US20080209833A1 - Facing system for building constructions with two-dimensionally and/or spherically shaped regions to be faced - Google Patents

Facing system for building constructions with two-dimensionally and/or spherically shaped regions to be faced Download PDF

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US20080209833A1
US20080209833A1 US11/797,392 US79739207A US2008209833A1 US 20080209833 A1 US20080209833 A1 US 20080209833A1 US 79739207 A US79739207 A US 79739207A US 2008209833 A1 US2008209833 A1 US 2008209833A1
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facing
leg
bearing
load
cover
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US11/797,392
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Ulrich Conradi
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LAUKIEN & Co BETELLIGUNGEN KG GmbH
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LAUKIEN & Co BETELLIGUNGEN KG GmbH
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Priority to EP07004252 priority
Priority to EP07007160A priority patent/EP1965001B1/en
Priority to EP07007160.0 priority
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Assigned to LAUKIEN GMBH & CO. BETELLIGUNGEN KG reassignment LAUKIEN GMBH & CO. BETELLIGUNGEN KG ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: CONRADI, ULRICH
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04FFINISHING WORK ON BUILDINGS, e.g. STAIRS, FLOORS
    • E04F13/00Coverings or linings, e.g. for walls or ceilings
    • E04F13/07Coverings or linings, e.g. for walls or ceilings composed of covering or lining elements; Sub-structures therefor; Fastening means therefor
    • E04F13/08Coverings or linings, e.g. for walls or ceilings composed of covering or lining elements; Sub-structures therefor; Fastening means therefor composed of a plurality of similar covering or lining elements
    • E04F13/0801Separate fastening elements
    • E04F13/0803Separate fastening elements with load-supporting elongated furring elements between wall and covering elements

Abstract

The invention relates to a facing system (10) for building constructions (11) having two-dimensionally and/or spherically shaped regions (12) to be faced, including at least one load-bearing element (13), which can be secured to the building construction (11), and at least one two-dimensionally embodied cover element (14) that can be fastened in the manner of a spread-out wing to the load-bearing element (13). It is proposed that the load-bearing element (13) is formed by two legs (15, 16) embodied in the manner of struts, the first leg (15), oriented essentially orthogonally to the flat region (12), being capable of being fastened to that region, while conversely the second leg (16), located essentially in an orthogonal angular range to the first leg (15), serves to fasten one cover element (14) each to the first leg.

Description

  • The invention relates to a facing system for building constructions having two-dimensionally and/or spherically shaped regions to be faced, including at least one load-bearing element, which can be secured to the building construction, and at least one two-dimensionally embodied cover element that can be fastened in the manner of a spread-out wing to the load-bearing element.
  • Facing systems of this type, which in the professional field are also known as facade facing systems or simply facade facings, have existed in the most various structural designs with the most various esthetic looks for many decades. Such facing systems, in which the individual elements of the facing systems comprise metal, for instance, in the most various designs, are used not only for commercial purpose-built constructions such as industrial factory buildings, supermarket buildings in shopping centers, and even schools and pavillions for schools, but also even for facing privately used apartment buildings, in order to adapt them to meet the more and more stringent regulations that are made with regard to the amount of heat that is permitted to escape from a private building per unit of surface area and per unit of time. The advantages of facing systems, with which buildings and building constructions can be faced not only directly after they have been erected but even later in retrofitting, are widely known to the professional field, so that no further discussion of this is needed here.
  • It is known that building constructions are buildings which, depending on the local positioning of the building and on their length, width, and height, may be exposed to considerable pressures caused by wind; naturally this is true not only of the building itself but also of its facing with which the building or building construction is faced or has been faced.
  • While it is comparatively simple for two-dimensional surfaces or in other words flat surfaces of buildings and building constructions to be securely faced by means of such known facing systems, in the case of spherically formed regions for faces of the building constructions it is already much more difficult, especially with a view to secure fastening of the elements of the facing system, if they are exposed to major wind pressures. For instance, especially in the North German flatlands near the sea, wind speeds of 12 Beaufort and higher, or in other words 190 km/h to 200 km/h, are not uncommon in the winter and spring, and sometimes even in the fall.
  • It is well known that so-called “digestion tanks” of large-scale sewage treatment plants, of the kind found for instance in large cities because of the very large quantity of dirty water that must be treated there, are installed in the vicinity of the coasts so that the treated wastewater, after cleaning in the aforementioned “digestion tanks” and optionally after various subsequent cleaning stages, can be returned to the sea over the shortest distance. Accordingly, the buildings or “digestion tanks” of such systems, also because they are so close to the sea, are exposed to the unimpeded influence of the wind.
  • Given the widely sought, extremely enhanced degree of clarification of the wastewater that a sewage treatment plant brings about, major attempts have been made for instance to improve temperature conditions considerably in these “digestion tanks” for the sake of effective growth of the bacteria that decompose the contaminants in wastewater.
  • These “digestion tanks” have therefore been faced using effective heat insulation, so as to guarantee the most uniform possible temperature in the “digestion tank” in the Summer and Winter both, or in other words to furnish the best conditions for the growth of the bacteria contained in the “digestion tanks”, which has also been done with average success, but even by facing suitable retrofitted “digestion tanks”, the attempt has been made to improve the “look” seen by an observer sees considerably, since the external appearance of unfaced “digestion tanks” is extremely bothersome to an observer.
  • While this last goal has been achieved more or less successfully in recent facing systems, such facing systems are still, as in the past, lacking in terms of their safety and security at high wind speeds; in the recent winter storms in northern Germany, the facings of the “digestion tanks” have once again come loose and been torn off like paper and carried away.
  • It is therefore the object of the present invention to create a facing system, for building constructions of the type defined at the outset, which once installed on the building construction can withstand extraordinarily great wind pressure without detaching from the building construction, and which with the inclusion of still other materials such as insulating materials are capable of maintaining a very high temperature constancy for the liquid to be cleaned that is held in a “digestion tank” of this kind; it should be possible for the facing system to comprise only a few simply shaped elements, so that the creation costs can be kept low, both for a building to be faced immediately after being erected but also for simple, economical retrofitting of existing buildings, and the facing system itself should be capable of comprising extremely simple elements, and even existing buildings should be capable of being faced simply, quickly and economically, and even complicated, spherically embodied surfaces of the building should be capable of being faced with the facing system of the invention in a simple way.
  • This object is attained in that the load-bearing element is formed by two legs embodied in the manner of struts, the first leg being capable of being secured to the flat region essentially orthogonally oriented to it, while conversely the second leg, located essentially in an orthogonal angular range to the first leg, serves to fasten one cover element to each first leg.
  • The advantage of this provision according to the invention is essentially that the facing system comprises only two basic elements, which in principle no longer need to be fabricated at the appropriate size, at the site where the facing of a building will be done, to suit the structural conditions of the particular building to be faced. Instead, the work of fastening the two basic elements of the facing system is limited to fastening the load-bearing element to the building construction to be faced, and then to fasten each cover element to one load-bearing element. If the building construction to be faced is for instance the “digestion tank” to be faced as discussed at the outset, then once the basic principle of the building construction to be faced has been incorporated into the production process of the load-bearing elements, the load-bearing elements themselves need not be separately adapted to suit the spherical surface of the “digestion tank”, and in the course of production the actual facing elements are adapted to suit the given sphere of the surface of the “digestion tank” and are then joined in this form, unchanged, to the load-bearing element on-site at the “digestion tank”. Thus, in accordance with the stated object, a very simple connection or facing that is nevertheless very solid and resistant to both wind pressure and wind suction can be attained with simple means.
  • Surfaces that are only two-dimensional surfaces can be faced even more simply, using the load-bearing elements of the invention and rectangular cover elements.
  • In an advantageous embodiment of the facing system, the second leg, connected essentially in an orthogonal angular range to the first leg, is tilted in a range of less than +100 relative to the orthogonal, as a result of which it is attained that for a building construction to be faced, in the form of the aforementioned “digestion tank”, which typically has an ellipsoid shape and in a section at right angles through the axis of rotation of the ellipsoid has an essentially circular cross section, simple adaptation to the circular cross section of the “digestion tank” is made possible by the tilted position of the second leg to the orthogonal, by an angle relative to the first leg.
  • This tilt angle can already be taken into account in the course of the production of the load-bearing elements as a function of the sphere to be faced, which in the present case is the circular diameter of an annular facing segment of the “digestion tank”, and is for instance preferably less than ±5°, and at the largest diameter of the annular facing portion of a “digestion tank” is for instance only 2°; that is, the second leg is preferably connected to the first leg in an angular range of 2°.
  • The variant of the load-bearing element mentioned above as a means of attaining the object is in principle the simplest and thus the most variable variant of the load-bearing element in any case. In this simplest, most flexible variant, the load-bearing element thus has only one second leg, extending approximately in the middle of the leg and along the middle of the leg and joined at that point to the first leg; that is, in rough approximation, the load-bearing element is a quasi T-profile-like element in its simplest embodiment.
  • In an advantageous further embodiment of the facing system, the load-bearing element has two essentially flat second legs opposite one another two-dimensionally on the order of wings, fastened to the first leg; in this advantageous embodiment, the load-bearing element is embodied approximately like a cross-shaped profile in cross section.
  • It is understood that two load-bearing elements in the basic version, contacting one another with their respective first legs, one being rotated 180° relative to the other, in turn form the second advantageous embodiment or version of the load-bearing element; this will be addressed in further detail below in conjunction with the drawing description.
  • In principle, various possibilities exist of connecting the two legs, each forming a respective load-bearing element, or the three legs, each forming the load-bearing element, to one another in order to achieve the two basic versions of the load-bearing element according to the invention. The type of connection depends on the production principle employed and on the type of material from which the individual legs of the load-bearing element are formed.
  • If the two legs of the load-bearing element comprise metal material, then in principle they can be joined together preferably by welding. However, it is advantageously also possible to connect the second leg of the load-bearing element to the first leg by adhesive bonding, for instance whenever the individual legs, or at least one leg, comprises a metal material and the other leg is of plastic material; naturally, it may also advantageously be appropriate, whenever both legs for instance comprise plastic, to join these two legs to one another by adhesive bonding.
  • An especially inexpensive embodiment of the load-bearing element can be attained by providing that the first leg is formed by a platelike element, for instance in the form of a rectangular plate, on which the second leg, which may also preferably be designed as a platelike element, can be connected to one another by welding, adhesive bonding, or rivet connections.
  • However, it is very particularly advantageous to embody both the first basic variant of the load-bearing element according to the invention and the advantageous second variant of the load-bearing element by means of a suitably designed injection-molded profile or extruded profile. These variants have the extraordinary advantage that, whenever these thus-embodied load-bearing elements leave the injection mold or extruder, they are virtually finished; that is, they require no further postmachining and merely need to be cut to the desired lengths.
  • Facing systems known in the prior art, including the facing systems of the generic type in question here, in most cases have the major disadvantage that they cannot carry the water produced by rain, hail, and snow that strikes the facing surface and the connecting points of the individual elements to the outside to the required extent, or in other words away from the side of the facing elements pointing away from the building construction, and specifically not only can they not do so if the facing elements are not secured plumb to the building construction, but also even if the facing elements are fastened strictly in plumb fashion to the building construction.
  • It is in fact desirable for the facing system to carry away the rainwater striking the facing elements without striking the surface of the building construction, but also that ventilation of the building construction even once the facing elements have been applied should be assured, so that condensed water on the building construction can be evaporated again and allowed to escape to the outside through the facing elements in their abutting regions. Moreover, it should be prevented that in certain building constructions, insulation materials located between the facing elements and the building construction, such as glass wool or rock wool mats, become wet from outside from rain, hail, and snow, or in other words to prevent them from swelling up with water.
  • These quasi-contrary demands that are made of the facing system of the invention are advantageously met by providing that the second leg has a groovelike indentation in cross section in the connection region to the first leg; the groovelike indentation is advantageously embodied as essentially rectangular in cross section.
  • In principle, these indentations may, however, preferably also have different structures in cross section, for instance advantageously being essentially semicircular in cross section on the order of a channel, or advantageously on the order of a polygon in cross section.
  • The advantage of providing connection regions provided precisely with these groovelike or channel-like indentations is on the one hand that in the connection region of the cover element on the load-bearing element, the cover element does not rest directly on the load-bearing element, so that a sufficiently large space in the connection region of the second leg, on which the cover element rests, is created on the order of a tubular space, through which the water that can get into the connections between the cover element and the load-bearing element can drain out in a purposeful way. A further advantage that is attained by the groovelike or channel-like indentation in the second leg of the cover element is that as a result, the longitudinal stability of the load-bearing element, and thus of the entire facing system, in an installed state on a building construction is enhanced, and also because to a certain extent the transverse stability of the load-bearing element is also increased.
  • In a certain advantageous embodiment of the load-bearing element, in which this element is embodied as a one-piece injection-molded or extruded part, the groovelike or channel-like indentations can also be taken into account in the injection mold or extrusion mold, so that in fact, load-bearing elements designed advantageously in this way, with groovelike or channel-like indentations, do not involve added production costs.
  • In facing systems that are to be used in spherically shaped surface regions of a building construction to be faced, it is advantageous that for instance a cover element has at least one protrusion, embodied at an essentially obtuse angle β to the face of the cover element, which protrusion can be fastened detachably to the first leg of the load-bearing element. In the final analysis, this protrusion can be attained in a simple way by providing that the platelike or sheetlike cover element is simply cut off at an angle in its peripheral region, where it is meant to rest on the load-bearing element and be joined to it, specifically being cut off at the aforementioned obtuse angle β.
  • If the cover element is to be fastened to two spaced-apart load-bearing elements, which is intrinsically the normal situation, the cover element naturally has the aforementioned protrusions or cut-off angles to both sides, pointing toward the spaced-apart load-bearing elements, of the cover element that is meant to span precisely this spaced-apart area.
  • In the facing system that is intentionally sought to be simple and hence economical to furnish, in order within the scope of what is possible to prevent as much as possible the penetration of water into the connecting regions between the first leg of the load-bearing element and the protrusion of the cover element bordering the load-bearing element essentially flatly, it is extraordinarily advantageous that at least one protrusion of the cover element and the first leg of the load-bearing element are capable jointly of being fastened detachably to one another by means of a sheathing element that has an essentially U-profile-like cross section. Because of the sheathing element of U-profile-like cross section, the open face ends between the first leg of the load-bearing element and the protrusions of the cover elements that border it on both sides by the aforementioned obtuse angle β, are in fact sealed off, so that in this region, even rainwater that hits extremely hard cannot penetrate. The sheathing elements themselves can be prefabricated with an arbitrary length, so that even in the case of a with regard to its building construction surface to be faced, the number of abutting joints bordering on the face end of the sheathing elements can be kept as low as possible.
  • In a highly advantageous further embodiment of the facing element, the at least one protrusion of the cover element is embodied as U-profile-like in cross section, and in the state in which it contacts the first leg of the load-bearing element, it fits with its free end detachably fastenably around at least the first leg of a load-bearing element in the manner of a sheathing element; that is, in this advantageous embodiment of the facing system, the sheathing element is embodied integrally with the cover element. This embodiment has the advantage that mounting of the cover element or cover elements on the load-bearing element is possible by simply slipping them on, and during the mounting, fixation of the cover element to the load-bearing element, or of both cover elements to the load-bearing element, is already possible, and in the final analysis, an element that would have to be produced separately, such as the separate sheathing element described above, can also be dispensed with.
  • Preferably, the free end of the protrusion, which end is embodied in the form of a sheathing element, can engage and be detachably fastened around both the at least one first leg of a load-bearing element and a protrusion of an adjacently disposed cover element; that is, the free end, embodied in the form of a sheathing element, of the protrusion constituting only one protrusion of the protrusions provided on both sides, of the one cover element, while in still another advantageous embodiment of the facing element, the protrusions on both sides of each cover element are formed as U-shaped profiles in cross section; this embodiment of the facing system makes it possible, in a row of cover elements located side by side, for one cover element to have respective free ends of the protrusion on both sides, formed in the manner of a sheathing element, while conversely the particular cover element adjacent to it has protrusions shaped only angularly in cross section.
  • The fastening of the cover elements to the respective load-bearing element, including the U-shaped profile sheathing element that intrinsically encloses the two protrusions of the adjacent cover elements, including the first leg of the load-bearing element, can advantageously be done by means of a fastening element in the form of a bolt-nut connection. In principle, however, it is also possible to select a fastening element in the form of a classical rivet connection, or a pop rivet connection; however, a bolt-nut connection may have the advantage over the other connections that it can be detached again in a simple way in order to enable making repairs in the facing system or of the building construction faced with the facing system; a bolt-nut connection, as a special architectonic structure, may also enhance the appearance of the facing system.
  • The building facing end of the first leg of the load-bearing element is detachably fastenable to a structure of the building; in this case, the structure may be a fastening element of the building that is either fastened directly to the building retroactively, or may already be present as the aforementioned structure on the building in the course of the completion of the building.
  • Depending on the type of building, whether it is in the form of a metal construction, such as the aforementioned “digestion tank”, or in the form of a building construction with classic masonry, or in the form of a concrete construction of the building construction, the structures are configured for fastening the load-bearing elements to the building. If these structures are not yet present on the building itself that is to be faced, then they are selected to suit the structural and material specifications already found in the building.
  • As already indicated at the outset, the load-bearing element and the cover element advantageously comprise metal material, such as an aluminum alloy that is resistant to saltwater. Aluminum alloys of this kind have great strength with a relatively low weight and can be shaped without metal-cutting machining in a simple way using means known per se in metal construction; this applies in particular to the cover elements.
  • Finally, at least the load-bearing element and/or the cover element and/or the sheathing element may be provided with a coating, before the element or elements is constructed or mounted directly on the site of the building construction to be faced. This coating serves primarily to increase the corrosion resistance of the individual elements to the influence of exhaust gases, rain, hail, and snow or of humidity in general, and the resistance to aggressive corrosive components of the ambient air, and so forth. However, the coating may additionally perform the function of improving the appearance of the building faced according to the invention; as the coating, suitable examples are not only metal coatings such as platings and layers of oxidized aluminum, but also layers of plastic as well as layers of paint, which can be applied for instance by powder coating or paint spraying.
  • The invention will now be described in detail in terms of one exemplary embodiment, in conjunction with the schematic drawings that follow. In the drawings:
  • FIG. 1, schematically in side view, shows a partially coated building construction in the form of a “digestion tank” used for wastewater purification, with an outer structure that is partly metal and partly mineral;
  • FIG. 2, in section, shows two load-bearing elements in the basic version according to the invention;
  • FIG. 3, in section, shows a load-bearing element in a second basic version;
  • FIG. 4 is a perspective view of a load-bearing element as shown in FIG. 3;
  • FIG. 5, in a fragmentary section, shows an outer structure of the building construction to which the load-bearing element of FIGS. 2 through 4 is secured; a cover element including the protrusions of the adjacent cover elements and a sheathing element are fastened with a screw and nut connection to the load-bearing element, on both sides of its free end of the first leg;
  • FIG. 6 shows a fastening of the load-bearing element, the cover elements, and the sheathing element on a structure of the building construction as in FIG. 5, but in which the building construction has a mineral structure (masonry or concrete);
  • FIG. 7 is a side view of a free end of a protrusion of a cover element, the end being embodied in cross section in the form of a U-shaped profile in the manner of a sheathing element;
  • FIG. 8, in a side view, shows a load-bearing element with a protrusion of a cover element, the protrusion contacting the first leg of the load-bearing element, the protrusion being embodied angularly in cross section only relative to the face of the cover element; and
  • FIG. 9, in a view, shows the angular protrusion of the cover element, resting as in FIG. 7 on the first leg of the load-bearing element; and the free end of the protrusion of the adjacent cover element, which is embodied in the manner of a sheathing element, this free end being thrust on in the direction of the arrow in FIG. 7 and being embodied with a U-profile-like cross section.
  • FIG. 1 will first be referred to, in which schematically a building construction 11 is shown in side view, embodied in the form of a so-called “digestion tank”, of the kind found in both community and industrial sewage treatment or wastewater cleaning systems. These “digestion tanks” as a rule have the basic shape as shown in FIG. 1. As a rule, for reasons of strength, they are embodied in a more or less strictly realized shape of an ellipsoid, which in terms of FIG. 1 has an imaginary axis of rotation 110.
  • The “digestion tank” shown in FIG. 1, because of its shape as an ellipsoid, has building construction regions 12, which are thus embodied spherically, or in other words are curved in all three degrees of freedom, as well as building construction regions 12, shown below in FIG. 1, which while also embodied spherically are however curved in only two degrees of freedom, or in other words in the manner of portions of a cylindrical jacket. In the “digestion tank” of FIG. 1, the vertically lower region is embodied in the form of a cylindrical jacket (as seen from above), specifically comprising mineral material such as stone or concrete, while conversely the upper, free region of the “digestion tank”, like the entire ellipsoid, is embodied in the form of a metal container.
  • All these regions of the “digestion tank” are to be faced with the facing system 10 according to the invention.
  • The part shown in FIG. 1 on the left of the axis 110 is a facing system 10 of the kind used in the prior art. No further discussion of the known facing system 10 is necessary here, since it has been addressed in sufficient detail in the introductory background of the invention section.
  • The facing system 10 of the invention comprises essentially three basic elements, namely the load-bearing element 13, the cover element 14, which serves the purpose of covering the surface of the building construction 11 to suit its specially shaped building construction regions 12, and a sheathing element 20, which serves the purpose of partially holding, enveloping and fastening the load-bearing element 13 and the cover element 14, including certain protrusions 141, by means of the sheathing element 20. The protrusions 141 of the cover element 14 and the cover element 14 itself will be addressed in further detail hereinafter.
  • The load-bearing element 13, in its basic form, is as shown in FIG. 2; for the sake of comprehension see also FIG. 4, although that shows a second variant of the load-bearing element 13 of FIG. 3 in perspective. The load-bearing element 13 comprises a platelike flat body which has two first legs 15 virtually merging with one another. In essentially the middle region of the platelike body of the load-bearing element 13, a second leg 16 on the order of a wing is connected in the connection region 17. The length 1 of the second leg 16 is embodied to suit the length of the first leg 15—see FIG. 4—and is determined in accordance with the given structural conditions of the building construction 11 to be faced with the facing system 10 of the invention. The surface spanned by the leg 16 is embodied as essentially plane, but compared to the plane spanned by the legs 15 it is tilted at an acute angle α; α is in the range of 88°. It should be pointed out, however, that the angle α of 88° given here as an example may also be even more acute, depending on the curvature of the spheres of the building construction 11 to be faced. However, for facing building construction regions 12 curved spherically in the opposite direction, it is also possible to connect the leg or legs 16 to the legs 15 at an obtuse angle β.
  • Immediately in the connection region 17 of the second leg 16 to the first leg 15, the leg 16 is sprung in the manner of a channel 19; that is, a groovelike indentation 18 is formed. This groovelike indentation 18 and the channel 19 thus formed will be described in further detail hereinafter.
  • In FIG. 2, to the right of the load-bearing element 13 described above, a two-dimensionally symmetrical load-bearing element 13 is shown, which is constructed identically to the load-bearing element 13 described above. If the two load-bearing elements 13 are moved toward one another in the direction of the arrows 28 and the legs 15 of the two load-bearing elements 13 abut one another flatly, the result is conceptually a second embodiment of the load-bearing element 13 of the kind shown in FIG. 3. Two load-bearing elements 13 contacting one another in the direction of the arrows 28 thus have the same basic construction as the load-bearing element 13 of FIG. 3, but that one has only one (single) first leg 15, to which in the manner described above, the second legs 16, 160 are now connected on both sides in the respective connection regions 17, 170, and on both sides of the first leg 15 in the connection region 17, 170, respective channels 19, 190 are embodied by means of groovelike indentations 18, 180 of the second legs 16, 160.
  • The first variant of the load-bearing elements 13, as they are shown in FIG. 2, is suitable for use not only in the peripheral region of building construction regions 12, where for instance the facing is not to be continued for either engineering or esthetic reasons, or where there are interruptions in the facing, but also in the joined-together state in the direction of the arrows 28 for building construction regions 12 that are provided with cover elements 14 on both sides of the load-bearing elements 13, while conversely the variant of the load-bearing element 13 of FIG. 3 is suitable for precisely these middle building construction regions 12 that are to be faced. The variants of FIG. 2 as well as those of FIGS. 3 and 4 can be produced in one piece from injection-molded or extruded profiles, for instance comprising saltwater-resistant aluminum alloy.
  • The second essential element for the facing system 10 of the invention is shown in FIGS. 5 and 6, in which the cover element 14 or cover elements 14 are shown in FIG. 5 with regard to their makeup and fastening. The cover elements 14 are essentially plane, flat and sheetlike elements, which like the load-bearing element 13 can be made from a suitable saltwater-resistant aluminum alloy. The cover elements 14—in FIGS. 5 and 6, two cover elements 14 each connected to one load-bearing element 13 are shown—each have respective protrusions 141, on their ends pointing toward the load-bearing element 13, which protrusions, beginning at the respective surfaces 140 spanned by the cover elements 14, are oriented at an obtuse angle β; these protrusions 141 are embodied in a simple way from a production standpoint, on the respective ends of the cover elements 14 that point toward the load-bearing element 13, by cutting off the corners diagonally, which can be seen clearly in FIGS. 5 and 6. Since the angle β between the two legs 16, 160 and the first leg 15 of the load-bearing element 13 is <90°, the angle β between the protrusions 141 and the surface of the cover element 140 is equal by the same amount, beginning at a right angle of 90° between the two legs 15 and 16, the protrusions 141 rest flush on the free portion of the first leg 15, and at the same time, the surfaces 140 of the cover element 14 also rest flush on the surfaces of the load-bearing element 13 that are formed by the second legs 16, 160. This situation is shown in FIGS. 5 and 6.
  • The protrusions 141 of the cover element 14, in this position, are enclosed and grasped in retaining fashion between the inner faces of a sheathing element 20 embodied in cross section in the form of a U-shaped profile.
  • The above-described makeup of the load-bearing elements 13 and cover elements 14 applies in principle to the separate embodiment of the cover elements 14 shown in FIGS. 7 through 9 as well. In these embodiments of the facing system 10 that are shown in FIGS. 7 through 9, no separate sheathing elements 20 as discrete parts are necessary in order, together with a respective load-bearing element 13, to form a sealing closure between cover elements 14 and the load-bearing element 13. In FIG. 7, one side of the cover element 14 can be seen in detail; FIGS. 7 through 9 show views on the sides or face ends of the cover elements 14 and of the load-bearing element 13.
  • The above-described makeup given the basic form of the facing system is shown in detail in FIG. 8, and thus the above description is referred to. The cover element 14 of FIG. 7 differs, however, from the cover element 14 of FIG. 8 in that the one protrusion 141 of the cover element 14 is curved or profiled in such a way that it is embodied in the form of a U-shaped profile in cross section. This special embodiment is in principle realized in exactly the same way as the above-described embodiment of the discretely embodied sheathing element 20, but the one protrusion 141 merges with the free end 142 of the protrusion 141 and thus is integrally joined to the cover element 14 here.
  • If the cover element 14 embodied in accordance with FIG. 7 is displaced in the direction of the arrow 30 onto the load-bearing element 13, or its first leg 15, and if in the process the protrusion 141 of the other cover element 14, disposed adjacent to the cover element 14 of FIG. 7, is already resting on the first leg 15 of the load-bearing element 13 beforehand, then the position shown in FIG. 9 is assumed. In the position in FIG. 9, the cover element 14, embodied in cross section in the shape of a U-shaped profile on its protrusion 141, fits around both the first leg 15 of the load-bearing element 13 and the angularly embodied protrusion 141 of the adjacent cover element 14, shown on the right in FIGS. 8 and 9. This connection, as shown in FIG. 9, is embodied approximately on the order of the connection that can already be accomplished by means of the discretely embodied sheathing element 20; see above.
  • Analogously, a connection is made if for instance the load-bearing element 13 comprises two load-bearing elements 13 each with only one leg 16, 160, and in the put-together state then assumes a shape analogous to the load-bearing element 13 of FIG. 9.
  • In a preferred embodiment, the load-bearing element 13 comprises a material having a thickness in the range of 3 mm (platelike first leg 15) and a thickness in the range of 2 mm (second leg or legs 16 and 160). The vertical length with regard to what is shown in the drawings is in the range of 97 mm, while the vertical width is in the range of 104 mm.
  • In a preferred embodiment, the cover element 14 comprises a metal platelike material, with a width in the range of 600 mm on average and a thickness in the range of 1 to 3 mm.
  • It should be pointed out that the dimensions given above are expressly merely examples for the sake of better comprehension of the dimensions of the elements of the facing system 10. In actuality, any technically feasible and structurally appropriate dimensions are possible, in accordance with the building construction 11 to be faced.
  • By way of through holes provided in a suitable way at certain spacings along the load-bearing element 13, which pass through the sheathing element 20, the first leg 15 of the load-bearing element 13, and the two adjacent protrusions 141 of the cover elements 14, a nonpositive connection can be made by means of a bolt-nut connection 21 between the cover elements 14, the load-bearing element 13 and the sheathing element 20, which are furthermore watertight without requiring that sealing means be provided.
  • The load-bearing element 13 and thus the cover element 14 can be joined to the building construction 11 via the free end 150, toward the building, of the first leg 15; see FIGS. 5 and 6.
  • FIG. 5 schematically shows the upper part of the building construction 11 of FIG. 1, embodied in the form of a “digestion tank”, in which the building construction 11 for instance comprises the aforementioned metal ellipsoid, while FIG. 6 conversely shows the fastening of the load-bearing element 13 to the building construction 11 in the lower region of FIG. 1, in which this building construction region 12 is formed by mineral materials, such as construction stones and/or concrete and essentially has the form of a cylindrical jacket.
  • In the view in FIG. 5, the first leg 15 is fastened via a screw connection 25 to a separate fastening element 26, embodied in this case in strutlike fashion, which can be fastened to the metal body of the building construction 11, for instance by means of a weld 29, while in the case of the fastening of FIG. 6, conversely, the fastening element 26 is embodied in the form of an angle or angle profile that can be fastened in the masonry or concrete of the building construction 11 by means of a screw-dowel connection 27. In this case, the first leg 15 of the load-bearing element 13 is fastened to the angularly embodied fastening element 26 via a rivet connection 25. Between the building construction 11 and the inside face 140 of the cover elements 14, insulation 24 may be provided, which however does not contact the inside face 140 of the cover elements 14, so that air can circulate in this region.
  • Water itself that penetrates into the facing system 10 can be drained off in a very simple way through the channels 19, 190, which are formed by the groovelike indentations 18, 180 between the inside face 140 of the covering surfaces of the cover element 14 and the aforementioned groovelike indentations 18, 180 of the second legs 16, 160; see FIGS. 5 and 6.
  • At least the outward-pointing faces of the load-bearing elements 13 and of the cover elements 14 as well as of the sheathing element 12, but in particular the outer faces 140 of the cover elements 14, can be provided with a coating 23, in order to increase the corrosion resistance.
  • LIST OF REFERENCE NUMERALS
      • 10 Facing element
      • 11 Building construction
      • 110 Axis
      • 12 Building construction region
      • 13 Load-bearing element
      • 14 Cover element
      • 140 Face of the cover element
      • 141 Protrusion
      • 142 Free end of the protrusion
      • 15 Leg (first)
      • 150 Building end of the first leg
      • 16 Leg (second)
      • 160 Leg
      • 17 Connection region
      • 170 Connection region
      • 18 Groovelike indentation
      • 180 Groovelike indentation
      • 19 Channel
      • 190 Channel
      • α Angle
      • β Angle
      • 20 Sheathing element
      • 21 Bolt-nut connection
      • 22 Structure (building structure)
      • 23 Coating
      • 24 Insulation
      • 25 Screw connection/rivet connection
      • 26 Fastening element
      • 27 Screw-dowel connection
      • 28 Arrow
      • 29 Weld
      • 30 Arrow

Claims (29)

1-28. (canceled)
29. A facing system for buildings having flat and/or spherically shaped regions to be faced, comprising at least one load-bearing element adapted to be secured to the building, and at least one flat cover element adapted to be fastened in the manner of a spread-out wing to the load-bearing element, wherein the load-bearing element comprises at least two legs each formed in the manner of struts, including a first leg arranged to be secured to a flat region of the building essentially orthogonally oriented to it, and a second leg, located essentially orthogonally relative to the first leg, arranged to connect one cover element to each first leg.
30. The facing system as defined by claim 29, wherein the second leg is tilted in a range of less than ±10° relative to the orthogonal.
31. The facing system as defined by claim 30, wherein the range is less than ±5°.
32. The facing system as defined by claim 29, wherein the second leg is connected to the first leg in an angular range of 2°.
33. The facing system as defined by claim 29, wherein said second leg of the load-bearing element comprises two essentially flat second legs fastened to the first leg on opposite sides thereof in the manner of wings.
34. The facing system as defined by claim 29, wherein the second leg of the load-bearing element is joined to the first leg by welding.
35. The facing system as defined by claim 29, wherein the second leg of the load-bearing element is joined to the first leg by adhesive bonding.
36. The facing system as defined by claim 29, wherein the first leg comprises a platelike element.
37. The facing system as defined by claim 29, wherein the second leg comprises a platelike element.
38. The facing system as defined by claim 29, wherein the second leg has a groovelike indentation in cross section in the connection region to the first leg.
39. The facing system as defined by claim 38, wherein the indentation is essentially rectangular in cross section.
40. The facing system as defined by claim 38, wherein the indentation is essentially semicircular in cross section, in the manner of a channel.
41. The facing system as defined by claim 38, wherein the indentation is essentially polygonal in cross section, in the manner of a channel.
42. The facing system as defined by claim 29, wherein the load-bearing element is formed in one piece.
43. The facing system as defined by claim 29, including at least one cover element having at least one protrusion, bent at an essentially obtuse angle (β) relative to the face of the cover element, which protrusion is adapted to be detachably fastened to the first leg of the load-bearing element.
44. The facing system as defined by claim 43, including a sheathing element having essentially a U-shaped cross-section, and wherein the at least one protrusion of the cover element and the first leg of the load-bearing element are arranged to be detachably fastened to one another, by means of the sheathing element.
45. The facing system as defined by claim 43, wherein the at least one protrusion of the cover element has a U-shaped profile in cross section, and in the state in which it contacts the first leg of the load-bearing element, said protrusion fits with a free end detachably fastened around at least the first leg of a load-bearing element.
46. The facing system as defined by claim 45, wherein the free end of the protrusion is detachably fastened around both the at least one first leg of a load-bearing element and a protrusion of an adjacently disposed cover element.
47. The facing system as defined by claim 45, wherein the protrusions on both sides of each cover element are U-shaped profile in cross section.
48. The facing system as defined by claim 44, wherein the fastening is effected by means of a fastening element in the form of a bolt-nut connection.
49. The facing system as defined by claim 29, wherein a building facing end of the first leg of the load-bearing element is detachably fastenable to a part of the building structure.
50. The facing system as defined by claim 49, wherein the building structure comprises metal material.
51. The facing system as defined by claim 49, wherein the building structure essentially comprises mineral material.
52. The facing system as defined by claim 29, wherein the load-bearing element comprises metal material.
53. The facing system as defined by claim 29, wherein the cover element comprises metal material.
54. The facing system as defined by claim 29, wherein the metal is salt-water-resistant metal.
55. The facing system as defined by claim 54, wherein the metal is an aluminum alloy.
56. The facing system as defined by claim 29, wherein at least one of the load-bearing element, the cover element, and the sheathing element is provided on at least one side with a coating.
US11/797,392 2007-03-01 2007-05-03 Facing system for building constructions with two-dimensionally and/or spherically shaped regions to be faced Abandoned US20080209833A1 (en)

Priority Applications (4)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
EP07004252.8 2007-03-01
EP07004252 2007-03-01
EP07007160A EP1965001B1 (en) 2007-03-01 2007-04-05 Cladding system for constructions with two dimensional and/or spherical areas to be clad
EP07007160.0 2007-04-05

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Publication Number Publication Date
US20080209833A1 true US20080209833A1 (en) 2008-09-04

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ID=38610854

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US11/797,392 Abandoned US20080209833A1 (en) 2007-03-01 2007-05-03 Facing system for building constructions with two-dimensionally and/or spherically shaped regions to be faced

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US (1) US20080209833A1 (en)
EP (1) EP1965001B1 (en)
CN (1) CN101255758A (en)
AT (1) AT510087T (en)
CA (1) CA2586322A1 (en)
DK (1) DK1965001T3 (en)
PL (1) PL1965001T3 (en)
WO (1) WO2008104202A1 (en)

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Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
AT510087T (en) 2011-06-15
CN101255758A (en) 2008-09-03
CA2586322A1 (en) 2008-09-01
EP1965001B1 (en) 2011-05-18
DK1965001T3 (en) 2011-08-29
EP1965001A8 (en) 2009-03-25
EP1965001A1 (en) 2008-09-03
WO2008104202A1 (en) 2008-09-04
PL1965001T3 (en) 2011-10-31

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