US20070249314A1 - Adjusting parameters associated with transmitter leakage - Google Patents

Adjusting parameters associated with transmitter leakage Download PDF

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Publication number
US20070249314A1
US20070249314A1 US11750876 US75087607A US2007249314A1 US 20070249314 A1 US20070249314 A1 US 20070249314A1 US 11750876 US11750876 US 11750876 US 75087607 A US75087607 A US 75087607A US 2007249314 A1 US2007249314 A1 US 2007249314A1
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signal
portion
rf
transmission signal
amplitude
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Abandoned
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US11750876
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Stuart Sanders
Richard Timmons
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Sirit Technologies Inc
Sirit Corp
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Sirit Technologies Inc
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04BTRANSMISSION
    • H04B1/00Details of transmission systems, not covered by a single one of groups H04B3/00 - H04B13/00; Details of transmission systems not characterised by the medium used for transmission
    • H04B1/38Transceivers, i.e. devices in which transmitter and receiver form a structural unit and in which at least one part is used for functions of transmitting and receiving
    • H04B1/40Circuits
    • H04B1/50Circuits using different frequencies for the two directions of communication
    • H04B1/52Hybrid arrangements, i.e. arrangements for transition from single-path two-direction transmission to single-direction transmission on each of two paths or vice versa
    • H04B1/525Hybrid arrangements, i.e. arrangements for transition from single-path two-direction transmission to single-direction transmission on each of two paths or vice versa with means for reducing leakage of transmitter signal into the receiver
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04BTRANSMISSION
    • H04B3/00Line transmission systems
    • H04B3/02Details
    • H04B3/20Reducing echo effects or singing; Opening or closing transmitting path; Conditioning for transmission in one direction or the other
    • H04B3/23Reducing echo effects or singing; Opening or closing transmitting path; Conditioning for transmission in one direction or the other using a replica of transmitted signal in the time domain, e.g. echo cancellers
    • H04B3/232Reducing echo effects or singing; Opening or closing transmitting path; Conditioning for transmission in one direction or the other using a replica of transmitted signal in the time domain, e.g. echo cancellers using phase shift, phase roll or frequency offset correction

Abstract

An apparatus comprises a transmitter, a receiver, an antenna and a signal cancellation circuit. The transmitter is configured to send a transmitter signal associated with a frequency. The receiver is associated with the frequency. The antenna is coupled to the transmitter and the receiver. The signal cancellation circuit is coupled to the transmitter, the receiver and the antenna. The signal cancellation circuit is configured to phase shift a first portion of the transmitter signal to produce a phase-shifted signal. The signal cancellation circuit is configured to combine the phase-shifted signal with a second portion of the transmitter signal to produce a combined signal. The second portion of the transmitter signal is associated with a reflection of a third portion of the transmitter signal from the antenna. The first portion, the second portion and the third portion of the transmitter signal are different from each other.

Description

    CLAIM OF PRIORITY
  • This application claims priority under 35 USC §119(e) to U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/804,198, filed on Mar. 19, 2004, the entire contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference.
  • TECHNICAL FIELD
  • This invention relates to Radio Frequency (RF) signals and, more particularly, to adjusting parameters associated with transmitter leakage.
  • BACKGROUND
  • In a known transceiver without signal cancellation, a single antenna is shared by the transmitter portion and receiver portion while simultaneously transmitting and receiving on the same frequency. See FIG. 1. The known transceiver 100 includes a controller 110, a frequency source 120, a transmitter modulator 130, a variable gain amplifier (VGA) 140, a power amplifier (PA) 150, a detector 160, a circulator 170, an antenna 180, an antenna connector 185 and a receiver 190. Controller 110 is a microprocessor. The frequency source 120 is a frequency agile synthesizer. Detector 160 can measure the power output by the transmitter modulator 130.
  • The output of transmitter modulator 130 is calibrated using an accurate power sensor (not shown) at the antenna connector 185 by adjusting the gain setting of VGA 140, and then storing the gain setting of VGA 140 and the detector reading that produced the desired output power level(s). The transmitter modulator 130 and receiver 190 operate on the same frequency, and thus the performance of receiver 190 is adversely affected by the energy from transmitter modulator 130 that is reflected back from antenna 180, which is non-ideal in its implementation. If all radio frequency (RF) components in the transceiver modulator 130 are precisely 50 ohms, for example, then all energy from transmitter modulator 130 applied to antenna 180 is radiated, and no energy reflects back towards receiver 190. Because an ideal 150-ohm implementation is not realistically achievable, receiver 190 will experience degraded performance due to the energy reflected from the transmitter modulator 130 by antenna 180, relative to the weaker signal sent to receiver 190 detected by the detector.
  • The signal level reflected back from antenna 180 is, for example, typically between 15 to 25 dB below the signal from the transmitter modulator 130 and radiated by antenna 180. The energy level of the signal reflected back to receiver 190 can be, for example, as high as 100 m W. This can cause signal overload of the sensitive components of receiver 190, resulting in degradation of the sensitivity and range of receiver 190. For the case of a homodyne receiver, this can cause a large direct current (DC) (i.e., 0 Hz) component.
  • SUMMARY
  • An apparatus comprises a transmitter, a receiver, an antenna and a signal cancellation circuit. The transmitter is configured to send a transmitter signal associated with a frequency. The receiver is associated with the frequency. The antenna is coupled to the transmitter and the receiver. The signal cancellation circuit is coupled to the transmitter, the receiver and the antenna. The signal cancellation circuit is configured to phase shift a first portion of the transmitter signal to produce a phase-shifted signal. The signal cancellation circuit is configured to combine the phase-shifted signal with a second portion of the transmitter signal to produce a combined signal. The second portion of the transmitter signal is associated with a reflection of a third portion of the transmitter signal from the antenna. The first portion, the second portion and the third portion of the transmitter signal are different from each other.
  • The details of one of more embodiments of the invention are set forth in the accompanying drawings and the description below. Other features, objects, and advantages of the invention will be apparent from the description and drawings, and from the claims.
  • DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS
  • FIG. 1 shows a block diagram of a known transceiver.
  • FIG. 2 shows a block diagram of a transceiver having signal cancellation circuitry, according to an embodiment of the invention.
  • Like reference symbols in the various drawings indicate like elements.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION
  • In an embodiment of the invention, ′″ transceiver having a signal cancellation circuit simultaneously transmits and receives on the same frequency while sharing a single antenna. In particular, a reflected signal from an antenna can be reduced significantly (for example, by 30 dB or more) via a signal cancellation circuit that takes a small amount of the transmitter signal (adjusted in amplitude to be substantially equal in amplitude to the reflected signal), and shifts the phase of the signal such that the phase-shifted signal is 1800 out of phase with the reflected signal. Consequently, when the two signals are combined, a signal having reduced amplitude is produced. Such signal can also be referred to as a “cancelled” signal or can have, for example, significantly reduced amplitude.
  • FIG. 2 shows a block diagram of a transceiver having a signal cancellation circuit, according to an embodiment of the invention. As shown in FIG. 2, the transceiver 200 includes a controller 210, frequency source 220, transmitter modulator 230, VGA 240, PA 250, detector 260, circulator 270, antenna coupler 285, antenna 280 and receiver 290. Transceiver 200 also includes signal cancellation circuit 300 having coupler 310, variable attenuator 320, phase shifter 330, coupler/combiner 340, detector 350, controller 360, limiter 370 and low noise amplifier (LNA) 380. Each of the components of the signal cancellation circuit 300 is discussed below.
  • Coupler 310 can be, for example, a directional coupler inserted between the output of PA 250 and circulator 270. Coupler 310 receives signal 402 and sends signals 404 and 406 where signal 404 has a smaller amplitude than the amplitude of signal 406. Signal 404 can used to cancel the reflected signal from the antenna 280 as described below in more detail.
  • Variable attenuator 320 can be, for example, a variable attenuator used to adjust the amplitude of signal 404 so that the amplitude of the signal 412 substantially corresponds to the amplitude of signal 408 at combiner 340, where signal 408 is reflected from antenna 280. Phase shifter 330 can be, for example, a phase shifter configured to adjust the phase of the signal 41 0 1800 relative to the phase of the signal 408 reflected from antenna 280 and received by coupler 340.
  • Coupler 340 can be, for example, a signal coupler configured to combine signal. 412 with signal 408 reflected from the antenna. In other words, after variable attenuator 320 adjusts the phase of signal 404 and phase shifter 330 adjusts the phase of signal 410, coupler 340 combines signal 412 with signal 408 received as reflection from antenna 280.
  • Detector 350 can be, for example, a power detector configured to measure the power of signal 414. Detector 350 provides the detected power of signal 414 to controller 360. Controller 360 is configured to adjust variable attenuator 320 based on the detected power of signal 414. More specifically, controller 360 provides a control signal to variable attenuator 320 so that variable attenuator 320 modifies the amplitude of signal 404 to substantially correspond to t4e amplitude of signal 408.
  • Controller 360 is also configured to adjust phase shifter 330 based on the detected power of signal 414. More specifically, controller 360 provides a control signal to phase shifter 330 so that the phase of signal 412 is shifted substantially 1800 from signal 408 reflected from the antenna. The output of detector 350 can be minimized, for example, when the amplitude of signals 412 and 408 are substantially equal, and the phase of signals 412 and 408 are substantially 180° relative to each other.
  • Detector 350 can also be coupled elsewhere within signal cancellation circuit 300. Such alternative locations of detector 350 within signal cancellation circuit 300 can provide an alternative measure of selectivity and sensitivity. Such alternative locations can be, for example, between LNA 380 and receiver 290, or after the mixer (not shown) of the receiver 290.
  • Controller 360 can be configured, for example, as a control loop used to adjust the amplitude and phase of signal 404 so that signal 414 output by coupler 340 as detected by detector by detector 350 is minimized. As described above, controller 360 provides control signals to variable attenuator 320 and phase shifter 330, which adjust the amplitude and phase, respectively, of signal 404 based on these control signals.
  • Limiter 370 receives signal 414 and outputs signal 416. Limiter 370 is configured to limit the amplitude of signal 414 to produce signal 416 thereby protecting LNA 380. More specifically, LNA 8 is configured to amplify signal 416 to improve the sensitivity performance and range of the receiver 290. Before such amplification, however, the amplitude of signal 416 provided to LNA 380 is limited by limiter 370 to protect LNA 380 from damage by a high signal level reflected from the antenna, prior to the cancellation adjustment I refinement via controller 360.
  • Various alternative embodiments are possible. For example, in one embodiment, the transceiver includes an optional memory device (not shown). In such an embodiment, the transceiver detectors (e.g., detectors 260 and 350) can be calibrated based on the calibrated data stored in the memory device of the transceiver. By calibrating the transceiver detectors based on the calibration data, the time it takes to minimize the cancellation by the signal cancellation circuit can be minimized.
  • Similarly, transmitter modulator 230 can be calibrated by using a power meter (not shown) at antenna connector 285, and by adjusting VGA 240 until the desired power output from transmitter modulator 230 is achieved. The setting of VGA 240 and the detected power of PA 250 can be stored in the optional memory device for each possible output power setting of transmitter modulator 230. Finally, with variable attenuator 320 set for maximum attenuation, a signal can be applied to antenna connector 285 while calibrating detector 350 over its usable range.
  • In another embodiment, a “training” sequence can be implemented in which variable attenuator 320 is set for maximum attenuator and detector 350 (previously calibrated) measures the power level of the reflected signal (e.g., signal 414). Based on the current power level detected by detector 260, the initial value of variable attenuator 320 can be approximated to achieve a best guess of “equal amplitude,” and then phase shifter 330 can be adjusted to minimize the power level of the signal 414 detected by detector 350. Subsequently, variable attenuator 320 can be fine tuned to produce a minimum power level of signal 414 detected by detector 350, and then phase shifter 330 can be fine tuned to produce a minimum power level of signal 414 detected by detector 350.
  • While the invention has been particularly shown and described with reference to embodiments thereof, it will be understood by those skilled in the art that various changed in form and details may be made therein without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention.

Claims (22)

  1. 1. A method for reducing noise, comprising:
    sampling, on a receiver path, Radio Frequency (RF) signal including a signal received from a transponder and an interference signal, the interference signal based, at least in part, on an RF transmission signal;
    dynamically adjusting a portion of the RF transmission signal based, at least in part, on the sampled signal; and
    combining the adjusted portion of the RF transmission signal into receive path to reduce the interference signal.
  2. 2. The method of claim 1, further comprising splitting, from the RF transmission signal, the portion of the RF transmission signal.
  3. 3. The method of claim 1, wherein dynamically adjusting the portion of the transmission signal comprises:
    dynamically adjusting the amplitude of the portion of the transmission signal based, at least in part, on the sampled signal; and
    dynamically adjusting the phase of the portion of the transmission signal based, at least in part, on the sampled signal.
  4. 4. The method of claim 1, wherein the interference signal includes a portion of the RF transmission signal reflected by an antenna.
  5. 5. The method of claim 1, a frequency of the RF transmission signal is substantially the same frequency of the signal received from the transponder.
  6. 6. The method of claim 1, wherein the receive-path signal is sampled as an RF signal.
  7. 7. The method of claim 1, wherein the interference signal is reduced by at least 30 dB by the adjusted portion of the transmission signal.
  8. 8. The method of claim 1, wherein sampling the RF signal from the received path comprises determining an amplitude of the receive-path signal.
  9. 9. Method of claim 1, further comprising:
    dynamically generating control signals for adjusting the amplitude of the portion of the RF transmission signal based, at least in part, on the sampled signal;
    dynamically generating control signals for adjusting the phase of the portion of the RF transmission signal based, at least in part, on the sampled signal; and
    wherein the amplitude and the phase of the portion of the RF transmission signal are adjusted in response to at least the control signals.
  10. 10. The method of claim 1, wherein the portion of the RF transmission signal is dynamically adjusted using a control loop.
  11. 11. An RF reader, comprising:
    a detector configured to sample, on a receive path, an Radio Frequency (RF) signal including a signal received from a transponder and an interference signal, the interference signal based, at least in part, on a RF transmission signal;
    a control element configured to dynamically adjust a portion of the RF transmission signal based, at least in part, on the sampled signal; and
    a coupler configured to combine the adjusted portion of the RF transmission signal to the receive path to reduce the interference signal.
  12. 12. The RF reader of claim 11, further comprising a coupler configured to split, from the RF transmission signal, the portion of the RF transmission signal.
  13. 13. The RF reader of claim 11, wherein the control element comprises:
    a amplitude element configured to dynamically adjust an amplitude of the portion of the transmission signal based, at least in part, on the sampled signal; and
    a phase element configured to dynamically adjust a phase of the portion of the transmission signal based, at least in part, on the sampled signal.
  14. 14. The RF reader of claim 11, wherein the amplitude element comprises a variable attenuator.
  15. 15. The RF reader of claim 11, wherein the phase element comprises a phase shifter.
  16. 16. The RF reader of claim 11, wherein the interference signal includes a portion of the RF transmission signal reflected by an antenna.
  17. 17. The RF reader of claim 11, the frequency of the RF transmission signal is substantially the same frequency of the signal received from the transponder.
  18. 18. The RF reader of claim 11, wherein the receive-path signal is sampled as an RF signal.
  19. 19. The RF reader of claim 11, wherein the interference signal is reduced by at least 30 dB by the adjusted portion of the transmission signal.
  20. 20. The RF reader of claim 11, wherein the detector is configured to determine an amplitude of the receive-path signal.
  21. 21. The RF reader of claim 11, further comprising wherein the control element includes a controller configured to dynamically generate control signals for adjusting an amplitude and a phase of the portion of the RF transmission signal based, at least in part, on the sampled signal, wherein an amplitude and a phase of the portion of the RF transmission signal are adjusted in response to at least the control signals.
  22. 22. The RF reader of claim 1, wherein the portion of the RF transmission signal is dynamically adjusted using a control loop.
US11750876 2004-03-19 2007-05-18 Adjusting parameters associated with transmitter leakage Abandoned US20070249314A1 (en)

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US10804198 US7327802B2 (en) 2004-03-19 2004-03-19 Method and apparatus for canceling the transmitted signal in a homodyne duplex transceiver
US11750876 US20070249314A1 (en) 2004-03-19 2007-05-18 Adjusting parameters associated with transmitter leakage

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US11750876 US20070249314A1 (en) 2004-03-19 2007-05-18 Adjusting parameters associated with transmitter leakage

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US10804198 Continuation US7327802B2 (en) 2004-03-19 2004-03-19 Method and apparatus for canceling the transmitted signal in a homodyne duplex transceiver

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US11750876 Abandoned US20070249314A1 (en) 2004-03-19 2007-05-18 Adjusting parameters associated with transmitter leakage

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US7327802B2 (en) 2008-02-05 grant
EP1741213A4 (en) 2010-06-09 application
US20050207509A1 (en) 2005-09-22 application
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WO2005089427A3 (en) 2006-11-09 application
WO2005089427A2 (en) 2005-09-29 application
EP2597778A1 (en) 2013-05-29 application
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CA2559965C (en) 2017-06-06 grant
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CA2559965A1 (en) 2005-09-29 application
ES2529498T3 (en) 2015-02-20 grant

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