US20070124012A1 - Programmed material consolidation methods employing machine vision - Google Patents

Programmed material consolidation methods employing machine vision Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US20070124012A1
US20070124012A1 US11/699,165 US69916507A US2007124012A1 US 20070124012 A1 US20070124012 A1 US 20070124012A1 US 69916507 A US69916507 A US 69916507A US 2007124012 A1 US2007124012 A1 US 2007124012A1
Authority
US
United States
Prior art keywords
method
material
selectively dispensing
comprises
substrate
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
Application number
US11/699,165
Inventor
Warren Farnworth
Alan Wood
Original Assignee
Farnworth Warren M
Wood Alan G
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to US10/867,258 priority Critical patent/US7216009B2/en
Application filed by Farnworth Warren M, Wood Alan G filed Critical Farnworth Warren M
Priority to US11/699,165 priority patent/US20070124012A1/en
Publication of US20070124012A1 publication Critical patent/US20070124012A1/en
Application status is Abandoned legal-status Critical

Links

Images

Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L24/00Arrangements for connecting or disconnecting semiconductor or solid-state bodies; Methods or apparatus related thereto
    • H01L24/74Apparatus for manufacturing arrangements for connecting or disconnecting semiconductor or solid-state bodies
    • H01L24/76Apparatus for connecting with build-up interconnects
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C64/00Additive manufacturing, i.e. manufacturing of three-dimensional [3D] objects by additive deposition, additive agglomeration or additive layering, e.g. by 3D printing, stereolithography or selective laser sintering
    • B29C64/10Processes of additive manufacturing
    • B29C64/106Processes of additive manufacturing using only liquids or viscous materials, e.g. depositing a continuous bead of viscous material
    • B29C64/112Processes of additive manufacturing using only liquids or viscous materials, e.g. depositing a continuous bead of viscous material using individual droplets, e.g. from jetting heads
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C64/00Additive manufacturing, i.e. manufacturing of three-dimensional [3D] objects by additive deposition, additive agglomeration or additive layering, e.g. by 3D printing, stereolithography or selective laser sintering
    • B29C64/10Processes of additive manufacturing
    • B29C64/106Processes of additive manufacturing using only liquids or viscous materials, e.g. depositing a continuous bead of viscous material
    • B29C64/124Processes of additive manufacturing using only liquids or viscous materials, e.g. depositing a continuous bead of viscous material using layers of liquid which are selectively solidified
    • B29C64/129Processes of additive manufacturing using only liquids or viscous materials, e.g. depositing a continuous bead of viscous material using layers of liquid which are selectively solidified characterised by the energy source therefor, e.g. by global irradiation combined with a mask
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B33ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY
    • B33YADDITIVE MANUFACTURING, i.e. MANUFACTURING OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL [3-D] OBJECTS BY ADDITIVE DEPOSITION, ADDITIVE AGGLOMERATION OR ADDITIVE LAYERING, e.g. BY 3-D PRINTING, STEREOLITHOGRAPHY OR SELECTIVE LASER SINTERING
    • B33Y40/00Auxiliary operations or equipment, e.g. for material handling
    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03FPHOTOMECHANICAL PRODUCTION OF TEXTURED OR PATTERNED SURFACES, e.g. FOR PRINTING, FOR PROCESSING OF SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; MATERIALS THEREFOR; ORIGINALS THEREFOR; APPARATUS SPECIALLY ADAPTED THEREFOR
    • G03F7/00Photomechanical, e.g. photolithographic, production of textured or patterned surfaces, e.g. printing surfaces; Materials therefor, e.g. comprising photoresists; Apparatus specially adapted therefor
    • G03F7/70Exposure apparatus for microlithography
    • G03F7/70375Imaging systems not otherwise provided for, e.g. multiphoton lithography; Imaging systems comprising means for converting one type of radiation into another type of radiation, systems comprising mask with photo-cathode
    • G03F7/70416Stereolithography, 3D printing, rapid prototyping
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L24/00Arrangements for connecting or disconnecting semiconductor or solid-state bodies; Methods or apparatus related thereto
    • H01L24/80Methods for connecting semiconductor or other solid state bodies using means for bonding being attached to, or being formed on, the surface to be connected
    • H01L24/82Methods for connecting semiconductor or other solid state bodies using means for bonding being attached to, or being formed on, the surface to be connected by forming build-up interconnects at chip-level, e.g. for high density interconnects [HDI]
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L2924/00Indexing scheme for arrangements or methods for connecting or disconnecting semiconductor or solid-state bodies as covered by H01L24/00
    • H01L2924/01Chemical elements
    • H01L2924/01033Arsenic [As]
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L2924/00Indexing scheme for arrangements or methods for connecting or disconnecting semiconductor or solid-state bodies as covered by H01L24/00
    • H01L2924/01Chemical elements
    • H01L2924/01049Indium [In]
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L2924/00Indexing scheme for arrangements or methods for connecting or disconnecting semiconductor or solid-state bodies as covered by H01L24/00
    • H01L2924/01Chemical elements
    • H01L2924/0106Neodymium [Nd]
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L2924/00Indexing scheme for arrangements or methods for connecting or disconnecting semiconductor or solid-state bodies as covered by H01L24/00
    • H01L2924/01Chemical elements
    • H01L2924/01077Iridium [Ir]
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L2924/00Indexing scheme for arrangements or methods for connecting or disconnecting semiconductor or solid-state bodies as covered by H01L24/00
    • H01L2924/095Indexing scheme for arrangements or methods for connecting or disconnecting semiconductor or solid-state bodies as covered by H01L24/00 with a principal constituent of the material being a combination of two or more materials provided in the groups H01L2924/013 - H01L2924/0715
    • H01L2924/097Glass-ceramics, e.g. devitrified glass
    • H01L2924/09701Low temperature co-fired ceramic [LTCC]
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L2924/00Indexing scheme for arrangements or methods for connecting or disconnecting semiconductor or solid-state bodies as covered by H01L24/00
    • H01L2924/10Details of semiconductor or other solid state devices to be connected
    • H01L2924/11Device type
    • H01L2924/12Passive devices, e.g. 2 terminal devices
    • H01L2924/1204Optical Diode
    • H01L2924/12042LASER
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L2924/00Indexing scheme for arrangements or methods for connecting or disconnecting semiconductor or solid-state bodies as covered by H01L24/00
    • H01L2924/10Details of semiconductor or other solid state devices to be connected
    • H01L2924/11Device type
    • H01L2924/14Integrated circuits
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L51/00Solid state devices using organic materials as the active part, or using a combination of organic materials with other materials as the active part; Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment of such devices, or of parts thereof
    • H01L51/0001Processes specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment of devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L51/0002Deposition of organic semiconductor materials on a substrate
    • H01L51/0003Deposition of organic semiconductor materials on a substrate using liquid deposition, e.g. spin coating
    • H01L51/0004Deposition of organic semiconductor materials on a substrate using liquid deposition, e.g. spin coating using printing techniques, e.g. ink-jet printing, screen printing
    • H01L51/0005Deposition of organic semiconductor materials on a substrate using liquid deposition, e.g. spin coating using printing techniques, e.g. ink-jet printing, screen printing ink-jet printing

Abstract

Programmed material consolidation methods include the use of electronic viewing or machine vision. A feature or location of a support or substrate is recognized or identified and material dispersed relative to the recognized or identified feature or location. The material may be selectively dispensed and at least partially consolidated either actively or passively. By use of the machine vision system, the precise location on a substrate or support element may be determined and communicated to the dispense element of programmed material consolidation system such that a flowable material may be deposited and consolidated at a desired location to form a structural feature.

Description

    CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION
  • This application is a divisional of application Ser. No. 10/867,258, filed Jun. 14, 2004, pending. The disclosure of the previously referenced U.S. patent application referenced is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • 1. Field of the Invention
  • The present invention relates to systems and methods of three-dimensional (3-D) printing. More specifically, the present invention relates to systems and methods of 3-D printing for fabricating features on semiconductor devices and related components.
  • 2. Background of Related Art
  • Over the past few years three-dimensional (3-D) printing has evolved into a relatively promising process for building parts. For example, 3-D printing has been used for the production of prototype parts and tooling directly from a computer-aided design (CAD) model.
  • 3-D printing of solid structures utilizes a computer, typically under control of computer-aided design (CAD) software, to generate a 3-D mathematical model of an object to be fabricated. The computer mathematically separates, or “slices,” the model into a large number of relatively thin, parallel, usually vertically superimposed layers. Each layer has defined boundaries and other features that correspond to a substantially planar section of the model and, thus, of the actual object to be fabricated. A complete assembly or stack of all of the layers defines the entire model. A model which has been manipulated in this manner is typically stored and, thus, embodied as a CAD computer file. The model is then employed to fabricate an actual, physical object by building the object, layer by superimposed layer.
  • One particularly effective 3-D printing system, commercially available from Objet Geometries Ltd. of Rehovot, Israel, is the Eden 330®. In operation, the Eden 330® deposits a layer of photopolymer material via inkjet type of printer heads onto a support. For example, layers as thin as 16 μm at a 600×300 dpi (dot per inch) resolution may be deposited in a selected location using the printer heads currently available. After each deposition of the layer of photopolymer, an ultraviolet (UV) light is used to cure and harden each layer. The process is repeated by selectively depositing additional photopolymer to form an additional layer, followed by subsequent curing until the complete 3-D CAD model is formed. Other 3-D printing systems and methods are described in detail in U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,658,314; 6,644,763; 6,569,373; and 6,259,962 assigned to Objet Geometries Ltd., the disclosure of each of which patents is hereby incorporated herein in its entirety by this reference.
  • Conventionally, 3-D printing systems, such as the aforementioned Objet systems, have been used to fabricate freestanding structures. Such structures have been formed directly on a platen or other support system of the 3-D printing system. Complicated geometries having overhangs and undercuts may be formed by employing a support material, which the structure is formed on, followed by removing the support material by dissolving the support material in water. As the freestanding structures are fabricated directly on the support system and have no physical relationship to other structures at the time they are formed, there is typically no need to precisely and accurately position features of the fabricated structure. Accordingly, conventional 3-D printing systems lack image sensors for ensuring that structures are fabricated at specific, desired locations. However, precise and accurate positioning of features of structures fabricated using a 3-D printing system would be particularly important if the structures were to be 3-D printed, on or immediately adjacent to, another object, such as a semiconductor device, an assembly including a semiconductor device and other components, or an assembly incorporating one or more semiconductor devices carried, for example, on a carrier substrate such as a printed circuit board.
  • Stereolithography has been used in the past to form a variety of features on semiconductor assemblies, such as underfill and encapsulation structures. The stereolithography techniques employed typically involve immersing the semiconductor assembly to a predetermined depth in a liquid photopolymerizable resin and selectively curing portions of the liquid resin by rastering with a laser beam to form the desired structures. Examples of stereolithography systems suitable for forming a variety of features on a semiconductor assembly are disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 6,537,482 to Farnworth and U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/705,727 to Farnworth, both of which are assigned to the assignee of the present application. The disclosure of each of the foregoing documents is hereby incorporated herein in its entirety by this reference.
  • While the above-referenced Farnworth patent and patent application disclose forming a variety of different structures on a semiconductor assembly, the disclosed immersion-type stereolithography processes require the use of an excess amount of expensive photopolymer material. This is because only a portion of the liquid photopolymerizable resin is cured to form a structural element while the remaining liquid resin must be drained and cleaned from the semiconductor assembly. Furthermore, the processing time using immersion-type stereolithography systems is significantly slower than the processing time for a 3-D printing system, such as the aforementioned Objet systems.
  • Accordingly, there is a need for 3-D printing systems which are configured to form structures on substrates, such as semiconductor substrates and semiconductor device components, and which include systems for accurately positioning the fabricated structures during formation thereof.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • The present invention, in a number of embodiments, includes programmable material consolidation systems for precisely fabricating 3-D structures on a substrate. In addition, the present invention includes methods that employ the systems of the present invention and the resulting structures formed by such methods.
  • One aspect of the present invention encompasses programmable material consolidation systems for fabricating objects. The systems include at least one dispense element that operates under the control of at least one controller, a dispense element positioner for effecting movement of the dispense element, and a machine vision system. The dispense element may be configured for selectively depositing a variety of different types of flowable materials for forming the objects on or over a substrate. The at least one controller may “read” data from a CAD file containing the geometric configuration of the object to be formed and control the operation of the dispense element. A consolidator, under control of the at least one controller, may be employed for at least partially consolidating the deposited flowable material.
  • The machine vision system of the present invention enables the precise deposition of flowable material in a desired location on or over the substrate. The machine vision system includes an optical detection element, such as a camera, as well as a controller or processing element, such as a computer processor or a collection of computer processors, associated with the optical detection element. The optical detection element may be positioned in a fixed location relative to the substrate, mounted on the dispense element, enabling movement thereof over a substantial portion of the substrate, or moveable independently of the dispense element over a substantial portion of the substrate. The optical detection element of the machine vision system is useful for identifying the locations of recognizable features, including, without limitation, features on a substrate and features, such as fiducial marks or other objects at a fabrication site, and features that have been formed on or over the substrate or at the fabrication site.
  • Another aspect of the present invention encompasses a semiconductor package for packaging an array of optically interactive semiconductor devices. An array of optically interactive semiconductor devices on a semiconductor substrate may be surrounded by a support structure formed from a consolidated material such as, for example, a cured photopolymer material. The support structure may support at least one lens for focusing light onto the array of optically interactive semiconductor devices and an infrared (IR) filter for filtering IR wavelength light incident on the array. Methods are also disclosed employing programmable material consolidation systems of the present invention to form the support structures from consolidatable materials.
  • Another aspect of the present invention encompasses a method of forming readily removable mask elements on a substrate employing the programmable material consolidation system of the present invention and the resulting mask element structures. A substrate is provided upon which mask elements will be formed. A flowable consolidatable sacrificial material, such as a water soluble photopolymer, may be dispensed from at least one dispense element of the system in a predetermined location on the substrate. The flowable consolidatable sacrificial material is at least partially consolidated to form at least one mask element. A flowable consolidatable material, such as a liquid photopolymerizable resin, may be applied to the substrate including the mask element followed by at least partially consolidating the flowable consolidatable material to form a structure that substantially surrounds the at least one mask element along its periphery with the mask element exposed therethrough. The at least one mask element may then be removed by exposing the at least one mask element to a solvent to selectively dissolve the mask element without substantially removing the subsequently formed structure. For example, by removing the mask elements, apertures may be formed in a dielectric layer providing access to redistribution lines of a semiconductor device.
  • These features, advantages, and alternative aspects of the present invention will be apparent to those skilled in the art from a consideration of the following detailed description taken in combination with the accompanying drawings. In the detailed description which follows, like features and elements in the several embodiments are identified in the drawings with the same or similar reference numerals for the convenience of the reader.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE SEVERAL VIEWS OF THE DRAWINGS
  • In the drawings, which illustrate what is currently considered to be the best mode for carrying out the invention:
  • FIG. 1 is a block diagram of an exemplary programmable material consolidation system of the present invention.
  • FIG. 2A is a schematic of an exemplary machine vision system utilized in conjunction with the programmable material consolidation system of FIG. 1.
  • FIG. 2B is a schematic of another exemplary machine vision system having a scan element to position a camera over selected portions of a substrate.
  • FIG. 2C is a schematic diagram of yet another exemplary machine vision system that includes a camera secured to the inside of the housing of the programmable material consolidation system of FIG. 1.
  • FIG. 3A is a sectional view of a support structure for supporting an infrared (IR) filter and a plurality of lenses of an optically interactive semiconductor device.
  • FIG. 3B is a perspective view of the support structure shown in FIG. 4A.
  • FIGS. 4A-4C illustrate a method of forming a mask element and a subsequent structure using the programmable material consolidation system of FIG. 1.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
  • FIG. 1 illustrates a block diagram of an exemplary programmable material consolidation system 10 for 3-D printing objects that employs a machine vision system 20 enabling the accurate deposition of flowable material 28 for forming a variety of different structures. One suitable programmable material consolidation system 10 is the commercially available Eden 330® manufactured by Objet Geometries Ltd. of Rehovot, Israel, that is modified to include a machine vision system 20 in accordance with the present invention. Suitable programmable material consolidation systems and processes designed by Objet Geometries Ltd. are described in the aforementioned U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,658,314; 6,644,763; 6,569,373; and 6,259,962. Of course, teachings of the present invention are also applicable to other kinds of deposition type programmable material consolidation systems such as those commercially available from Optomec Design Company of Albuquerque, N. Mex. and described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,251,488; 6,268,584; 6,391,251; and 6,656,409, the disclosure of each of which patents is hereby incorporated herein in its entirety by this reference.
  • Referring to FIG. 1, programmable material consolidation system 10 includes a CAD system 12 that includes a CAD computer file stored in memory (e.g., random-access memory (RAM)). The CAD computer file, typically in .stl file format or other suitable file format, contains the geometric configuration of the structure to be formed. The CAD system 12, which may be a desktop computer, is operably coupled to a process controller 14. The process controller 14 may be associated with the CAD system 12 or may be an additional computer or a computer processor, which may be programmed to effect a single function or a number of different functions. Each process controller 14 may be associated with a single programmable material consolidation system 10 or a plurality of systems to coordinate the operation of such systems relative to each other. The process controller 14 is operably coupled to a dispense element 16, a dispense element positioner 22, a consolidator 18, and a machine vision system 20.
  • With continued reference to FIG. 1, the dispense element 16 may include a plurality of nozzles 26 configured to selectively deposit flowable material 28 in a precise, predetermined amount. For example, current Objet nozzle technology enables forming layers as thin as 16 μm at 600×300 dpi as deposited on a substrate 30. As used herein, the term “dispense element” includes any structure configured to dispense material in a directed manner. The material dispenser 24 dispenses the flowable material 28 to the dispense element 16. The material dispenser 24 is a receptacle or similar apparatus for holding and enclosing the flowable material 28 from being prematurely consolidated or otherwise receiving contaminants. The material dispenser 24 may be contained within the dispense element 16 or may be located outside the dispense element 16 and configured to communicate the flowable material 28 to the dispense element 16. The programmable material consolidation system 10 of the present invention may employ a plurality of material dispensers 24, wherein each respective material dispenser 24 contains a different flowable material 28. The nozzles 26 may be configured and tuned to deposit various types of flowable materials 28. The dispense element 16 may also be configured so that individual nozzles of the plurality of nozzles 26 may deposit different types of flowable materials 28 upon receiving instructions from the process controller 14.
  • Suitable flowable materials 28 for use with the aforementioned Objet systems include photopolymers, such as DI 7090 Clear Coat manufactured by Marabuwerke Gmbh & Co. of Tamm, Germany. Additional suitable flowable materials include ACCURA® SI 40 HC AND ACCURA® SI 40 ND materials available from 3D Systems, Inc., of Valencia, Calif. Other suitable types of flowable material 28 include particulate filled photopolymers having a plurality of discrete particles formed from elemental metals, alloys, ceramics, or mixtures thereof. Thus, various photopolymers may be employed for the flowable material 28 having tailorable physical and mechanical properties. Preferably, the photopolymers are ultraviolet (UV) or infrared (IR) curable materials. Other suitable flowable materials 28 may include powdered metals, ceramics, and mixtures thereof. As used herein, the term “flowable material” means a material suitable for dispensing or projecting in a stream or other unconsolidated mass. One example of a flowable material is a fluid in the form of a gas, a liquid, or viscous liquid which may optionally contain a plurality of particles dispersed therethrough. Another example of a flowable material is a plurality of particles that are finely divided, such as a powdered material, so as to be able to flow as a stream or other unconsolidated mass of material at least until the particles are substantially consolidated. The consolidator 18, which may be an IR or UV light source, may be used to fully cure or at least partially cure, to at least a semisolid state, the deposited flowable material 28. The consolidator 18 may also be a radiation source, such as a laser, suitable for consolidating powdered materials dispensed from dispense element 16 (e.g., powdered metals/alloys, ceramics, or mixtures thereof).
  • The dispense element 16 may be operably coupled to a dispense element positioner 22 that may include a stepper motor or a driver for the accurate positioning of the dispense element 16 and associated nozzles 26 over a desired location on a substrate 30 supported by a support 32. The dispense element positioner 22 may effect movement of the dispense element 16 in an X and Y direction in the plane of the support 32 and a Z direction substantially perpendicular to the plane of support 32. The types of substrates 30 that support 32 may be configured to carry may include, without limitation, a bulk semiconductor substrate (e.g., a full or partial wafer of semiconductor material, such as silicon, gallium arsenide, indium phosphide, a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) type substrate, such as silicon-on-ceramic (SOC), silicon-on-glass (SOG), or silicon-on-sapphire (SOS), etc.) that includes a plurality of semiconductor devices thereon, printed circuit boards (PCBs), singulated semiconductor dice, singulated semiconductor dice in process assembled with one or more additional components, chip scale and larger semiconductor device assemblies, and associated electronic components.
  • The programmable material consolidation system 10 of the present invention includes a machine vision system 20. Referring to FIG. 2A, the machine vision system 20 includes a camera 34 and a computer 36 having a motherboard 38, a processor 40 and associated memory 42. In FIG. 2A, an exemplary embodiment of machine vision system 20 is depicted, wherein the camera 34 moves with the dispense element 16 such that the camera 34 may be controllably moved over the entire surface 46 of the substrate 30. For example, the camera 34 may be fixed or mounted to the dispense element 16. Dispense element 16, under control of the computer 36, positions camera 34 in close proximity to (e.g., inches from) surface 46 of the substrate 30 and to volume 50 of uncured flowable material 28 so as to enable camera 34 to view minute features on the substrate 30 (e.g., bond pads, conductive traces, fuses, or other circuit elements of a semiconductor device) that are located at or near surface 46. Upon viewing substrate 30, camera 34 communicates information about the precise locations of such features (e.g., with an accuracy of up to about ±0.1 mil (i.e., 0.0001 inch)) to computer 36 of machine vision system 20.
  • A response by computer 36 may be in the form of instructions regarding the operation of the programmable material consolidation system 10. These instructions may be embodied as signals, or carrier waves. By way of example only, such responsive instructions may be communicated to the process controller 14 of programmable material consolidation system 10. Process controller 14 may, in turn, cause the programmable material consolidation system 10 to operate in such a way as to effect the fabrication of one or more objects on substrate 30 precisely at the intended locations thereof.
  • Camera 34 may comprise any one of a number of commercially available cameras, such as charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras or complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) cameras available from a number of vendors. Of course, the image resolution of camera 34 should be sufficiently high as to enable camera 34 to view the desired features of substrate 30 and, thus, to enable computer 34 to precisely determine the positions of such features. In order to provide one or more reference points for the features that are viewed by camera 34, camera 34 may also “view” one or more fiducial marks 44 on the support 32.
  • Suitable electronic componentry, as required for adapting or converting the signals, or carrier waves, that are output by camera 34, may be incorporated on motherboard 38 installed in a computer 36. Such electronic componentry may include one or more processors 40, other groups of logic circuits, or other processing or control elements that have been dedicated for use in conjunction with camera 34. At least one processing element, which may include a processor 40, another, smaller group of logic circuits, or other control element that has been dedicated for use in conjunction with camera 34, is programmed, as known in the art, to process signals that represent images that have been “viewed” by camera 34 and respond to such signals.
  • A self-contained machine vision system available from a commercial vendor of such equipment may be employed as machine vision system 20. Examples of such machine vision systems and their various features are described, without limitation, in U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,526,646; 4,543,659; 4,736,437; 4,899,921; 5,059,559; 5,113,565; 5,145,099; 5,238,174; 5,463,227; 5,288,698; 5,471,310; 5,506,684; 5,516,023; 5,516,026; and 5,644,245. The disclosure of each of the immediately foregoing patents is hereby incorporated herein in its entirety by this reference. Such systems are available, for example, from Cognex Corporation of Natick, Mass. As an example, and not to limit the scope of the present invention, the apparatus of the Cognex BGA Inspection Package™ or the SMD Placement Guidance Package™ may be adapted for use in a programmable material consolidation system 10 that incorporates teachings of the present invention, although it is currently believed that the MVS-8000™ product family and the Checkpoint® product line, the latter employed in combination with Cognex PatNax™ software, may be especially suitable for use in the present invention.
  • Referring to FIG. 2B, in another exemplary embodiment, a camera 34′ may be mounted on a scan element 90 operably coupled to and controlled by computer 36. The scan element 90 enables movement of the camera 34′ over a substantial portion of the surface 46 of the substrate 30. Thus, the camera 34′ may be moved independent of the dispense element 16 so that it does not interfere with the dispense element 16 during operation thereof.
  • Due to the close proximity of camera 34′ to surface 46, the field of vision of camera 34′ is relatively small. In order to enable camera 34′ to view a larger area of surface 46 than that which is “covered” by, or located within, the field of vision of camera 34′, a scan element 90 of a known type is configured to traverse camera 34′ over at least part of the area of surface 46. Scan element 90 is also useful for moving camera 34′ out of the path of any selectively consolidating energy being directed toward surface 46 from the consolidator 18 or any flowable material 28 being dispensed by the dispense element 16 on or over the surface 46. By way of example only, scan element 90 may comprise an X-Y plotter or scanner of a known type. Generally, an X-Y plotter or scanner includes an x-axis element 91 and a y-axis element 92 that intersect one another. As depicted, camera 34′ is carried by both x-axis element 91 and y-axis element 92 and, thus, is positioned at or near the location where x-axis element 91 and y-axis element 92 intersect one another.
  • X-axis element 91 and y-axis element 92 are both configured to move relative to and, thus, to position camera 34 at a plurality of locations over the substrate 30. Movement of x-axis element 91 is effected by an actuator 96 (e.g., a stepper motor and actuation system, such as a gear or wheel that moves x-axis element 91 along a track) that has been operably coupled thereto, with actuator 96 being configured to cause x-axis element 91 to move laterally (i.e., perpendicular to the length thereof) along a y-axis. Y-axis element 92 is operatively coupled to an actuator 94, which is configured to cause y-axis element 92 to move laterally along an x-axis. Actuators 94 and 96 may be configured to move their respective x-axis element 91 and y-axis element 92 in a substantially continuous fashion or in an incremental fashion. Movement of actuators 94 and 96 may be controlled by computer 36.
  • FIG. 2C shows another exemplary embodiment of machine vision system 20 that includes a locationally stationary camera 34″. The camera 34″ may be mounted or otherwise secured in a fixed position relative to surface 46 and may be maintained in a fixed position relative to the housing 48. In FIG. 2C, the camera 34″ is shown fixed to the inside wall 47 of the housing 48 that encloses at least the dispense element 16 and associated nozzles 26. The camera 34″ is mounted in a position so that it does not interfere with the operation and movement of the dispense element 16. As with the camera 34 and 34′, the camera 34″ is operably coupled to computer 36 having board 38 and at least one processor 40.
  • Like camera 34 and 34′, which are described with reference to FIGS. 2A and 2B, camera 34″ may comprise a CCD camera, a CMOS camera, or any other suitable type of camera. As camera 34″ is positioned farther away from a substrate 30 to be viewed, the camera 34″ may have an effectively larger field of vision than camera 34. Of course, suitable optical and/or digital magnification technology may be associated with camera 34″ to provide the desired level of resolution. Further, although camera 34″ may be locationally stationary, a suitable gimbals structure with rotational actuators may be employed to point camera 34″ at a specific location in the field of exposure with little actual rotational movement. Thus, camera 34″ may be used for both broad, or “macro,” vision and viewing and inspection of miniature features.
  • The operation of the programmable material consolidation system 10 will be better understood by reference to the specific examples illustrated in FIGS. 3A and 3B and FIGS. 4A-4C. The programmable material consolidation system 10 of the present invention may be employed to fabricate a variety of structures on semiconductor substrates. For example, the programmable material consolidation system 10 may be used to fabricate support structures or mask elements in selected positions on a semiconductor substrate, wherein the selected positions are accurately located by the machine vision system 20 of the present invention.
  • With reference to FIGS. 3A and 3B, in order to 3-D print support structure 62 on semiconductor substrate 52, corresponding data from the .stl files, which comprise a 3-D CAD model, stored in memory associated with process controller 14 are processed by the process controller 14. The data, which mathematically represents the support structure 62 to be fabricated, may be divided into subsets, each subset representing a layer 68, or “slice,” of the object. The division of data may be effected by mathematically sectioning the 3-D CAD model into at least one layer 68, a single layer or a “stack” of such layers 68 representing the support structure 62. Each slice may be, for example, about 16 μm thick or any other desirable thickness. As used herein, the term “layer” or “slice” is not limiting as to any specific x- and y-plane dimension or z-plane thickness, and layers or slices may be extremely minute and not necessarily fully mutually superimposed, as it is contemplated that flowable materials 28 may be applied in extremely small quantities and substantially instantaneously cured to at least a semisolid state so that, at least for small distances, structures may be cantilevered.
  • Again referring to FIG. 3A, a sectional view of an optically interactive semiconductor device 66 is shown. A support structure 62 is depicted that supports a plurality of lenses 60 a-60 c and an infrared (IR) filter 58. Semiconductor substrate 52 includes at least one array 56 of optically interactive semiconductor devices such as, for example, CCD image sensors or CMOS image sensors on its active surface 53. The semiconductor substrate 52 may also be a bulk substrate comprised of a plurality of semiconductor dice locations, each containing an array 56 of optically interactive semiconductor devices. Each array 56 of optically interactive semiconductor devices may be substantially surrounded along its periphery by the support structure 62 including ledges 64A-64G that support a plurality of lenses 60 a-60 c for focusing light onto the array 56 and an IR filter 58. As known in the art, the IR filter 58 and the plurality of lenses 60 a-60 c may be fixed to the support structure 62 using an adhesive. Support structure 62 may be formed from any of the aforementioned flowable materials 28. The array 56 of optically interactive semiconductor devices may also be covered with a protective layer 57 formed from an optically clear flowable material 28. One suitable optically clear flowable material 28 is the Objet FullCure S-705 photopolymer support material commercially available from Objet Geometries Ltd. of Rehovot, Israel. Although not shown in FIG. 3A, it should be understood that the semiconductor substrate 52 may include external conductive elements for electrically connecting semiconductor substrate 52 to other semiconductor devices or higher level packaging, such as a printed circuit board. FIG. 3B illustrates a perspective view of the optically interactive semiconductor device 66 having the support structure 62 disposed on semiconductor substrate 52.
  • The package for the optically interactive semiconductor device 66 may be fabricated using the programmable material consolidation system 10 of the present invention. The semiconductor substrate 52 is provided on the support 32. The camera 34 of the machine vision system 20 locates the desired location adjacent the periphery of the array 56 that flowable material 28 is to be deposited on the semiconductor substrate 52. The dispense element 16 selectively deposits a layer 68 of flowable material 28 at the desired location by movement of the dispense element 16 under control of the process controller 14 to partially form support structure element 62A followed by the consolidator 18 at least partially consolidating the layer 68 of flowable material 28. The support structure elements 62A-62H are formed by selectively depositing the flowable material 28 in desired locations layer 68 by layer 68 (shown by the dashed lines in FIG. 3A) followed by at least partially consolidating each layer 68 with the consolidator 18 before the deposition of another layer, until the complete support structure 62 is so formed. The protective layer 57 is formed in the same manner by building up the protective layer 57 using one or more superimposed layers. Prior to the deposition of each layer 68, the camera 34 of the machine vision system 20 may be used to verify that the deposited flowable material 28 was deposited in the desired location on semiconductor substrate 52 or a prior layer 68, or the camera 34 may be used to identify and precisely locate another position for the selective deposition of the flowable material 28. The camera 34 may also be used to perform the verification just after the deposition of the flowable material 28 is initiated. Also, it should be understood that the number of layers that are required to form support structure elements 62A-62H and the protective layer 57 depends upon the desired height of the support structure elements 62A-62H that comprise the support structure 62.
  • In another exemplary embodiment illustrated in FIGS. 4A-4C, the 3-D printing system of the present invention may also be used to form a plurality of removable/sacrificial mask elements. A simplified sectional drawing of a portion of a semiconductor substrate 70 having an active surface 74 and a back surface 72 is shown in FIG. 4A. An electrical contact 76 in the form of a bond pad is shown, which is in electrical communication with an integrated circuit formed within the semiconductor substrate 70 on active surface 74. A redistribution line 82 in the form of a conductive trace is depicted being in electrical communication with the electrical contact 76 and extending over dielectric layer 78 therefrom. Of course, in practice, semiconductor substrate 70 would bear a large plurality of electrical contacts 76, each of which having an associated redistribution line extending to another location over the active surface 74 for redistributing the I/O pattern of the integrated circuit for connection to external circuitry.
  • Again referring to FIG. 4A, a layer of flowable material 28 that is a sacrificial/removable consolidatable material, such as a water soluble photopolymer, may be selectively deposited from dispense element 16 on a portion of the redistribution line 82 to form mask element 80 using the programmable material consolidation system 10 of the present invention. Suitable water soluble photopolymers for forming the mask element 80 are disclosed in United States Patent Application Publication 2003/0207959 assigned to Objet Geometries Ltd., the disclosure of which is hereby incorporated herein in its entirety by this reference. As previously discussed, mask element 80 may be formed by the deposition of successive layers 88, with each layer 88 at least partially consolidated by consolidator 18 before the next layer 88 is deposited. Of course, the precise number of layers 88 used to form the mask element 80 depends upon the desired thickness of mask element 80. Furthermore, the machine vision system 20 may be used to locate the portion of the redistribution line 82 on which the mask element 80 is to be formed and to verify after forming layers of the mask element 80 that they have been formed in the desired location.
  • Referring to FIG. 4B, another, more permanent, consolidatable material may be selectively applied to the semiconductor substrate 70 having the mask element 80 thereon. The application of another consolidatable material may be effected employing the programmable material consolidation system 10 of the present invention to form a peripheral wall structure 84 from a consolidatable material. Following fabrication of peripheral wall structure 84, which may comprise a plurality of sequentially applied layers 100, semiconductor substrate 70 including the mask element 80 may be immersed in a bath of liquid photopolymerizable resin 102 such as is used in a stereolithography apparatus, for example, of the type disclosed in the aforementioned U.S. Pat. No. 6,537,482 to Farnworth, and then raised from the bath. The resin 102 is thus trapped within wall structure 84 to a level determined by the height of the wall structure 84. The liquid photopolymerizable resin 102 may then be floodlight-exposed to UV light or subjected to heat to effect a cure thereof. The dielectric layer 104 so formed surrounds the mask element 80 about its periphery with the mask element 80 exposed therethrough. If a liquid photopolymerizable resin is employed as the consolidatable material to form peripheral wall structure 84, it may be at least partially consolidated by exposure to a suitable UV point source, such as a laser beam, that irradiates light in the UV wavelength. Suitable liquid photopolymerizable resins for use in practicing the present invention include, without limitation, ACCURA® SI 40 HC and AR materials and CIBATOOL SL 5170 and SL 5210 resins for the SLA® 250/50HR and SLA® 500 systems, ACCURA® SI 40 ND material and CIBATOOL SL 5530 resin for the SLA® 5000 and 7000 systems, and CIBATOOL SL 7510 resin for the SLA® 7000 system. The ACCURA® materials are available from 3D Systems, Inc., of Valencia, Calif., while the CIBATOOL resins are available from Ciba Specialty Chemicals Company of Basel, Switzerland.
  • Referring to FIG. 4C, the mask element 80 may be removed by subjecting it to a solvent, such as by immersing the semiconductor substrate 70 including the mask element 80 in water or another solvent suitable for dissolution of mask element 80 to selectively dissolve the mask element 80 into solution and remove the mask element 80. Thus, a plurality of apertures 86 may be formed in dielectric layer 104 at desired locations over respective redistribution lines 82 by removing the mask elements 80. As known in the art, solder may be deposited within the apertures 86 by stenciling or screening and then formed into conducted bumps by heat-induced reflow to provide discrete external electrical contacts for interconnecting with another semiconductor die or a higher level device. Thus, by employing the removable mask element 80 in combination with peripheral wall structure 84, apertures 86 may be formed without having to use expensive and time consuming photolithography or electron beam lithography systems. The exemplary embodiment disclosed in FIGS. 4A-4C is only one example of a type of structure that may be fabricated and with which the removable material may be used.
  • Although the foregoing description contains many specifics, these are not to be construed as limiting the scope of the present invention, but merely as providing certain exemplary embodiments. Similarly, other embodiments of the invention may be devised which do not depart from the spirit or scope of the present invention. The scope of the invention is, therefore, indicated and limited only by the appended claims and their legal equivalents, rather than by the foregoing description. All additions, deletions, and modifications to the invention, as disclosed herein, which fall within the meaning and scope of the claims are encompassed by the present invention.

Claims (31)

1. A method for forming three-dimensional structures comprising:
providing a support element;
electronically viewing at least a portion of the support element to locate an identified area on or over the support element; and
selectively dispensing unconsolidated material toward the identified area.
2. The method of claim 1, wherein electronically viewing comprises use of a machine vision system.
3. The method of claim 1, wherein electronically viewing comprises locating a feature support element or a substrate thereon.
4. The method of claim 1, further comprising:
at least partially consolidating the unconsolidated material to form at least a portion of a structural feature.
5. The method of claim 4, wherein at least partially consolidating comprises exposing the unconsolidated material to consolidating energy.
6. The method of claim 5, wherein exposing comprises exposing the unconsolidated material to consolidating radiation.
7. The method of claim 5, wherein exposing comprises exposing the unconsolidated material to focused consolidating energy.
8. The method of claim 4, further comprising:
electronically viewing the structural feature.
9. The method of claim 4, further comprising:
locating another identified position on or over the support element.
10. The method of claim 9, further comprising:
selectively dispensing unconsolidated material toward the another identified area.
11. The method of claim 10, further comprising:
at least partially consolidating the unconsolidated material at the another identified area to form at least a portion of another structural feature.
12. The method of claim 1, wherein selectively dispensing comprises selectively dispensing a photopolymer.
13. The method of claim 1, wherein selectively dispensing comprises selectively dispensing unconsolidated material comprising at least one of a metal, an alloy, and a ceramic.
14. The method of claim 1, further comprising:
positioning a substrate on the support element.
15. The method of claim 14, wherein positioning comprises positioning a semiconductor substrate on the support element.
16. The method of claim 15, wherein positioning comprises positioning at least one semiconductor die on the support element.
17. A method for forming a mask element comprising:
providing a substrate;
selectively dispensing unconsolidated sacrificial material onto at least one predetermined location of the substrate;
at least partially consolidating the unconsolidated sacrificial material;
applying unconsolidated material to the substrate and the at least one mask element;
at least partially consolidating the unconsolidated material; and
removing the sacrificial material.
18. The method of claim 17, wherein at least one of selectively dispensing and applying is effected in conjunction with a machine vision system.
19. The method of claim 17, wherein removing the sacrificial material comprises dissolving the sacrificial material.
20. The method of claim 17, wherein providing the substrate comprises providing at least one semiconductor die.
21. The method of claim 20, wherein selectively dispensing comprises selectively dispensing unconsolidated sacrificial material to at least one predetermined location comprising a contact pad and a location for a redistribution line.
22. The method of claim 17, wherein applying comprises applying a photopolymer.
23. The method of claim 17, wherein selectively dispensing comprises selectively dispensing a water soluble material.
24. The method of claim 23, wherein selectively dispensing comprises selectively dispensing a photopolymer.
25. A method of packaging a semiconductor device, comprising:
providing at least one semiconductor die having a back surface and an active surface including at least one array of optically interactive elements thereon;
locating a peripheral region of the at least one array of optically interactive elements; and
selectively dispensing two or more adjacent, mutually adhered regions of consolidatable material to form a support structure that substantially surrounds the at least one array.
26. The method of claim 25, wherein each region of adjacent consolidatable material is at least partially consolidated before depositing another region thereto.
27. The method of claim 25, wherein locating the peripheral region comprises viewing the at least one semiconductor die using a machine vision system.
28. The method of claim 26, further comprising:
viewing each region after dispensing the same.
29. The method of claim 25, further comprising:
securing an infrared filter over the at least one array.
30. The method of claim 25, further comprising:
securing at least one lens over the at least one array.
31. The method of claim 25, wherein selectively dispensing comprises selectively dispensing photopolymer.
US11/699,165 2004-06-14 2007-01-29 Programmed material consolidation methods employing machine vision Abandoned US20070124012A1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US10/867,258 US7216009B2 (en) 2004-06-14 2004-06-14 Machine vision systems for use with programmable material consolidation system and associated methods and structures
US11/699,165 US20070124012A1 (en) 2004-06-14 2007-01-29 Programmed material consolidation methods employing machine vision

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US11/699,165 US20070124012A1 (en) 2004-06-14 2007-01-29 Programmed material consolidation methods employing machine vision

Related Parent Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US10/867,258 Division US7216009B2 (en) 2004-06-14 2004-06-14 Machine vision systems for use with programmable material consolidation system and associated methods and structures

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US20070124012A1 true US20070124012A1 (en) 2007-05-31

Family

ID=35461549

Family Applications (3)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US10/867,258 Active US7216009B2 (en) 2004-06-14 2004-06-14 Machine vision systems for use with programmable material consolidation system and associated methods and structures
US11/699,085 Abandoned US20070123058A1 (en) 2004-06-14 2007-01-29 Semiconductor device structures that include sacrificial, readily removable materials
US11/699,165 Abandoned US20070124012A1 (en) 2004-06-14 2007-01-29 Programmed material consolidation methods employing machine vision

Family Applications Before (2)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US10/867,258 Active US7216009B2 (en) 2004-06-14 2004-06-14 Machine vision systems for use with programmable material consolidation system and associated methods and structures
US11/699,085 Abandoned US20070123058A1 (en) 2004-06-14 2007-01-29 Semiconductor device structures that include sacrificial, readily removable materials

Country Status (1)

Country Link
US (3) US7216009B2 (en)

Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20080109103A1 (en) * 2006-06-23 2008-05-08 Massachusetts Institute Of Technology Digital Assembler for Digital Materials
US20090306811A1 (en) * 2008-06-06 2009-12-10 Raytheon Company Ball grid array cleaning system
US20140152383A1 (en) * 2012-11-30 2014-06-05 Dmitri E. Nikonov Integrated circuits and systems and methods for producing the same
CN104626579A (en) * 2014-12-10 2015-05-20 苏州佳世达光电有限公司 3d printer

Families Citing this family (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP5243413B2 (en) * 2006-05-26 2013-07-24 スリーディー システムズ インコーポレーテッド Apparatus and method for processing a material with 3D printer
JP5706515B2 (en) 2010-04-13 2015-04-22 カスケード マイクロテック インコーポレイテッドCascade Microtech,Incorporated The method of contacting the probe tip to an array of contact surfaces and equipment
US9067299B2 (en) * 2012-04-25 2015-06-30 Applied Materials, Inc. Printed chemical mechanical polishing pad
JP6026546B2 (en) * 2012-09-13 2016-11-16 富士機械製造株式会社 Manufacturing apparatus and manufacturing method thereof of an electronic device
US9411779B2 (en) * 2012-09-28 2016-08-09 Illinois Tool Works Inc. Method of dispensing material based on edge detection
US9059058B2 (en) * 2012-10-22 2015-06-16 Stmicroelectronics Pte Ltd Image sensor device with IR filter and related methods
US20150201500A1 (en) * 2014-01-12 2015-07-16 Zohar SHINAR System, device, and method of three-dimensional printing
US20150197062A1 (en) * 2014-01-12 2015-07-16 Zohar SHINAR Method, device, and system of three-dimensional printing
US20150197063A1 (en) * 2014-01-12 2015-07-16 Zohar SHINAR Device, method, and system of three-dimensional printing
WO2017142506A1 (en) * 2016-02-15 2017-08-24 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. Build material supply for additive manufacturing

Citations (50)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4526646A (en) * 1983-03-03 1985-07-02 Shinkawa Ltd. Inner lead bonder
US4543659A (en) * 1982-09-22 1985-09-24 Tokyo Shibaura Denki Kabushiki Kaisha Method for recognizing a pellet pattern
US4736437A (en) * 1982-11-22 1988-04-05 View Engineering, Inc. High speed pattern recognizer
US4899921A (en) * 1988-10-28 1990-02-13 The American Optical Corporation Aligner bonder
US5059559A (en) * 1987-11-02 1991-10-22 Hitachi, Ltd. Method of aligning and bonding tab inner leads
US5113565A (en) * 1990-07-06 1992-05-19 International Business Machines Corp. Apparatus and method for inspection and alignment of semiconductor chips and conductive lead frames
US5141099A (en) * 1990-09-25 1992-08-25 Liquid Carbonic Corporation Belt overlay apparatus
US5174943A (en) * 1984-08-08 1992-12-29 3D Systems, Inc. Method for production of three-dimensional objects by stereolithography
US5238174A (en) * 1991-11-15 1993-08-24 Kulicke And Soffa Investments, Inc. Smart indexing head for universal lead frame work station
US5287435A (en) * 1987-06-02 1994-02-15 Cubital Ltd. Three dimensional modeling
US5288698A (en) * 1990-02-01 1994-02-22 Mitsubishi Denki Kabushiki Kaisha Method of positioning lead frame on molding die to seal semiconductor element with resin
US5460758A (en) * 1990-12-21 1995-10-24 Eos Gmbh Electro Optical Systems Method and apparatus for production of a three-dimensional object
US5463227A (en) * 1992-06-24 1995-10-31 Robotic Vision Systems, Inc. Method for obtaining three-dimensional data from multiple parts or devices in a multi-pocketed tray
US5471310A (en) * 1990-08-27 1995-11-28 Sierra Research And Technology, Inc. System for placement and mounting of fine pitch integrated circuit devices
US5482659A (en) * 1994-12-22 1996-01-09 United Technologies Corporation Method of post processing stereolithographically produced objects
US5506684A (en) * 1991-04-04 1996-04-09 Nikon Corporation Projection scanning exposure apparatus with synchronous mask/wafer alignment system
US5508489A (en) * 1993-10-20 1996-04-16 United Technologies Corporation Apparatus for multiple beam laser sintering
US5516023A (en) * 1993-12-06 1996-05-14 Nec Corporation Wire bonding apparatus
US5516026A (en) * 1993-11-26 1996-05-14 Toshiba Automation Co., Ltd. Pellet bonding apparatus
US5573721A (en) * 1995-02-16 1996-11-12 Hercules Incorporated Use of a support liquid to manufacture three-dimensional objects
US5622811A (en) * 1994-02-07 1997-04-22 Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. Method for forming resin articles
US5644245A (en) * 1993-11-24 1997-07-01 Tokyo Electron Limited Probe apparatus for inspecting electrical characteristics of a microelectronic element
US5985357A (en) * 1997-01-28 1999-11-16 Dainippon Screen Mfg. Co., Ltd. Treating solution supplying method and apparatus
US6021358A (en) * 1996-09-18 2000-02-01 Sachs; George A. Three dimensional model and mold making method using thick-slice subtractive fabrication
US6158346A (en) * 1998-06-22 2000-12-12 The Penn State Research Foundation Electronic printing of non-planar macro and micro devices
US6162378A (en) * 1999-02-25 2000-12-19 3D Systems, Inc. Method and apparatus for variably controlling the temperature in a selective deposition modeling environment
US6251488B1 (en) * 1999-05-05 2001-06-26 Optomec Design Company Precision spray processes for direct write electronic components
US6259962B1 (en) * 1999-03-01 2001-07-10 Objet Geometries Ltd. Apparatus and method for three dimensional model printing
US6268584B1 (en) * 1998-01-22 2001-07-31 Optomec Design Company Multiple beams and nozzles to increase deposition rate
US6336900B1 (en) * 1999-04-12 2002-01-08 Agilent Technologies, Inc. Home hub for reporting patient health parameters
US6337122B1 (en) * 2000-01-11 2002-01-08 Micron Technology, Inc. Stereolithographically marked semiconductors devices and methods
US6391251B1 (en) * 1999-07-07 2002-05-21 Optomec Design Company Forming structures from CAD solid models
US20020090410A1 (en) * 2001-01-11 2002-07-11 Shigeaki Tochimoto Powder material removing apparatus and three dimensional modeling system
US20020171177A1 (en) * 2001-03-21 2002-11-21 Kritchman Elisha M. System and method for printing and supporting three dimensional objects
US6508971B2 (en) * 1995-09-27 2003-01-21 3D Systems, Inc. Selective deposition modeling method and apparatus for forming three-dimensional objects and supports
US6537482B1 (en) * 2000-08-08 2003-03-25 Micron Technology, Inc. Underfill and encapsulation of carrier substrate-mounted flip-chip components using stereolithography
US6547994B1 (en) * 1998-11-13 2003-04-15 Therics, Inc. Rapid prototyping and manufacturing process
US6569373B2 (en) * 2000-03-13 2003-05-27 Object Geometries Ltd. Compositions and methods for use in three dimensional model printing
US20030151167A1 (en) * 2002-01-03 2003-08-14 Kritchman Eliahu M. Device, system and method for accurate printing of three dimensional objects
US6610429B2 (en) * 1996-09-04 2003-08-26 Z Corporation Three dimensional printing material system and method
US20030173713A1 (en) * 2001-12-10 2003-09-18 Wen-Chiang Huang Maskless stereo lithography method and apparatus for freeform fabrication of 3-D objects
US6630995B1 (en) * 1999-09-07 2003-10-07 Applied Materials, Inc. Method and apparatus for embedded substrate and system status monitoring
US20030207959A1 (en) * 2000-03-13 2003-11-06 Eduardo Napadensky Compositions and methods for use in three dimensional model printing
US6644763B1 (en) * 1999-06-10 2003-11-11 Object Geometries Ltd. Apparatus and method for raised and special effects printing using inkjet technology
US6656409B1 (en) * 1999-07-07 2003-12-02 Optomec Design Company Manufacturable geometries for thermal management of complex three-dimensional shapes
US6658314B1 (en) * 1999-10-06 2003-12-02 Objet Geometries Ltd. System and method for three dimensional model printing
US6680078B2 (en) * 2001-07-11 2004-01-20 Micron Technology, Inc. Method for dispensing flowable substances on microelectronic substrates
US20040148048A1 (en) * 2002-11-11 2004-07-29 Farnworth Warren M. Methods for recognizing features as one or more objects are being fabricated by programmed material consolidation techniques
US20040251242A1 (en) * 2001-11-17 2004-12-16 Jeong-Hun Suh Method and system for real-time monitoring and controlling height of deposit by using image photographing and image processing technology in laser cladding and laser-aided direct metal manufacturing process
US20050159967A1 (en) * 2004-01-21 2005-07-21 Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd Wallpaper printing business method

Family Cites Families (13)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US251242A (en) * 1881-12-20 Addison keenholts
US173713A (en) * 1876-02-22 Improvement in tea-pots
US90410A (en) * 1869-05-25 Improved railway-car wheel and axle
JPS6140167B2 (en) 1980-04-28 1986-09-08 Hitachi Ltd
US5143663A (en) 1989-06-12 1992-09-01 3D Systems, Inc. Stereolithography method and apparatus
US5145099A (en) 1990-07-13 1992-09-08 Micron Technology, Inc. Method for combining die attach and lead bond in the assembly of a semiconductor package
US5740051A (en) 1991-01-25 1998-04-14 Sanders Prototypes, Inc. 3-D model making
JPH08150662A (en) 1994-11-30 1996-06-11 Olympus Optical Co Ltd Optical shaping apparatus and method using powder mixed photo-setting resin
JP2000263603A (en) 1999-03-18 2000-09-26 Nec Corp Resin molding machine and method for releasing molding from mold
DE19918613A1 (en) 1999-04-23 2000-11-30 Eos Electro Optical Syst A method of calibrating an apparatus for producing a three-dimensional object, the calibration apparatus and method and apparatus for producing a three-dimensional object
DE19952998B4 (en) 1999-11-04 2004-04-15 Ebert, Robby, Dipl.-Phys. An apparatus for direct production of bodies in the layer structure made of powdery substances
JP4681126B2 (en) * 2000-12-13 2011-05-11 富士機械製造株式会社 High viscous fluid application device
US6601647B2 (en) * 2001-12-03 2003-08-05 Halliburton Energy Services, Inc. Methods, well cement compositions and lightweight additives therefor

Patent Citations (59)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4543659A (en) * 1982-09-22 1985-09-24 Tokyo Shibaura Denki Kabushiki Kaisha Method for recognizing a pellet pattern
US4736437A (en) * 1982-11-22 1988-04-05 View Engineering, Inc. High speed pattern recognizer
US4526646A (en) * 1983-03-03 1985-07-02 Shinkawa Ltd. Inner lead bonder
US5174943A (en) * 1984-08-08 1992-12-29 3D Systems, Inc. Method for production of three-dimensional objects by stereolithography
US5287435A (en) * 1987-06-02 1994-02-15 Cubital Ltd. Three dimensional modeling
US5059559A (en) * 1987-11-02 1991-10-22 Hitachi, Ltd. Method of aligning and bonding tab inner leads
US4899921A (en) * 1988-10-28 1990-02-13 The American Optical Corporation Aligner bonder
US5288698A (en) * 1990-02-01 1994-02-22 Mitsubishi Denki Kabushiki Kaisha Method of positioning lead frame on molding die to seal semiconductor element with resin
US5113565A (en) * 1990-07-06 1992-05-19 International Business Machines Corp. Apparatus and method for inspection and alignment of semiconductor chips and conductive lead frames
US5471310A (en) * 1990-08-27 1995-11-28 Sierra Research And Technology, Inc. System for placement and mounting of fine pitch integrated circuit devices
US5141099A (en) * 1990-09-25 1992-08-25 Liquid Carbonic Corporation Belt overlay apparatus
US5460758A (en) * 1990-12-21 1995-10-24 Eos Gmbh Electro Optical Systems Method and apparatus for production of a three-dimensional object
US5506684A (en) * 1991-04-04 1996-04-09 Nikon Corporation Projection scanning exposure apparatus with synchronous mask/wafer alignment system
US5238174A (en) * 1991-11-15 1993-08-24 Kulicke And Soffa Investments, Inc. Smart indexing head for universal lead frame work station
US5463227A (en) * 1992-06-24 1995-10-31 Robotic Vision Systems, Inc. Method for obtaining three-dimensional data from multiple parts or devices in a multi-pocketed tray
US5508489A (en) * 1993-10-20 1996-04-16 United Technologies Corporation Apparatus for multiple beam laser sintering
US5644245A (en) * 1993-11-24 1997-07-01 Tokyo Electron Limited Probe apparatus for inspecting electrical characteristics of a microelectronic element
US5516026A (en) * 1993-11-26 1996-05-14 Toshiba Automation Co., Ltd. Pellet bonding apparatus
US5516023A (en) * 1993-12-06 1996-05-14 Nec Corporation Wire bonding apparatus
US5622811A (en) * 1994-02-07 1997-04-22 Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. Method for forming resin articles
US5482659A (en) * 1994-12-22 1996-01-09 United Technologies Corporation Method of post processing stereolithographically produced objects
US5573721A (en) * 1995-02-16 1996-11-12 Hercules Incorporated Use of a support liquid to manufacture three-dimensional objects
US6660209B2 (en) * 1995-09-27 2003-12-09 3D Systems, Inc. Selective deposition modeling method and apparatus for forming three-dimensional objects and supports
US6508971B2 (en) * 1995-09-27 2003-01-21 3D Systems, Inc. Selective deposition modeling method and apparatus for forming three-dimensional objects and supports
US6610429B2 (en) * 1996-09-04 2003-08-26 Z Corporation Three dimensional printing material system and method
US6021358A (en) * 1996-09-18 2000-02-01 Sachs; George A. Three dimensional model and mold making method using thick-slice subtractive fabrication
US5985357A (en) * 1997-01-28 1999-11-16 Dainippon Screen Mfg. Co., Ltd. Treating solution supplying method and apparatus
US6268584B1 (en) * 1998-01-22 2001-07-31 Optomec Design Company Multiple beams and nozzles to increase deposition rate
US6158346A (en) * 1998-06-22 2000-12-12 The Penn State Research Foundation Electronic printing of non-planar macro and micro devices
US6547994B1 (en) * 1998-11-13 2003-04-15 Therics, Inc. Rapid prototyping and manufacturing process
US6162378A (en) * 1999-02-25 2000-12-19 3D Systems, Inc. Method and apparatus for variably controlling the temperature in a selective deposition modeling environment
US6259962B1 (en) * 1999-03-01 2001-07-10 Objet Geometries Ltd. Apparatus and method for three dimensional model printing
US6336900B1 (en) * 1999-04-12 2002-01-08 Agilent Technologies, Inc. Home hub for reporting patient health parameters
US6251488B1 (en) * 1999-05-05 2001-06-26 Optomec Design Company Precision spray processes for direct write electronic components
US6644763B1 (en) * 1999-06-10 2003-11-11 Object Geometries Ltd. Apparatus and method for raised and special effects printing using inkjet technology
US6391251B1 (en) * 1999-07-07 2002-05-21 Optomec Design Company Forming structures from CAD solid models
US6656409B1 (en) * 1999-07-07 2003-12-02 Optomec Design Company Manufacturable geometries for thermal management of complex three-dimensional shapes
US6630995B1 (en) * 1999-09-07 2003-10-07 Applied Materials, Inc. Method and apparatus for embedded substrate and system status monitoring
US6658314B1 (en) * 1999-10-06 2003-12-02 Objet Geometries Ltd. System and method for three dimensional model printing
US6337122B1 (en) * 2000-01-11 2002-01-08 Micron Technology, Inc. Stereolithographically marked semiconductors devices and methods
US6569373B2 (en) * 2000-03-13 2003-05-27 Object Geometries Ltd. Compositions and methods for use in three dimensional model printing
US20030207959A1 (en) * 2000-03-13 2003-11-06 Eduardo Napadensky Compositions and methods for use in three dimensional model printing
US6537482B1 (en) * 2000-08-08 2003-03-25 Micron Technology, Inc. Underfill and encapsulation of carrier substrate-mounted flip-chip components using stereolithography
US20020090410A1 (en) * 2001-01-11 2002-07-11 Shigeaki Tochimoto Powder material removing apparatus and three dimensional modeling system
US20020171177A1 (en) * 2001-03-21 2002-11-21 Kritchman Elisha M. System and method for printing and supporting three dimensional objects
US6680078B2 (en) * 2001-07-11 2004-01-20 Micron Technology, Inc. Method for dispensing flowable substances on microelectronic substrates
US20040251242A1 (en) * 2001-11-17 2004-12-16 Jeong-Hun Suh Method and system for real-time monitoring and controlling height of deposit by using image photographing and image processing technology in laser cladding and laser-aided direct metal manufacturing process
US20030173713A1 (en) * 2001-12-10 2003-09-18 Wen-Chiang Huang Maskless stereo lithography method and apparatus for freeform fabrication of 3-D objects
US20030151167A1 (en) * 2002-01-03 2003-08-14 Kritchman Eliahu M. Device, system and method for accurate printing of three dimensional objects
US20040159344A1 (en) * 2002-11-11 2004-08-19 Hiatt William M. Cleaning components for use with programmable material consolidation apparatus and systems
US20040158343A1 (en) * 2002-11-11 2004-08-12 Hiatt William M. Methods for supporting substrates during fabrication of one or more objects thereon by programmable material consolidation techniques
US20040153193A1 (en) * 2002-11-11 2004-08-05 Farnworth Warren M. Methods and apparatus for calibrating programmable material consolidation apparatus
US20040159340A1 (en) * 2002-11-11 2004-08-19 Hiatt William M. Methods for removing and reclaiming unconsolidated material from substrates following fabrication of objects thereon by programmed material consolidation techniques
US20040167663A1 (en) * 2002-11-11 2004-08-26 Hiatt William M. Handling system for use with programmable material consolidation systems and associated methods
US20040164461A1 (en) * 2002-11-11 2004-08-26 Ahmad Syed Sajid Programmed material consolidation systems including multiple fabrication sites and associated methods
US20040186608A1 (en) * 2002-11-11 2004-09-23 Hiatt William M. Substrate supports for use with programmable material consolidation apparatus and systems
US20040148048A1 (en) * 2002-11-11 2004-07-29 Farnworth Warren M. Methods for recognizing features as one or more objects are being fabricated by programmed material consolidation techniques
US20050049751A1 (en) * 2002-11-11 2005-03-03 Farnworth Warren M. Machine vision systems for use with programmable material consolidation apparatus and systems
US20050159967A1 (en) * 2004-01-21 2005-07-21 Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd Wallpaper printing business method

Cited By (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20080109103A1 (en) * 2006-06-23 2008-05-08 Massachusetts Institute Of Technology Digital Assembler for Digital Materials
US7848838B2 (en) * 2006-06-23 2010-12-07 Massachusetts Institute Of Technology Digital assembler for digital materials
US20090306811A1 (en) * 2008-06-06 2009-12-10 Raytheon Company Ball grid array cleaning system
US20140152383A1 (en) * 2012-11-30 2014-06-05 Dmitri E. Nikonov Integrated circuits and systems and methods for producing the same
US8963135B2 (en) * 2012-11-30 2015-02-24 Intel Corporation Integrated circuits and systems and methods for producing the same
CN104626579A (en) * 2014-12-10 2015-05-20 苏州佳世达光电有限公司 3d printer

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
US20050278056A1 (en) 2005-12-15
US20070123058A1 (en) 2007-05-31
US7216009B2 (en) 2007-05-08

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US7521296B2 (en) Methods of fabricating a microlens including selectively curing flowable, uncured optically trasmissive material
EP1582923A2 (en) Processing apparatus
US20050067379A1 (en) Imprint lithography template having opaque alignment marks
US6955783B2 (en) Layer thickness control for stereolithography utilizing variable liquid elevation and laser focal length
US6376148B1 (en) Layer manufacturing using electrostatic imaging and lamination
US6977130B2 (en) Method of manufacturing an electronic circuit and manufacturing apparatus of an electronic circuit
US9120270B2 (en) Digital mask-image-projection-based additive manufacturing that applies shearing force to detach each added layer
CN101710228B (en) Imprint lithography processes and systems
CN101082770B (en) Pattern forming method and pattern forming apparatus
US20070132152A1 (en) Method and System for Double-Sided Patterning of Substrates
US5247180A (en) Stereolithographic apparatus and method of use
US6740476B2 (en) Surface smoothing of stereolithographically formed 3-D objects
CN102971674B (en) Method and apparatus for performing pattern alignment
CN1673859B (en) Assembly of a reticle holder and a reticle
US20080153312A1 (en) Methods for Exposure for the Purpose of Thermal Management for Imprint Lithography Processes
US8393289B2 (en) Laser assisted nano deposition
EP2171537B1 (en) Alignment system and method for a substrate in a nano-imprint process
JP3659529B2 (en) Exposure apparatus and device manufacturing method
KR100339186B1 (en) Apparatus and method for defining a pattern on a substrate
US7271877B2 (en) Method and apparatus for maskless photolithography
US8299609B2 (en) Product chips and die with a feature pattern that contains information relating to the product chip
JP4463843B2 (en) Lithographic apparatus and device manufacturing method
US6569753B1 (en) Collar positionable about a periphery of a contact pad and around a conductive structure secured to the contact pads, semiconductor device components including same, and methods for fabricating same
US7615119B2 (en) Apparatus for spin coating semiconductor substrates
EP1582924B1 (en) Processing apparatus