US20080178932A1 - Front electrode including transparent conductive coating on patterned glass substrate for use in photovoltaic device and method of making same - Google Patents

Front electrode including transparent conductive coating on patterned glass substrate for use in photovoltaic device and method of making same Download PDF

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US20080178932A1
US20080178932A1 US11/987,664 US98766407A US2008178932A1 US 20080178932 A1 US20080178932 A1 US 20080178932A1 US 98766407 A US98766407 A US 98766407A US 2008178932 A1 US2008178932 A1 US 2008178932A1
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front electrode
glass substrate
photovoltaic device
method
conductive layer
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US11/987,664
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Willem den Boer
Yiwei Lu
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Guardian Glass LLC
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Guardian Industries Corp
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Priority to US11/591,668 priority Critical patent/US20080105298A1/en
Priority to US11/790,687 priority patent/US8012317B2/en
Application filed by Guardian Industries Corp filed Critical Guardian Industries Corp
Priority to US11/987,664 priority patent/US20080178932A1/en
Priority claimed from US12/068,117 external-priority patent/US8203073B2/en
Assigned to GUARDIAN INDUSTRIES CORP. reassignment GUARDIAN INDUSTRIES CORP. ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: BOER, WILLEM DEN, LU, YIWEI
Priority claimed from US12/149,263 external-priority patent/US7964788B2/en
Publication of US20080178932A1 publication Critical patent/US20080178932A1/en
Priority claimed from US12/232,619 external-priority patent/US8076571B2/en
Assigned to GUARDIAN GLASS, LLC. reassignment GUARDIAN GLASS, LLC. ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: GUARDIAN INDUSTRIES CORP.
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L31/00Semiconductor devices sensitive to infra-red radiation, light, electromagnetic radiation of shorter wavelength or corpuscular radiation and adapted either for the conversion of the energy of such radiation into electrical energy or for the control of electrical energy by such radiation; Processes or apparatus peculiar to the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof; Details thereof
    • H01L31/02Details
    • H01L31/0224Electrodes
    • H01L31/022466Electrodes made of transparent conductive layers, e.g. TCO, ITO layers
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L31/00Semiconductor devices sensitive to infra-red radiation, light, electromagnetic radiation of shorter wavelength or corpuscular radiation and adapted either for the conversion of the energy of such radiation into electrical energy or for the control of electrical energy by such radiation; Processes or apparatus peculiar to the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof; Details thereof
    • H01L31/02Details
    • H01L31/0224Electrodes
    • H01L31/022466Electrodes made of transparent conductive layers, e.g. TCO, ITO layers
    • H01L31/022483Electrodes made of transparent conductive layers, e.g. TCO, ITO layers composed of zinc oxide [ZnO]
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L31/00Semiconductor devices sensitive to infra-red radiation, light, electromagnetic radiation of shorter wavelength or corpuscular radiation and adapted either for the conversion of the energy of such radiation into electrical energy or for the control of electrical energy by such radiation; Processes or apparatus peculiar to the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof; Details thereof
    • H01L31/02Details
    • H01L31/0236Special surface textures
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L31/00Semiconductor devices sensitive to infra-red radiation, light, electromagnetic radiation of shorter wavelength or corpuscular radiation and adapted either for the conversion of the energy of such radiation into electrical energy or for the control of electrical energy by such radiation; Processes or apparatus peculiar to the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof; Details thereof
    • H01L31/02Details
    • H01L31/0236Special surface textures
    • H01L31/02366Special surface textures of the substrate or of a layer on the substrate, e.g. textured ITO/glass substrate or superstrate, textured polymer layer on glass substrate
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L31/00Semiconductor devices sensitive to infra-red radiation, light, electromagnetic radiation of shorter wavelength or corpuscular radiation and adapted either for the conversion of the energy of such radiation into electrical energy or for the control of electrical energy by such radiation; Processes or apparatus peculiar to the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof; Details thereof
    • H01L31/04Semiconductor devices sensitive to infra-red radiation, light, electromagnetic radiation of shorter wavelength or corpuscular radiation and adapted either for the conversion of the energy of such radiation into electrical energy or for the control of electrical energy by such radiation; Processes or apparatus peculiar to the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof; Details thereof adapted as photovoltaic [PV] conversion devices
    • H01L31/042PV modules or arrays of single PV cells
    • H01L31/048Encapsulation of modules
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L31/00Semiconductor devices sensitive to infra-red radiation, light, electromagnetic radiation of shorter wavelength or corpuscular radiation and adapted either for the conversion of the energy of such radiation into electrical energy or for the control of electrical energy by such radiation; Processes or apparatus peculiar to the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof; Details thereof
    • H01L31/18Processes or apparatus peculiar to the manufacture or treatment of these devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L31/1884Manufacture of transparent electrodes, e.g. TCO, ITO
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/50Photovoltaic [PV] energy

Abstract

This invention relates to a photovoltaic device including an electrode such as a front electrode/contact. In certain example embodiments, the front electrode of the photovoltaic device includes a multi-layered transparent conductive coating which is sputter-deposited on a textured surface of a patterned glass substrate. In certain example embodiments, a maximum transmission area of the substantially transparent conductive front electrode is located under a peak area of a quantum efficiency (QE) and/or QEx (photon flux of solar radiation) curve of the photovoltaic device and a light source spectrum used to power the photovoltaic device. In certain example embodiments, the front electrode includes a transparent conductive layer of or including one or more of (i) titanium zinc oxide doped with aluminum and/or niobium, and/or (ii) titanium niobium oxide.

Description

  • This application is a continuation-in-part (CIP) of U.S. Ser. No. 11/790,687, filed Apr. 26, 2007, and a CIP of Ser. No. 11/591,668, filed Nov. 2, 2006, the entire disclosures of which are hereby incorporated herein by reference.
  • This invention relates to a photovoltaic device including an electrode such as a front electrode/contact. In certain example embodiments, the front electrode of the photovoltaic device includes a conformal transparent conductive coating (single or multi-layered) which is sputter-deposited on a textured surface of a patterned glass substrate. In certain example instances, this is advantageous in that efficiency of the photovoltaic device can be improved by increasing light absorption by the active semiconductor via both increasing light intensity passing through the front glass substrate and front electrode, and increasing the light path in the semiconductor photovoltaic conversion layer.
  • BACKGROUND AND SUMMARY OF EXAMPLE EMBODIMENTS OF INVENTION
  • Photovoltaic devices are known in the art (e.g., see U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,784,361, 6,288,325, 6,613,603, and 6,123,824, the disclosures of which are hereby incorporated herein by reference). Amorphous silicon photovoltaic devices, for example, include a front electrode or contact. Typically, the transparent front electrode is made of a pyrolytic transparent conductive oxide (TCO) such as zinc oxide or tin oxide formed on a substrate such as a glass substrate. In many instances, the transparent front electrode is formed of a single layer using a method of chemical pyrolysis where precursors are sprayed onto the glass substrate at approximately 400 to 600 degrees C. Typical pyrolitic fluorine-doped tin oxide TCOs as front electrodes may be about 400 nm thick, which provides for a sheet resistance (Rs) of about 15 ohms/square.
  • It is known to increase the light path in thin film photovoltaic devices by etching/patterning a surface of a TCO front electrode after it has been deposited on the front glass substrate. It is also known to deposit a TCO on a flat glass substrate in a high process pressure environment in order to cause texturing of the TCO front electrode via column structure growth in the TCO. Unfortunately, both of these techniques degrade the electrical properties of the TCO front electrode of the photovoltaic device. Thus, conventionally a 300 or 400 nm thickness or more is typically needed to achieve a sheet resistance of less than 15 ohms/square for thin film solar cell applications.
  • It is also known to increase light input via reduced reflection, by minimizing reflection between the TCO front electrode and adjacent materials. However, this approach only increases light input and does not significantly increase light path because of difficulties in implementing the same with post-etching or column structure growth.
  • In view of the above, it will be appreciated that there exists a need in the art for an improved front electrode structure, and/or method of making the same, for use in a photovoltaic device or the like.
  • Certain example embodiments of this invention provide a method of making a photovoltaic device, the method comprising: providing a glass substrate; etching and/or patterning at least one major surface of the glass substrate so as to form a textured surface of the glass substrate; sputter-depositing a substantially conformal front electrode on the textured surface of the glass substrate, the front electrode being substantially conformal so that both major surfaces of the front electrode are textured in a manner similar to the textured surface of the glass substrate, and wherein the front electrode comprises a first conductive layer and a second conductive layer, the second conductive layer being located between at least the first conductive layer and a semiconductor film, and wherein the second conductive layer comprises titanium zinc oxide doped with aluminum and/or niobium; and using the substantially conformal front electrode formed on the textured surface of the glass substrate at a light incident side of the photovoltaic device.
  • Certain other example embodiments of this invention provide a method of making a photovoltaic device, the method comprising: providing a glass substrate; etching and/or patterning at least one major surface of the glass substrate so as to form a textured surface of the glass substrate; sputter-depositing a substantially conformal front electrode on the textured surface of the glass substrate, the front electrode being substantially conformal so that both major surfaces of the front electrode are textured in a manner similar to the textured surface of the glass substrate, and wherein the front electrode comprises a first conductive layer and a second conductive layer, the second conductive layer being located between at least the first conductive layer and a semiconductor film, and wherein the second conductive layer comprises titanium niobium oxide; and using the substantially conformal front electrode formed on the textured surface of the glass substrate at a light incident side of the photovoltaic device.
  • Certain example embodiments of this invention relate to a front electrode for use in a photovoltaic device or the like. In certain example embodiments of this invention, a transparent conductive coating is sputter-deposited on a textured (e.g., etched and/or patterned) surface of a glass substrate in order to form a front electrode structure. The use of sputter-deposition to form the conductive electrode is advantageous in that it permits the electrode (single or multi-layered) to be deposited in a conformal manner so that both major surfaces of the electrode are shaped in a manner similar to that of the textured surface of the glass substrate on which the electrode has been deposited. Thus, the surface of the front electrode closest to the semiconductor absorber film of the photovoltaic device is also textured.
  • In certain example embodiments, this is advantageous in that efficiency of the photovoltaic device can be improved by increasing light absorption by the active semiconductor film via both (a) increasing light intensity passing through the front glass substrate and front electrode due to the textured surface(s) of both the front electrode and front glass substrate, and (b) increasing the light path in the semiconductor photovoltaic conversion layer, while at the same time maintaining good electrical properties of the front electrode.
  • The front electrode may be a single-layer of a transparent conductive oxide (TCO) in certain example embodiments of this invention. In other example embodiments, the front electrode may be made up of multiple layers; one or more of which may be conductive. Because sputtered thin films may be conformal to the patterned glass substrate, multiple layered thin films with controlled thickness and optical properties may be fabricated one layer after another to enhance the transmission of light into the semiconductor absorber film through optical interference, and the increased light path through the scattering inherited from the patterned glass may be preserved in certain example embodiments.
  • In certain example embodiments of this invention, the front electrode of a photovoltaic device is comprised of a multilayer coating including at least one transparent conductive oxide (TCO) layer (e.g., of or including a material such as tin oxide, zinc oxide, or the like) and at least one conductive substantially metallic IR reflecting layer (e.g., based on silver, gold, or the like). In certain example instances, the multilayer front electrode coating may include a plurality of TCO layers and/or a plurality of conductive substantially metallic IR reflecting layers arranged in an alternating manner in order to provide for reduced visible light reflections, increased conductivity, increased IR reflection capability, and so forth.
  • In certain example embodiments of this invention, there is provided a method of making a photovoltaic device, the method comprising: providing a glass substrate; etching and/or patterning at least one major surface of the glass substrate so as to form a textured surface of the glass substrate; sputter-depositing a substantially conformal front electrode on the textured surface of the glass substrate, the front electrode being substantially conformal so that both major surfaces of the front electrode are textured in a manner similar to the textured surface of the glass substrate; and using the substantially conformal front electrode formed on the textured surface of the glass substrate at a light incident side of a photovoltaic device.
  • In other example embodiments of this invention, there is provided a method of making a photovoltaic device, the method comprising: forming a substantially transparent conductive front electrode on a glass substrate; determining a quantum efficiency (QE) curve for a photovoltaic device, and forming the substantially transparent front electrode in a manner so that a maximum transmission area of the substantially transparent front electrode is located under a peak area of the QE and/or QEx (photon flux of solar radiation) curve for the photovoltaic device; and using the substantially transparent front electrode formed on the glass substrate at a light incident side of a photovoltaic device.
  • In still further example embodiments of this invention, there is provided a photovoltaic device comprising: a front glass substrate; a semiconductor film; a substantially transparent conductive front electrode provided between at least the front glass substrate and the semiconductor film; and wherein a maximum transmission area of the substantially transparent conductive front electrode is located under a peak area of a quantum efficiency (QE) and/or QEx (photon flux of solar radiation) curve of the photovoltaic device.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • FIG. 1 is a cross sectional view of an example photovoltaic device according to an example embodiment of this invention.
  • FIG. 2 is a transmission (%) into semiconductor film versus wavelength (nm) graph, illustrating characteristics of an example a-Si photovoltaic device regarding quantum efficiency (QE), a multi-layered front electrode structure, and air mass 1.5 (AM1.5), according to an example embodiment (Example 1) of this invention.
  • FIG. 3 is a transmission (%) into semiconductor film versus wavelength (nm) graph, illustrating characteristics of an example a-Si photovoltaic device regarding quantum efficiency (QE), a multi-layered front electrode structure, and air mass 1.5 (AM1.5), according to another example embodiment (Example 2) of this invention.
  • FIG. 4 is a transmission (%) into semiconductor film versus wavelength (nm) graph, illustrating characteristics of an example CdTe photovoltaic device regarding quantum efficiency (QE), a multi-layered front electrode structure, and air mass 1.5 (AM1.5), according to yet another example embodiment of this invention.
  • FIG. 5 is a flowchart illustrating example steps in making a photovoltaic device, and front electrode structure therefor, according to an example embodiment of this invention; these steps may be performed in connection with any embodiment of this invention.
  • FIG. 6 is a cross sectional view of an example photovoltaic device according to another example embodiment of this invention (note: the textured surfaces of the front glass substrate and front electrode are not shown in this figure for purposes of simplicity).
  • FIG. 7 is a transmission (%) into semiconductor film versus wavelength (nm) graph, illustrating characteristics of an example a-Si photovoltaic device regarding quantum efficiency (QE), a multi-layered front electrode structure, and air mass 1.5 (AM1.5), according to another example embodiment of this invention (see Examples 4a-4b).
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF EXAMPLE EMBODIMENTS OF THE INVENTION
  • Referring now more particularly to the figures in which like reference numerals refer to like parts/layers in the several views.
  • Photovoltaic devices such as solar cells convert solar radiation into usable electrical energy. The energy conversion occurs typically as the result of the photovoltaic effect. Solar radiation (e.g., sunlight) impinging on a photovoltaic device and absorbed by an active region of semiconductor material (e.g., a semiconductor film including one or more semiconductor layers such as a-Si layers, the semiconductor sometimes being called an absorbing layer or film) generates electron-hole pairs in the active region. The electrons and holes may be separated by an electric field of a junction in the photovoltaic device. The separation of the electrons and holes by the junction results in the generation of an electric current and voltage. In certain example embodiments, the electrons flow toward the region of the semiconductor material having n-type conductivity, and holes flow toward the region of the semiconductor having p-type conductivity. Current can flow through an external circuit connecting the n-type region to the p-type region as light continues to generate electron-hole pairs in the photovoltaic device.
  • In certain example embodiments, single junction amorphous silicon (a-Si) photovoltaic devices include three semiconductor layers. In particular, a p-layer, an n-layer and an i-layer which is intrinsic. The amorphous silicon film (which may include one or more layers such as p, n and i type layers) may be of hydrogenated amorphous silicon in certain instances, but may also be of or include hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbon or hydrogenated amorphous silicon germanium, or the like, in certain example embodiments of this invention. For example and without limitation, when a photon of light is absorbed in the i-layer it gives rise to a unit of electrical current (an electron-hole pair). The p and n-layers, which contain charged dopant ions, set up an electric field across the i-layer which draws the electric charge out of the i-layer and sends it to an optional external circuit where it can provide power for electrical components. It is noted that while certain example embodiments of this invention are directed toward amorphous-silicon based photovoltaic devices, this invention is not so limited and may be used in conjunction with other types of photovoltaic devices in certain instances including but not limited to devices including other types of semiconductor material, single or tandem thin-film solar cells, CdS and/or CdTe photovoltaic devices, polysilicon and/or microcrystalline Si photovoltaic devices, and the like.
  • Certain example embodiments of this invention relate to a front electrode 3 for use in a photovoltaic device or the like, and a method of making the same. In certain example embodiments of this invention, a transparent conductive coating 3 is sputter-deposited on a textured (e.g., etched and/or patterned) surface of a glass substrate 1 in order to form a front electrode structure. Herein, the user of the word “patterned” covers etched surfaces, and the use of the word “etched” covers patterned surfaces. The use of sputter-deposition to form the conductive electrode 3 is advantageous in that it permits the electrode (single or multi-layered) 3 to be deposited in a conformal manner so that both major surfaces of the electrode are shaped in a manner similar to that of the textured surface 1 a of the glass substrate 1 on which the electrode 3 has been deposited. The textured surface 1 a of the glass substrate 1 may have a prismatic surface, a matte finish surface, or the like in different example embodiments of this invention. Thus, the surface 4 a of the front electrode 3 closest to the semiconductor absorber film 5 of the photovoltaic device is also textured. The textured surface 1 a of the glass substrate 1, and both major surfaces 4 a, 4 b of the electrode 3, may have peaks and valleys defined therein with inclined portions interconnecting the peaks and valleys (e.g., see FIG. 1).
  • In certain example embodiments, this is advantageous in that efficiency of the photovoltaic device can be improved by increasing light absorption by the active semiconductor film 5 via both (a) increasing light intensity passing through the front glass substrate 1 and front electrode 3 due to the textured surface(s) of both the front electrode 3 and front glass substrate 1, and (b) increasing the light path in the semiconductor photovoltaic conversion layer 5, while at the same time maintaining good electrical properties of the front electrode 3.
  • The front electrode 3 may be a single-layer of TCO such as tin oxide, zinc oxide or the like, in certain example embodiments of this invention. In other example embodiments, the front electrode 3 may be made up of multiple layers (e.g., see FIGS. 1 and 6); one or more of which may be conductive. In certain example embodiments of this invention (e.g., see FIGS. 1 and 6), the front electrode 3 of a photovoltaic device is comprised of a multilayer coating including at least one transparent conductive oxide (TCO) layer (e.g., of or including a material such as tin oxide, zinc oxide, or the like) (3 a, 3 c and/or 3 e) and at least one conductive substantially metallic IR reflecting layer (e.g., based on silver, gold, or the like) (3 b and/or 3 d). In certain example instances, the multilayer front electrode coating may include a plurality of TCO layers (3 a, 3 c and/or 3 e) and/or a plurality of conductive substantially metallic IR reflecting layers (3 b and/or 3 d) arranged in an alternating manner in order to provide for reduced visible light reflections, increased conductivity, increased IR reflection capability, and so forth (e.g., see FIGS. 1 and 6). In certain example embodiments of this invention, the multilayer front electrode 3 coating is designed to realize one or more of the following advantageous features: (a) reduced sheet resistance (Rs) and thus increased conductivity and improved overall photovoltaic module output power; (b) increased reflection of infrared (IR) radiation thereby reducing the operating temperature of the photovoltaic module so as to increase module output power; (c) reduced reflection and increased transmission of light in the region(s) where solar QE is significant such as from about 450-700 nm and/or 450-600 nm which leads to increased photovoltaic module output power; (d) reduced total thickness of the front electrode coating which can reduce fabrication costs and/or time; and/or (e) an improved or enlarged process window in forming the TCO layer(s) because of the reduced impact of the TCO's conductivity on the overall electric properties of the module given the presence of the highly conductive substantially metallic layer(s).
  • FIG. 1 is a cross sectional view of a photovoltaic device according to an example embodiment of this invention. The photovoltaic device includes transparent front glass substrate 1 having a textured surface closest to the semiconductor film, front electrode 3 (which may be multi-layered or single-layered), active semiconductor film 5 of or including one or more semiconductor layers (such as pin, pn, pinpin tandem layer stacks, or the like), optional back electrode/contact 7 which may be of a TCO and/or metal(s), an optional polymer based encapsulant or adhesive 9 of a material such as ethyl vinyl acetate (EVA) or the like, and an optional rear substrate 11 of a material such as glass. The front glass substrate 1 is on the light incident side of the photovoltaic device. Of course, other layer(s) which are not shown may also be provided in the device. Front glass substrate 1 and/or rear substrate 11 may be made of soda-lime-silica based glass in certain example embodiments of this invention; and may have low iron content and/or an antireflection coating thereon to optimize transmission in certain example instances. While substrates 1, 11 may be of glass in certain example embodiments of this invention, other materials such as quartz or the like may instead be used for substrate(s) 1 and/or 11. Glass 1 and/or 11 may or may not be thermally tempered in certain example embodiments of this invention. Additionally, it will be appreciated that the word “on” as used herein covers both a layer being directly on and indirectly on something, with other layers possibly being located therebetween. Optionally, an antireflective film or other film may be provided on the light-incident side of the substrate 1 in certain example instances.
  • Referring to FIGS. 1 and 5, the front electrode structure of the device may be made as follows in certain example embodiments of this invention. Initially, the front glass substrate 1 is provided. Then, one or both major surfaces of the front glass substrate 1 is etched (e.g., via HF etching using HF etchant or the like) or patterned via roller(s) or the like during glass manufacture in order to form a textured (or patterned) surface (see step S1 in FIG. 5). Then, the transparent conductive front electrode 3 is deposited, by sputtering one or more sputtering targets, on the textured surface of the front glass substrate 1 (e.g., see step S2 in FIG. 5). The sputtering may be performed at approximately room temperature, optionally in a vacuum, using rotating magnetron sputtering targets in certain example instances. The use of sputtering to form the conductive electrode 3 is advantageous in that it permits the electrode (single or multi-layered) 3 to be deposited in a conformal manner so that both major surfaces (4 a and 4 b) of the electrode 3 are shaped in a manner similar to that of the textured surface 1 a of the glass substrate 1 on which the electrode 3 has been deposited. Thus, the surface 4 a of the front electrode 3 closest to the semiconductor absorber film 5 of the photovoltaic device is also textured. Thereafter, in certain example embodiments, the semiconductor film 5 (and optionally the optional back contact 7) may be formed on the substrate 1 and electrode 3 via any suitable technique (e.g., CVD or the like), and then the rear substrate 11 may be laminated to the front electrode 1 via adhesive film 9 to form the photovoltaic device as shown in FIG. 1 (e.g., see step S3 in FIG. 5). The back contact 7 may or may not be conformal to/with the electrode 3, because the semiconductor 5 may or may not be planarizing in different example embodiments of this invention.
  • FIG. 6 is a cross sectional view of a photovoltaic device according to another example embodiment of this invention. The FIG. 6 embodiment is the same as the FIG. 1 (and FIG. 5) embodiment except that (i) the front electrode 3 includes certain additional layers 3 d-3 f in the FIG. 6 embodiment, and (ii) dielectric layer 2 is present in the FIG. 6 embodiment.
  • Referring to FIGS. 1 and 6 (both multi-layered front electrode embodiments), multilayer front electrode 3 may include from the front glass substrate 1 moving toward semiconductor film 5, first transparent conductive oxide (TCO) layer 3 a, first conductive substantially metallic IR reflecting layer 3 b, second TCO layer 3 c, optional second conductive substantially metallic IR reflecting layer 3 d, optional third TCO layer 3 e, and optional buffer layer 3 f. Optionally, layer 3 a may be a dielectric layer (e.g., silicon oxide, silicon nitride, silicon oxynitride, etc.) instead of a TCO in certain example instances and serve as a seed layer for the layer 3 b. This multilayer film makes up the front electrode 3 in certain example embodiments of this invention. Note that layers 2 and 3 d-3 f are not present in the FIG. 1 embodiment, but are present in the FIG. 6 embodiment. Of course, it is possible for certain layers of electrode 3 to be removed in certain alternative embodiments of this invention (e.g., one or more of layers 3 a, 3 c, 3 d and/or 3 e may be removed), and it is also possible for additional layers to be provided in the multilayer electrode 3. Front electrode 3 may be continuous across all or a substantial portion of glass substrate 1, or alternatively may be patterned into a desired design (e.g., stripes), in different example embodiments of this invention. Each of layers/films 1-3 is substantially transparent in certain example embodiments of this invention.
  • First and/or second conductive substantially metallic IR reflecting layers 3 b and 3 d may be of or based on any suitable IR reflecting material such as silver, gold, or the like. These materials reflect significant amounts of IR radiation, thereby reducing the amount of IR which reaches the semiconductor film 5. Since IR increases the temperature of the device, the reduction of the amount of IR radiation reaching the semiconductor film 5 is advantageous in that it reduces the operating temperature of the photovoltaic module so as to increase module output power. Moreover, the highly conductive nature of these substantially metallic layers 3 b and/or 3 d permits the conductivity of the overall electrode 3 to be increased. In certain example embodiments of this invention, the multilayer electrode 3 has a sheet resistance of less than or equal to about 15 ohms/square, more preferably less than or equal to about 12 ohms/square, and even more preferably less than or equal to about 10 ohms/square. Again, the increased conductivity (same as reduced sheet resistance) increases the overall photovoltaic module output power, by reducing resistive losses in the lateral direction in which current flows to be collected at the edge of cell segments. It is noted that first and second conductive substantially metallic IR reflecting layers 3 b and 3 d (as well as the other layers of the electrode 3) are thin enough so as to be substantially transparent to visible light. In certain example embodiments of this invention, first and/or second conductive substantially metallic IR reflecting layers 3 b and/or 3 d are each from about 3 to 12 nm thick, more preferably from about 5 to 10 nm thick, and most preferably from about 5 to 8 nm thick. In embodiments where one of the layers 3 b or 3 d is not used, then the remaining conductive substantially metallic IR reflecting layer may be from about 3 to 18 nm thick, more preferably from about 5 to 12 nm thick, and most preferably from about 6 to 11 nm thick in certain example embodiments of this invention. These thicknesses are desirable in that they permit the layers 3 b and/or 3 d to reflect significant amounts of IR radiation, while at the same time being substantially transparent to visible radiation which is permitted to reach the semiconductor 5 to be transformed by the photovoltaic device into electrical energy. The highly conductive IR reflecting layers 3 b and 3 d attribute to the overall conductivity of the electrode 3 much more than the TCO layers; this allows for expansion of the process window(s) of the TCO layer(s) which has a limited window area to achieve both high conductivity and transparency.
  • First, second, and/or third TCO layers 3 a, 3 c and 3 e, respectively, may be of any suitable TCO material including but not limited to conducive forms of zinc oxide (which may or may not be doped with Al or the like), tin oxide (which may or may not be doped with Sb or the like), indium-tin-oxide, indium zinc oxide (which may or may not be doped with silver), or the like. These layers are typically substoichiometric so as to render them conductive as is known in the art. For example, these layers are made of material(s) which may have a resistivity of 1000 mohm-cm or less, more preferably about 10 mohm-cm or less (the resistivity may be higher than usual given that Ag may be used for lateral conduction in the plane of the film). One or more of these layers may be doped with other materials such as fluorine, aluminum or the like in certain example instances, so long as they remain conductive and substantially transparent to light wavelength range that QE is significant. In certain example embodiments of this invention, TCO layers 3 c and/or 3 e are thicker than layer 3 a (e.g., at least about 5 nm, more preferably at least about 10, and most preferably at least about 20 or 30 nm thicker). In certain example embodiments of this invention, TCO layer 3 a is from about 3 to 80 nm thick, more preferably from about 5-30 nm thick, with an example thickness being about 10 nm. Optional layer 3 a is provided mainly as a seeding layer for layer 3 b and/or for antireflection purposes, and its conductivity is not as important as that of layers 3 b-3 e. In certain example embodiments of this invention, TCO layer 3 c is from about 20 to 150 nm thick, more preferably from about 40 to 120 nm thick, with an example thickness being about 74-75 nm. In certain example embodiments of this invention, TCO layer 3 e is from about 20 to 180 nm thick, more preferably from about 40 to 140 nm thick, with an example thickness being about 94 or 115 nm. In certain example embodiments, part of layer 3 e, e.g., from about 1-60 nm or 5-50 nm thick portion, at the interface between layers 3 e and 5 may be replaced with a low conductivity high refractive index (n) film 3 f such as titanium oxide to enhance transmission of light as well as to reduce back diffusion of generated electrical carriers; in this way performance may be further improved.
  • The alternating nature of the TCO layers 3 a, 3 c and/or 3 e, and the conductive substantially metallic IR reflecting layers 3 b and/or 3 d (or alternatively of only 3 a, 3 b and 3 c as in FIG. 1, or alternatively of only 3 b and 3 c as another example), is also advantageous in that it also one, two, three, four or all of the following advantages to be realized: (a) reduced sheet resistance (Rs) of the overall electrode 3 and thus increased conductivity and improved overall photovoltaic module output power; (b) increased reflection of infrared (IR) radiation by the electrode 3 thereby reducing the operating temperature of the semiconductor 5 portion of the photovoltaic module so as to increase module output power; (c) reduced reflection and increased transmission of light in the visible region of from about 450-700 nm (and/or 450-600 nm) by the front electrode 3 which leads to increased photovoltaic module output power; (d) reduced total thickness of the front electrode coating 3 which can reduce fabrication costs and/or time; and/or (e) an improved or enlarged process window in forming the TCO layer(s) because of the reduced impact of the TCO's conductivity on the overall electric properties of the module given the presence of the highly conductive substantially metallic layer(s).
  • The active semiconductor region or film 5 may include one or more layers, and may be of any suitable material. For example, the active semiconductor film 5 of one type of single junction amorphous silicon (a-Si) photovoltaic device includes three semiconductor layers, namely a p-layer, an n-layer and an i-layer. The p-type a-Si layer of the semiconductor film 5 may be the uppermost portion of the semiconductor film 5 in certain example embodiments of this invention; and the i-layer is typically located between the p and n-type layers. These amorphous silicon based layers of film 5 may be of hydrogenated amorphous silicon in certain instances, but may also be of or include hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbon or hydrogenated amorphous silicon germanium, hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon, or other suitable material(s) in certain example embodiments of this invention. It is possible for the active region 5 to be of a double-junction or triple-junction type in alternative embodiments of this invention. CdTe and/or CdS may also be used for semiconductor film 5 in alternative embodiments of this invention.
  • Optional back contact or electrode 7 may be of any suitable electrically conductive material. For example and without limitation, the back contact or electrode 7 may be of a TCO and/or a metal in certain instances. Example TCO materials for use as back contact or electrode 7 include indium zinc oxide, indium-tin-oxide (ITO), tin oxide, and/or zinc oxide which may be doped with aluminum (which may or may not be doped with silver). The TCO of the back contact 7 may be of the single layer type or a multi-layer type in different instances. Moreover, the back contact 7 may include both a TCO portion and a metal portion in certain instances. For example, in an example multi-layer embodiment, the TCO portion of the back contact 7 may include a layer of a material such as indium zinc oxide (which may or may not be doped with aluminum or the like), indium-tin-oxide (ITO), tin oxide, and/or zinc oxide closest to the active region 5, and the back contact may include another conductive and possibly reflective layer of a material such as silver, molybdenum, platinum, steel, iron, niobium, titanium, chromium, bismuth, antimony, or aluminum further from the active region 5 and closer to the superstrate 11. The metal portion may be closer to superstrate 11 compared to the TCO portion of the back contact 7.
  • The photovoltaic module may be encapsulated or partially covered with an encapsulating material such as encapsulant 9 in certain example embodiments. An example encapsulant or adhesive for layer 9 is EVA or PVB. However, other materials such as Tedlar type plastic, Nuvasil type plastic, Tefzel type plastic or the like may instead be used for layer 9 in different instances.
  • EXAMPLES
  • With reference to FIGS. 2-4 below, it will be explained how in certain example embodiments of this invention a single or multi-layered front electrode 3 can be designed in such a way that the maximum transmission is tailored to the quantum efficiency (QE) of the intended photovoltaic device and the light source spectrum. Then, this front electrode can be fabricated using a magnetron sputtering technique on pre-etched or pre-patterned glass 1. Due to the conformal characteristics of magnetron sputtering, multiple or single layered optical coatings for electrode 3 can be fabricated while preserving or substantially preserving the textured shape 1 a of the substrate 1 in the major surface 4 a of the electrode closest to the semiconductor film 5. In this way, the device output can be optimized through both improved light transmission and increased light path. The examples below each had more than 80% transmission (or at least 85%) into the semiconductor film 5 in part or all of the wavelength range of from about 450-600 nm and/or 450-700 nm, where AM1.5 has the strongest intensity (see FIGS. 2-4).
  • In Example 1 (see FIG. 2), the predicted transmission spectrum impinging into the amorphous silicon semiconductor film 5 from a three layered front electrode 3 was determined. The three layered front electrode 3 in this example included, on the textured surface 1 a (measured haze of 8.5%) of glass substrate 1 moving from the 3 mm glass 1 toward the semiconductor 5, a 47 nm thick TCO layer 3 a of zinc oxide doped with aluminum, a 8 nm thick layer 3 b of silver, and a 106 nm thick TCO layer 3 c of zinc oxide doped with aluminum. The textured surface 1 a of the glass substrate 1, and both major surfaces 4 a, 4 b of the electrode 3, had peaks and valleys defined therein with inclined portions interconnecting the peaks and valleys. This three layered electrode 3 was sputter deposited on the pre-etched textured surface 1 a of a soda-lime-silica based glass substrate 1. The measured haze was 8.1% and the measured sheet resistance (Rs) of the electrode was 8.9 ohms/square, which are suitable for amorphous and microcrystal silicon single or tandem cell applications. The visible transmission in the graph in FIG. 2 is indicative of the percent of light from the source which made its way through the glass substrate 1 and electrode 3 and impinged upon the a-Si semiconductor film 5. FIG. 2 illustrates that the coating was designed so that its transmission was tailored to the quantum efficiency (QE) and light source spectrum (AM1.5). In particular, FIG. 2 shows that the front electrode structure, including electrode 3 and its textured surface 4 a and layered make-up and the textured nature of substrate 1, was designed so that (a) its maximum transmission area occurs in the area under a peak area of the quantum efficiency (QE) curve of the photovoltaic device, (b) its maximum transmission occurs in the area under a peak area of the light source spectrum (e.g., AM1.5) (note that AM1.5 refers to air mass 1.5 which represents the AM1.5 photon flux spectrum that may be used to calculate device output power), and (c) its transmission into the semiconductor absorption film (a-Si, uc-Si, or the like) 5 is at least 80% (more preferably at least 85%, or even at least 87% or 88%) in part of, all of, or a substantial part of the wavelength range of from about 450-600 nm and/or 450-700 nm. These characteristics are advantageous for purposes of improving the efficiency of the photovoltaic device as explained herein.
  • In Example 2 (see FIG. 3), the predicted transmission spectrum impinging into the amorphous silicon (a-Si) semiconductor film 5 from a different type of front electrode 3 was determined. In Example 2 there was formed on the textured surface 1 a of 3 mm glass substrate 1 moving from the glass 1 toward the semiconductor 5, a 77 nm thick dielectric layer 3 a of silicon oxynitride, a 350 nm thick TCO layer 3 c of zinc oxide doped with aluminum, and a 46 nm thick buffer layer 3 e of titanium oxide (which may or may not be doped with niobium or the like). This three layered electrode 3 was sputter deposited on the pre-etched textured surface 1 a of a soda-lime-silica based glass substrate 1. The predicted haze was about 9% and the sheet resistance (Rs) of the electrode was about 15 ohms/square, which are suitable for amorphous and microcrystal silicon single or tandem cell applications. The visible transmission in the graph in FIG. 3 is indicative of the percent of light from the source which made its way through the glass substrate 1 and electrode 3 and impinged upon the a-Si semiconductor film 5. FIG. 3 illustrates that the coating was designed so that its transmission was tailored to the quantum efficiency (QE) and light source spectrum (AM1.5). In particular, FIG. 3 shows that the front electrode structure, including electrode 3 and its textured surface 4 a and layered make-up and the textured nature of substrate 1, was designed so that (a) its maximum transmission area occurs in the area under a peak area of the quantum efficiency (QE) curve of the photovoltaic device, (b) its maximum transmission area occurs in the area under a peak area of the light source spectrum (e.g., AM1.5), and (c) its transmission into the semiconductor absorption film 5 is at least 80% (more preferably at least 85%, or even at least 87% or 88%) in part of, all of, or a substantial part of the wavelength range of from about 450-600 nm and/or 450 or 500-700 nm. These characteristics are advantageous for purposes of improving the efficiency of the photovoltaic device as explained herein.
  • In Example 3 (see FIG. 4), the predicted transmission spectrum impinging into the CdS/CdTe inclusive semiconductor film 5 from a different type of front electrode 3 was determined. In Example 3 there was formed on the textured surface 1 a of 3 mm glass substrate 1 moving from the glass 1 toward the semiconductor 5, a triple layered dielectric layer 2 of 15 nm thick silicon nitride followed by a 16 nm thick layer of titanium dioxide and then a 10 nm thick layer of zinc oxide doped with aluminum, a 9 nm thick layer 3 b of silver, and a 140 nm thick low conductive buffer layer 3 f of tin oxide. This multi-layered electrode 3 was sputter deposited on the pre-etched textured surface 1 a of a soda-lime-silica based glass substrate 1. The haze was about 2.7% and the sheet resistance (Rs) of the electrode was about 10 ohms/square, which are suitable for CdTe thin film solar cell applications. In FIG. 4, the solid line is predicted transmission spectra into the CdS/CdTe photovoltaic device. The transmission in the graph in FIG. 4 is indicative of the percent of light from the source which made its way through the glass substrate 1 and electrode 3 and impinged upon the CdS/CdTe semiconductor film 5. FIG. 4 illustrates that the coating 3 was designed so that its transmission was tailored to the quantum efficiency (QE) and light source spectrum (AM1.5). In particular, FIG. 4 shows that the front electrode structure, including electrode 3 and its textured surface 4 a and layered make-up and the textured nature of substrate 1, was designed so that (a) its maximum transmission area occurs in the area under a peak area of the quantum efficiency (QE) curve of the photovoltaic device, (b) its maximum transmission area occurs in the area under a peak area of the light source spectrum (e.g., AM1.5), and (c) its transmission is at least 80% (more preferably at least 85%, or even at least 87% or 88%) in part of, all of, or a substantial part of the wavelength range of from about 450-600 nm and/or 450-750 nm. Note that the QE curve for the CdTe photovoltaic device is shifted relative to those of the a-Si photovoltaic devices in FIGS. 2-3, and the characteristics of the electrode structure were modified accordingly to fit the shifted QE curve. These characteristics are advantageous for purposes of improving the efficiency of the photovoltaic device as explained herein.
  • In certain example embodiments of this invention, it is possible for the glass substrate 1 to have both a patterned side (e.g., patterned via rollers or the like, to form a prismatic side for instance) and a matte finish side. The matter finish side may be formed via acid etching techniques so that the matte finish side of the glass substrate is an acid etched side of the glass. The electrode 3 may be formed on the matte or acid-etched side of the glass substrate 1 which textured to some extent. Moreover, in certain example embodiments of this invention, the glass substrate 1 has a haze value of from about 10-20%, more preferably from about 12-18%.
  • In certain example embodiments, for a single layer or multilayer transparent conductive front electrode 3, if the coating has the outermost optically functional layer or the overall coating thickness less than the desired surface morphology for light trapping or scattering, then a pre-etched/patterned substrate 1 may be used to maximize light trapping/scattering and transmission at the same time.
  • In Examples 4a and 4b (see FIG. 7), the predicted transmission spectrum impinging into the amorphous silicon (a-Si) semiconductor film 5 from a different type of front electrode(s) 3 was determined. In Example 4a (see the circle line in FIG. 7) there was formed on the textured surface 1 a of 3 mm glass substrate 1 moving from the glass 1 toward the semiconductor 5, an 80 nm thick dielectric layer 3 a of silicon oxynitride, and a 700 nm thick TCO layer 3 c of tin oxide doped with fluorine. In example 4b (see the vertical bar line in FIG. 7), there was formed on the textured surface 1 a of 3 mm glass substrate 1 moving from the glass 1 toward the semiconductor 5, an 80 nm thick dielectric layer 3 a of silicon oxynitride, a 700 nm thick TCO layer 3 c of tin oxide doped with fluorine, and a 50 nm thick TCO layer 3 c of titanium niobium oxide. Thus, a two layer monolithic TCO of silicon oxynitride/tin oxide was formed with and without a layer of titanium niobium oxide 3 c provided thereover. The transmission in the graph in FIG. 7 is indicative of the percent of light from the source which made its way through the glass substrate 1 and electrode 3 and impinged upon the a-Si semiconductor film 5. FIG. 7 illustrates that the coating was designed so that its transmission was tailored to the quantum efficiency (QE) and light source spectrum (AM1.5). In particular, FIG. 7 shows that the front electrode structures, including electrodes 3 and textured surface 4 a and layered make-up and the textured nature of substrate 1, were designed so that (a) the maximum transmission area occurs in the area under a peak area of the quantum efficiency (QE) curve of the photovoltaic device, (b) the maximum transmission area occurs in the area under a peak area of the light source spectrum (e.g., AM1.5), and (c) the transmission into the semiconductor absorption film 5 is at least 80% (more preferably at least 85%, or even at least 87% or 88%—see Example 4b) in part of, all of, or a substantial part of the wavelength range of from about 450-600 nm and/or 450 or 500-700 nm. These characteristics are advantageous for purposes of improving the efficiency of the photovoltaic device as explained herein.
  • FIG. 7 and the comparison between Examples 4a and 4b also illustrate that the use of the high index TCO layer of titanium niobium oxide 4 c surprisingly results in a much higher transmission into the semiconductor film 5, and thus a much more efficient photovoltaic device (see Example 4b, the vertical line plot in FIG. 7, compared to Example 4a which had no such layer). In this respect, transparent conductive overcoat or buffer layer 3 c of or including TiOx(:Nb) and/or TiZnOx(:Al and/or Nb) has been found to be particularly advantageous, especially when located adjacent and contacting the semiconductor film 5 as in Example 4b. The transparent front electrode 3 serves as both a window and an electrode in the photovoltaic device. It is desired to have low resistivity and high transparency in the PV sensitive wavelength range. Glass 1 has a refractive index (n) of about 1.5 and photovoltaic semiconductor materials 5 (e.g., a-Si; a-Si/uc-Si; CdS/CdTe; CIS; etc.) have refractive indices (n) of at least 3.4. In order to reduce reflection loss caused by big index differences between the glass 1 and semiconductor 5, the use of a transparent conductive oxide 3 c having a refractive index (n) of at least 2.15 (more preferably at least 2.2, even more preferably at least 2.3, and possibly at least 2.4 at 550 nm) is provided. When positioned adjacent the semiconductor film 5 as a layer 3 c as in Example 4b shown in FIG. 7, this results in a reduction in reflection loss thereby improving the efficiency of the photovoltaic (PV) device. The relatively high refractive index of layer 3 c is compared to the lower refractive indices of 1.8 to 2.1 associated with TCOs such as SnOx(:Sb), ZnOx(:Al), ZnOx(:Ga), and InSnOx.
  • Transparent conductive layer 3 c (or 3 f in FIG. 6) may thus comprise titanium zinc oxide doped with aluminum and/or niobium, and/or titanium niobium oxide which may or may not be doped with aluminum or the like. In certain example embodiments, the titanium zinc oxide is doped with from about 0.01 to 10% Al and/or Nb, more preferably from about 0.02 to 7% Al and/or Nb, and most preferably from about 0.1 to 5% Al and/or Nb. In other example embodiments, transparent conductive layer 3 c (or 3 f) may comprise titanium oxide doped niobium (Al may also be provided in such embodiments, in addition to Nb); in certain example embodiments the titanium oxide is doped with from about 0.01 to 10% Nb, more preferably from about 0.02 to 7% Nb, and most preferably from about 0.1 to 5% Nb. Other dopants may also be provided in certain instances. Transparent conductive layers TiOx(:Nb) and/or TiZnOx(:Al and/or Nb) (3 c or 3 f) have a refractive index of at least 2.2 in most situations, are conductive, and have transparency higher than TiOx. Thus, the use of these materials is superior to pure TiOx. However, the resistivity of these materials sometimes tends to be high, so their use in connection with another more conductive layer in the context of a front electrode of a PV device is desirable in certain example embodiments of this invention.
  • While the invention has been described in connection with what is presently considered to be the most practical and preferred embodiment, it is to be understood that the invention is not to be limited to the disclosed embodiment, but on the contrary, is intended to cover various modifications and equivalent arrangements included within the spirit and scope of the appended claims.

Claims (21)

1. A method of making a photovoltaic device, the method comprising:
providing a glass substrate;
etching and/or patterning at least one major surface of the glass substrate so as to form a textured surface of the glass substrate;
sputter-depositing a substantially conformal front electrode on the textured surface of the glass substrate, the front electrode being substantially conformal so that both major surfaces of the front electrode are textured in a manner similar to the textured surface of the glass substrate, and wherein the front electrode comprises a first conductive layer and a second conductive layer, the second conductive layer being located between at least the first conductive layer and a semiconductor film, and wherein the second conductive layer comprises titanium zinc oxide doped with aluminum and/or niobium; and
using the substantially conformal front electrode formed on the textured surface of the glass substrate at a light incident side of the photovoltaic device.
2. The method of claim 1, wherein the titanium zinc oxide is doped with from about 0.01 to 10% Al and/or Nb.
3. The method of claim 1, wherein the titanium zinc oxide is doped with from about 0.02 to 7% Al and/or Nb.
4. The method of claim 1, wherein the titanium zinc oxide is doped with from about 0.1 to 5% Al and/or Nb.
5. The method of claim 1, further comprising determining a quantum efficiency (QE) and/or QEx (photon flux of solar radiation) curve for a photovoltaic device, and forming the front electrode in a manner so that a maximum transmission area of the front electrode is located under a peak area of the QE and/or QEx (photon flux of solar radiation) curve for the photovoltaic device.
6. The method of claim 5, further comprising forming the front electrode in a manner so that the maximum transmission area of the front electrode is located under a peak area of a combination of QE and a light source spectrum expected to be used to power the photovoltaic device.
7. The method of claim 6, wherein the light source spectrum is AM1.5.
8. The method of claim 5, further comprising forming the front electrode in a manner so that a transmission of the front electrode and the glass substrate taken together, into a semiconductor film of the photovoltaic device, is at least 80% in at least a substantial part of a wavelength range of from about 450-600 nm.
9. The method of claim 8, further comprising forming the front electrode in a manner so that the transmission of the front electrode and the glass substrate taken together is at least 85% in at least a substantial part of a wavelength range of from about 450-600 nm.
10. The method of claim 8, further comprising forming the front electrode in a manner so that the transmission of the front electrode and the glass substrate taken together is at least 87% in at least a substantial part of a wavelength range of from about 450-600 nm.
11. A method of making a photovoltaic device, the method comprising:
providing a glass substrate;
etching and/or patterning at least one major surface of the glass substrate so as to form a textured surface of the glass substrate;
sputter-depositing a substantially conformal front electrode on the textured surface of the glass substrate, the front electrode being substantially conformal so that both major surfaces of the front electrode are textured in a manner similar to the textured surface of the glass substrate, and wherein the front electrode comprises a first conductive layer and a second conductive layer, the second conductive layer being located between at least the first conductive layer and a semiconductor film, and wherein the second conductive layer comprises titanium niobium oxide; and
using the substantially conformal front electrode formed on the textured surface of the glass substrate at a light incident side of the photovoltaic device.
12. The method of claim 11, wherein the layer comprising titanium niobium oxide includes from about 0.01 to 10% Nb, and may optionally further include aluminum.
13. The method of claim 11, wherein the layer comprising titanium niobium oxide includes from about 0.1 to 5% Nb.
14. The method of claim 11, further comprising determining a quantum efficiency (QE) and/or QEx (photon flux of solar radiation) curve for a photovoltaic device, and forming the front electrode in a manner so that a maximum transmission area of the front electrode is located under a peak area of the QE and/or QEx (photon flux of solar radiation) curve for the photovoltaic device.
15. The method of claim 14, further comprising forming the front electrode in a manner so that the maximum transmission area of the front electrode is located under a peak area of a combination of QE and a light source spectrum expected to be used to power the photovoltaic device.
16. The method of claim 15, wherein the light source spectrum is AM1.5.
17. A photovoltaic device comprising:
a front glass substrate;
a semiconductor film;
a substantially transparent conductive front electrode provided between at least the front glass substrate and the semiconductor film;
wherein a maximum transmission area of the substantially transparent conductive front electrode is located under a peak area of a quantum efficiency (QE) and/or QEx (photon flux of solar radiation) curve of the photovoltaic device; and
wherein the front electrode comprises a first conductive layer and a second conductive layer, the second conductive layer being located between at least the first conductive layer and the semiconductor film, and wherein the second conductive layer comprises one or both of: (i) titanium zinc oxide doped with aluminum and/or niobium; and/or (ii) titanium niobium oxide.
18. The photovoltaic device of claim 17, wherein the maximum transmission area of the front electrode is located under a peak area of QE and a light source spectrum expected to be used to power the photovoltaic device.
19. The photovoltaic device of claim 17, wherein a transmission of the front electrode and the front glass substrate taken together, into the semiconductor film, is at least 80% in at least a substantial part of a wavelength range of from about 450-600 nm.
20. The photovoltaic device of claim 17, wherein the transmission of the front electrode and the front glass substrate taken together is at least 85% in at least a substantial part of a wavelength range of from about 450-600 nm.
21. The photovoltaic device of claim 17, wherein at least one major surface of the front glass substrate and both major surfaces of the front electrode are textured so as to have peaks and valleys defined therein.
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US12/149,263 US7964788B2 (en) 2006-11-02 2008-04-29 Front electrode for use in photovoltaic device and method of making same
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US13/067,171 US20110214733A1 (en) 2006-11-02 2011-05-13 Front electrode for use in photovoltaic device and method of making same
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