US20080279658A1 - Batch equipment robots and methods within equipment work-piece transfer for photovoltaic factory - Google Patents

Batch equipment robots and methods within equipment work-piece transfer for photovoltaic factory Download PDF

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Publication number
US20080279658A1
US20080279658A1 US11/747,372 US74737207A US2008279658A1 US 20080279658 A1 US20080279658 A1 US 20080279658A1 US 74737207 A US74737207 A US 74737207A US 2008279658 A1 US2008279658 A1 US 2008279658A1
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work
plurality
end effector
array end
pieces
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US11/747,372
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Robert Z. Bachrach
Avi Tepman
Alexander S. Polyak
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Applied Materials Inc
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Applied Materials Inc
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Assigned to APPLIED MATERIALS, INC. reassignment APPLIED MATERIALS, INC. ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: POLYAK, ALEXANDER S., BACHRACH, ROBERT Z., TEPMAN, AVI
Publication of US20080279658A1 publication Critical patent/US20080279658A1/en
Application status is Abandoned legal-status Critical

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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B25HAND TOOLS; PORTABLE POWER-DRIVEN TOOLS; MANIPULATORS
    • B25JMANIPULATORS; CHAMBERS PROVIDED WITH MANIPULATION DEVICES
    • B25J15/00Gripping heads and other end effectors
    • B25J15/0052Gripping heads and other end effectors multiple gripper units or multiple end effectors
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B25HAND TOOLS; PORTABLE POWER-DRIVEN TOOLS; MANIPULATORS
    • B25JMANIPULATORS; CHAMBERS PROVIDED WITH MANIPULATION DEVICES
    • B25J15/00Gripping heads and other end effectors
    • B25J15/02Gripping heads and other end effectors servo-actuated
    • B25J15/0206Gripping heads and other end effectors servo-actuated comprising articulated grippers
    • B25J15/0226Gripping heads and other end effectors servo-actuated comprising articulated grippers actuated by cams
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L21/00Processes or apparatus adapted for the manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or solid state devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L21/67Apparatus specially adapted for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus specially adapted for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components ; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere
    • H01L21/67005Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere
    • H01L21/67011Apparatus for manufacture or treatment
    • H01L21/67155Apparatus for manufacturing or treating in a plurality of work-stations
    • H01L21/67236Apparatus for manufacturing or treating in a plurality of work-stations the substrates being processed being not semiconductor wafers, e.g. leadframes or chips
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L21/00Processes or apparatus adapted for the manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or solid state devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L21/67Apparatus specially adapted for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus specially adapted for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components ; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere
    • H01L21/67005Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere
    • H01L21/67242Apparatus for monitoring, sorting or marking
    • H01L21/67276Production flow monitoring, e.g. for increasing throughput
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L21/00Processes or apparatus adapted for the manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or solid state devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L21/67Apparatus specially adapted for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus specially adapted for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components ; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere
    • H01L21/677Apparatus specially adapted for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus specially adapted for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components ; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere for conveying, e.g. between different workstations
    • H01L21/67703Apparatus specially adapted for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus specially adapted for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components ; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere for conveying, e.g. between different workstations between different workstations
    • H01L21/67715Changing the direction of the conveying path
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L21/00Processes or apparatus adapted for the manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or solid state devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L21/67Apparatus specially adapted for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus specially adapted for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components ; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere
    • H01L21/677Apparatus specially adapted for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus specially adapted for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components ; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere for conveying, e.g. between different workstations
    • H01L21/67703Apparatus specially adapted for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus specially adapted for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components ; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere for conveying, e.g. between different workstations between different workstations
    • H01L21/67721Apparatus specially adapted for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus specially adapted for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components ; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere for conveying, e.g. between different workstations between different workstations the substrates to be conveyed not being semiconductor wafers or large planar substrates, e.g. chips, lead frames
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L21/00Processes or apparatus adapted for the manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or solid state devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L21/67Apparatus specially adapted for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus specially adapted for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components ; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere
    • H01L21/677Apparatus specially adapted for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus specially adapted for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components ; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere for conveying, e.g. between different workstations
    • H01L21/67703Apparatus specially adapted for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus specially adapted for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components ; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere for conveying, e.g. between different workstations between different workstations
    • H01L21/67733Overhead conveying
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L21/00Processes or apparatus adapted for the manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or solid state devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L21/67Apparatus specially adapted for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus specially adapted for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components ; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere
    • H01L21/677Apparatus specially adapted for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus specially adapted for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components ; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere for conveying, e.g. between different workstations
    • H01L21/67703Apparatus specially adapted for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus specially adapted for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components ; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere for conveying, e.g. between different workstations between different workstations
    • H01L21/67736Loading to or unloading from a conveyor
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L21/00Processes or apparatus adapted for the manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or solid state devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L21/67Apparatus specially adapted for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus specially adapted for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components ; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere
    • H01L21/677Apparatus specially adapted for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus specially adapted for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components ; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere for conveying, e.g. between different workstations
    • H01L21/67739Apparatus specially adapted for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus specially adapted for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components ; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere for conveying, e.g. between different workstations into and out of processing chamber
    • H01L21/67742Mechanical parts of transfer devices
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L21/00Processes or apparatus adapted for the manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or solid state devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L21/67Apparatus specially adapted for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus specially adapted for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components ; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere
    • H01L21/677Apparatus specially adapted for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus specially adapted for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components ; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere for conveying, e.g. between different workstations
    • H01L21/67739Apparatus specially adapted for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus specially adapted for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components ; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere for conveying, e.g. between different workstations into and out of processing chamber
    • H01L21/67748Apparatus specially adapted for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus specially adapted for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components ; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere for conveying, e.g. between different workstations into and out of processing chamber horizontal transfer of a single workpiece

Abstract

The present invention generally comprises equipment for an automated high volume batch work-piece manufacturing factory comprising work-piece handling and work-piece processing in a high productivity factory architecture capable of producing 1,000 or more work-piece an hour. The work-pieces may be presented to the equipment from a stacked supply to a parallel array. Additionally, the work-pieces may be transferred between manufacturing architectures by an array to array batch transfer. The work-pieces may be transferred within the manufacturing architecture in a parallel to parallel batch transfer operation. The robotic operations may be between robotic devices, between robotic devices and processing equipment, and within processing equipment.

Description

    CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
  • This application is related to U.S. patent application Ser. No. ______ (Attorney Docket No. APPM/011215/NBD/NBNP/KCHANG), filed on an even date herewith, U.S. patent application Ser. No. ______ (Attorney Docket No. APPM/011212/NBD/NBNP/KCHANG), filed on an even date herewith, U.S. patent application Ser. No. ______ (Attorney Docket No. APPM/011213/NBD/NBNP/KCHANG), filed on an even date herewith. Each of the aforementioned patent applications is hereby incorporated by reference.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • 1. Field of the Invention
  • Embodiments of the present invention generally describe automated equipment for batch array work-piece handling and processing in a high productivity factory architecture sized for producing 1,000 or more work-pieces an hour and as high as 40,000 per hour or more.
  • 2. Description of the Related Art
  • Solar energy from the sun may be converted to electricity by utilizing a solar power technology called photovoltaics (PV) that uses solar cells tiled into modules. Solar cells produce direct current electricity from the sun's rays, which can be used to power equipment, to recharge batteries, or be converted to AC power for on-grid applications.
  • Increased productivity for manufacturing of PV cells and modules requires batch processing of multiple solar cell work-pieces simultaneously if supply is to meet customer demand. To produce the PV cells and modules, numerous processes may need to be performed upon a work-piece. The work-piece may thus need to be moved from one processing tool to another processing tool with an efficient method. A processing tool may comprise one or more chambers coupled together. For example, a processing tool that performs a vacuum based process may comprise one or more processing chambers and one or more load lock chambers coupled together. For a non-vacuum process such as metrology, the processing tool may comprise one or more metrology chambers.
  • Therefore, there is a need in the art for achieving high productivity and low cost automated robotic handling of a plurality of solar cell work-pieces from one robotic device to another connecting process chambers and process equipment.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • The present invention generally comprises equipment for an automated high volume work-piece manufacturing architecture comprising array work-piece handling and array work-piece processing organized in a regular fashion from a group of lines comprising parallel channels. For descriptive purposes, factory architecture supports a river of work-pieces comprising streams (lines) which are further sub-divided into one or more channels. Channels may operate in a continuous conveyor in some cases and in segmented piece-wise continuous batches in others. The batch array may be 1 or 2 dimensions, (i.e., 1×n or n×m work-pieces).
  • The work-pieces may be transported or presented to the equipment from a stacked supply to a parallel array of channels comprising a stream. Additionally, the work-pieces may be transferred between manufacturing architecture entities by an array to array batch transfer of channels. The work-pieces may be transferred within the manufacturing architecture in a parallel to parallel batch transfer operation as opposed to one work-piece at a time. The robotic operations on the streams of work-pieces may be between robotic devices, between robotic devices and processing equipment, and within processing equipment.
  • In one embodiment, a work-piece batch transfer apparatus is disclosed. The apparatus comprises a track extending between a plurality of chambers of a processing system, a first robot coupled with the track for movement on the track, a first array end effector disposed on the first robot, the first array end effector having a plurality of first fingers between which one or more work-pieces may be disposed, a second robot coupled with the track for movement along the track, and a second array end effector disposed on the second robot, the second array end effector having a plurality of second fingers and each of the second fingers aligned on a common axis with a corresponding first finger.
  • In another embodiment, a work-piece transfer method is disclosed. The method comprises moving a first array end effector having a plurality of work-pieces disposed thereon from a first load lock chamber into a processing chamber, the first array end effector moving along a track, elevating the plurality of work-pieces by raising a plurality of lift pins, retracting the first array end effector to the first load lock chamber along the track, moving a second array end effector from a second load lock chamber into the processing chamber along the track, lowering the plurality of lift pins to dispose the plurality of work-pieces on the second array end effector, and retracting the second array end effector to the second load lock chamber.
  • In yet another embodiment, a work-piece transfer method is disclosed. The method comprises moving a first array end effector along a track between a first load lock chamber and a processing chamber, the first array end effector having a plurality of first fingers having a plurality of work-pieces disposed therebetween, disposing the plurality of work-pieces on a plurality of lift pins in the processing chamber, retracting the first array end effector from the processing chamber, moving a second array end effector along the track between a second load lock chamber and the processing chamber, the second array end effector having a plurality of second fingers with each finger aligned along a common axis with a corresponding first finger, retrieving the plurality of work-pieces from the plurality of lift pins, and retracting the second array end effector from the processing chamber.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • So that the manner in which the above recited features of the present invention can be understood in detail, a more particular description of the invention, briefly summarized above, may be had by reference to embodiments, some of which are illustrated in the appended drawings. It is to be noted, however, that the appended drawings illustrate only typical embodiments of this invention with particular one and two dimensional arrays and are therefore not to be considered limiting of its scope, for the invention may admit to other equally effective embodiments.
  • FIG. 1 is a top view of a processing system according to an embodiment of the invention.
  • FIG. 2 is a side view of the processing system of FIG. 1.
  • FIG. 3A is a front view of the processing system of FIG. 1.
  • FIG. 3B is a perspective view of the processing system of FIG. 1 showing the linear array of work-pieces picked up from the stack.
  • FIGS. 4A-4D show a sequence of transferring a work-piece from a stack arrangement to a linear array arrangement according to an embodiment of the invention.
  • FIGS. 5A-5C show a sequence of gripping a work-piece by the processing system according to an embodiment of the invention.
  • FIG. 6 is a front view of the processing system of FIG. 1 having a plurality of work-pieces retrieved from a stack of work-pieces as a linear array.
  • FIG. 7 is a top view of the processing system of FIG. 1 having a plurality of work-pieces positioned over an array end effector on the insertion robot.
  • FIGS. 8A-8C show a sequence of disposing work-pieces onto the array end effector of the insertion robot according to an embodiment of the invention.
  • FIG. 9A is a front view of a plurality of work-pieces being disposed onto the array end effector of the insertion robot according to an embodiment of the invention.
  • FIG. 9B is a close up view of FIG. 9A.
  • FIG. 10 is a top view of the processing system of FIG. 1 having the array end effector of the insertion robot partially inserted into the processing tool.
  • FIG. 11 is top view of the processing system of FIG. 1 having the array end effector of the insertion robot inserted into the processing tool.
  • FIGS. 12A-12D show a sequence of disposing the work-pieces onto the work-piece receivers in the processing tool according to an embodiment of the invention.
  • FIG. 13 is a top view of the processing system of FIG. 1 having a plurality of work-pieces disposed within the processing tool and the array end effector of the insertion robot retracted to receive additional work-pieces.
  • FIG. 14 is a top view of a processing system according to another embodiment of the invention.
  • FIG. 15 is a top view of the array end effector of a transfer robot extending into the processing tool according to one embodiment of the invention.
  • FIG. 16 a top view of the array end effector of the transfer robot of FIG. 15 having retrieved a plurality of work-pieces from the processing tool.
  • FIG. 17 is a top view of the array end effector of the transfer robot of FIG. 16 rotating.
  • FIG. 18 is a top view of the array end effector of the transfer robot of FIG. 17 rotated to insert the work-pieces into another processing tool.
  • FIG. 19 is a top view of the array end effector of the transfer robot of FIG. 18 inserted into another processing tool.
  • FIG. 20 is a top view of the processing system of FIG. 14 having the plurality of work-pieces disposed within another processing tool.
  • FIG. 21 is a top view of the array end effector of a work-piece unloading robot extending into a processing tool to retrieve a plurality of work-pieces.
  • FIG. 22 is a top view of the array end effector of the work-piece unloading robot unloading a plurality of work-pieces.
  • FIGS. 23A and 23B are schematic views of a plurality of processing tools coupled together.
  • FIG. 24 is a top view of a parallel to parallel transfer arrangement for a processing tool according to one embodiment of the invention.
  • FIG. 25 is a top view of the processing tool of FIG. 24 with an array end effector extending into the processing chamber.
  • FIG. 26 is a cross sectional view of FIG. 25.
  • FIG. 27 is a cross sectional view of the processing tool of FIG. 24 with the array end effector extending into the processing chamber.
  • FIG. 28 is a cross sectional view of the processing tool of FIG. 24 with the work-pieces received on lift pins in the processing chamber.
  • FIG. 29 is a cross sectional view of the processing tool of FIG. 24 with another array end effector entered into the processing chamber to retrieve the work-pieces.
  • FIG. 30 is a top view of the processing tool of FIG. 24 with a plurality of work-pieces inserted into the processing chamber.
  • FIG. 31 is a top view of the processing tool of FIG. 24 with a plurality of work-pieces retrieved from the processing chamber into the unload lock chamber.
  • FIG. 32 is a schematic view of a FAB within which photovoltaic work-pieces may be processed.
  • To facilitate understanding, identical reference numerals have been used, where possible, to designate identical elements that are common to the figures. It is contemplated that elements and features of one embodiment may be beneficially incorporated in other embodiments without further recitation.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION
  • The present invention generally comprises equipment for an automated high volume work-piece manufacturing architecture comprising work-piece handling and work-piece processing. FIG. 32 shows a schematic view of a FAB, sometimes referred to as a factory, within which photovoltaic work-pieces may be processed by introducing the work-pieces to a processing line. Processing lines may alternatively be referred to as streams. A plurality of identical processing lines within a FAB may be referred to as a river. The work-pieces may initially be stacked one on top of another, but transferred from the stacked arrangement to an array arrangement before introduction to the processing line. The individual arrays within the processing lines or streams, arranged adjacent to each other as shown by the arrows, may be referred to as array channels.
  • The work-pieces may be transferred between processing tools along a processing line or stream by an array to array transfer whereby an array of work-pieces may be transferred from one processing tool to another processing tool as an array rather than individually transferring the work-pieces one at a time. The various processing tools may include one or more metrology tools. The processing tool may be arranged in a flow through manner whereby the processing tools are arranged in a linear fashion, a flow-by arrangement whereby the processing tools are arranged in a non-linear fashion, or a combination of flow through and flow-by arrangements. The work-pieces may be transferred within the manufacturing architecture in a parallel to parallel batch transfer operation. The robotic operations for the transfers may be between robotic devices, between robotic devices and processing equipment, and within processing equipment.
  • Whenever a processing tool within any processing line is shut-down, rather than shut-down the entire processing line containing the shut-down processing tool, work-pieces may be routed around the shut-down processing tool by transferring the work-pieces to an adjacent processing line within the FAB at an interchange node. The plurality of work-pieces may be transferred to other processing lines or streams through buffer or stocker stations. A buffer station may permit transfer between adjacent processing lines or streams while a stocker station may permit transfer between non-adjacent processing lines or streams. The buffer stations may additionally be used to store work-pieces while waiting to be disposed into the next processing tool. At a location after the shut-down processing tool, the work-pieces may be transferred back to the processing line containing the shut-down processing tool through buffer or stocker stations. After the processing within the processing line or stream is completed, the work-pieces may be transferred from an array arrangement back to a stack arrangement. During the time period that the processing tool is shut-down, the other processing lines within the FAB may increase their throughput in order to maintain a substantially constant optimum throughput for the FAB over a given period of time. As used throughout this application, the term array, sometimes referred to as a matrix, may be understood to encompass an arrangement of work-pieces in an n×m manner where n≧1 and m≧1 where at least one or n or m is greater than 1. An array is a set of photovoltaic work-pieces laid out in tabular form, often in rows, columns, or rows and columns. A batch array is a group of arrays. Batch array transferring refers to transferring a group of arrays.
  • While the description herein may comprise a discussion of batch work-piece transfer within processing tools, array to array transfer of work-pieces between tools, and stack to array work-piece transferring, the claims that follow may be directed to batch work-piece transfer of photovoltaic work-pieces within processing tools.
  • FIG. 1 is a top view of a processing system 100 according to an embodiment of the invention. The processing system 100 may include a processing tool 102, a stack-to-parallel loader robot 104, and an insertion robot 106. The processing tool 102 may comprise a plurality of walls 108 that may bound a processing space for the processing tool 102. While only shown as one chamber, it is to be understood that the processing tool 102 refers to one or more chambers coupled together to accomplish one or more processing steps in a manufacturing process. The one or more chambers may comprise load lock chambers, processing chambers, metrology chambers, etc. The processing chambers may comprise chemical vapor deposition (CVD) chambers, physical vapor deposition (PVD) chambers, etching chambers, cleaning chambers, etc. The work-pieces, during processing, may be disposed on one or more receivers 110 within the processing tool 102. The receivers 110 may comprise one or more lift pins or a plurality of rods that span the chamber. In one embodiment, the work-pieces may comprise solar cell work-pieces.
  • The work-pieces may be inserted into the processing tool 102 by an insertion robot 106. The insertion robot 106 may be movable along a track 116 between a position where work-pieces may be disposed onto the insertion robot 106 and a position for disposing the work-pieces into the processing chamber 102. The insertion robot 106 may comprise an array end effector having one or more fingers 112 that extend from a palm portion 114. An end effector may comprise a device at the end of a robotic arm, designed to interact with an environment. The exact nature of the end effector depends on the application of the robot. The end effector is, in essence, the “hand” connected to a robot's arm which may retain the photovoltaic work-pieces. An array end effector is an end effector capable of retaining one or more arrays of photovoltaic work-pieces as opposed to a single work-piece. Each finger 112 may comprise one or more slots 126 for holding one or more work-pieces. In one embodiment, the array end effector may comprise eight fingers 112 with each finger 112 comprising eight slots 126. The slots 126 may be arranged on the array end effector to have a plurality of rows of slots 126 along the plurality of fingers 112. While the invention is described below within regards to eight fingers 112 having eight slots 125, it is to be understood that more or less fingers 112 having more or less slots 126 may be utilized depending upon the desired batch work-piece size and required equipment throughput.
  • The work-pieces may be disposed onto the array end effector by a stack-to-parallel loader robot 104. The loader robot 104 may comprise one or more work-piece retrievers 124 disposed on a bar 122. In one embodiment, the one or more work-piece retrievers 124 may comprise eight work-piece retrievers 124. The bar 122 may be movable within a plane perpendicular to track 116 upon which the insertion robot 106 may move. The bar 122 may extend from a movement mechanism 120 that moves along a track 118 for positioning the work-piece retrievers 124 selectively over the work-pieces and the slots 126 on the fingers 112 of the array end effector.
  • FIG. 2 is a side view of the processing system of FIG. 1. As may be seen from FIG. 2, the processing tool 102 may comprise a top 202 and bottom 204. Sidewalls 218 that extend within a plane parallel to the track 118 upon which the bar 122 moves may extend between the top 202 and bottom 204 of the processing tool 102. The sidewalls 218 may each comprise an opening 208 a, 208 b. The array end effector of the insertion robot 106 may enter the processing tool 102 through the opening 208 a to dispose the work-pieces within the processing tool 102. Similarly, another robot (not shown) may enter the processing tool 102 from the opening 208 b and retrieve the work-pieces after processing. The processing tool 102 may be elevated from the ground by a plurality of legs 206.
  • The track 118 upon which the movement mechanism 120 of the stack-to-parallel loader robot 104 moves may be positioned above the fingers 112 of the array end effector of the insertion robot 106 by a post 210. The movement mechanism 120 may move the bar 122 upon which the one or more work-piece retrievers 124 are disposed over the fingers 112 of the array end effector as well as a stack of work-pieces 216 disposed in a work-piece dispenser 214 disposed on top of a post 212. The stack of work-pieces 216 in the work-piece dispenser 214 saves valuable storage space because the work-pieces are vertically stacked within the work-piece dispenser 214.
  • During processing, the movement mechanism 120 positions the appropriate work-piece retriever 124 over the stack of work-pieces 216 as shown in FIG. 3A. An actuator 302 then moves the work-piece dispenser 214 vertically, as represented by arrow “A” shown in FIG. 3B, so that a work-piece 304 may be retrieved by the work-piece retriever 124. The work-piece 304, once retrieved by the work-piece retriever 124, may additionally be supported on the side by a side support 306 disposed adjacent the work-piece retrievers 124. The side supports 306 may align the work-piece 304 within the work-piece retriever 124.
  • FIGS. 4A-4D show a sequence of transferring a work-piece 304 from a stack arrangement to a parallel arrangement according to an embodiment of the invention. A work-piece retriever 124 is initially disposed over a stack of work-pieces 216 disposed on the work-piece dispenser 214 (FIG. 4A). Although one retriever is depicted, more than one can operate at the same time. The work-piece dispenser 214 may then be vertically actuated as shown by arrow “B” by the actuator 302 (FIG. 4B). The work-piece dispenser 214 may extend upon one or more legs 402. The work-piece retriever 124 may then grip the work-piece 304 (FIG. 4C). Following work-piece 304 retrieval by the work-piece retriever 124, the work-piece dispenser 214 may lower down to the original position by the actuator 302 (FIG. 4D).
  • FIGS. 5A-5C show a sequence of gripping a work-piece by the work-piece retrieval system according to an embodiment of the invention. The work-piece retriever 124 may comprise one or more arms 502 which extend out beyond the work-piece 304. One or more grippers 504 may be disposed on the end of the arms 502 (FIG. 5A). Once the work-piece dispenser 214 is raised to meet the work-piece retriever 124, the arms 502 close around the work-piece 304 enabling the grippers 504 to grip the work-piece 304 (FIG. 5B). Once the work-piece 304 is effectively gripped, the work-piece dispenser 214 retracts to the original, lowered position (FIG. 5C). Simultaneous with the work-piece dispenser 214 retraction, the side supports 306 adjacent the work-piece retriever 124, lower to support/align the work-piece 304 from the side.
  • After each work-piece 304 is retrieved, the movement mechanism 120 moves the bar 122 along the track 118 as shown by arrow “C” (FIG. 6). The work-piece retrievers 124 are each positioned over the work-piece dispenser 214 where each work-piece retriever 124 may retrieve a work-piece 304. As the work-piece retrievers 124 are linearly actuated with the bar 122 by the movement mechanism 120, the work-piece retrievers 124 begin to be positioned over the fingers 112 of the array end effector.
  • Once each work-piece retriever 124 has retrieved a work-piece 304 from the work-piece dispenser 214, the movement mechanism 120 disposes each work-piece retriever 124 over a corresponding slot 126 on a finger 112 of the array end effector (FIG. 7). The work-pieces 304 are then disposed within the slots 126 of the fingers 112.
  • FIGS. 8A-8C show a sequence of disposing work-pieces onto the array end effector of the insertion robot according to an embodiment of the invention. The work-pieces 304 on the work-piece retrievers 124 are initially disposed over the fingers 112 of the array end effector by the movement mechanism 120 (FIG. 8A). The fingers 112, and correspondingly the entire array end effector, elevates as shown by arrow “D” to engage the work-piece retrievers 124 (FIG. 8B). The grippers 504 on the end of the arms 502 of the work-piece retrievers 124 then release the work-pieces 304 into the slots 126. As the work-piece retrievers 124 release the work-pieces 304, the side supports 306 raise to their original position. The fingers 112, and correspondingly the entire array end effector, lower. After the fingers 112 lower, the insertion robot 106 then advances the array end effector as shown by arrow “E” so that the next row of slots 126 are disposed below the work-piece retrievers 124.
  • FIG. 9A is a front view of a plurality of work-pieces 304 being disposed onto the array end effector of the insertion robot 106 according to an embodiment of the invention. As may be seen from FIG. 9A, the insertion robot 106 moves the array end effector upward as shown by arrow “F” to meet the work-piece retrievers 124. Each work-piece retriever 124 is disposed over a corresponding slot 126 of a corresponding finger 112. FIG. 9B is a close up view of FIG. 9A. The work-pieces 304 are released into the slots 126 disposed on the fingers 112.
  • As more and more work-pieces 304 are retrieved by the work-piece retrievers 124 on the stack-to-parallel loader robot 104, the array end effector of the insertion robot 106 begins to enter into the processing tool 102 through the opening 208 a as shown in FIG. 10. As the array end effector begins to enter the processing tool 102, the work-pieces 304 are disposed above the one or more work-piece receivers 110 disposed within the processing tool 102.
  • After all of the work-pieces have been disposed into the processing tool 102 by the insertion robot 106 (FIG. 11), the work-pieces may then be disposed onto the work-piece receivers 110 disposed within the processing tool 102. FIGS. 12A-12D show a sequence of disposing the work-pieces onto the work-piece receivers in the processing tool 102 according to an embodiment of the invention. The work-pieces 304 disposed on the fingers 112 are positioned within the processing tool 102 above the plurality of work-piece receivers 110. FIG. 12A is a cross sectional view of the processing tool 102 having the fingers 112 and work-pieces 304 disposed therein. FIG. 12B shows a close-up view of the fingers 112 and work-pieces 304 within the processing tool 102 above the work-piece receivers 110. The work-piece receivers 110 each have a notch 1202 within which the work-pieces 304 may rest once disposed on the work-piece receivers 110. The fingers 112 then lower and the work-pieces 304 are supported from on their edges by the work-piece receivers 110 within the processing tool 102 (FIG. 12C). As may be seen in FIG. 12D, when the fingers 112 are lowered, each work-piece rests on the work-piece receivers 110. The edges of the work-pieces 304 may be disposed within the notches 1202 of the work-piece receivers 110.
  • Once the work-pieces 304 have been disposed within the processing tool 102, the array end effector may be retracted by the insertion robot 106 along the track 116 from the processing tool 102. While the work-pieces 304 are processed within the processing tool 102, additional work-pieces 304 may be disposed onto the array end effector of the insertion robot 102 by the stack-to-parallel loader robot 104. Following the completion of processing, the work-pieces 304 may be removed from the processing tool 102 through the slot 208 b by a robot having a similar arrangement as the insertion robot 106. The work-pieces may be unloaded from the removing robot by a parallel-to-stack unloading robot similar to the stack-to-parallel loader robot 104. In one embodiment, the work-pieces 304 may be removed from the processing tool 102 after processing by the array end effector of the insertion robot 106 and unloaded from the array end effector of the insertion robot 106 by the stack-to-parallel loader robot 104.
  • FIG. 14 is a top view of a processing system 1400 according to another embodiment of the invention. The processing system 1400 includes a plurality of processing tools 1408. A stack-to-parallel robot 1410 may load/unload work-pieces from a robot 1412 having an array end effector that inserts/removes a plurality of work-pieces from the processing tools 1408. A transfer robot 1402 having an array end effector 1406 may retrieve a plurality of work-pieces from a processing tool 1408 and transfer the work-pieces 1408 to another processing tool 1408. The transfer robot 1402 may move the array end effector 1406 between processing tools 1408 on a track 1404. The array end effector 1406 may include a plurality of fingers 1414. One or more slots 1416 may be present on each finger 1414. One or more work-pieces may be disposed within the slots 1416 during work-piece transfer.
  • It should be understood that while only two processing tools 1408 have been exemplified, more processing tools 1408 are possible. Additionally, each processing tool 1408 refers to one or more chambers coupled together to accomplish one or more processing steps in a manufacturing process. The one or more chambers may comprise load lock chambers, processing chambers, metrology chambers, etc. The processing chambers may comprise CVD chambers, PVD chambers, etching chambers, cleaning chambers, etc.
  • The transfer robot 1402 may be surrounded by as many processing tools 1408 as will fit within the processing space. When more than two processing tools 1408 are present, it may be necessary to provide branches in the track 1404 to permit the array end effector 1406 of the transfer robot 1402 to access the additional processing tools 1408.
  • As may be seen in FIG. 15, the array end effector 1406 of the transfer robot 1402 extends into a processing tool 1408. The transfer robot 1402 moves the array end effector 1406 along the track 1404 such that the fingers 1414 of the array end effector 1406 extend into the processing tool 1408 under the plurality of work-pieces 1502 disposed in the processing tool 1408. A slot 1416 on the fingers 1414 may be positioned underneath each work-piece 1502 disposed in the processing tool 1408.
  • The array end effector 1406 may retrieve the work-pieces in a manner similar to that discussed above in relation to FIGS. 12A-12D except that the sequence of retrieving the work-pieces 1502 may occur in the opposite order as compared to inserting the work-pieces. It should be noted that the transfer robot 1402 enables array to array transfer of the work-pieces 1502 between processing tools 1408. Array to array transfer means maintaining the work-pieces within substantially the same plane while transferring the work-pieces from one processing tool to another processing tool.
  • Once the array end effector 1406 has retrieved the work-pieces 1502, the robot 1402 retracts the array end effector 1406 from the processing tool 1408 as shown in FIG. 16. To dispose the work-pieces 1502 into another processing tool 1408, the transfer robot 1402 may need to rotate the array end effector 1406 as shown by arrow “G” about an axis of rotation 1702 as shown in FIG. 17. In one embodiment, the array end effector 1406 may rotate about 180 degrees to a position for inserting the work-pieces into the processing tool 1408 as shown in FIG. 18. It is to be understood that the amount that the array end effector 1406 may need to rotate will depend upon the location of the next processing tool 1408. Upon insertion, the work-pieces 1502 may be disposed onto a plurality of work-piece receivers 1802.
  • Once the array end effector 1406 is in position, the transfer robot 1402 moves the array end effector 1406 along the track 1404 to extend the fingers 1414 into the processing tool 1408 as shown in FIG. 19. The work-pieces 1502 may be disposed into the processing tool 1408 for processing. Once the work-pieces 1502 are disposed in the processing tool 1408, the robot 1402 retracts, rotates, and prepares the array end effector 1406 to retrieve additional work-pieces 1502 for further processing. Another robot 1412 having an array end effector positioned along a track 2002 prepares to retrieve the work-pieces 1502 from the processing tool 1408 as shown in FIG. 20.
  • The robot 1412 extends the array end effector into the processing tool 1408 and retrieves the work-pieces 1502 as shown in FIG. 21. The work-pieces 1502 may be positioned in a plurality of slots 2202 (see FIG. 22) disposed on the plurality of fingers 2102 present on the array end effector of the robot 1412. The work-pieces 1502 may be unloaded from the array end effector of the robot 1412 by a parallel-to-stack unloading robot 1410. The unloading robot 1410 operates the same as the stack-to-parallel loader robot 104 discussed above in relation to FIGS. 1-13, except that the unloading robot 1410 retrieves the work-pieces from a parallel orientation and stacks the work-pieces vertically.
  • FIGS. 23A and 23B are schematic views of a plurality of processing tools coupled together in a FAB 2300, 2350. For a non-linearly arranged FAB 2300, the processing lines 2302, 2304, 2306, 2308 may be substantially identical with a plurality of processing tools 2312 arranged therein. Array end effectors 2318 may move along a common track 2310 for each processing line 2302, 2304, 2306, 2308 with each array end effector 2318 able to access multiple processing tools 2312. The array end effector 2318 may move either to the left as shown by arrow “J” or to the right as shown by arrow “K” along the track 2310 as shown by the array end effector 2318 in shadow. The array end effectors 2318 may also extend as shown by arrows “L” to access a processing tool 2312 or extend to access a buffer station 2314 to permit transfer of work-pieces between adjacent processing lines 2302, 2304, 2306, 2308. To transfer work-pieces to processing lines 2302, 2304, 2306, 2308 that are not adjacent or, in the case of processing lines 2304, 2306 that are facing opposite directions to each other, a stocker station 2316 may be used to transfer work-pieces. The stocker station 2316 may transfer work-pieces up and over to additional processing lines 2302, 2304, 2306, 2308 or permit transfer over distances greater than an array end effector 2318 may extend.
  • Similarly, for a linearly arranged FAB 2350, the processing lines 2352, 2354, 2356, 2358 may be substantially identical with a plurality of processing tools 2362 arranged therein. Array end effectors 2358 may move along a track 2360 with each array end effector 2368 able to access multiple processing tools 2362. The array end effector 2368 may move as shown by arrow “M” to access the processing tools 2362 or rotate and extend as shown by arrows “N” to a buffer station 2364 to permit transfer of work-pieces between adjacent processing lines 2352, 2354, 2356, 2358. To transfer work-pieces to processing lines 2352, 2354, 2356, 2358 that are not adjacent, a stocker station 2366 may be used to transfer work-pieces. The stocker station 2366 may transfer work-pieces up and over to additional processing lines 2352, 2354, 2356, 2358 or permit transfer over distances greater than an array end effector 2368 may extend.
  • FIG. 24 is a top view of a parallel to parallel transfer arrangement 2400 for a processing tool 2404 according to one embodiment of the invention. The arrangement 2400 includes an array end effector 2402 that may insert a plurality of work-pieces 2424 into a load lock chamber 2408. The work-pieces 2424 may be received on receivers 2422 of an array end effector 2414 in the load lock chamber 2408. The array end effector 2414 may then extend from the load lock chamber 2408 into the processing chamber 2412. FIG. 25 is a top view of the processing tool of FIG. 24 with the array end effector 2414 extended into the processing chamber 2412. The processing chamber 2412 may be one or more processing chambers 2412 and may comprise CVD chambers, PVD chambers, etching chambers, cleaning chambers, etc.
  • FIG. 26 is a cross sectional view of FIG. 25. Within the processing chamber 2412, a plurality of lift pins 2418 may be disposed. The lift pins 2418 may be disposed on a lift plate 2604. The lift pins 2418 may raise as shown by arrows “H” to meet the plurality of work-pieces 2424 to lift the work-pieces 2424 from the receivers 2422 of the array end effector 2414. In one embodiment, the lift pins 2418 may comprise about 4 lift pins 2418 per work-piece 2424. The lift pins 2418 may be disposed within the processing chamber 2412 such that the lift pins 2418 may be between the receivers 2422 of the array end effector 2414.
  • FIG. 27 is a cross sectional view of the processing tool of FIG. 24 with the array end effector extending into the processing chamber. After the lift pins 2418 raise the work-pieces 2424 from the array end effector 2414, the array end effector retracts from the processing chamber 2412 along a track 2602 (FIG. 28). FIG. 30 is a top view of the processing tool of FIG. 24 with a plurality of work-pieces inserted into the processing chamber. For clarity, the track is not shown within FIGS. 26-29 within the processing chamber 2412, but it is to be understood that the track 2602 may extend within the processing chamber 2412. If multiple processing chambers 2412 are present, the array end effector 2414 may extend along the track 2602 into multiple processing chambers 2412.
  • After processing, the work-pieces 2424 may be removed from the processing chamber 2412. FIG. 29 is a cross sectional view of the processing tool arrangement 2400 of FIG. 24 with another array end effector 2416 entered into the processing chamber 2412 to retrieve the work-pieces 2424. The array end effector 2416 may extend into the processing chamber 2412 from an unload lock chamber 2410. The array end effector 2416 may comprise a plurality of receivers 2420 for receiving the plurality of work-pieces 2424 from the processing chamber 2412. FIG. 31 is a top view of the processing tool of FIG. 24 with a plurality of work-pieces 2424 retrieved from the processing chamber 2412 into the unload lock chamber 2410. After the array end effector 2416 retrieves the work-pieces from the processing chamber 2412, the work-pieces 2424 may then be retrieved from the unload lock chamber by another array end effector 2406. The work-pieces may then be transferred to another processing tool or stored.
  • Transferring the work-pieces from one processing tool to another by maintaining the work-pieces in a parallel orientation may improve work-piece throughput. By storing the work-pieces in a vertical stack and then loading the work-pieces parallel across an array end effector, valuable space within a factory may be saved. Additionally, a great number of work-pieces may be loaded onto the array end effector for simultaneous processing within a processing tool. A parallel to parallel transfer of the work-pieces within a processing tool may permit multiple chambers to be coupled together within a processing tool. Thus, the present invention saves valuable floor space within a factory while providing a large work-piece throughput.
  • While the foregoing is directed to embodiments of the present invention, other and further embodiments of the invention may be devised without departing from the basic scope thereof, and the scope thereof is determined by the claims that follow.

Claims (20)

1. A photovoltaic work-piece batch transfer apparatus for transferring photovoltaic work-pieces within a processing tool, comprising:
a track extending between a plurality of chambers of a processing tool;
a first robot coupled with the track for movement on the track;
a first array end effector disposed on the first robot, the first array end effector having a plurality of first fingers between which one or more work-pieces may be disposed, whereby the first array end effector may translate along the track between a plurality of chambers within the processing tool;
a second robot coupled with the track for movement along the track; and
a second array end effector disposed on the second robot, the second array end effector having a plurality of second fingers and each of the second fingers aligned on a common axis with a corresponding first finger, whereby the second array end effector may translate along the same track as the first array end effector between a plurality of chambers within the processing tool, and whereby the second array end effector and the first array end effector may each translate into a common chamber.
2. The apparatus of claim 1, further comprising:
a plurality of lift pins capable of raising up to raise the photovoltaic work-pieces from the first array end effector or the second array end effector, the plurality of lift pins disposed within the common chamber.
3. The apparatus of claim 2, wherein the plurality of lift pins are disposed at a location corresponding to an area between adjacent fingers of the plurality of first fingers and the plurality of second fingers.
4. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein the plurality of first fingers are coupled together at a first hand portion of the first array end effector.
5. The apparatus of claim 4, wherein the plurality of first fingers extend above the first hand portion.
6. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein the plurality of second fingers are coupled together at a second hand portion of the second array end effector.
7. The apparatus of claim 6, wherein the plurality of second fingers extend above the second hand portion.
8. A photovoltaic work-piece transfer method, comprising:
moving a first array end effector having a plurality of work-pieces disposed thereon from a first load lock chamber into a processing chamber, the first array end effector moving along a track;
elevating the plurality of work-pieces from the first array end effector by raising a plurality of lift pins;
retracting the first array end effector to the first load lock chamber along the track;
moving a second array end effector from a second load lock chamber into the processing chamber along the track;
lowering the plurality of lift pins to dispose the plurality of work-pieces on the second array end effector; and
retracting the second array end effector to the second load lock chamber.
9. The method of claim 8, wherein the track is disposed within both the first load lock chamber and the processing chamber.
10. The method of claim 8, wherein the track is disposed within the first load lock chamber, the second load lock chamber, and the processing chamber.
11. The method of claim 10, wherein the track is linear between the first load lock chamber, the processing chamber, and the second load lock chamber.
12. The method of claim 8, wherein the retracting the second array end effector comprises retracting the second array end effector along the track.
13. The method of claim 8, wherein the first array end effector comprises a plurality of fingers extending therefrom, and wherein each of the plurality of work-pieces is coupled with a plurality of the fingers.
14. The method of claim 13, wherein each of the plurality of fingers are aligned on a common axis with a corresponding finger on the second array end effector.
15. A photovoltaic work-piece transfer method, comprising:
moving a first array end effector along a track between a first load lock chamber and a processing chamber, the first array end effector having a plurality of first fingers having a plurality of work-pieces disposed therebetween;
disposing the plurality of work-pieces on a plurality of lift pins in the processing chamber;
retracting the first array end effector from the processing chamber;
moving a second array end effector along the track between a second load lock chamber and the processing chamber, the second array end effector having a plurality of second fingers with each second finger aligned along a common axis with a corresponding first finger;
retrieving the plurality of work-pieces from the plurality of lift pins; and
retracting the second array end effector from the processing chamber.
16. The method of claim 15, wherein the track is disposed within the first load lock chamber, the second load lock chamber, and the processing chamber.
17. The method of claim 16, wherein the track is linear between the first load lock chamber, the processing chamber, and the second load lock chamber.
18. The method of claim 15, wherein the disposing comprises raising the plurality of lift pins to raise the plurality of work-pieces above the plurality of first fingers.
19. The method of claim 18, wherein each work-piece is raised by a plurality of lift pins.
20. The method of claim 19, wherein the plurality of lift pins are disposed at a location corresponding to an area between adjacent fingers of the plurality of first fingers and the plurality of second fingers.
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