may be stored in memory and transmitted wirelessly by communication device 30. The communication signal from communication device 30 may be activated on a periodic basis, in response to an abnormal condition, in response to an externally received command, whenever memory usage exceeds a predetermined amount, or whenever the energy storage level is determined to be low, the latter two conditions established to prevent data loss as a result of memory overflow or energy loss. It should also be understood that sensing device 1 may include communication devices in addition to communication device 30. For example, where communication device 30 is a cellular modem, sensing device 1 may also include a backup Bluetooth or RF communication device. Such a backup device may be desirable in situations where, after a number of attempts, it becomes apparent that the cellular modem is unable to transmit information (e.g., due to low available power, poor network coverage, etc.). In such a situation, computing device 20 may activate the backup communication device to transmit information or an alert to an alternate external receiving device.
  • Step 410 may be performed, for example, once an abnormal condition has been detected so as to update a caregiver on a substantially real-time basis. Step 410 may also be performed at regular intervals, such as once a day, once a week, once a month, etc. Alternatively or in addition to these transmissions, computing device 20 may be programmed to respond to requests for data received by communication device 30 (e.g., from a health care provider) by causing communication device 30 to transmit the requested data or information representing the requested data.
  • The communication signal may be received by equipment near the patient to alert the patient to the condition, or received remotely (such as over a network) by a healthcare provider, relative, or other predetermined recipient.
  • 3. Communication Device
  • Referring again to FIG. 8, a system 300 adapted for transmitting and receiving a communication signal according to one embodiment of the invention is illustrated therein. Communication device 30 is a two-way communication device, e.g. via the cellular telephone system and/or the GPS satellite system. Communication device 30 includes an antenna for transmitting and receiving communication signals. The communication signals travel wirelessly to and from one of a plurality of optional external communication devices.
  • An external communication device may be a computer 302 or any electronic device capable of wirelessly receiving a communication signal, such as telephone 306 which is exemplified as a cellular phone. Telephone 306 may also be an emergency service switchboard or a hospital or medical center switchboard. By communication signal is meant a signal that has one or more of its characteristics set or changed to encode information in the signal. By way of example, and not limitation, communication signals include acoustic, RF, infrared, other wireless media, and combinations of any of the above. An external communication device may also be a relay unit located externally of the patient's body, e.g. clipped to the patient's belt. The relay unit may include a receiver for receiving the transmissions from communication device 30, and a transmitter for re-transmitting the communication signal to another external communication device. The relay unit may also be stationary and hardwired for connection to the internet or direct connection to a healthcare provider's computer. Likewise, the relay unit may receive a communication signal from a healthcare provider and transmit the signal to communication device 30.
  • The communication signal from communication device 30 may include a voice message, a text message, and/or measured data. The communication received by communication device 30 may include data, such as updated reference data, or commands. A command may include, for example, instructions to computing device 20 for performing a task such as providing a treatment to the patient, collecting and transmitting additional data, or updating the reference data.
  • 4. Energy Storage Device
  • Referring again to FIGS. 1A, 1B and 1C, a system for recharging energy storage device 40 may be provided in one embodiment according to the invention. Computing device 20 receives energy from energy storage device 40. Energy storage device 40 includes an energy storage component such as a battery. Optionally, sensing device 1 may also include an energy coupler for receiving energy from an external source to charge energy storage device 40.
  • One example of an energy coupler is an electromagnetic device, such as induction coils 42, for receiving external electromagnetic signals 44 and converting such signals into electrical energy for recharging the energy storage component. An external electromagnetic device 46 generates electromagnetic signal 44 which is received and converted into electrical energy by energy storage device 40. Energy storage device 40 may provide a charge signal to computing device 20. Computing device 20 may compare the charge signal to a reference charge signal and initiate a low charge communication signal for alerting the patient and/or healthcare providers. Alternatively, a detector, such as a voltage sensor, may be used to monitor the charge of energy storage device 40 and provide a signal to computing device 20 when the charge falls below a threshold. Electromagnetic device 46 may be placed near sensing device 1 to charge energy storage device 40.
  • Energy may instead, or additionally, be provided in the form of ultrasonic vibrations. For example, a piezoelectric transducer may be included in sensing device 1. An ultrasonic vibration may be provided externally. The transducer generates electricity when driven by ultrasonic vibrations.
  • While this invention has been described as having an exemplary design, the present invention may be further modified within the spirit and scope of this disclosure. This application is therefore intended to cover any variations, uses, or adaptations of the invention using its general principles. Further, this application is intended to cover such departures from the present disclosure as come within known or customary practice in the art to which this invention pertains.

Claims (45)

1. A sensing device for acquiring signals and computing measurements comprising:
a sensor including one or more transducers for transmitting acoustic energy, receiving acoustic energy, and converting the received acoustic energy into one or more signals, the one or more transducers facing a side of a vessel;
a computing device operating the one or more transducers and processing the one or more signals to obtain measurement values; and
a housing enclosing the sensor and the computing device.
2. The sensing device of claim 1, wherein the computing device includes an algorithm for computing a parameter value of a fluid conveyed by a vessel.
3. The sensing device of claim 2, wherein the parameter is fluid velocity.
4. The sensing device of claim 3, wherein the fluid is blood and the parameter value is blood velocity.
5. The sensing device of claim 1, further including a communication device for transmitting and receiving a communication signal.
6. The sensing device of claim 5, wherein the communication signal includes a relative position value representing the position of the vessel.
7. The sensing device of claim 5, wherein the communication signal includes an alarm.
8. The sensing device of claim 5, wherein the communication device includes a connector adapted to operably couple to one or more of a docking station, a second sensing device, and an energy source.
9. The sensing device of claim 1, wherein the housing is configured for subcutaneous implantation.
10. The sensing device of claim 1, wherein the sensing device is integrated with an implanted cardiac device.
11 .The sensing device of claim 1, wherein each of the one or more transducers comprises a linear array of transducer segments.
12. The sensing device of claim 11, wherein the transducer segments are selectively activated to transmit and to receive acoustic energy.
13. The sensing device of claim 12, wherein each transducer segment may be selectively operated to transmit acoustic energy and to receive acoustic energy.
14. The sensing device of claim 1, wherein at least one of the one or more transducers transmits acoustic energy at a different frequency than the frequency of the acoustic energy transmitted by another of the one or more transducers.
15. The sensing device of claim 1, wherein the one or more transducers are positioned at an angle relative to each other.
16. The sensing device of claim 1, wherein the sensing device is dimensioned about the same as two stacked quarter dollar coins.
17. The sensing device of claim 1, further including an energy storage device.
18. The sensing device of claim 17, wherein the energy storage device includes an energy coupler for receiving energy to recharge the energy storage device.
19. The sensing device of claim 1, wherein each transducer includes a source of acoustic energy, the transducer having a window for allowing passage of acoustic energy, and the source of acoustic energy being partially surrounded by material for blocking passage of acoustic energy and preventing interference between adjacent transducers.
20. A method for acquiring signals and transmitting data comprising:
providing a sensing device including
one or more transducers for transmitting acoustic energy, receiving acoustic energy, and converting acoustic energy into one or more signals, the one or more transducers facing a side of a vessel,
a computing device for operating the one or more transducers and processing the one or more signals to obtain measurement values, and
a housing enclosing the sensor and the computing device;
transmitting acoustic energy from the one or more transducers;
receiving acoustic energy from the one or more transducers to obtain one or more signals;
processing the one or more signals to obtain measurement values;
analyzing the measurement values to obtain a parameter value indicative of a characteristic of the fluid.
21. The method of claim 20, wherein the fluid is blood and the parameter is blood velocity.
22. The method of claim 21, wherein the fluid is blood and the parameter is blood pressure.
23. The method of claim 22, wherein the blood pressure parameter includes systolic pressure and diastolic pressure.
24. The method of claim 20, further including the step of obtaining relative position values and storing the relative position values in memory.
25. The method of claim 24, wherein the obtaining step includes receiving relative position values from the communication device and storing the relative position values in memory.
26. The method of claim 24, wherein the sensing device includes an optical sensor, wherein the obtaining step includes receiving relative position information from the optical sensor and converting the relative position information into relative position values.
27. The method of claim 20, further including the steps of diagnosing a condition using the parameter value and performing a function in response to the diagnosing step.
28. The method of claim 27, wherein the condition is an abnormal condition.
29. The method of claim 28, wherein the function is communicating an alarm.
30. The method of claim 28, wherein the function is initiating a treatment.
31. The method of claim 30, wherein the treatment is an electric shock.
32. The method of claim 30, wherein the treatment is delivering a drug.
33. The method of claim 28, wherein the function is communicating data with the communication device on a continuous basis.
34. The method of claim 26, wherein the condition is a normal condition and the function is communicating information on a periodic basis.
35. The method of claim 20, wherein the receiving step includes sequentially obtaining signals from at least some of the one or more transducers to compute a parameter value.
36. The method of claim 20, wherein each of the one or more transducers comprises a linear array of transducer segments.
37. The method of claim 36, further including the step of selecting one or more transducer segments and preventing transmission and reception of acoustic energy by unselected transducer segments.
38. The method of claim 36, wherein the selecting step includes determinig an incidence angle of acoustic energy relative to the direction of fluid flow and choosing transducer segments when the incidence angle is smaller than, or equal to, 20 degrees.
39. The method of claim 37, wherein the sensing device further includes the optical sensor, and the selecting step includes identifying with the optical sensor any transducer segment where the acoustic energy transmitted by the transducer segment is obstructed and choosing unobstructed transducer segments.
40. A device for acoustically measuring a characteristic of at least one of a blood vessel and blood flowing through the blood vessel, the device including:
a housing having a first side and a second side;
a sensor assembly mounted to the housing and including one or more transducers for transmitting acoustic energy through the first side of the housing, receiving acoustic energy though the first side of the housing, and converting the acoustic energy into signals;
a computing device configured to activate the one or more transducers and interpret the signals to determine the characteristic.
41. The device of claim 40, wherein the characteristic is a velocity of the blood.
42. The device of claim 40, wherein the one or more transducers are positioned at an angle relative to one another.
43. The device of claim 40, wherein the computing device individually activates each of the one or more transducers sequentially to determine the velocity of the blood.
44. The device of claim 40, wherein the sensor assembly comprises acoustic energy blocking material and includes windows for transmitting and receiving acoustic energy.
45. The device of claim 40, wherein the housing is made of acoustic energy blocking material and includes windows for transmitting and receiving acoustic energy.
US12/119,339 2005-12-08 2008-05-12 Doppler motion sensor apparatus and method of using same Abandoned US20080287800A1 (en)

Priority Applications (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
PCT/IL2006/001416 WO2007066343A2 (en) 2005-12-08 2006-12-10 Implantable biosensor assembly and health monitoring system
IL185609 2007-08-30
IL185609A IL185609D0 (en) 2007-08-30 2007-08-30 Multi function senssor

Applications Claiming Priority (25)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US12/206,885 US20090048518A1 (en) 2006-12-10 2008-09-09 Doppler motion sensor apparatus and method of using same
PCT/IB2009/006078 WO2009138880A2 (en) 2008-05-12 2009-05-12 Optical sensor apparatus and method of using same
PCT/IB2009/006082 WO2009138882A2 (en) 2008-05-12 2009-05-12 Doppler motion sensor apparatus and method of using same
CN2009801189249A CN102046069A (en) 2008-05-12 2009-05-12 Method and system for monitoring a health condition
EP09746175A EP2282673A2 (en) 2008-05-12 2009-05-12 Optical sensor apparatus and method of using same
PCT/IB2009/006081 WO2009138881A2 (en) 2008-05-12 2009-05-12 Method and system for monitoring a health condition
PCT/IB2009/006088 WO2009138883A2 (en) 2008-05-12 2009-05-12 Integrated heart monitoring device and method of using same
CN2009801203104A CN102046085B (en) 2008-05-12 2009-05-12 Optical sensor apparatus and method of using same
CN2009801223131A CN102202568A (en) 2008-05-12 2009-05-12 Integrated heart monitoring device and method of using same
EP09746176A EP2282667A4 (en) 2008-05-12 2009-05-12 Method and system for monitoring a health condition
EP09746177A EP2285288A4 (en) 2008-05-12 2009-05-12 Doppler motion sensor apparatus and method of using same
CA2722593A CA2722593A1 (en) 2008-05-12 2009-05-12 Optical sensor apparatus and method of using same
JP2011509039A JP5497008B2 (en) 2008-05-12 2009-05-12 The sensor
CN200980122318.4A CN102065773B (en) 2008-05-12 2009-05-12 Doppler motion sensor apparatus and method of using same
JP2011509042A JP5591794B2 (en) 2008-05-12 2009-05-12 Apparatus for monitoring a patient's heart
EP09746178A EP2282671A4 (en) 2008-05-12 2009-05-12 Integrated heart monitoring device and method of using same
CA2722616A CA2722616A1 (en) 2008-05-12 2009-05-12 Method and system for monitoring a health condition
CA2722662A CA2722662A1 (en) 2008-05-12 2009-05-12 Integrated heart monitoring device and method of using same
JP2011509041A JP5405564B2 (en) 2008-05-12 2009-05-12 Doppler motion sensor device and methods of use thereof
CA2722659A CA2722659A1 (en) 2008-05-12 2009-05-12 Doppler motion sensor apparatus and method of using same
JP2011509040A JP5650104B2 (en) 2008-05-12 2009-05-12 Apparatus and system for monitoring the health condition
IL209211A IL209211A (en) 2008-05-12 2010-11-09 Sensing device for acquiring signals and computing measurements
IL209210A IL209210A (en) 2008-05-12 2010-11-09 Monitoring device for monitoring a health condition of a patient
IL209213A IL209213A (en) 2008-05-12 2010-11-09 Doppler motion sensor apparatus
IL209212A IL209212A (en) 2008-05-12 2010-11-09 Device for monitoring the heart of a patient

Related Parent Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
PCT/IL2006/001416 Continuation-In-Part WO2007066343A2 (en) 2005-12-08 2006-12-10 Implantable biosensor assembly and health monitoring system

Related Child Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US12/206,885 Continuation-In-Part US20090048518A1 (en) 2005-12-08 2008-09-09 Doppler motion sensor apparatus and method of using same

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US20080287800A1 true US20080287800A1 (en) 2008-11-20

Family

ID=39742336

Family Applications (4)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US12/119,315 Expired - Fee Related US8442606B2 (en) 2005-12-08 2008-05-12 Optical sensor apparatus and method of using same
US12/119,325 Expired - Fee Related US8298148B2 (en) 2005-12-08 2008-05-12 Integrated heart monitoring device and method of using same
US12/119,339 Abandoned US20080287800A1 (en) 2005-12-08 2008-05-12 Doppler motion sensor apparatus and method of using same
US12/119,462 Active 2029-10-17 US9037208B2 (en) 2005-12-08 2008-05-12 Method and system for monitoring a health condition

Family Applications Before (2)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US12/119,315 Expired - Fee Related US8442606B2 (en) 2005-12-08 2008-05-12 Optical sensor apparatus and method of using same
US12/119,325 Expired - Fee Related US8298148B2 (en) 2005-12-08 2008-05-12 Integrated heart monitoring device and method of using same

Family Applications After (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US12/119,462 Active 2029-10-17 US9037208B2 (en) 2005-12-08 2008-05-12 Method and system for monitoring a health condition

Country Status (2)

Country Link
US (4) US8442606B2 (en)
IL (1) IL185609D0 (en)

Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20110218408A1 (en) * 2010-03-02 2011-09-08 Medtronic, Inc. Medical system with identification patch
US20130120157A1 (en) * 2010-01-11 2013-05-16 Card Guard Scientific Survival Ltd. Adhesive bandage and a method for controlling patient information
US20160106390A1 (en) * 2013-06-07 2016-04-21 Guardsman Scientific, Inc. Systems and methods for securing a peripheral ultrasound device
US10039520B2 (en) 2005-04-13 2018-08-07 Aum Cardiovascular, Inc Detection of coronary artery disease using an electronic stethoscope

Families Citing this family (49)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20060155178A1 (en) * 2004-03-26 2006-07-13 Vadim Backman Multi-dimensional elastic light scattering
US20070129615A1 (en) * 2005-10-27 2007-06-07 Northwestern University Apparatus for recognizing abnormal tissue using the detection of early increase in microvascular blood content
US9314164B2 (en) 2005-10-27 2016-04-19 Northwestern University Method of using the detection of early increase in microvascular blood content to distinguish between adenomatous and hyperplastic polyps
US20070179368A1 (en) * 2005-10-27 2007-08-02 Northwestern University Method of recognizing abnormal tissue using the detection of early increase in microvascular blood content
US20090203977A1 (en) * 2005-10-27 2009-08-13 Vadim Backman Method of screening for cancer using parameters obtained by the detection of early increase in microvascular blood content
US10010277B2 (en) * 2006-06-22 2018-07-03 The General Hospital Corporation Cancer detection by optical measurement of compression-induced transients
US20090171175A1 (en) * 2007-12-31 2009-07-02 Nellcor Puritan Bennett Llc Personalized Medical Monitoring: Auto-Configuration Using Patient Record Information
US8180438B2 (en) * 2008-01-30 2012-05-15 Greatbatch Ltd. Minimally invasive physiologic parameter recorder and introducer system
US8317720B2 (en) * 2008-12-24 2012-11-27 Herdx, Inc. Core-temperature based herd management system and method
US20100228103A1 (en) * 2009-03-05 2010-09-09 Pacesetter, Inc. Multifaceted implantable syncope monitor - mism
US8676598B2 (en) * 2009-03-31 2014-03-18 Jacob George Kuriyan Chronic population based cost model to compare effectiveness of preventive care programs
US20170079596A1 (en) * 2009-04-22 2017-03-23 Streamline Automation, Llc Probabilistic parameter estimation using fused data apparatus and method of use thereof
AU2010265891B2 (en) * 2009-06-26 2016-06-23 Cianna Medical, Inc. Apparatus, systems, and methods for localizing markers or tissue structures within a body
AU2010284320B2 (en) * 2009-08-17 2015-02-26 The Regents Of The University Of California Distributed external and internal wireless sensor systems for characterization of surface and subsurface biomedical structure and condition
US8706464B2 (en) * 2010-01-31 2014-04-22 Vladimir Shusterman Health data dynamics, its sources and linkage with genetic/molecular tests
US8560365B2 (en) 2010-06-08 2013-10-15 International Business Machines Corporation Probabilistic optimization of resource discovery, reservation and assignment
US9646271B2 (en) 2010-08-06 2017-05-09 International Business Machines Corporation Generating candidate inclusion/exclusion cohorts for a multiply constrained group
US8930394B2 (en) 2010-08-17 2015-01-06 Fujitsu Limited Querying sensor data stored as binary decision diagrams
US8495038B2 (en) * 2010-08-17 2013-07-23 Fujitsu Limited Validating sensor data represented by characteristic functions
US8583718B2 (en) 2010-08-17 2013-11-12 Fujitsu Limited Comparing boolean functions representing sensor data
US8572146B2 (en) 2010-08-17 2013-10-29 Fujitsu Limited Comparing data samples represented by characteristic functions
US9002781B2 (en) 2010-08-17 2015-04-07 Fujitsu Limited Annotating environmental data represented by characteristic functions
US8645108B2 (en) 2010-08-17 2014-02-04 Fujitsu Limited Annotating binary decision diagrams representing sensor data
US9138143B2 (en) 2010-08-17 2015-09-22 Fujitsu Limited Annotating medical data represented by characteristic functions
US8874607B2 (en) 2010-08-17 2014-10-28 Fujitsu Limited Representing sensor data as binary decision diagrams
US8968197B2 (en) * 2010-09-03 2015-03-03 International Business Machines Corporation Directing a user to a medical resource
US9292577B2 (en) 2010-09-17 2016-03-22 International Business Machines Corporation User accessibility to data analytics
EP2526856A1 (en) 2011-05-26 2012-11-28 Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. Fever detection apparatus
US9176819B2 (en) 2011-09-23 2015-11-03 Fujitsu Limited Detecting sensor malfunctions using compression analysis of binary decision diagrams
US8620854B2 (en) 2011-09-23 2013-12-31 Fujitsu Limited Annotating medical binary decision diagrams with health state information
US8719214B2 (en) 2011-09-23 2014-05-06 Fujitsu Limited Combining medical binary decision diagrams for analysis optimization
US9075908B2 (en) 2011-09-23 2015-07-07 Fujitsu Limited Partitioning medical binary decision diagrams for size optimization
US8909592B2 (en) 2011-09-23 2014-12-09 Fujitsu Limited Combining medical binary decision diagrams to determine data correlations
US9177247B2 (en) 2011-09-23 2015-11-03 Fujitsu Limited Partitioning medical binary decision diagrams for analysis optimization
US8838523B2 (en) 2011-09-23 2014-09-16 Fujitsu Limited Compression threshold analysis of binary decision diagrams
US8781995B2 (en) 2011-09-23 2014-07-15 Fujitsu Limited Range queries in binary decision diagrams
US8812943B2 (en) 2011-09-23 2014-08-19 Fujitsu Limited Detecting data corruption in medical binary decision diagrams using hashing techniques
US9037653B2 (en) * 2011-12-09 2015-05-19 Facebook, Inc. Mobile ad hoc networking
US9161775B1 (en) 2012-05-08 2015-10-20 Greatbatch Ltd. Tunneling tool for deliberate placement of an ILR
TWI615131B (en) * 2013-11-28 2018-02-21 National Applied Res Laboratories Image based oxygen saturation measuring device and method thereof
KR20160026218A (en) * 2014-08-29 2016-03-09 삼성전자주식회사 Method for providing content and electronic device thereof
US10052489B2 (en) 2015-03-23 2018-08-21 Greatbatch Ltd. Apparatus and method for implanting an implantable device
US20160317050A1 (en) * 2015-04-28 2016-11-03 Federico Perego Costa Hemodynamic parameter (Hdp) monitoring system for diagnosis of a health condition of a patient
US20160361003A1 (en) * 2015-06-12 2016-12-15 ChroniSense Medical Ltd. Pulse Oximetry
EP3324850A1 (en) * 2015-07-22 2018-05-30 Koninklijke Philips N.V. Fiber-optic realshape sensor for enhanced doppler measurement display
US10159434B1 (en) * 2015-11-30 2018-12-25 Verily Life Sciences Llc Systems and methods for optode imaging
US9883836B2 (en) 2016-02-08 2018-02-06 International Business Machines Corporation Embedded device for flow monitoring
US10182729B2 (en) 2016-08-31 2019-01-22 Medtronics, Inc. Systems and methods for monitoring hemodynamic status
US20180303419A1 (en) * 2017-04-24 2018-10-25 Monovo, LLC Wearable vital sign monitor

Citations (78)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4770177A (en) * 1986-02-18 1988-09-13 Telectronics N.V. Apparatus and method for adjusting heart/pacer relative to changes in venous diameter during exercise to obtain a required cardiac output.
US5112869A (en) * 1989-04-04 1992-05-12 Sloan-Kettering Institute For Cancer Research Substituted 1-phenylnaphthalenes
US5174295A (en) * 1987-04-10 1992-12-29 Cardiometrics, Inc. Apparatus, system and method for measuring spatial average velocity and/or volumetric flow of blood in a vessel and screw joint for use therewith
US5218962A (en) * 1991-04-15 1993-06-15 Nellcor Incorporated Multiple region pulse oximetry probe and oximeter
US5309916A (en) * 1990-07-18 1994-05-10 Avl Medical Instruments Ag Blood pressure measuring device and method
US5409009A (en) * 1994-03-18 1995-04-25 Medtronic, Inc. Methods for measurement of arterial blood flow
US5464434A (en) * 1992-04-03 1995-11-07 Intermedics, Inc. Medical interventional device responsive to sudden hemodynamic change
US5488953A (en) * 1994-04-15 1996-02-06 Ecocath, Inc. Diffracting doppler-transducer
US5544649A (en) * 1992-03-25 1996-08-13 Cardiomedix, Inc. Ambulatory patient health monitoring techniques utilizing interactive visual communication
US5558092A (en) * 1995-06-06 1996-09-24 Imarx Pharmaceutical Corp. Methods and apparatus for performing diagnostic and therapeutic ultrasound simultaneously
US5606972A (en) * 1995-08-10 1997-03-04 Advanced Technology Laboratories, Inc. Ultrasonic doppler measurement of blood flow velocities by array transducers
US5713939A (en) * 1996-09-16 1998-02-03 Sulzer Intermedics Inc. Data communication system for control of transcutaneous energy transmission to an implantable medical device
US5772589A (en) * 1995-02-13 1998-06-30 Bernreuter; Peter Measurement process for blood gas analysis sensors
US5817009A (en) * 1994-11-28 1998-10-06 Mipm Mammendorfer Institut Fuer Physik Und Medizin Gmbh Arrangement for noninvasive determination of the oxygen saturation in human blood vessels or organs
US5833603A (en) * 1996-03-13 1998-11-10 Lipomatrix, Inc. Implantable biosensing transponder
US5836884A (en) * 1993-12-17 1998-11-17 Pulse Metric, Inc. Method for diagnosing, monitoring and treating hypertension and other cardiac problems
US5995208A (en) * 1998-05-28 1999-11-30 Abbott Laboratories Intravascular oximetry catheter
US6053873A (en) * 1997-01-03 2000-04-25 Biosense, Inc. Pressure-sensing stent
US6176832B1 (en) * 1997-09-01 2001-01-23 Terumo Kabushiki Kaisha Cardiovascular information measurement system
US6206835B1 (en) * 1999-03-24 2001-03-27 The B. F. Goodrich Company Remotely interrogated diagnostic implant device with electrically passive sensor
US6231516B1 (en) * 1997-10-14 2001-05-15 Vacusense, Inc. Endoluminal implant with therapeutic and diagnostic capability
US6261233B1 (en) * 1996-01-05 2001-07-17 Sunlight Medical Ltd. Method and device for a blood velocity determination
US6277078B1 (en) * 1999-11-19 2001-08-21 Remon Medical Technologies, Ltd. System and method for monitoring a parameter associated with the performance of a heart
US6334850B1 (en) * 1997-11-19 2002-01-01 Seiko Epson Corporation Method of detecting pulse wave, method of detecting artery position, and pulse wave detecting apparatus
US20020010390A1 (en) * 2000-05-10 2002-01-24 Guice David Lehmann Method and system for monitoring the health and status of livestock and other animals
US6398731B1 (en) * 1997-07-25 2002-06-04 Tomtec Imaging Systems Gmbh Method for recording ultrasound images of moving objects
US20020095087A1 (en) * 2000-11-28 2002-07-18 Mourad Pierre D. Systems and methods for making noninvasive physiological assessments
US20020095092A1 (en) * 2000-12-06 2002-07-18 Kabushiki Gaisya K-And-S Pulse wave measuring apparatus and pulse wave measuring method
US6475153B1 (en) * 2000-05-10 2002-11-05 Motorola Inc. Method for obtaining blood pressure data from optical sensor
US6485418B2 (en) * 2000-03-17 2002-11-26 Pioneer Corporation Health monitoring system
US20030034887A1 (en) * 2001-03-12 2003-02-20 Crabtree Timothy L. Article locator system
US20030097068A1 (en) * 1998-06-02 2003-05-22 Acuson Corporation Medical diagnostic ultrasound system and method for versatile processing
US20030139778A1 (en) * 2002-01-22 2003-07-24 Fischell Robert E. Rapid response system for the detection and treatment of cardiac events
US6609023B1 (en) * 2002-09-20 2003-08-19 Angel Medical Systems, Inc. System for the detection of cardiac events
US6622322B1 (en) * 2000-09-05 2003-09-23 Panduit Corp. Crib side rail
US20040046016A1 (en) * 2002-09-05 2004-03-11 Honeywell International Inc. Rfid tag having multiple transceivers
US20040077934A1 (en) * 1999-07-06 2004-04-22 Intercure Ltd. Interventive-diagnostic device
US20040106953A1 (en) * 2002-10-04 2004-06-03 Yomtov Barry M. Medical device for controlled drug delivery and cardiac monitoring and/or stimulation
US20040167416A1 (en) * 2003-02-26 2004-08-26 Medtronic, Inc. Method and apparatus for monitoring heart function in a subcutaneously implanted device
US20040220637A1 (en) * 2003-01-24 2004-11-04 Proteus Biomedical, Inc. Method and apparatus for enhancing cardiac pacing
US20040236223A1 (en) * 2003-05-22 2004-11-25 Siemens Medical Solutions Usa, Inc.. Transducer arrays with an integrated sensor and methods of use
US20050096557A1 (en) * 2003-01-08 2005-05-05 Frederick Vosburgh Noninvasive cardiovascular monitoring methods and devices
US6929610B2 (en) * 2001-05-14 2005-08-16 Microlife Intellectual Property Gmbh Non-invasive measurement of blood pressure
US20050216199A1 (en) * 2004-03-26 2005-09-29 Triage Data Networks Cuffless blood-pressure monitor and accompanying web services interface
US20050228299A1 (en) * 2004-04-07 2005-10-13 Triage Wireless, Inc. Patch sensor for measuring blood pressure without a cuff
US20050228300A1 (en) * 2004-04-07 2005-10-13 Triage Data Networks Cuffless blood-pressure monitor and accompanying wireless mobile device
US20050245882A1 (en) * 2002-09-20 2005-11-03 Flowmedica, Inc. Method and apparatus for intra-aortic substance delivery to a branch vessel
US20050261594A1 (en) * 2004-01-06 2005-11-24 Triage Wireless, Inc. Vital signs monitor used for conditioning a patient's response
US20060009698A1 (en) * 2004-04-07 2006-01-12 Triage Wireless, Inc. Hand-held monitor for measuring vital signs
US20060009697A1 (en) * 2004-04-07 2006-01-12 Triage Wireless, Inc. Wireless, internet-based system for measuring vital signs from a plurality of patients in a hospital or medical clinic
US7004907B2 (en) * 2004-04-07 2006-02-28 Triage Wireless, Inc. Blood-pressure monitoring device featuring a calibration-based analysis
US20060100530A1 (en) * 2000-11-28 2006-05-11 Allez Physionix Limited Systems and methods for non-invasive detection and monitoring of cardiac and blood parameters
US20060129038A1 (en) * 2004-12-14 2006-06-15 Zelenchuk Alex R Optical determination of in vivo properties
US20060224053A1 (en) * 2005-03-30 2006-10-05 Skyline Biomedical, Inc. Apparatus and method for non-invasive and minimally-invasive sensing of venous oxygen saturation and pH levels
US7127300B2 (en) * 2002-12-23 2006-10-24 Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc. Method and apparatus for enabling data communication between an implantable medical device and a patient management system
US7125383B2 (en) * 2003-12-30 2006-10-24 General Electric Company Method and apparatus for ultrasonic continuous, non-invasive blood pressure monitoring
US20060253007A1 (en) * 2005-03-30 2006-11-09 Skyline Biomedical, Inc. Apparatus and method for non-invasive and minimally-invasive sensing of parameters relating to blood
US20070088214A1 (en) * 2005-10-14 2007-04-19 Cardiac Pacemakers Inc. Implantable physiologic monitoring system
US20070093702A1 (en) * 2005-10-26 2007-04-26 Skyline Biomedical, Inc. Apparatus and method for non-invasive and minimally-invasive sensing of parameters relating to blood
US20070142715A1 (en) * 2005-12-20 2007-06-21 Triage Wireless, Inc. Chest strap for measuring vital signs
US7238159B2 (en) * 2004-04-07 2007-07-03 Triage Wireless, Inc. Device, system and method for monitoring vital signs
US20070185393A1 (en) * 2006-02-03 2007-08-09 Triage Wireless, Inc. System for measuring vital signs using an optical module featuring a green light source
US7267649B2 (en) * 2003-01-24 2007-09-11 Proteus Biomedical, Inc. Method and system for remote hemodynamic monitoring
US7272428B2 (en) * 2000-07-18 2007-09-18 Motorola, Inc. Wireless electrocardiograph system and method
US20070244398A1 (en) * 2006-04-12 2007-10-18 Lo Thomas Y Power saving techniques for continuous heart rate monitoring
US20070265533A1 (en) * 2006-05-12 2007-11-15 Bao Tran Cuffless blood pressure monitoring appliance
US20070276632A1 (en) * 2006-05-26 2007-11-29 Triage Wireless, Inc. System for measuring vital signs using bilateral pulse transit time
US20070276261A1 (en) * 2006-05-25 2007-11-29 Triage Wireless, Inc. Bilateral device, system and method for monitoring vital signs
US7308292B2 (en) * 2005-04-15 2007-12-11 Sensors For Medicine And Science, Inc. Optical-based sensing devices
US20070299318A1 (en) * 2006-06-09 2007-12-27 Avita Corporation Medical monitoring device with remote transmission function
US20080027323A1 (en) * 2004-02-26 2008-01-31 Siemens Medical Solutions Usa, Inc. Steered continuous wave doppler methods and systems for two-dimensional ultrasound transducer arrays
US20080077026A1 (en) * 2006-09-07 2008-03-27 Triage Wireless, Inc. Hand-held vital signs monitor
US20080082004A1 (en) * 2006-09-08 2008-04-03 Triage Wireless, Inc. Blood pressure monitor
US20080114220A1 (en) * 2006-11-10 2008-05-15 Triage Wireless, Inc. Two-part patch sensor for monitoring vital signs
US7396330B2 (en) * 2003-01-07 2008-07-08 Triage Data Networks Wireless, internet-based medical-diagnostic system
US20080195043A1 (en) * 2005-05-18 2008-08-14 Koninklijke Philips Electrics N.V. Cannula Inserting System
US20080221399A1 (en) * 2007-03-05 2008-09-11 Triage Wireless, Inc. Monitor for measuring vital signs and rendering video images
US20080221461A1 (en) * 2007-03-05 2008-09-11 Triage Wireless, Inc. Vital sign monitor for cufflessly measuring blood pressure without using an external calibration

Family Cites Families (14)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US627078A (en) * 1899-06-13 Wagon-tongue
US5113869A (en) 1990-08-21 1992-05-19 Telectronics Pacing Systems, Inc. Implantable ambulatory electrocardiogram monitor
DE69229554D1 (en) 1991-05-16 1999-08-12 Non Invasive Technology Inc Hemoglobin measurement for determination of metabolic parameters of a person
US5370114A (en) 1992-03-12 1994-12-06 Wong; Jacob Y. Non-invasive blood chemistry measurement by stimulated infrared relaxation emission
US6175832B1 (en) * 1998-05-11 2001-01-16 International Business Machines Corporation Method, system and program product for establishing a data reporting and display communication over a network
US7238158B2 (en) * 1999-05-28 2007-07-03 Allez Physionix, Ltd. Pulse interleaving in doppler ultrasound imaging
US6409675B1 (en) * 1999-11-10 2002-06-25 Pacesetter, Inc. Extravascular hemodynamic monitor
CN1713849B (en) 2001-08-13 2010-05-05 诺沃挪第克公司 Portable device and method of communicating medical data information
DE60334231D1 (en) * 2002-03-08 2010-10-28 Univ Virginia Intuitive ultrasound system and related procedures
DE102005032028A1 (en) * 2005-07-08 2007-01-18 Siemens Ag Device for protecting a display device
EP1904581B1 (en) 2005-07-14 2013-04-10 Agfa Graphics N.V. Pigment dispersions with polymeric dispersants having pending chromophore groups
US8118750B2 (en) * 2005-10-21 2012-02-21 Medtronic, Inc. Flow sensors for penile tumescence
WO2007066343A2 (en) 2005-12-08 2007-06-14 Dan Furman Implantable biosensor assembly and health monitoring system
GB0607270D0 (en) 2006-04-11 2006-05-17 Univ Nottingham The pulsing blood supply

Patent Citations (80)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4770177A (en) * 1986-02-18 1988-09-13 Telectronics N.V. Apparatus and method for adjusting heart/pacer relative to changes in venous diameter during exercise to obtain a required cardiac output.
US5174295A (en) * 1987-04-10 1992-12-29 Cardiometrics, Inc. Apparatus, system and method for measuring spatial average velocity and/or volumetric flow of blood in a vessel and screw joint for use therewith
US5112869A (en) * 1989-04-04 1992-05-12 Sloan-Kettering Institute For Cancer Research Substituted 1-phenylnaphthalenes
US5309916A (en) * 1990-07-18 1994-05-10 Avl Medical Instruments Ag Blood pressure measuring device and method
US5218962A (en) * 1991-04-15 1993-06-15 Nellcor Incorporated Multiple region pulse oximetry probe and oximeter
US5544649A (en) * 1992-03-25 1996-08-13 Cardiomedix, Inc. Ambulatory patient health monitoring techniques utilizing interactive visual communication
US5464434A (en) * 1992-04-03 1995-11-07 Intermedics, Inc. Medical interventional device responsive to sudden hemodynamic change
US5836884A (en) * 1993-12-17 1998-11-17 Pulse Metric, Inc. Method for diagnosing, monitoring and treating hypertension and other cardiac problems
US5409009A (en) * 1994-03-18 1995-04-25 Medtronic, Inc. Methods for measurement of arterial blood flow
US5488953A (en) * 1994-04-15 1996-02-06 Ecocath, Inc. Diffracting doppler-transducer
US5817009A (en) * 1994-11-28 1998-10-06 Mipm Mammendorfer Institut Fuer Physik Und Medizin Gmbh Arrangement for noninvasive determination of the oxygen saturation in human blood vessels or organs
US5772589A (en) * 1995-02-13 1998-06-30 Bernreuter; Peter Measurement process for blood gas analysis sensors
US5558092A (en) * 1995-06-06 1996-09-24 Imarx Pharmaceutical Corp. Methods and apparatus for performing diagnostic and therapeutic ultrasound simultaneously
US5606972A (en) * 1995-08-10 1997-03-04 Advanced Technology Laboratories, Inc. Ultrasonic doppler measurement of blood flow velocities by array transducers
US6261233B1 (en) * 1996-01-05 2001-07-17 Sunlight Medical Ltd. Method and device for a blood velocity determination
US5833603A (en) * 1996-03-13 1998-11-10 Lipomatrix, Inc. Implantable biosensing transponder
US5713939A (en) * 1996-09-16 1998-02-03 Sulzer Intermedics Inc. Data communication system for control of transcutaneous energy transmission to an implantable medical device
US6053873A (en) * 1997-01-03 2000-04-25 Biosense, Inc. Pressure-sensing stent
US6398731B1 (en) * 1997-07-25 2002-06-04 Tomtec Imaging Systems Gmbh Method for recording ultrasound images of moving objects
US6176832B1 (en) * 1997-09-01 2001-01-23 Terumo Kabushiki Kaisha Cardiovascular information measurement system
US6231516B1 (en) * 1997-10-14 2001-05-15 Vacusense, Inc. Endoluminal implant with therapeutic and diagnostic capability
US6334850B1 (en) * 1997-11-19 2002-01-01 Seiko Epson Corporation Method of detecting pulse wave, method of detecting artery position, and pulse wave detecting apparatus
US5995208A (en) * 1998-05-28 1999-11-30 Abbott Laboratories Intravascular oximetry catheter
US20030097068A1 (en) * 1998-06-02 2003-05-22 Acuson Corporation Medical diagnostic ultrasound system and method for versatile processing
US6206835B1 (en) * 1999-03-24 2001-03-27 The B. F. Goodrich Company Remotely interrogated diagnostic implant device with electrically passive sensor
US20040077934A1 (en) * 1999-07-06 2004-04-22 Intercure Ltd. Interventive-diagnostic device
US6277078B1 (en) * 1999-11-19 2001-08-21 Remon Medical Technologies, Ltd. System and method for monitoring a parameter associated with the performance of a heart
US6485418B2 (en) * 2000-03-17 2002-11-26 Pioneer Corporation Health monitoring system
US6475153B1 (en) * 2000-05-10 2002-11-05 Motorola Inc. Method for obtaining blood pressure data from optical sensor
US20020010390A1 (en) * 2000-05-10 2002-01-24 Guice David Lehmann Method and system for monitoring the health and status of livestock and other animals
US7272428B2 (en) * 2000-07-18 2007-09-18 Motorola, Inc. Wireless electrocardiograph system and method
US6622322B1 (en) * 2000-09-05 2003-09-23 Panduit Corp. Crib side rail
US20060100530A1 (en) * 2000-11-28 2006-05-11 Allez Physionix Limited Systems and methods for non-invasive detection and monitoring of cardiac and blood parameters
US20020095087A1 (en) * 2000-11-28 2002-07-18 Mourad Pierre D. Systems and methods for making noninvasive physiological assessments
US20020095092A1 (en) * 2000-12-06 2002-07-18 Kabushiki Gaisya K-And-S Pulse wave measuring apparatus and pulse wave measuring method
US20030034887A1 (en) * 2001-03-12 2003-02-20 Crabtree Timothy L. Article locator system
US6929610B2 (en) * 2001-05-14 2005-08-16 Microlife Intellectual Property Gmbh Non-invasive measurement of blood pressure
US20030139778A1 (en) * 2002-01-22 2003-07-24 Fischell Robert E. Rapid response system for the detection and treatment of cardiac events
US20040046016A1 (en) * 2002-09-05 2004-03-11 Honeywell International Inc. Rfid tag having multiple transceivers
US6609023B1 (en) * 2002-09-20 2003-08-19 Angel Medical Systems, Inc. System for the detection of cardiac events
US20050245882A1 (en) * 2002-09-20 2005-11-03 Flowmedica, Inc. Method and apparatus for intra-aortic substance delivery to a branch vessel
US20040106953A1 (en) * 2002-10-04 2004-06-03 Yomtov Barry M. Medical device for controlled drug delivery and cardiac monitoring and/or stimulation
US7127300B2 (en) * 2002-12-23 2006-10-24 Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc. Method and apparatus for enabling data communication between an implantable medical device and a patient management system
US7396330B2 (en) * 2003-01-07 2008-07-08 Triage Data Networks Wireless, internet-based medical-diagnostic system
US20050096557A1 (en) * 2003-01-08 2005-05-05 Frederick Vosburgh Noninvasive cardiovascular monitoring methods and devices
US20040220637A1 (en) * 2003-01-24 2004-11-04 Proteus Biomedical, Inc. Method and apparatus for enhancing cardiac pacing
US7267649B2 (en) * 2003-01-24 2007-09-11 Proteus Biomedical, Inc. Method and system for remote hemodynamic monitoring
US20040167416A1 (en) * 2003-02-26 2004-08-26 Medtronic, Inc. Method and apparatus for monitoring heart function in a subcutaneously implanted device
US20040236223A1 (en) * 2003-05-22 2004-11-25 Siemens Medical Solutions Usa, Inc.. Transducer arrays with an integrated sensor and methods of use
US7125383B2 (en) * 2003-12-30 2006-10-24 General Electric Company Method and apparatus for ultrasonic continuous, non-invasive blood pressure monitoring
US20050261594A1 (en) * 2004-01-06 2005-11-24 Triage Wireless, Inc. Vital signs monitor used for conditioning a patient's response
US20080027323A1 (en) * 2004-02-26 2008-01-31 Siemens Medical Solutions Usa, Inc. Steered continuous wave doppler methods and systems for two-dimensional ultrasound transducer arrays
US20050216199A1 (en) * 2004-03-26 2005-09-29 Triage Data Networks Cuffless blood-pressure monitor and accompanying web services interface
US7238159B2 (en) * 2004-04-07 2007-07-03 Triage Wireless, Inc. Device, system and method for monitoring vital signs
US7004907B2 (en) * 2004-04-07 2006-02-28 Triage Wireless, Inc. Blood-pressure monitoring device featuring a calibration-based analysis
US20050245831A1 (en) * 2004-04-07 2005-11-03 Triage Wireless, Inc. Patch sensor for measuring blood pressure without a cuff
US20060009697A1 (en) * 2004-04-07 2006-01-12 Triage Wireless, Inc. Wireless, internet-based system for measuring vital signs from a plurality of patients in a hospital or medical clinic
US20050228299A1 (en) * 2004-04-07 2005-10-13 Triage Wireless, Inc. Patch sensor for measuring blood pressure without a cuff
US7179228B2 (en) * 2004-04-07 2007-02-20 Triage Wireless, Inc. Cuffless system for measuring blood pressure
US20050228300A1 (en) * 2004-04-07 2005-10-13 Triage Data Networks Cuffless blood-pressure monitor and accompanying wireless mobile device
US20060009698A1 (en) * 2004-04-07 2006-01-12 Triage Wireless, Inc. Hand-held monitor for measuring vital signs
US20060129038A1 (en) * 2004-12-14 2006-06-15 Zelenchuk Alex R Optical determination of in vivo properties
US20060253007A1 (en) * 2005-03-30 2006-11-09 Skyline Biomedical, Inc. Apparatus and method for non-invasive and minimally-invasive sensing of parameters relating to blood
US20060224053A1 (en) * 2005-03-30 2006-10-05 Skyline Biomedical, Inc. Apparatus and method for non-invasive and minimally-invasive sensing of venous oxygen saturation and pH levels
US7308292B2 (en) * 2005-04-15 2007-12-11 Sensors For Medicine And Science, Inc. Optical-based sensing devices
US20080195043A1 (en) * 2005-05-18 2008-08-14 Koninklijke Philips Electrics N.V. Cannula Inserting System
US20070088214A1 (en) * 2005-10-14 2007-04-19 Cardiac Pacemakers Inc. Implantable physiologic monitoring system
US20070093702A1 (en) * 2005-10-26 2007-04-26 Skyline Biomedical, Inc. Apparatus and method for non-invasive and minimally-invasive sensing of parameters relating to blood
US20070142715A1 (en) * 2005-12-20 2007-06-21 Triage Wireless, Inc. Chest strap for measuring vital signs
US20070185393A1 (en) * 2006-02-03 2007-08-09 Triage Wireless, Inc. System for measuring vital signs using an optical module featuring a green light source
US20070244398A1 (en) * 2006-04-12 2007-10-18 Lo Thomas Y Power saving techniques for continuous heart rate monitoring
US20070265533A1 (en) * 2006-05-12 2007-11-15 Bao Tran Cuffless blood pressure monitoring appliance
US20070276261A1 (en) * 2006-05-25 2007-11-29 Triage Wireless, Inc. Bilateral device, system and method for monitoring vital signs
US20070276632A1 (en) * 2006-05-26 2007-11-29 Triage Wireless, Inc. System for measuring vital signs using bilateral pulse transit time
US20070299318A1 (en) * 2006-06-09 2007-12-27 Avita Corporation Medical monitoring device with remote transmission function
US20080077026A1 (en) * 2006-09-07 2008-03-27 Triage Wireless, Inc. Hand-held vital signs monitor
US20080082004A1 (en) * 2006-09-08 2008-04-03 Triage Wireless, Inc. Blood pressure monitor
US20080114220A1 (en) * 2006-11-10 2008-05-15 Triage Wireless, Inc. Two-part patch sensor for monitoring vital signs
US20080221461A1 (en) * 2007-03-05 2008-09-11 Triage Wireless, Inc. Vital sign monitor for cufflessly measuring blood pressure without using an external calibration
US20080221399A1 (en) * 2007-03-05 2008-09-11 Triage Wireless, Inc. Monitor for measuring vital signs and rendering video images

Cited By (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US10039520B2 (en) 2005-04-13 2018-08-07 Aum Cardiovascular, Inc Detection of coronary artery disease using an electronic stethoscope
US9138144B2 (en) * 2010-01-11 2015-09-22 Card Guard Scientific Survival Ltd. Adhesive bandage and a method for controlling patient information
EP3210580A1 (en) 2010-01-11 2017-08-30 Card Guard Scientific Survival Ltd. An adhesive bandage and a method for controlling patient information
US20130120157A1 (en) * 2010-01-11 2013-05-16 Card Guard Scientific Survival Ltd. Adhesive bandage and a method for controlling patient information
US20110218418A1 (en) * 2010-03-02 2011-09-08 Medtronic, Inc. Identification patch for a medical system
US8525643B2 (en) 2010-03-02 2013-09-03 Medtronic, Inc. Medical system with identification patch
US20110218408A1 (en) * 2010-03-02 2011-09-08 Medtronic, Inc. Medical system with identification patch
WO2011109183A1 (en) 2010-03-02 2011-09-09 Medtronic, Inc. Identification patch for a medical system
WO2011109184A1 (en) 2010-03-02 2011-09-09 Medtronic, Inc. Medical system with identification patch
US20160106390A1 (en) * 2013-06-07 2016-04-21 Guardsman Scientific, Inc. Systems and methods for securing a peripheral ultrasound device

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
US20080249379A1 (en) 2008-10-09
US20080221419A1 (en) 2008-09-11
US9037208B2 (en) 2015-05-19
US20080275321A1 (en) 2008-11-06
US8442606B2 (en) 2013-05-14
US8298148B2 (en) 2012-10-30
IL185609D0 (en) 2008-01-06

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
EP1006871B1 (en) Remote monitoring apparatus for medical conditions
US8150530B2 (en) Activity sensing for stimulator control
US8834364B2 (en) System and method for monitoring cardiorespiratory parameters
US8920355B2 (en) Acoustic access disconnection systems and methods
US8989837B2 (en) Methods and systems for determining fluid content of tissue
US8073541B2 (en) Remote control of implantable device through medical implant communication service band
US7004907B2 (en) Blood-pressure monitoring device featuring a calibration-based analysis
EP2155050B1 (en) Haptic health feedback monitoring
AU2007221954B2 (en) Strap System for Substantially Securing a Pressure Sensor at a Predetermined Location Adjacent an Artery
JP4011631B2 (en) Pressure sensitive stent
US20100286527A1 (en) Ultrasound system with multi-head wireless probe
CN1291697C (en) Integrated cardiac resuscitation system with ability to detect perfusion
JP4693957B2 (en) Acoustic biosensing system implantable
US9364362B2 (en) Implantable device system
US7460899B2 (en) Apparatus and method for monitoring heart rate variability
US6514211B1 (en) Method and apparatus for the noninvasive determination of arterial blood pressure
US7035684B2 (en) Method and apparatus for monitoring heart function in a subcutaneously implanted device
US6015386A (en) System including an implantable device and methods of use for determining blood pressure and other blood parameters of a living being
US5544651A (en) Medical system and associated method for automatic treatment
US5239997A (en) Diagnostic apparatus utilizing low frequency sound waves
US7211048B1 (en) System for monitoring conduit obstruction
US8078278B2 (en) Body attachable unit in wireless communication with implantable devices
US20060106310A1 (en) Ultrasonic monitor for measuring blood flow and pulse rates
US6092530A (en) Remotely interrogated implant device with sensor for detecting accretion of biological matter
US20070149883A1 (en) Method for detecting heart beat and determining heart and respiration rate

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
AS Assignment

Owner name: CARDIO ART TECHNOLOGIES, LTD., ISRAEL

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:FURMAN, DAN GUR;REEL/FRAME:021016/0178

Effective date: 20080522

AS Assignment

Owner name: MEDTRONIC NAVIGATION ISRAEL LTD., MINNESOTA

Free format text: SECURITY AGREEMENT;ASSIGNOR:CARDIO ART TECHNOLOGIES LTD.;REEL/FRAME:022821/0129

Effective date: 20090602

STCB Information on status: application discontinuation

Free format text: ABANDONED -- FAILURE TO RESPOND TO AN OFFICE ACTION