US20080245039A1 - Exhaust Filter - Google Patents

Exhaust Filter Download PDF

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Publication number
US20080245039A1
US20080245039A1 US11/939,060 US93906007A US2008245039A1 US 20080245039 A1 US20080245039 A1 US 20080245039A1 US 93906007 A US93906007 A US 93906007A US 2008245039 A1 US2008245039 A1 US 2008245039A1
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United States
Prior art keywords
filter
filter element
end
material
end caps
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
Application number
US11/939,060
Inventor
Steve Anderson
Jared Blaisdell
John Belisle
John Herman
John Hiemstra
Gary D. Reeves
Wayne M. Wagner
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Donaldson Co Inc
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Donaldson Co Inc
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Filing date
Publication date
Family has litigation
Priority to US51736303P priority Critical
Priority to US10/978,686 priority patent/US7294162B2/en
Application filed by Donaldson Co Inc filed Critical Donaldson Co Inc
Priority to US11/939,060 priority patent/US20080245039A1/en
Publication of US20080245039A1 publication Critical patent/US20080245039A1/en
First worldwide family litigation filed litigation Critical https://patents.darts-ip.com/?family=34590154&utm_source=google_patent&utm_medium=platform_link&utm_campaign=public_patent_search&patent=US20080245039(A1) "Global patent litigation dataset” by Darts-ip is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Application status is Abandoned legal-status Critical

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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01NGAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; GAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F01N3/00Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust
    • F01N3/02Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust for cooling, or for removing solid constituents of, exhaust
    • F01N3/021Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust for cooling, or for removing solid constituents of, exhaust by means of filters
    • F01N3/022Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust for cooling, or for removing solid constituents of, exhaust by means of filters characterised by specially adapted filtering structure, e.g. honeycomb, mesh or fibrous
    • F01N3/0226Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust for cooling, or for removing solid constituents of, exhaust by means of filters characterised by specially adapted filtering structure, e.g. honeycomb, mesh or fibrous the structure being fibrous
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D46/00Filters, i.e. particle separators or filtering processes specially modified for separating dispersed particles from gases or vapours
    • B01D46/24Particle separators, e.g. dust precipitators, using rigid hollow filter bodies
    • B01D46/2403Particle separators, e.g. dust precipitators, using rigid hollow filter bodies characterised by the physical shape or structure of the filtering element
    • B01D46/2411Filter cartridges
    • B01D46/2414End caps including additional functions or special forms
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D46/00Filters, i.e. particle separators or filtering processes specially modified for separating dispersed particles from gases or vapours
    • B01D46/52Particle separators, e.g. dust precipitators, using filters embodying folded corrugated or wound sheet material
    • B01D46/521Particle separators, e.g. dust precipitators, using filters embodying folded corrugated or wound sheet material using folded, pleated material
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01NGAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; GAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F01N3/00Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust
    • F01N3/02Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust for cooling, or for removing solid constituents of, exhaust
    • F01N3/021Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust for cooling, or for removing solid constituents of, exhaust by means of filters
    • F01N3/0215Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust for cooling, or for removing solid constituents of, exhaust by means of filters the filtering elements having the form of disks or plates
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01NGAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; GAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F01N3/00Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust
    • F01N3/08Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust for rendering innocuous
    • F01N3/10Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust for rendering innocuous by thermal or catalytic conversion of noxious components of exhaust
    • F01N3/24Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust for rendering innocuous by thermal or catalytic conversion of noxious components of exhaust characterised by constructional aspects of converting apparatus
    • F01N3/28Construction of catalytic reactors
    • F01N3/2839Arrangements for mounting catalyst support in housing, e.g. with means for compensating thermal expansion or vibration
    • F01N3/2853Arrangements for mounting catalyst support in housing, e.g. with means for compensating thermal expansion or vibration using mats or gaskets between catalyst body and housing
    • F01N3/2867Arrangements for mounting catalyst support in housing, e.g. with means for compensating thermal expansion or vibration using mats or gaskets between catalyst body and housing the mats or gaskets being placed at the front or end face of catalyst body
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D2265/00Casings, housings or mounting for filters specially adapted for separating dispersed particles from gases or vapours
    • B01D2265/04Permanent measures for connecting different parts of the filter, e.g. welding, glueing or moulding
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D2271/00Sealings for filters specially adapted for separating dispersed particles from gases or vapours
    • B01D2271/02Gaskets, sealings
    • B01D2271/022Axial sealings
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01NGAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; GAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F01N2310/00Selection of sound absorbing or insulating material
    • F01N2310/06Porous ceramics
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01NGAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; GAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F01N2310/00Selection of sound absorbing or insulating material
    • F01N2310/14Wire mesh fabric, woven glass cloth or the like
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01NGAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; GAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F01N2330/00Structure of catalyst support or particle filter
    • F01N2330/10Fibrous material, e.g. mineral or metallic wool
    • F01N2330/101Fibrous material, e.g. mineral or metallic wool using binders, e.g. to form a permeable mat, paper or the like
    • F01N2330/102Fibrous material, e.g. mineral or metallic wool using binders, e.g. to form a permeable mat, paper or the like fibrous material being fiber reinforced polymer made of plastic matrix reinforced by fine glass or in the form of a loose mass of filaments or fibers
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01NGAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; GAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F01N2450/00Methods or apparatus for fitting, inserting or repairing different elements
    • F01N2450/18Methods or apparatus for fitting, inserting or repairing different elements by using quick-active type locking mechanisms, e.g. clips
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01NGAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; GAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F01N2450/00Methods or apparatus for fitting, inserting or repairing different elements
    • F01N2450/22Methods or apparatus for fitting, inserting or repairing different elements by welding or brazing
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01NGAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; GAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F01N2510/00Surface coverings
    • F01N2510/08Surface coverings for corrosion prevention
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/10Internal combustion engine [ICE] based vehicles
    • Y02T10/20Exhaust after-treatment

Abstract

An exhaust filter having a pleated filter media mounted between end caps is disclosed herein. The filter has a construction suitable for high temperature environments such as engine exhaust systems.

Description

    CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION
  • The present application is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/978,686 filed Nov. 1, 2004, now U.S. Pat. No. 7,294,162, which claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. No. 60/517,363 filed Nov. 4, 2003, which applications are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety.
  • TECHNICAL FIELD
  • The present invention relates generally to air filters. More particularly, the present invention relates to air filters for use in exhaust systems.
  • BACKGROUND
  • Engine exhaust filters can have a variety of constructions. One type of exhaust filter includes a cellular ceramic core defining a honeycomb of channels having plugged ends. Filters having this construction are disclosed in U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,276,071 and 4,851,015. Other exhaust filters include a filter media defined by a plug of wire mesh. Filters having this construction are disclosed in U.S. Pat. Nos. 3,499,269 and 4,902,487. Filters of the type indicated above can be catalyzed or un-catalyzed. Un-catalyzed filters require high temperatures to be efficiently regenerated. Catalyzed filters can be regenerated at lower temperatures, but can generate undesirable by-products such as NO2.
  • Filters are also often used to filter the intake air drawn into an engine. U.S. Pat. Nos. 3,078,650 and 5,547,480 disclose air filters of the type used with the intake systems of engines. These filters include cylindrical pleated filter elements mounted within housings. The filter elements define hollow interiors, and the air being filtered travels radially through the pleated filter elements. While suitable for engine intake applications, these types of filters are not adapted for the high temperature environment created by engine exhaust.
  • Engine emission regulations have become increasingly stringent. What are needed are alternative filtration systems for use in reducing engine exhaust emissions.
  • SUMMARY
  • One aspect of the present invention relates to an air filter having a design suitable for the air filter to be used in a relatively high temperature environment such as an engine exhaust system. In one embodiment, the air filter includes a cylindrical, pleated filter element
  • Examples of a variety of inventive aspects in addition to those described above are set forth in the description that follows. It is to be understood that both the foregoing general description and the following detailed description are exemplary and explanatory and are not restrictive of the broad inventive aspects that underline the examples disclosed herein.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • FIG. 1 schematically shows an example system in which filters in accordance with the principles of the present disclosure may be utilized;
  • FIG. 2 is a cut away view of an air filter having features that are examples of inventive aspects in accordance with the principles of the present disclosure;
  • FIG. 3 is an end view of the air filter of FIG. 2;
  • FIG. 4 is a cross sectional view through a portion of the filter media of the air filter of FIG. 2;
  • FIG. 5 illustrates a portion of FIG. 2 in enlarged detail;
  • FIG. 6 illustrates another filter element having features that are examples of inventive aspects in accordance with the principles of the present disclosure;
  • FIG. 7 is an enlarged detailed cross-sectional view of a portion of FIG. 6;
  • FIG. 8 illustrates a filter media of the embodiment of FIG. 6 prior to folding the axial extensions to form an end sealing structure;
  • FIG. 9 illustrates the filter media of FIG. 8 after the axial extensions have been folded to form an end sealing structure;
  • FIG. 10 shows an end cap having features that are examples of inventive aspects in accordance with the principles of the present disclosure;
  • FIG. 11 shows another end cap having features that are examples of inventive aspects in accordance with the principles of the present disclosure;
  • FIG. 12 shows a further end cap having features that are examples of inventive aspects in accordance with the principles of the present disclosure;
  • FIG. 13 is a plan view of the end cap of FIG. 10 with a clip being used to secure a gasket thereto;
  • FIG. 14 is a cross-sectional view taken along section line 14-14;
  • FIG. 15 is a plan view of the clip of FIGS. 13 and 14 in a precursor state;
  • FIG. 16 is a side view of the clip of FIGS. 13 and 14 prior to being roller into a ring shape;
  • FIG. 17 is a top view of FIG. 16; and
  • FIG. 18 is an end view of FIG; 16.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION
  • FIG. 1 schematically illustrates an engine 20 having an intake system 22 and an exhaust system 24. An air filter 26 can be provided as part of the intake system 22 to remove particles from the air drawn into the engine 20. An air filter 28 in accordance with the principles of the present disclosure can be provided at the exhaust system 24 for removing volatile particulates as well as non-volatile particulates such as carbon-based particulates (e.g., soot) from the exhaust stream. In certain embodiments, the engine 20 can be a diesel engine such as the type used in motor vehicles such as forklifts, skid steer loaders, mining equipment, or other motor vehicles or equipment. It will be appreciated that the exhaust stream generated by the engine 20 can often have a relatively high temperature. For example, temperatures exceeding 600° F. are not uncommon. Therefore, it is preferred for the air filter 28 to have a construction suitable for operating in a relatively high temperature environment.
  • A. Example Filter Assembly
  • FIGS. 2 and 3 illustrate an air filter 28 having features that are examples of inventive aspects in accordance with the principles of the present disclosure. The air filter 28 includes a generally cylindrical filter media 30 mounted between end caps 32. The ends of the filter media 30 can be sealed and secured to the end caps 32 by a potting material 34. Sealing gaskets 36 are provided on axially outwardly facing surfaces of the end caps 32. A cylindrical shell 38 preferably is mounted about the exterior of the filter media 30. The shell 38 defines openings for allowing the passage of air through the shell. Ends of the shell 38 are secured (e.g., welded) to the end caps 32 such that the entire assembly of parts is secured together as a unit. In certain embodiments, the top and bottom ends of the shell can include solid borders/bands to facilitate attaching the end caps thereto. In other embodiments, the end caps can be connected together by metal strips that extend along the exterior of the shell between the end caps such that the shell and filter media are captured between the end caps. It will be appreciated that various components of the air filter 28 are designed to withstand relatively high temperatures such as those generated by an exhaust stream. In certain embodiments, the shell 38 can be perforated metal or expanded metal. In other embodiments, the filter and shell can have other shapes such as a conical shape.
  • As depicted in FIG. 2, the air filter 28 has a hollow core 40. The end caps 32 define central openings 41 in axial alignment with the hollow core 40. In this embodiment, dirty air from an exhaust system is directed into the hollow core 40 through the central opening 41 of one of the end caps 32. From within the hollow core 40, the air is forced radially outwardly through the filter media 30 and the shell 38 to the atmosphere. This type of embodiment is a reverse-flow filter, since flow proceeds from inside the filter element radially outwardly through the filter element. In alternative embodiments, the filter unit can be provided with a reinforcing core (e.g., a perforated metal core or an expanded metal core) within the filter element, and flow can proceed from outside the filter element radially inwardly through the filter element into the interior of the core. Further, while the embodiment of FIG. 2 has two open-ended caps, in alternative embodiments at least one of the end caps may be closed.
  • In use, the filter 28 can be mounted to an exhaust pipe for conveying an exhaust stream away from an engine. For example, the filter 28 can be mounted within a filter housing secured (e.g., clamped) to the end of an exhaust pipe. When mounted within the housing, one of the gaskets forms a seal with the housing, while the other gasket forms a seal with a mounting plate that is clamped or otherwise fastened to the housing to firmly secure the filter 28 within the housing. For single gasket embodiments (e.g., embodiments with one of the end caps closed), other filter housing constructions will be used. It will be appreciated that a large number of techniques for mounting filters within air streams are known, and that all of the various techniques are within the scope of the present invention.
  • B. Example Filter Media
  • The filter media 30 preferably has a construction suitable for high temperature applications such as exhaust systems. In one embodiment, the filter media 30 is constructed to not generate harmful levels of off-gasses when exposed to continuous operating temperatures equal to or greater than 500° F. In another embodiment, the filter media 30 is constructed to not generate harmful levels of off-gasses when exposed to continuous operating temperatures that exceed 650° F. In certain other embodiments, the filter media is constructed of a material that does not generate harmful levels of off-gasses when exposed to temperatures excursions equal to or greater than 800° F., or equal to or greater than 900° F. As defined herein, harmful levels of off-gasses include levels of harmful off-gasses that that exceed permissible regulatory limits.
  • In one embodiment, the filter media 30 is folded into a pleated configuration, and rolled into a cylinder (see FIG. 3). As shown in FIG. 4, the filter media 30 has a laminated construction with a layer of filter material 50 secured between two layers of reinforcing material or scrim such as mesh screen 51 or expanded metal. In certain embodiments, the filter media includes a layer fibers (e.g., glass or ceramic fibers). The layer can include woven or non-woven (e.g., matted) fibers. An example material includes a fiberglass filter material is sold by Filtration Specialties Inc. under the name Dynaglas® 2201. Other materials capable of withstanding relatively high temperatures, whether fibrous or non-fibrous, can also be used. In other embodiments, the media can be supported by a single reinforcing layer rather than being sandwiched between two reinforcing layers.
  • In certain embodiments, the screen 51 can include a mesh coated with a protective layer. The mesh can be manufactured of a metal material such as metal wire. In one embodiment, the metal material can include steel with a residual outer layer of copper. The protective layer provides a number of functions. First, the layer is preferably capable of withstanding temperatures comparable to those specified with respect to the filter media. The protective layer resists corrosion of the screen 51. In embodiments where the material of the screen includes copper, the protective layer isolates the copper from the exhaust stream to prevent the copper from reacting with sulfur in the exhaust stream and generating copper sulfate. An example protective layer includes an aluminum paint material or an epoxy coating.
  • C. Example End Caps and Outer Shell
  • Components such as end caps, cores or shells used in filters in accordance with the present disclosure preferably have a construction adapted to resist degradation/deterioration when exposed to high temperatures such as those present in the exhaust stream of an engine. In certain embodiments, the components are constructed of a material that does not generate harmful levels of off-gasses when exposed to continuous operating temperatures equal to or greater than 500° F. In certain other embodiments, the components are constructed of a material that does not generate harmful levels of off-gasses when exposed to continuous operating temperatures equal to or greater than 650° F. In certain other embodiments, the components are constructed of a material that does not generate harmful levels of off-gasses when exposed to temperatures excursions equal to or greater than 800° F., or equal to or greater than 900° F. In a preferred embodiment some or all of the components have an aluminized steel construction.
  • D. Example Gasket
  • The gaskets 36 preferably have a construction suitable for high temperature applications such as exhaust systems. In certain embodiments, the gaskets are constructed of a material that does not generate harmful levels of off-gasses when exposed to continuous operating temperatures equal to or greater than 500° F. In certain other embodiments, the gaskets are constructed of a material that does not generate harmful levels of off-gasses when exposed to continuous operating temperatures equal to or greater than 650° F. In certain other embodiments, the gaskets are constructed of a material that does not generate harmful levels of off-gasses when exposed to temperature excursions equal to or greater than 800° F., or equal to or greater than 900° F.
  • In one embodiment, the gaskets 36 are formed by a generally flat sheet of fabric material provided in a ring shape that surrounds the central openings 41 of the end caps 32 (see FIG. 3). The fabric can have fibers arranged in a woven or non-woven (e.g., matted) construction. The gaskets can include a glass fiber construction, a ceramic fiber construction, a basalt fiber construction, or other fibrous constructions capable of withstanding the relatively high temperatures environments. In one particular embodiment, the gaskets can include a fiberglass mat laminated to fiberglass cloth. In certain embodiments, the gaskets 36 each have a generally rectangular cross-sectional profile (see FIG. 2). In one embodiment, the gaskets can include chopped “E” glass fibers having a nominal fiber diameter of 0.00036 inches needled into the mat without a resin binder. Example thicknesses of the gaskets are in the range of 0.1-1.0 inches. While fibrous gaskets are preferred, non-fibrous gaskets capable of withstanding relatively high temperature environments could also be used.
  • In a preferred embodiment, the gaskets 36 are secured to the end caps 32 by a mechanical fastening technique. For example, the gaskets can be secured to the end caps 32 by structures such as pins, clips, screws, bolts, flanges, rivets, hooks, catches, barbs, clamps or other fastening techniques. As shown in FIGS. 2, 3 and 5, the gaskets 36 are secured to the end caps 32 by staples 60 that are uniformly spaced about the circumference of the gaskets 36. The staples 60 are shown driven through the gaskets 36 and end caps 32, and into the potting material. In one embodiment, the staples are galvanized coated.
  • E. Example Potting Material
  • Potting material used in filters in accordance with the present disclosure preferably has a construction adapted to resist degradation/deterioration when exposed to high temperatures such as those present in the exhaust stream of an engine. In certain embodiments, the potting material is constructed of a material that does not generate harmful levels of off-gasses when exposed to continuous operating temperatures equal to or greater than 500° F. In certain other embodiments, the potting material is constructed of a material that does not generate harmful levels of off-gasses when exposed to continuous operating temperatures equal to or greater than 650° F. In certain other embodiments, the potting material is constructed of a material that does not generate harmful levels of off-gasses when exposed to temperatures excursions equal to or greater than 800° F., or equal to or greater than 900° F. In one embodiment, the potting material includes a silicone material. In another embodiment, the potting material can be replaced with a fabric layer compressed between the end caps and the ends of the filter media. The fabric layer can have a construction like the fibrous materials identified with respect to the gaskets.
  • FIG. 6 shows an alternative filter 128 having a filter media 130 mounted between end caps 132. Seals can be provided between the end caps 132 and the ends of the filter media 130 by folding axial extensions 180 of the filter media 130 over the axial ends of the pleated filter media 130 (as shown at FIG. 7), such that the folded extensions overlap to fully cover the ends of the filter media. The axial extensions 180 can be held in place at the ends of the filter media by fastening or otherwise securing the end caps 132 to a shell (e.g., a shell similar to shell 38 of FIG. 2) such that the extensions of the filter media are fixed in place via compression from the end caps 132. In embodiments where the filter medias includes a backing/reinforcing material such a screen 51, the screen 51 preferably extends only to the axial ends 181 of the pleated filter media 130 (as shown in FIG. 8) such that the screen 51 is not present in the folded axial extensions 180 of the filter media. To manufacture the filter 128, the media 130 is pleated as shown at FIG. 8. The extensions 180 are then folded over onto adjacent pleats in a fan-like manner to completely cover the ends of the filter media 130 as shown at FIG. 9. The end caps 132 are then mounted over the ends of the filter media 130 with the folded over extensions 180 lining the interior of the caps 132. A shell is then mounted about the exterior of the filter media 130 and end caps 132 are secured to the ends of the shell to hold the assembly together as one unit.
  • In alternative embodiments, other more rigid materials can be used as potting materials. For example, in one embodiment, a ceramic potting compound can be used. In use, the ceramic is applied to the interior of the end caps in a liquid or paste form. The ends of the filter media are then inserted into and embedded in the ceramic within the end caps. The ceramic is then allowed to cure and thus harden within the end caps. After hardening, the ceramic does not adhere well to the metal end caps any may have a tendency to fall out. Therefore, the end caps are preferably provided with structure for retaining the ceramic therein after hardening.
  • FIG. 10 shows an end cap 232 having dimples 290 that project into ceramic potting 291 within the end cap 232 to prevent the ceramic potting 291 from dislodging from the end cap 232. FIG. 11 shows an end cap 332 having tapered walls 393 for retaining ceramic potting 391 within the end cap 332. The walls 393 converge as the walls extend from a closed end to an open end of the end cap 332. FIG. 12 shows an end cap 432 having walls 493 for retaining ceramic potting 491 within the end cap 432.
  • Referring to FIGS. 13 and 14, the end cap 232 is shown with a clip 270 being used to retain a fibrous annular gasket 236 at the outer end surface 237 of the end cap 232. The clip 270 includes a ring portion 272 that forms a main body of the clip 270. The ring portion extends through the central holes of the end cap 232 and the gasket 236. The clip 270 also includes gasket retention fingers 274 that project radially outwardly from the upper edge of the ring portion 272. The fingers 274 overlap the gasket 236 and compress the gasket 236 against the outer end surface 237 of the end cap 232. Mechanical retention tabs 276 are provided at the lower edge of the ring portion 272. The tabs 276 provide a mechanical interlock (e.g., a snap-fit) with the interior of the end cap 232. In other embodiments, the clip 270 could be welded (e.g., spot welded) to the end cap 232.
  • In one embodiment, the clip 270 can be made by stamping the clip from a sheet of metal. A flat, precursor clip 270 a stamped from a sheet of metal is shown at FIG. 15. After stamping the precursor clip 270 a, the fingers 274 and the tabs 276 are bent as shown at FIGS. 16-18. The main body is then curled in a circle, and ends 280 of the main body are attached together (e.g., by fasteners, welding a mechanical interlock, etc.) to complete the manufacturing process.
  • The above specification, examples and data provide a complete description of the manufacture and use of the composition of the invention. Since many embodiments of the invention can be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention, the invention resides in the claims hereinafter appended.

Claims (11)

1. An exhaust filter comprising:
a pleated filter element having first and second ends;
a first end cap mounted at the first end of the filter element and a second end cap mounted at the second end of the filter element;
a sealing gasket provided at the first end cap; and
the filter element, the first and second end caps and the sealing gasket each being constructed of a material that does not generate harmful levels of off-gasses when exposed to continuous operating temperatures that exceed 500° F.
2. The filter of claim 1, wherein the end caps include aluminized steel.
3. The filter of claim 1, wherein the filter element includes a fibrous construction.
4. The filter of claim 3, wherein the filter element includes glass fibers.
5. The filter element of claim 3, wherein the filter element includes ceramic fibers.
6. The filter of claim 1, wherein the filter element includes a filter material laminated to a mesh.
7. The filter of claim 6, wherein the filter material is laminated between two meshes.
8. The filter of claim 6, wherein the mesh is coated with a protective layer for withstanding continuous operating temperatures that exceed 500° F.
9. The filter of claim 8, wherein the protective layer includes an aluminum paste.
10. The filter of claim 8, wherein the mesh includes steel and copper, and wherein the protective layer is adapted to isolate the copper from an exhaust stream.
11-22. (canceled)
US11/939,060 2003-11-04 2007-11-13 Exhaust Filter Abandoned US20080245039A1 (en)

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US11/939,060 US20080245039A1 (en) 2003-11-04 2007-11-13 Exhaust Filter

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US20090038279A1 (en) * 2007-08-09 2009-02-12 Jing Zheng Diesel Particulate Filter and Method of Making
US7972406B2 (en) * 2007-08-09 2011-07-05 Honeywell International Inc. Diesel particulate filter and method of making
US20100000414A1 (en) * 2008-07-04 2010-01-07 Emerson Electric Co. Vacuum Appliance Filter Assemblies and Associated Vacuum Systems
US9510718B2 (en) 2008-07-04 2016-12-06 Emerson Electric Co. Wet/dry vacuum cleaner filter for wet material collection
US8206482B2 (en) 2008-07-04 2012-06-26 Emerson Electric Co. Vacuum appliance filter assemblies and associated vacuum systems
US9345372B2 (en) 2008-07-04 2016-05-24 Emerson Electric Co. Vacuum appliance filter assemblies and associated vacuum systems
US8557008B2 (en) 2008-07-04 2013-10-15 Emerson Electric Co. Vacuum appliance filter assemblies and associated vacuum systems
US9675225B2 (en) 2008-07-04 2017-06-13 Emerson Electric Co. Filter cage for wet/dry vacuums
US8540787B2 (en) 2009-08-21 2013-09-24 Cummins Filtration Ip Inc. Filter element with percussion band
US8357218B2 (en) 2009-08-21 2013-01-22 Cummins Filtration Ip Inc. Filter element with percussion band
US8613784B2 (en) 2009-08-21 2013-12-24 Cummins Filtration Ip Inc. Filter element with percussion band
US8241377B2 (en) 2009-08-21 2012-08-14 Cummins Filtration Ip Inc. Filter element with percussion band
US8128719B1 (en) * 2009-08-21 2012-03-06 Cummins Filtration Ip Inc. Filter element with percussion band
US8460415B1 (en) 2009-08-21 2013-06-11 Cummins Filtration Ip Inc. Filter element with percussion band

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US20050126138A1 (en) 2005-06-16
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