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US20060272573A1 - Damage evaluation method of compound semiconductor member, production method of compound semiconductor member, gallium nitride compound semiconductor member, and gallium nitride compound semiconductor membrane - Google Patents

Damage evaluation method of compound semiconductor member, production method of compound semiconductor member, gallium nitride compound semiconductor member, and gallium nitride compound semiconductor membrane Download PDF

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Publication number
US20060272573A1
US20060272573A1 US11446976 US44697606A US2006272573A1 US 20060272573 A1 US20060272573 A1 US 20060272573A1 US 11446976 US11446976 US 11446976 US 44697606 A US44697606 A US 44697606A US 2006272573 A1 US2006272573 A1 US 2006272573A1
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Prior art keywords
compound
semiconductor
member
damage
substrate
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US11446976
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Akihiro Hachigo
Takayuki Nishiura
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Sumitomo Electric Industries Ltd
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Sumitomo Electric Industries Ltd
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N21/00Investigating or analysing materials by the use of optical means, i.e. using infra-red, visible or ultra-violet light
    • G01N21/84Systems specially adapted for particular applications
    • G01N21/88Investigating the presence of flaws or contamination
    • G01N21/95Investigating the presence of flaws or contamination characterised by the material or shape of the object to be examined
    • G01N21/9501Semiconductor wafers
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N21/00Investigating or analysing materials by the use of optical means, i.e. using infra-red, visible or ultra-violet light
    • G01N21/62Systems in which the material investigated is excited whereby it emits light or causes a change in wavelength of the incident light
    • G01N21/63Systems in which the material investigated is excited whereby it emits light or causes a change in wavelength of the incident light optically excited
    • G01N21/64Fluorescence; Phosphorescence
    • G01N21/6489Photoluminescence of semiconductors

Abstract

A method of evaluating damage of a compound semiconductor member, comprising: a step of performing measurement of photoluminescence on a surface of the compound semiconductor member; and a step of evaluating damage on the surface of the compound semiconductor member, using a half width of a peak at a wavelength corresponding to a bandgap of the compound semiconductor member, in an emission spectrum obtained by the measurement of photoluminescence.

Description

    BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • [0001]
    1. Field of the Invention
  • [0002]
    The present invention relates to a damage evaluation method of a compound semiconductor member, a production method of a compound semiconductor member, a gallium nitride compound semiconductor member, and a gallium nitride compound semiconductor membrane.
  • [0003]
    2. Related Background Art
  • [0004]
    Compound semiconductors have various merits in comparison with Si. For example, the compound semiconductors permit control of the bandgap through adjustment of compositions. Furthermore, the compound semiconductors have such optical properties as direct transition and wide bandgap, and are thus suitably applied to optical devices such as LEDs or LDs. Since the compound semiconductors have high carrier mobility, they are also suitably applied to high-speed devices.
  • [0005]
    In producing such compound semiconductor devices as the optical devices or high-speed devices, a substrate used is a compound semiconductor substrate, or a laminated substrate in which a compound semiconductor membrane is formed on an amorphous substrate such as a glass substrate. For example, a compound semiconductor membrane or electrodes are formed on a surface of the compound semiconductor substrate or laminated substrate. The device characteristics of the compound semiconductor devices are significantly affected by an interface between the compound semiconductor substrate or laminated substrate and the compound semiconductor membrane or by interfaces between the compound semiconductor substrate or laminated substrate and the electrodes. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the interfaces in the compound semiconductor devices.
  • [0006]
    In production of the compound semiconductor devices, damage occurs on the foregoing interfaces in several production processes. For example, since surface roughness of the compound semiconductor substrate or laminated substrate affects the device characteristics, the surface of the compound semiconductor substrate or laminated substrate is subjected to polishing or etching. This process produces scratches or distortion on the surface to cause damage on the surface. For example, dry etching or wet etching or the like is used in forming a thin film or fine pattern of nanometer size on the surface of the compound semiconductor substrate or laminated substrate. At this time, damage is caused on the surface of the compound semiconductor substrate or laminated substrate or on the surface of the thin film or fine pattern.
  • [0007]
    When a compound semiconductor device is produced, for example, by growing an epitaxial film on the surface of the compound semiconductor substrate or compound semiconductor membrane with the surface including the damage as described above, the device characteristics are degraded by virtue of the damage existing at the interface between the compound semiconductor substrate or compound semiconductor membrane and the epitaxial film.
  • [0008]
    Methods for evaluating the damage on the surface of the compound semiconductor substrate or compound semiconductor membrane include methods using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope (SEM), cathodoluminescence, or the like as usually adopted methods.
  • [0009]
    On the other hand, Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 9-246341 discloses a method of evaluating damage on a semiconductor wafer by a photoluminescence method.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • [0010]
    However, the method disclosed in the foregoing Patent Application is not always satisfactory for performing detailed evaluation of a level of damage.
  • [0011]
    An object of the present invention is therefore to provide a damage evaluation method of a compound semiconductor member permitting detailed evaluation of a level of damage on a surface and a production method of a compound semiconductor member with a low level of damage, and to provide a gallium nitride compound semiconductor member and a gallium nitride compound semiconductor membrane with a low level of damage.
  • [0012]
    In order to solve the above problem, a damage evaluation method of a compound semiconductor member according to the present invention is a method of evaluating damage of a compound semiconductor member, comprising: a step of performing measurement of photoluminescence on a surface of the compound semiconductor member; and a step of evaluating damage on the surface of the compound semiconductor member, using a half width of a peak at a wavelength corresponding to a bandgap of the compound semiconductor member, in an emission spectrum obtained by the measurement of photoluminescence.
  • [0013]
    Another damage evaluation method of a compound semiconductor member according to the present invention is a method of evaluating damage of a compound semiconductor member, comprising: a step of performing measurement of photoluminescence on a surface of the compound semiconductor member; and a step of evaluating damage on the surface of the compound semiconductor member, using an intensity of a peak located on a longer wavelength side than a wavelength corresponding to a bandgap of the compound semiconductor member, in an emission spectrum obtained by the measurement of photoluminescence.
  • [0014]
    Another damage evaluation method of a compound semiconductor member according to the present invention is a method of evaluating damage of a compound semiconductor member, comprising: a step of performing measurement of photoluminescence on a surface of the compound semiconductor member; and a step of evaluating damage on the surface of the compound semiconductor member, using a half width of a peak located on a longer wavelength side than a wavelength corresponding to a bandgap of the compound semiconductor member, in an emission spectrum obtained by the measurement of photoluminescence.
  • [0015]
    Another damage evaluation method of a compound semiconductor member according to the present invention is a method of evaluating damage of a compound semiconductor member, comprising: a step of performing measurement of photoluminescence on a surface of the compound semiconductor member; and a step of evaluating damage on the surface of the compound semiconductor member, using a ratio of an intensity of a peak at a wavelength corresponding to a bandgap of the compound semiconductor member to an intensity of a peak located on a longer wavelength side than the wavelength corresponding to the bandgap, in an emission spectrum obtained by the measurement of photoluminescence.
  • [0016]
    The compound semiconductor member is preferably a compound semiconductor substrate. The compound semiconductor member is preferably a compound semiconductor membrane provided on a substrate. The compound semiconductor member is preferably comprised of either one of monocrystalline material and polycrystalline material. The bandgap is preferably not less than 1.6×10−19 J.
  • [0017]
    The compound semiconductor member is preferably comprised of a nitride compound semiconductor containing at least one of B, Al, and Ga. The compound semiconductor member is preferably comprised of an oxide compound semiconductor containing at least one of Be and Zn. Furthermore, the compound semiconductor member is preferably comprised of a ZnSe compound semiconductor.
  • [0018]
    A production method of a compound semiconductor member according to the present invention is a method of producing a compound semiconductor member, comprising: a step of performing measurement of photoluminescence on a surface of the compound semiconductor member; and a step of determining that the compound semiconductor member is nondefective when a half width of a peak at a wavelength corresponding to a bandgap of the compound semiconductor member in an emission spectrum obtained by the measurement of photoluminescence is not more than a predetermined threshold.
  • [0019]
    Another production method of a compound semiconductor member according to the present invention is a method of producing a compound semiconductor member, comprising: a step of performing measurement of photoluminescence on a surface of the compound semiconductor member; and a step of determining that the compound semiconductor member is nondefective when an intensity of a peak at a wavelength corresponding to a bandgap of the compound semiconductor member in an emission spectrum obtained by the measurement of photoluminescence is not less than a predetermined threshold with respect to an intensity of a peak at the wavelength in an emission spectrum obtained by measurement of photoluminescence on a surface of a compound semiconductor member without damage.
  • [0020]
    Another production method of a compound semiconductor member according to the present invention is a method of producing a compound semiconductor member, comprising: a step of performing measurement of photoluminescence on a surface of the compound semiconductor member; and a step of determining that the compound semiconductor member is nondefective when a half width of a peak on a longer wavelength side than a wavelength corresponding to a bandgap of the compound semiconductor member in an emission spectrum obtained by the measurement of photoluminescence is not more than a predetermined threshold.
  • [0021]
    Another production method of a compound semiconductor member according to the present invention is a method of producing a compound semiconductor member, comprising: a step of performing measurement of photoluminescence on a surface of the compound semiconductor member; and a step of determining that the compound semiconductor member is nondefective when a ratio of an intensity of a peak at a wavelength corresponding to a bandgap of the compound semiconductor member to an intensity of a peak located on a longer wavelength side than the wavelength corresponding to the bandgap in an emission spectrum obtained by the measurement of photoluminescence is not less than a predetermined threshold.
  • [0022]
    The compound semiconductor member is preferably a compound semiconductor substrate. The compound semiconductor member is preferably a compound semiconductor membrane provided on a substrate.
  • [0023]
    The production methods of the compound semiconductor member preferably further comprise a step of forming a thin film on the surface of the compound semiconductor member, after the step of determining that the compound semiconductor member is nondefective.
  • [0024]
    The production methods of the compound semiconductor member preferably further comprise a step of forming an electrode on the surface of the compound semiconductor member, after the step of determining that the compound semiconductor member is nondefective.
  • [0025]
    A gallium nitride compound semiconductor member according to the present invention is a gallium nitride compound semiconductor member wherein in an emission spectrum obtained by measurement of photoluminescence on a surface of the gallium nitride compound semiconductor member, an intensity of a peak at a wavelength corresponding to a bandgap of the gallium nitride compound semiconductor member is not less than twice an intensity of a peak located on a longer wavelength side than the wavelength corresponding to the bandgap.
  • [0026]
    Another gallium nitride compound semiconductor member according to the present invention is a gallium nitride compound semiconductor member wherein in an emission spectrum obtained by measurement of photoluminescence on a surface of the gallium nitride compound semiconductor member, an intensity of a peak at a wavelength corresponding to a bandgap of the gallium nitride compound semiconductor member is not less than 1/10 of an intensity of a peak at the wavelength in an emission spectrum obtained by measurement of photoluminescence on a surface of a gallium nitride compound semiconductor member without damage.
  • [0027]
    The gallium nitride compound semiconductor member is preferably a gallium nitride compound semiconductor substrate. The gallium nitride compound semiconductor member is preferably a gallium nitride compound semiconductor membrane provided on a substrate.
  • [0028]
    A gallium nitride compound semiconductor membrane according to the present invention is a gallium nitride compound semiconductor membrane formed on a gallium nitride compound semiconductor member wherein in an emission spectrum obtained by measurement of photoluminescence on a surface of the gallium nitride compound semiconductor member, an intensity of a peak at a wavelength corresponding to a bandgap of the gallium nitride compound semiconductor member is not less than twice an intensity of a peak located on a longer wavelength side than the wavelength corresponding to the bandgap.
  • [0029]
    Another gallium nitride compound semiconductor membrane according to the present invention is a gallium nitride compound semiconductor membrane formed on a gallium nitride compound semiconductor member wherein in an emission spectrum obtained by measurement of photoluminescence on a surface of the gallium nitride compound semiconductor member, an intensity of a peak at a wavelength corresponding to a bandgap of the gallium nitride compound semiconductor member is not less than 1/10 of an intensity of a peak at the wavelength in an emission spectrum obtained by measurement of photoluminescence on a surface of a gallium nitride compound semiconductor member without damage.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • [0030]
    FIG. 1 is a flowchart showing steps in a damage evaluation method of a compound semiconductor member and in a production method of a compound semiconductor member according to an embodiment.
  • [0031]
    FIG. 2 is a drawing schematically showing a photoluminescence measurement step.
  • [0032]
    FIG. 3 is a sectional view schematically showing a compound semiconductor membrane provided on a substrate.
  • [0033]
    FIG. 4 is a drawing schematically showing an emission spectrum obtained by photoluminescence measurement.
  • [0034]
    FIG. 5A is a sectional view schematically showing a compound semiconductor substrate in a thin film forming step, and FIG. 5B is a sectional view schematically showing a compound semiconductor membrane in the thin film forming step.
  • [0035]
    FIG. 6A is a sectional view schematically showing a compound semiconductor substrate in an electrode forming step, and FIG. 6B is a sectional view schematically showing a compound semiconductor membrane in the electrode forming step.
  • [0036]
    FIG. 7 is a graph showing an emission spectrum obtained from a monocrystalline GaN substrate of Experiment Example 5.
  • [0037]
    FIG. 8 is a graph showing a correlation between photoluminescence measurement and cathodoluminescence measurement.
  • [0038]
    FIG. 9 shows intensities of a peak near 365 nm in respective emission spectra obtained from monocrystalline GaN substrates of Experiment Example 1 to Experiment Example 5.
  • DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS
  • [0039]
    Embodiments of the present invention will be described below in detail with reference to the accompanying drawings. In the description of the drawings identical or equivalent elements will be denoted by the same reference symbols, without redundant description.
  • [0040]
    FIG. 1 is a flowchart showing steps in a damage evaluation method of a compound semiconductor member and in a production method of a compound semiconductor member according to an embodiment. The damage evaluation method of the compound semiconductor member according to the embodiment includes a photoluminescence measurement step S1 and a damage evaluation step S2. The production method of the compound semiconductor member according to the embodiment includes the photoluminescence measurement step S1 and damage evaluation step S2 and, preferably, further includes a thin film forming step S3 and an electrode forming step S4.
  • [0041]
    (Photoluminescence Measurement Step)
  • [0042]
    FIG. 2 is a drawing schematically showing the photoluminescence measurement step. The photoluminescence measurement step S1 is to perform measurement of photoluminescence on a surface 10 a of a compound semiconductor substrate 10 (compound semiconductor member). The photoluminescence measurement is preferably carried out with a photoluminescence measurement device 16.
  • [0043]
    The photoluminescence measurement device 16 has a light source 12 for emitting light L1 toward the surface 10 a of the compound semiconductor substrate 10. The energy of light L1 is set to be higher than the bandgap of the compound semiconductor substrate 10. As the light L1 impinges on the surface 10 a, electrons are excited from the valence band to the conduction band and then return to the valence band to emit light L2 from the compound semiconductor substrate 10. When the light L2 enters a light detection unit 14, an emission spectrum is acquired.
  • [0044]
    The light L1 is preferably monochromatic laser light, but may include a plurality of wavelength components. For obtaining the light L1 containing a plurality of wavelength components, the light source 12 to be used is preferably a dye laser. The light L1 can be white light containing wavelength components with energy higher than the bandgap of the compound semiconductor substrate 10.
  • [0045]
    Since the compound semiconductor substrate 10 is a bulk, it will suffer little influence from other members, e.g. influence of the back surface of the compound semiconductor substrate 10 or influence of a jig for fixing the compound semiconductor substrate 10 even if the light L1 penetrates deep, for example, into the interior of the compound semiconductor substrate 10 in the photoluminescence measurement.
  • [0046]
    The bandgap of the compound semiconductor substrate 10 is preferably not less than 1.6×10−19 J (1 eV). In this case, even if the compound semiconductor substrate 10 is heated by the light L1 during the photoluminescence measurement, the compound semiconductor substrate 10 will be less likely to be affected by heat. For this reason, the photoluminescence measurement can be performed without difficulty and with high accuracy.
  • [0047]
    The compound semiconductor substrate 10 is preferably comprised of a nitride compound semiconductor containing at least one of B, Al, and Ga. The compound semiconductor substrate 10 is preferably comprised of an oxide compound semiconductor containing at least one of Be and Zn. Furthermore, the compound semiconductor substrate 10 is preferably comprised of a ZnSe compound semiconductor. In all these cases, the bandgap of the compound semiconductor substrate 10 is increased, and thus the compound semiconductor substrate becomes less likely to be affected by heat in the photoluminescence measurement.
  • [0048]
    More specifically, the compound semiconductor substrate 10 is made, for example, of a III-V compound semiconductor such as GaAs or InP, a nitride compound semiconductor such as BN, GaN, AlN, or InN, a II-VI compound semiconductor such as ZnO or ZnS, an oxide compound semiconductor such as BexOy, ZnO, Ga2O3, or Al2O3, a ZnSe compound semiconductor such as ZnSe, or a ternary compound semiconductor such as GaAlN or InGaN. These compound semiconductors may be doped with an impurity.
  • [0049]
    For example, in a case where the compound semiconductor substrate 10 is made of a gallium nitride compound semiconductor, the gallium nitride compound semiconductor suitably applicable is of the wurtzite structure or the zinc blende (cubic crystal) structure. In the case of the wurtzite structure, the surface 10 a may be any one of the (0001) face called the C-plane, the (10-10) face called the M-plane, the (11-20) face called the A-plane, the (01-12) face called the R-plane, and the (10-11) face called the S-plane. The C-plane can be either a Ga plane consisting of Ga or an N plane consisting of N. Since the Ga plane is normally more resistant to etching, the surface 10 a is preferably the Ga plane, but the surface 10 a may be the N plane.
  • [0050]
    In performing the photoluminescence measurement, a compound semiconductor membrane 20 (compound semiconductor member) shown in FIG. 3 may also be used instead of the compound semiconductor substrate 10.
  • [0051]
    FIG. 3 is a sectional view schematically showing a compound semiconductor membrane provided on a substrate. The substrate 22 shown in FIG. 3 is, for example, an amorphous substrate such as a glass substrate, or a monocrystalline substrate such as a sapphire substrate or Si substrate. A constituent material of the compound semiconductor membrane 20 can be one of the materials listed for the compound semiconductor substrate 10.
  • [0052]
    In this case, the photoluminescence measurement is carried out by projecting the light L1 onto a surface 20 a of the compound semiconductor membrane 20. If the light L1 is made incident from the direction perpendicular to the surface 20 a, the light L2 can contain more information about the substrate 22, depending upon the film thickness of the compound semiconductor membrane 20. As the direction of incidence of the light L1 deviates from the direction perpendicular to the surface 20 a, the information about the substrate 22 in the light L2 tends to decrease relatively.
  • [0053]
    (Damage Evaluation Step)
  • [0054]
    FIG. 4 is a drawing schematically showing an emission spectrum obtained by the photoluminescence measurement. The damage evaluation step S2 is to evaluate damage on the surface 10 a of the compound semiconductor substrate 10, using the emission spectrum obtained by the photoluminescence measurement. Examples of such damage include damage, scratches, distortion, or the like due to polishing, etching, or the like.
  • [0055]
    The emission spectrum shown in FIG. 4 has a peak P1 at a wavelength λ1 corresponding to the bandgap of the compound semiconductor substrate 10. The wavelength λ1 has the same energy as the bandgap. The peak P1 does not always have to be maximum at the wavelength λ1. This emission spectrum also has a peak P2 at a wavelength λ2 located on the longer wavelength side than the wavelength λ1. The peak P2 does not always have to be maximum at the wavelength λ2. The use of this emission spectrum enables detailed evaluation of damage on the surface 10 a by Method 1 to Method 4 described below.
  • [0056]
    When the compound semiconductor substrate 10 is made, for example, of a monocrystalline material or polycrystalline material, the monocrystalline material or polycrystalline material turns into the amorphous form in a damaged region, and thus it becomes easier to discriminate the damaged region from the other region without damage. For this reason, damage becomes easier to detect, so that the accuracy of damage evaluation can be improved.
  • [0057]
    <Method 1>
  • [0058]
    Method 1 is to perform evaluation of damage using the half width W1 of the peak P1. Method 1 enables detailed damage evaluation as described below, using the half width W1 of the peak P1.
  • [0059]
    The half width W1 of the peak P1 varies with change in the spread of the band of the compound semiconductor substrate 10. Here the spread of the band varies with change in the interatomic distance between atoms constituting the compound semiconductor substrate 10. The interatomic distance varies depending upon the level of damage on the surface 10 a. Therefore, the level of damage can be evaluated in detail by use of the half width W1 of the peak P1. For example, the half width W1 of the peak P1 tends to increase with increasing level of damage.
  • [0060]
    Method 1 is suitably applicable to production of compound semiconductor substrate 10. The compound semiconductor substrate 10 is determined to be nondefective when the half width W1 of the peak P1 is not more than a predetermined threshold; this permits the compound semiconductor substrate 10 with a low level of damage to be produced at a high yield.
  • [0061]
    <Method 2>
  • [0062]
    Method 2 is to perform evaluation of damage using the intensity I2 of the peak P2. Method 2 enables detailed damage evaluation as described below, using the intensity I2 of the peak P2.
  • [0063]
    The peak P2 arises from energy levels appearing between bands of the compound semiconductor substrate 10. Therefore, the peak P2 appears if damage to induce emission of light exists in the compound semiconductor substrate 10. Since the intensity I2 of the peak P2 varies depending upon the level of damage to induce emission of light, the level of damage can be evaluated in detail by use of the intensity I2 of the peak P2. For example, the intensity I2 of the peak P2 tends to increase with increasing level of damage.
  • [0064]
    Method 2 is suitably applicable to production of compound semiconductor substrate 10. The compound semiconductor substrate 10 is determined to be nondefective when the intensity I2 of the peak P2 is not more than a predetermined threshold, relative to an intensity of a peak located at the wavelength λ2 in an emission spectrum obtained by photoluminescence measurement on a surface of a compound semiconductor substrate from which damage is preliminarily eliminated; this permits the compound semiconductor substrate 10 with a low level of damage to be produced at a high yield.
  • [0065]
    <Method 3>
  • [0066]
    Method 3 is to perform evaluation of damage using the half width W2 of the peak P2. Method 3 enables detailed damage evaluation as described below, using the half width W2 of the peak P2.
  • [0067]
    Since the half width W2 of the peak P2 varies according to the level of damage to induce emission of light, the level of damage can be evaluated in detail by use of the half width W2 of the peak P2. For example, the half width W2 of the peak P2 tends to increase with increasing level of damage.
  • [0068]
    Method 3 is suitably applicable to production of compound semiconductor substrate 10. The compound semiconductor substrate 10 is determined to be nondefective when the half width W2 of the peak P2 is not more than a predetermined threshold; this permits the compound semiconductor substrate 10 with a low level of damage to be produced at a high yield.
  • [0069]
    <Method 4>
  • [0070]
    Method 4 is to perform evaluation of damage using an intensity ratio (I1/I2) of the intensity I1 of the peak P1 to the intensity I2 of the peak P2. Method 4 enables detailed damage evaluation as described below, using the intensity ratio (I1/I2).
  • [0071]
    The intensity ratio (I1/I2) can be an index of relationship between the level of damage to change arrangement of atoms constituting the compound semiconductor substrate 10 and the level of damage to induce emission of light. Therefore, the relationship can be evaluated in detail by use of the intensity ratio (I1/I2). For example, the intensity ratio (I1/I2) tends to decrease with increasing level of damage.
  • [0072]
    Method 4 is suitably applicable to production of compound semiconductor substrate 10. The compound semiconductor substrate 10 is determined to be nondefective when the intensity ratio (I1/I2) is not less than a predetermined threshold; this permits the compound semiconductor substrate 10 with a low level of damage to be produced at a high yield.
  • [0073]
    <Method 5>
  • [0074]
    Method 5 is to perform evaluation of damage using the intensity I1 of the peak P1. For example, the intensity I1 of the peak P1 decreases with increasing level of damage. Method 5 is suitably applicable to production of compound semiconductor substrate 10. The compound semiconductor substrate 10 is determined to be nondefective when the intensity I1 of the peak P1 is not less than a predetermined threshold, relative to an intensity of a peak located at the wavelength λ1 in an emission spectrum obtained by photoluminescence measurement on a surface of a compound semiconductor substrate from which damage is preliminarily eliminated; this permits the compound semiconductor substrate 10 with a low level of damage to be produced at a high yield.
  • [0075]
    When the compound semiconductor substrate 10 is made, for example, of a gallium nitride compound semiconductor, the intensity ratio (I1/I2) is preferably not less than 2. In this case, a gallium nitride compound semiconductor substrate is obtained with a low level of damage on its surface.
  • [0076]
    When the compound semiconductor substrate 10 is made, for example, of a gallium nitride compound semiconductor, the intensity I1 of the peak P1 at the wavelength λ1 (near 365 nm) is preferably not less than 1/10 of an intensity of a peak at the wavelength λ1 (near 365 nm) in an emission spectrum obtained by photoluminescence measurement on a surface of a gallium nitride compound semiconductor substrate from which damage is eliminated (a gallium nitride compound semiconductor member without damage). In this case, a gallium nitride compound semiconductor substrate is obtained with a low level of damage on its surface.
  • [0077]
    Damage of compound semiconductor membrane 20 may also be evaluated instead of the compound semiconductor substrate 10. In this case, the photoluminescence measurement is preliminarily carried out on the surface 22 a of the substrate 22, and the level of damage can be evaluated in detail on the surface 20 a of the compound semiconductor membrane 20 provided on the substrate 22, by one of Method 1 to Method 4. Since the relative influence of damage on the compound semiconductor membrane 20 is greater, the damage can be detected easier even if the level of damage is low.
  • [0078]
    Furthermore, the compound semiconductor membrane 20 with a low level of damage can be produced at a high yield by use of Method 1 to Method 5. When the compound semiconductor membrane 20 is made, for example, of a gallium nitride compound semiconductor, the intensity ratio (I1/I2) is preferably not less than 2. In this case, a gallium nitride compound semiconductor membrane is obtained with a low level of damage on its surface.
  • [0079]
    When the compound semiconductor membrane 20 is made, for example, of a gallium nitride compound semiconductor, the intensity I1 of the peak P1 at the wavelength λ1 (near 365 nm) is preferably not less than 1/10 of an intensity of a peak at the wavelength λ1 (near 365 nm) in an emission spectrum obtained by photoluminescence measurement on a surface of a gallium nitride compound semiconductor membrane from which damage is eliminated (a gallium nitride compound semiconductor member without damage). In this case, a gallium nitride compound semiconductor membrane is obtained with a low level of damage on its surface.
  • [0080]
    (Thin Film Forming Step)
  • [0081]
    FIG. 5A is a sectional view schematically showing a compound semiconductor substrate in the thin film forming step. FIG. 5B is a sectional view schematically showing a compound semiconductor membrane in the thin film forming step. The thin film forming step S3 is preferably carried out after the damage evaluation step S2.
  • [0082]
    The thin film forming step S3 is to form a thin film 30 on the surface 10 a of the compound semiconductor substrate 10, as shown in FIG. 5A. The thin film 30 is formed, for example, by an epitaxial growth method. The thin film 30 can be a compound semiconductor film, an oxide film, a ZnO film, an amorphous film, or the like. When the thin film 30 is formed on the surface 10 a of the compound semiconductor substrate 10 with a low level of damage, an improvement is made in crystallinity and surface roughness of the thin film 30. For example, in a case where the compound semiconductor substrate 10 is made of a gallium nitride compound semiconductor and where the intensity ratio (I1/I2) is not less than 2, an improvement is made in crystallinity and surface roughness of the thin film 30 made of a gallium nitride compound semiconductor.
  • [0083]
    In addition, for example, in a case where the compound semiconductor substrate 10 is made of a gallium nitride compound semiconductor and where the intensity I1 of the peak P1 at the wavelength λ1 (near 365 nm) is not less than 1/10 of an intensity of a peak at the wavelength λ1 (near 365 nm) in an emission spectrum obtained by photoluminescence measurement on a surface of a gallium nitride compound semiconductor substrate from which damage is eliminated (a gallium nitride compound semiconductor member without damage), an improvement is made in crystallinity and surface roughness of the thin film 30 made of a gallium nitride compound semiconductor.
  • [0084]
    The thin film forming step S3 may also be to form a thin film 32 on the surface 20 a of the compound semiconductor membrane 20, as shown in FIG. 5B. The thin film 32 is formed, for example, by an epitaxial growth method. The thin film 32 can be the same as the thin film 30. When the thin film 32 is formed on the surface 20 a of the compound semiconductor membrane 20 with a low level of damage, an improvement is made in crystallinity and surface roughness of the thin film 32. For example, in a case where the compound semiconductor membrane 20 is made of a gallium nitride compound semiconductor and where the intensity ratio (I1/I2) is not less than 2, an improvement is made in crystallinity and surface roughness of the thin film 32 made of a gallium nitride compound semiconductor.
  • [0085]
    In addition, for example, in a case where the compound semiconductor membrane 20 is made of a gallium nitride compound semiconductor and where the intensity I1 of the peak P1 at the wavelength λ1 (near 365 nm) is not less than 1/10 of an intensity of a peak at the wavelength λ1 (near 365 nm) in an emission spectrum obtained by photoluminescence measurement on a surface of a gallium nitride compound semiconductor membrane from which damage is eliminated (a gallium nitride compound semiconductor member without damage), an improvement is made in crystallinity and surface roughness of the thin film 32 made of a gallium nitride compound semiconductor.
  • [0086]
    (Electrode Forming Step)
  • [0087]
    FIG. 6A is a sectional view schematically showing a compound semiconductor substrate in the electrode forming step. FIG. 6B is a sectional view schematically showing a compound semiconductor membrane in the electrode forming step. The electrode forming step S4 is preferably carried out after the damage evaluation step S2 and more preferably carried out after the thin film forming step S3.
  • [0088]
    The electrode forming step S4 is to form an electrode 40, for example, of a metal film or the like on the thin film 30, as shown in FIG. 6A. In this case, the thin film 30 has excellent crystallinity and reduced surface roughness, and occurrence of damage can be suppressed at the interface between the thin film 30 and the electrode 40.
  • [0089]
    The electrode 40 may also be formed directly on the surface 10 a of the compound semiconductor substrate 10. In that case, when the compound semiconductor substrate 10 with a low level of damage is used, occurrence of damage can be suppressed at the interface between the compound semiconductor substrate 10 and the electrode 40.
  • [0090]
    The electrode forming step S4 may also be to form an electrode 42 on the thin film 32, as shown in FIG. 6B. In this case, the thin film 32 has excellent crystallinity and reduced surface roughness, and occurrence of damage can be suppressed at the interface between the thin film 32 and the electrode 42.
  • [0091]
    The electrode 40 may also be formed directly on the surface 20 a of the compound semiconductor membrane 20. In that case, when the compound semiconductor membrane 20 with a low level of damage is used, occurrence of damage can be suppressed at the interface between the compound semiconductor membrane 20 and the electrode 42.
  • [0092]
    A compound semiconductor device can be produced through the steps described above.
  • [0093]
    The preferred embodiments of the present invention were described above in detail, but it is noted that the present invention is not limited to the above embodiments.
  • [0094]
    Subsequently, Experiment Examples associated with the above embodiments will be described.
  • EXPERIMENT EXAMPLE 1
  • [0095]
    First, a monocrystalline GaN ingot was sliced to prepare a monocrystalline GaN substrate with the diameter of 2 inches. The surface of the monocrystalline GaN substrate prepared was polished and thereafter the surface was dry-etched by reactive ion etching (RIE). The conditions for dry etching were as follows.
      • Etching gas: Ar gas
      • Supplied power: 200 W
      • Pressure in chamber: 1.3 Pa (10 mTorr)
      • Etching time: 10 minutes
  • [0100]
    Thereafter, in order to eliminate damage from the surface, the monocrystalline GaN substrate was immersed in a 5% NH4OH solution at 40° C. for 15 minutes to effect wet etching. The monocrystalline GaN substrate of Experiment Example 1 was obtained as described above.
  • EXPERIMENT EXAMPLE 2
  • [0101]
    First, a monocrystalline GaN ingot was sliced to prepare a monocrystalline GaN substrate with the diameter of 2 inches. The surface of the monocrystalline GaN substrate prepared was roughly polished and thereafter the surface was further polished by means of diamond abrasive grains with the grain size of 0.5 μm. Thereafter, the surface was cleaned with isopropyl alcohol. The monocrystalline GaN substrate of Experiment Example 2 was obtained as described above.
  • EXPERIMENT EXAMPLE 3
  • [0102]
    A monocrystalline GaN substrate of Experiment Example 3 was obtained in the same manner as in Experiment Example 2 except that diamond abrasive grains with the grain size of 0.1 μm were used instead of the diamond abrasive grains with the grain size of 0.5 μm.
  • EXPERIMENT EXAMPLE 4
  • [0103]
    A monocrystalline GaN substrate of Experiment Example 4 was obtained by effecting dry etching in Experiment Example 1 on a monocrystalline GaN substrate obtained in the same manner as in Experiment Example 3.
  • EXPERIMENT EXAMPLE 5
  • [0104]
    A monocrystalline GaN substrate of Experiment Example 5 was obtained by effecting wet etching with a diluted H3PO4 solution on a monocrystalline GaN substrate obtained in the same manner as in Experiment Example 4.
  • [0105]
    (Photoluminescence Measurement)
  • [0106]
    The photoluminescence measurement was conducted using a He—Cd laser that can emit a laser beam with the wavelength of 325 nm, as the light source 12. The laser beam is made incident normally to the surfaces of the monocrystalline GaN substrates of Experiment Example 1 to Experiment Example 5, to obtain their respective emission spectra. FIG. 7 shows an example of an emission spectrum.
  • [0107]
    FIG. 7 is a graph showing the emission spectrum obtained from the monocrystalline GaN substrate of Experiment Example 5. The vertical axis indicates the PL intensities (photoluminescence intensities) and the horizontal axis the wavelengths. In FIG. 7 the PL intensities are relative values with respect to 1 for the intensity I1 of the peak P1 near 365 nm. A broad peak P2 appears near 470-640 nm on the longer wavelength side than 365 nm.
  • [0108]
    The photoluminescence measurement was carried out at wavelength intervals of 0.5 nm and values near the peak P1 were interpolated by a Gaussian distribution. The background was adjusted by linear approximation of wing portions of the peak P1.
  • [0109]
    (Evaluation of Damage)
  • [0110]
    FIG. 8 is a graph showing a correlation between photoluminescence measurement and cathodoluminescence measurement. The vertical axis indicates the PL intensities and the horizontal axis the CL intensities (cathodoluminescence intensities). In FIG. 8, plot D1 to plot D5 represent respective intensities I1 of the peak P1 near 365 nm in the emission spectra obtained from the monocrystalline GaN substrates of Experiment Example 1 to Experiment Example 5. The PL intensities are relative values with respect to 1 for the intensity I1 of the peak P1 near 365 nm in the emission spectrum obtained from the monocrystalline GaN substrate of Experiment Example 2. The CL intensities are also relative values with respect to 1 for the CL intensity in the monocrystalline GaN substrate of Experiment Example 2.
  • [0111]
    It is seen from FIG. 8 that there is a correlation between the photoluminescence measurement and the cathodoluminescence measurement. In general, the CL intensity decreases with increasing level of damage, and it is thus seen that the PL intensity also decreases with increasing level of damage.
  • [0112]
    FIG. 9 shows the intensities I1 of the peak P1 near 365 nm in the emission spectra obtained from the monocrystalline GaN substrates of Experiment Example 1 to Experiment Example 5. It is seen from FIG. 9 that the level of damage on the surface increases in the order of Experiment Example 1, Experiment Example 4, Experiment Example 5, Experiment Example 3, and Experiment Example 2.
  • [0113]
    Table 1 shows the half width W1 of the peak P1 near 365 nm in each of the emission spectra obtained from the monocrystalline GaN substrates of Experiment Example 1 to Experiment Example 5. It is seen from Table 1 that the half width W1 of the peak P1 increases with increasing level of damage.
    TABLE 1
    Half Width W1 of Peak P1[nm]
    Experiment Example 2 10.6
    Experiment Example 3 9.7
    Experiment Example 5 8.4
    Experiment Example 4 8.1
    Experiment Example 1 7.1
  • [0114]
    Table 2 shows the intensity I2 and half width W2 of the peak P2 in each of the emission spectra obtained from the monocrystalline GaN substrates of Experiment Example 1 to Experiment Example 5. It is seen from Table 2 that the intensity I2 and half width W2 of the peak P2 both increase with increasing level of damage.
    TABLE 2
    Half Width W2 of
    Intensity I2 of Peak P2 Peak P2[nm]
    Experiment 1 142
    Example 2
    Experiment 0.86 137
    Example 3
    Experiment 0.31 134
    Example 5
    Experiment 0.25 105
    Example 4
    Experiment 0.11 101
    Example 1
  • [0115]
    Table 3 shows the intensity ratio (I1/I2) in each of the emission spectra obtained from the monocrystalline GaN substrates of Experiment Example 1 to Experiment Example 5. It is seen from Table 3 that the intensity ratio (I1/I2) decreases with increasing level of damage.
    TABLE 3
    Intensity Ratio (I1/I2)
    Experiment Example 2 1
    Experiment Example 3 4
    Experiment Example 5 19
    Experiment Example 4 28
    Experiment Example 1 100
  • EXPERIMENT EXAMPLE 6
  • [0116]
    A monocrystalline GaN substrate of Experiment Example 6 without damage was obtained in the same manner as in Experiment Example 1, except that the substrate used was a monocrystalline GaN substrate 20 mm square.
  • EXPERIMENT EXAMPLE 7
  • [0117]
    A monocrystalline GaN ingot was sliced to prepare a monocrystalline GaN substrate 20 mm square. The surface of the monocrystalline GaN substrate prepared was roughly polished and thereafter the surface was further polished by means of diamond abrasive grains with the grain size of 0.3 μm, to obtain the monocrystalline GaN substrate of Experiment Example 7.
  • EXPERIMENT EXAMPLE 8
  • [0118]
    A monocrystalline GaN substrate of Experiment Example 8 was obtained in the same manner as in Experiment Example 7 except that diamond abrasive grains with the grain size of 0.8 μm were used instead of the diamond abrasive grains with the grain size of 0.3 μm.
  • [0000]
    (Photoluminescence Measurement)
  • [0119]
    The photoluminescence measurement was carried out on the surfaces of the monocrystalline GaN substrates of Experiment Example 6 to Experiment Example 8. Table 4 shows the intensity I1 of the peak P1 and the intensity ratio (I1/I2) in each of the emission spectra obtained from the monocrystalline GaN substrates of Experiment Example 6 to Experiment Example 8. It is seen from the intensity I1 of the peak P1 that the level of damage on the surface increases in the order of Experiment Example 6, Experiment Example 7, and Experiment Example 8. Therefore, it is seen that the intensity ratio (I1/I2) decreases with increasing level of damage.
    TABLE 4
    Intensity I1 of Peak P1 Intensity Ratio (I1/I2)
    Experiment 1 102
    Example 6
    Experiment 0.31 2.4
    Example 7
    Experiment 0.09 1
    Example 8
  • [0120]
    Next, a thin film of GaN was formed in the thickness of 1 μm by HVPE on the surfaces of the monocrystalline GaN substrates of Experiment Example 6 to Experiment Example 8. The conditions for formation of the GaN thin film are presented below. GaCl gas is obtained by reaction of Ga metal with HCl gas at 880° C.
      • Temperature of monocrystalline GaN substrate: 1000° C.
      • Reaction gases: NH3 gas and GaCl gas
      • Pressure of NH3 gas: 10 kPa
      • Pressure of GaCl gas: 0.6 Pa
  • [0125]
    After the thin film of GaN was formed, surface roughness of the GaN thin film (Ra: arithmetic mean roughness) was measured by AFM. A percentage of lattice strain to the bulk was measured by X-ray diffraction. Table 5 shows the measurement results of these. It was seen from Table 5 that the monocrystalline GaN substrates of Experiment Example 6 and Experiment Example 7 had satisfactory performance as substrates to be used for the compound semiconductor devices.
    TABLE 5
    Arithmetic Mean Percentage of Lattice
    Roughness[nm] Strain[%]
    Experiment 0.82 0.01
    Example 6
    Experiment 0.99 0.05
    Example 7
    Experiment 1.61 0.17
    Example 8
  • [0126]
    The present invention provides the damage evaluation methods of the compound semiconductor member permitting the detailed evaluation of the level of damage on the surface and the production methods of the compound semiconductor member with a low level of damage, and also provides the gallium nitride compound semiconductor members and gallium nitride compound semiconductor membranes with a low level of damage.

Claims (25)

  1. 1. A method of evaluating damage of a compound semiconductor member, comprising:
    a step of performing measurement of photoluminescence on a surface of the compound semiconductor member; and
    a step of evaluating damage on the surface of the compound semiconductor member, using a half width of a peak at a wavelength corresponding to a bandgap of the compound semiconductor member, in an emission spectrum obtained by the measurement of photoluminescence.
  2. 2. A method of evaluating damage of a compound semiconductor member, comprising:
    a step of performing measurement of photoluminescence on a surface of the compound semiconductor member; and
    a step of evaluating damage on the surface of the compound semiconductor member, using an intensity of a peak located on a longer wavelength side than a wavelength corresponding to a bandgap of the compound semiconductor member, in an emission spectrum obtained by the measurement of photoluminescence.
  3. 3. A method of evaluating damage of a compound semiconductor member, comprising:
    a step of performing measurement of photoluminescence on a surface of the compound semiconductor member; and
    a step of evaluating damage on the surface of the compound semiconductor member, using a half width of a peak located on a longer wavelength side than a wavelength corresponding to a bandgap of the compound semiconductor member, in an emission spectrum obtained by the measurement of photoluminescence.
  4. 4. A method of evaluating damage of a compound semiconductor member, comprising:
    a step of performing measurement of photoluminescence on a surface of the compound semiconductor member; and
    a step of evaluating damage on the surface of the compound semiconductor member, using a ratio of an intensity of a peak at a wavelength corresponding to a bandgap of the compound semiconductor member to an intensity of a peak located on a longer wavelength side than the wavelength corresponding to the bandgap, in an emission spectrum obtained by the measurement of photoluminescence.
  5. 5. The damage evaluation method of the compound semiconductor member according to claim 1, wherein the compound semiconductor member is a compound semiconductor substrate.
  6. 6. The damage evaluation method of the compound semiconductor member according to claim 1, wherein the compound semiconductor member is a compound semiconductor membrane provided on a substrate.
  7. 7. The damage evaluation method of the compound semiconductor member according to claim 1, wherein the compound semiconductor member is comprised of either one of monocrystalline material and polycrystalline material.
  8. 8. The damage evaluation method of the compound semiconductor member according to claim 1, wherein the bandgap is not less than 1.6×10−19 J.
  9. 9. The damage evaluation method of the compound semiconductor member according to claim 1, wherein the compound semiconductor member is comprised of a nitride compound semiconductor containing at least one of B, Al, and Ga.
  10. 10. The damage evaluation method of the compound semiconductor member according to claim 1, wherein the compound semiconductor member is comprised of an oxide compound semiconductor containing at least one of Be and Zn.
  11. 11. The damage evaluation method of the compound semiconductor member according to claim 1, wherein the compound semiconductor member is comprised of a ZnSe compound semiconductor.
  12. 12. A method of producing a compound semiconductor member, comprising:
    a step of performing measurement of photoluminescence on a surface of the compound semiconductor member; and
    a step of determining that the compound semiconductor member is nondefective when a half width of a peak at a wavelength corresponding to a bandgap of the compound semiconductor member in an emission spectrum obtained by the measurement of photoluminescence is not more than a predetermined threshold.
  13. 13. A method of producing a compound semiconductor member, comprising:
    a step of performing measurement of photoluminescence on a surface of the compound semiconductor member; and
    a step of determining that the compound semiconductor member is nondefective when an intensity of a peak at a wavelength corresponding to a bandgap of the compound semiconductor member in an emission spectrum obtained by the measurement of photoluminescence is not less than a predetermined threshold with respect to an intensity of a peak at the wavelength in an emission spectrum obtained by measurement of photoluminescence on a surface of a compound semiconductor member without damage.
  14. 14. A method of producing a compound semiconductor member, comprising:
    a step of performing measurement of photoluminescence on a surface of the compound semiconductor member; and
    a step of determining that the compound semiconductor member is nondefective when a half width of a peak on a longer wavelength side than a wavelength corresponding to a bandgap of the compound semiconductor member in an emission spectrum obtained by the measurement of photoluminescence is not more than a predetermined threshold.
  15. 15. A method of producing a compound semiconductor member, comprising:
    a step of performing measurement of photoluminescence on a surface of the compound semiconductor member; and
    a step of determining that the compound semiconductor member is nondefective when a ratio of an intensity of a peak at a wavelength corresponding to a bandgap of the compound semiconductor member to an intensity of a peak located on a longer wavelength side than the wavelength corresponding to the bandgap in an emission spectrum obtained by the measurement of photoluminescence is not less than a predetermined threshold.
  16. 16. The production method of the compound semiconductor member according to claim 12, wherein the compound semiconductor member is a compound semiconductor substrate.
  17. 17. The production method of the compound semiconductor member according to claim 12, wherein the compound semiconductor member is a compound semiconductor membrane provided on a substrate.
  18. 18. The production method of the compound semiconductor member according to claim 12, further comprising a step of forming a thin film on the surface of the compound semiconductor member, after the step of determining that the compound semiconductor member is nondefective.
  19. 19. The production method according to claim 12, further comprising a step of forming an electrode on the surface of the compound semiconductor member, after a step of determining that the compound semiconductor member is nondefective.
  20. 20. A gallium nitride compound semiconductor member wherein in an emission spectrum obtained by measurement of photoluminescence on a surface of the gallium nitride compound semiconductor member, an intensity of a peak at a wavelength corresponding to a bandgap of the gallium nitride compound semiconductor member is not less than twice an intensity of a peak located on a longer wavelength side than the wavelength corresponding to the bandgap.
  21. 21. A gallium nitride compound semiconductor member wherein in an emission spectrum obtained by measurement of photoluminescence on a surface of the gallium nitride compound semiconductor member, an intensity of a peak at a wavelength corresponding to a bandgap of the gallium nitride compound semiconductor member is not less than 1/10 of an intensity of a peak at the wavelength in an emission spectrum obtained by measurement of photoluminescence on a surface of a gallium nitride compound semiconductor member without damage.
  22. 22. The gallium nitride compound semiconductor member according to claim 20, wherein the gallium nitride compound semiconductor member is a gallium nitride compound semiconductor substrate.
  23. 23. The gallium nitride compound semiconductor member according to claim 20, wherein the gallium nitride compound semiconductor member is a gallium nitride compound semiconductor membrane provided on a substrate.
  24. 24. A gallium nitride compound semiconductor membrane formed on a gallium nitride compound semiconductor member wherein in an emission spectrum obtained by measurement of photoluminescence on a surface of the gallium nitride compound semiconductor member, an intensity of a peak at a wavelength corresponding to a bandgap of the gallium nitride compound semiconductor member is not less than twice an intensity of a peak located on a longer wavelength side than the wavelength corresponding to the bandgap.
  25. 25. A gallium nitride compound semiconductor membrane formed on a gallium nitride compound semiconductor member wherein in an emission spectrum obtained by measurement of photoluminescence on a surface of the gallium nitride compound semiconductor member, an intensity of a peak at a wavelength corresponding to a bandgap of the gallium nitride compound semiconductor member is not less than 1/10 of an intensity of a peak at the wavelength in an emission spectrum obtained by measurement of photoluminescence on a surface of a gallium nitride compound semiconductor member without damage.
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