US20060272267A1 - Concrete truss - Google Patents

Concrete truss Download PDF

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US20060272267A1
US20060272267A1 US11/343,571 US34357106A US2006272267A1 US 20060272267 A1 US20060272267 A1 US 20060272267A1 US 34357106 A US34357106 A US 34357106A US 2006272267 A1 US2006272267 A1 US 2006272267A1
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concrete
truss
concrete truss
pieces
steel
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US11/343,571
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Javier Mentado-Duran
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Javier Mentado-Duran
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/18Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons
    • E04B1/20Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons the supporting parts consisting of concrete, e.g. reinforced concrete, or other stonelike material
    • E04B1/22Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons the supporting parts consisting of concrete, e.g. reinforced concrete, or other stonelike material with parts being prestressed
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E01CONSTRUCTION OF ROADS, RAILWAYS, OR BRIDGES
    • E01DCONSTRUCTION OF BRIDGES, ELEVATED ROADWAYS OR VIADUCTS; ASSEMBLY OF BRIDGES
    • E01D2/00Bridges characterised by the cross-section of their bearing spanning structure
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E01CONSTRUCTION OF ROADS, RAILWAYS, OR BRIDGES
    • E01DCONSTRUCTION OF BRIDGES, ELEVATED ROADWAYS OR VIADUCTS; ASSEMBLY OF BRIDGES
    • E01D6/00Truss-type bridges
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B5/00Floors; Floor construction with regard to insulation; Connections specially adapted therefor
    • E04B5/02Load-carrying floor structures formed substantially of prefabricated units
    • E04B5/04Load-carrying floor structures formed substantially of prefabricated units with beams or slabs of concrete or other stone-like material, e.g. asbestos cement
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B5/00Floors; Floor construction with regard to insulation; Connections specially adapted therefor
    • E04B5/02Load-carrying floor structures formed substantially of prefabricated units
    • E04B5/04Load-carrying floor structures formed substantially of prefabricated units with beams or slabs of concrete or other stone-like material, e.g. asbestos cement
    • E04B5/043Load-carrying floor structures formed substantially of prefabricated units with beams or slabs of concrete or other stone-like material, e.g. asbestos cement having elongated hollow cores
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B5/00Floors; Floor construction with regard to insulation; Connections specially adapted therefor
    • E04B5/02Load-carrying floor structures formed substantially of prefabricated units
    • E04B5/04Load-carrying floor structures formed substantially of prefabricated units with beams or slabs of concrete or other stone-like material, e.g. asbestos cement
    • E04B5/046Load-carrying floor structures formed substantially of prefabricated units with beams or slabs of concrete or other stone-like material, e.g. asbestos cement with beams placed with distance from another
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04CSTRUCTURAL ELEMENTS; BUILDING MATERIALS
    • E04C3/00Structural elongated elements designed for load-supporting
    • E04C3/02Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces
    • E04C3/20Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces of concrete or other stone-like material, e.g. with reinforcements or tensioning members
    • E04C3/205Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces of concrete or other stone-like material, e.g. with reinforcements or tensioning members with apertured web, e.g. frameworks, trusses
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04CSTRUCTURAL ELEMENTS; BUILDING MATERIALS
    • E04C3/00Structural elongated elements designed for load-supporting
    • E04C3/02Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces
    • E04C3/20Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces of concrete or other stone-like material, e.g. with reinforcements or tensioning members
    • E04C3/26Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces of concrete or other stone-like material, e.g. with reinforcements or tensioning members prestressed
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04CSTRUCTURAL ELEMENTS; BUILDING MATERIALS
    • E04C3/00Structural elongated elements designed for load-supporting
    • E04C3/30Columns; Pillars; Struts
    • E04C3/34Columns; Pillars; Struts of concrete other stone-like material, with or without permanent form elements, with or without internal or external reinforcement, e.g. metal coverings
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04CSTRUCTURAL ELEMENTS; BUILDING MATERIALS
    • E04C3/00Structural elongated elements designed for load-supporting
    • E04C3/38Arched girders or portal frames
    • E04C3/44Arched girders or portal frames of concrete or other stone-like material, e.g. with reinforcements or tensioning members
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E01CONSTRUCTION OF ROADS, RAILWAYS, OR BRIDGES
    • E01DCONSTRUCTION OF BRIDGES, ELEVATED ROADWAYS OR VIADUCTS; ASSEMBLY OF BRIDGES
    • E01D2101/00Material constitution of bridges
    • E01D2101/20Concrete, stone or stone-like material
    • E01D2101/24Concrete
    • E01D2101/26Concrete reinforced
    • E01D2101/28Concrete reinforced prestressed

Abstract

A concrete structural framework comprised of a combination of reinforced steel, including pre-stressed and post-tensioned, with high performance concrete (HPC), for use in construction and other industries. This framework provides a highly fire resistant structure that is also resistant to the forces of nature and maintains a high level of structural integrity. The members of this concrete truss are joined or otherwise secured together by monolithic means, welded with badges, rivets, screws, or the like, in a triangular weblike configuration which provides the ultimate support against forces of compression and tension.

Description

    RELATED DOCUMENTS
  • The present application is related to the content of Document Disclosure No. 525632, filed Feb. 7, 2003.
  • This is a non-provisional application relating to the content of, and claiming priority to, U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. No. 60/648,847, filed Jan. 31, 2005, which is incorporated by reference herein.
  • FIELD OF INVENTION
  • The present invention relates generally to the field of manufacture and use of Concrete Truss that have a longer time period of fire resistance and thus a high structural integrity. The present invention is also related to methods and the apparatuses for their manufacture within the field of construction, architecture, engineering and the precast and prestressed and post-tensioning industry. The examples presented are shown for purposes of illustration and not limitation.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • At the present time there are beams (joist) of reinforced concrete, (made in work, prefabricated, prestressed and/or post-tensioned) of various different sections, including I beams (AASHTO), T beams, TT double beams, TY beams, beams in drawer, tubular beams, beams of variable section, beams of section with orifices, and hollowcore slab among others, manufactured by different companies and otherwise commercially available. However, none considers the Concrete Truss, which has a better structural behavior due to the disposition of each one of their elements. With smaller quantity of steel and smaller quantity of concrete, one can obtain the same load capacity and even achieve bigger resistance, (i.e., bigger load capacity due to the disposition of their elements), depending on the design and particularly of the depth of the Concrete Truss.
  • If the presently available reinforced concrete beams manufactured of constant section, were compared with the Concrete Truss under the same loads, the result would be that the presently available beams would require significantly more steel and concrete volume and also increase the cost and time of production.
  • Other types of beams that exist at the present time are trusses built and designed only of steel or wood. The disadvantages of these materials are that they are not resistant to fire, have a very high cost of maintenance, and are less durable, in comparison with the Concrete Truss. For the structural design of each piece that are an integral part of the Concrete Truss, they are continued in enunciatively and not limitative form the structural approaches that are used at the present time for concrete and steel.
  • While there has been a trend to produce more efficient and effective beams, further improvements for fire resistance, effectiveness, and lower costs are desirable, and the present invention addresses and solves the existing problems and provides related benefits.
  • OBJECTS OF THE INVENTION
  • The objects of the present invention include the following:
    • First.—to develop a Concrete Truss with high resistance to fire.
    • Second.—to develop a Concrete Truss with more load capacity and slighter than the current prefabricated beams of concrete, to achieve more structural security.
    • Third.—to develop a Concrete Truss formed with a series of right pieces that are joined together by various means, including by means of monolithic unions, welding with badges, rivets or screws so that the external loads applied where joined produce direct efforts on these pieces and that can be used in a great variety of constructions, inclusive in the foundation of any construction.
    • Fourth.—to develop a Concrete Truss that allows the achievement of a better structural behavior based on the disposition of their elements.
    • Fifth.—to develop a Concrete Truss that provides space inside the same section to place all type of facilities.
    • Sixth.—to develop the apparatuses and methods to manufacture the Concrete Truss efficiently, as well as to transport, to place, to vibrate, to carry out the final finish, and to cure the concrete to build it.
    • Seventh.—to develop the apparatuses and methods to manufacture efficiently, to cut, to bend, to unite, to shovel, to enable, to prestress and/or to post-tension the necessary steel to build the Concrete Truss.
    • Eighth.—to develop the apparatuses and methods to manufacture a Concrete Truss efficiently that includes a system for the protection against the corrosion of the steel in reinforced concrete, as well as in prestressed and/or post-tensioned concrete.
    • Ninth.—to develop the apparatuses and methods to manufacture a Concrete Truss efficiently that include systems to know the structural operation of each one of the pieces that form the Concrete Truss throughout its service life.
    • Tenth.—to develop the apparatuses and methods to manufacture a Concrete Truss efficiently, with which one can be prestressed, each one or on the whole the elements that compose the Concrete Truss, or only the necessary pieces according to the structural design and calculation.
    • Eleventh.—to develop the apparatuses and methods to manufacture a Concrete Truss efficiently, with which one can post-tensioning each one or on the whole the elements that compose the Concrete Truss, or only the necessary pieces according to the structural design and calculation.
    • Twelfth.—to develop the apparatuses and methods with which it can be carried out including the mold for the production of a Concrete Truss of a measure and certain section and the molds to manufacture each one of the elements separately.
    • Thirteenth.—to develop the apparatuses and methods with which one can manufacture efficiently to unite each one of the pieces that compose the Concrete Truss.
    • Fourteenth.—to develop calculation methods and software with which it is possible to design and to calculate a Concrete Truss.
    • Fifteenth.—to develop a Concrete Truss that guarantees the smallest vibration possible of each one of their elements and with it that of the floors, being able to make the end user feel more secure during the building's service life.
    • Sixteenth.—to develop a Concrete Truss that achieves the in agreement durability to the applicable norms with a low maintenance cost.
    • Seventeenth.—to develop a Concrete Truss that has longer time of resistance to fire attack in comparison with the steel truss (joist) or wooden truss.
    • Eighteenth.—to develop a Concrete Truss that has a greater resistance to the environmental aggressive attack in comparison with a steel truss (joist) or a wooden truss.
    SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • The present invention includes a Concrete Truss integrated by a series of right pieces joined together by various means, including by means of monolithic unions, welding with badges, rivets or screws. The external loads applied on their joints produce direct stress on these pieces. The total stress to be supported is distributed to each one of the pieces. Therefore, each piece is designed to resist the type of stress that corresponds, specifically tension or compression. This is the reason why the group of pieces together provides a bigger resistance in comparison with the concrete beams that are currently manufactured and commercially available. The type of support that a Concrete Truss provides will be simple leaning, embedded, jointed, or in cantilever and any supportive combination thereof. The present invention is a structure that is more resistant to fire and environmental elements than the current available systems. The present invention is also less costly to maintain.
  • The Concrete Truss is comprised of a bottom chord, top chord and webs. These elements are united by means of monolithic unions, welding badges, rivets or screws. Some work to provide compression and others work to provide tension. The triangle is the figure that constitutes the basic form of the disposition of the elements of this Concrete Truss. The section of each chord or webs contained in the Concrete Truss can be rectangular, cylindrical, triangular, of variable section, of section of any polyhedron, L-shaped, single tee, double tee, inverted tee and it can also be prestressed or post-tensioned.
  • The union of each one of the elements can be screwed, riveted, welded together with badges, or it can simply be strained monolithically. Connectors can be placed in the top chord of the Concrete Truss to achieve a perfect union with any flagstone type, as well as for the assembly of the same one. The procedure of production of the Concrete Truss can be using an adjustable mold of different lengths and it can be bowled or curved in all the edges.
  • The casting of the concrete can be manual or done with specialized pumping equipment team that is able to place it in each one of the pieces that are part of a Concrete Truss. When one, some or all pieces are required to be prestressed or post-tensioned, a mold can be used with adaptations in which one can pretension or post-tension the reinforcing steel.
  • Some separators can be placed during the casting of the concrete that guarantee the design cover, which will be able to retire when the consistency of the concrete is enough to conserve the position of the design steel.
  • Further objectives and advantages of the present invention will become apparent as the description proceeds and when taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings. To gain a full appreciation of the scope of the present invention, it will be further recognized that various aspects of the present invention can be combined to make desirable embodiments of the invention.
  • Unless defined otherwise, all technical and scientific terms used herein have the same meaning as commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the art to which this invention belongs. Where a term is provided in the singular, the inventor also contemplates the plural of that term. The nomenclature used herein and the procedures described below are those well known and commonly employed in the art.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • FIG. 1 is a front perspective view of the preferred embodiment of the present invention.
  • FIG. 2 illustrates all the types of reinforced concrete, including prestressed and/or post-tensioned concrete, that are known to exist as prior art.
  • FIG. is an illustration of an alternative embodiment in schematic form of the present invention.
  • FIG. 4 is an illustration of an alternative embodiment in schematic form of the present invention.
  • FIG. 5 is an illustration of an alternative embodiment of the present invention.
  • FIG. 6 is an illustration of an outline of a Concrete Warren Truss.
  • FIG. 7 is an illustration of an outline of a Concrete Pratt Truss.
  • FIG. 8 is an illustration of an outline of an alternative embodiment of a Concrete Pratt Truss.
  • FIG. 9 is an illustration of an outline of a Concrete Howe Truss.
  • FIG. 10 is an illustration of an outline of an alternative embodiment of a Concrete Howe Truss.
  • FIG. 11 is an illustration of an outline of a Concrete Fink Truss.
  • FIG. 12 is an illustration of an outline of a Concrete Petit or Baltimore Truss.
  • FIG. 13 is an illustration of an outline of a Concrete scissor Truss.
  • FIG. 14 is an illustration of an outline of a Concrete Arch Truss.
  • FIG. 15 illustrates an outline in general form of the type of union (node) of Concrete Truss in monolithic form.
  • FIG. 16 illustrates an outline in general form of the type of union (node) of Concrete Truss with welded badges.
  • FIG. 17 illustrates an outline in general form of the type of union (node) of Concrete Truss, which is manufactured with badges and rivets or screws.
  • FIG. 18 illustrates an outline in general form of the type of union (node) of Concrete Truss, which is manufactured in screwed form.
  • FIG. 19 illustrates in schematic form a segment of a manufactured Concrete Truss comprised of concrete and reinforced steel.
  • FIG. 20 illustrates in schematic form a segment of a manufactured Concrete Truss comprised of concrete and prestressed steel.
  • FIG. 21 illustrates in schematic form a segment of a manufactured Concrete Truss comprised of concrete and steel post-tensioning in which get ready ducts previously, for post tension the steel, once the concrete has the design resistance.
  • FIG. 22 illustrates in general form a rectangular section of a segment of a Concrete Truss, manufactured with prestressed and/or post-tensioned reinforced concrete.
  • FIG. 23 illustrates in general form a circular section of a segment of a Concrete Truss, manufactured with prestressed and/or post-tensioned reinforced concrete.
  • FIG. 24 illustrates in general form a section in form of a T of a segment of a Concrete Truss, manufactured with prestressed and/or post-tensioned reinforced concrete.
  • FIG. 25 illustrates in general form a section in form of an I of a segment of a Concrete Truss, manufactured with prestressed and/or post-tensioned reinforced concrete.
  • FIG. 26 illustrates in general form a section in form of an L of a segment of a Concrete Truss, manufactured with prestressed and/or post-tensioned reinforced concrete.
  • FIG. 27 illustrates in general form a section in form of a U of a segment of a Concrete Truss, manufactured with prestressed and/or post-tensioned reinforced concrete.
  • FIG. 28 illustrates in general form a section in form of a closed channel of a segment of a Concrete Truss, manufactured with prestressed and/or post-tension reinforced concrete.
  • FIG. 29 illustrates a Concrete Truss simple type Pratt straight line, classification isostatic, with monolithic unions type and the section of the pieces is rectangular.
  • FIG. 30 illustrate a Concrete Truss in T type Pratt straight line, classification isostatic, with monolithic unions and the section of the pieces is rectangular with top slab, which can be prestressed and/or post-tensioned in two directions.
  • FIG. 31 illustrates a Concrete Truss in double TT type Pratt straight line, classification isostatic, with monolithic unions and section of the rectangular pieces, with top slab, which can be prestressed and/or post-tensioned in two directions.
  • FIG. 32 illustrates a Concrete Truss in drawer type Pratt straight line, classification isostatic, with monolithic union, section of the rectangular piece and with top and bottom slab, which can be prestressed and/or post-tensioned in two directions.
  • FIG. 33 illustrates an architectural cross section of a building of more than eight stories with Concrete Truss type Pratt straight line, classification isostatic.
  • FIG. 34 illustrates an architectural cross section of a building of more than eight stories with a double TT configuration of prestressed concrete, according to the prior art.
  • FIG. 35 illustrates a longitudinal architectural cross section of a six laned bridge with two double Concrete Truss TT in drawer type Pratt straight line, classification isostatic. Which serve in passing in their interior pedestrian and in the top part in passing vehicular, but other two Armors Concrete Truss of double Concrete TT type Pratt straight line, classification isostatic, which serve alone in passing vehicular.
  • FIG. 36 illustrates a longitudinal architectural cross section related to the FIG. 35 of a six laned bridge with two Concrete Truss of double TT in drawer type Pratt straight line, classification isostatic, which serve in passing pedestrian, but other two Concrete Truss of double TT type Pratt straight line, classification isostatic, which serve alone in passing vehicular.
  • FIG. 37 illustrates a longitudinal architectural cross section of a six laned bridge with a double TT configuration of prestressed concrete, according to the prior art.
  • FIG. 38 illustrates a traverse architectural cross section related to the FIG. 37 of a six lane bridge with a double TT configuration of prestressed concrete, according to the prior art.
  • FIG. 39 illustrates a schematic cross section cut of a structure of a storage facility with a mark of a Concrete Truss type Warren classification isostatic.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
  • FIG. 1 depicts the perferred embodiment of the present invention denominated Concrete Truss in which the right pieces are observed (top chord 5 1, diagonals webs 52, bottom chord 53, vertical web 54), manufactured of concrete 50, reinforced steel 55, and the corresponding cover 56, according to the applicable norms. The present invention contemplates that reinforced steel 55 can also be pretressed or post-tensioned. The pieces are joined together monolithically 71, so that the external loads applied where they are joined produce stress directly on these pieces. The preferred embodiment contemplates that the basic geometric form of a triangle is used in the disposition of the elements, since it is the only geometric figure that is not deformed.
  • The elements that are shown in FIG. 1 have a disposition type Warren, they have a rectangular section as shown in FIG. 22, the steel reinforce concrete as shown in FIG. 19, and the union is monolithic as shown in FIG. 15. Importantly, each element can be prestressed as shown in FIG. 20, or post-tensioned as shown in FIG. 21. While FIG. 1 depicts the various elements joined together in a monolithic manner, it is also contemplated that the elements can be joined by other means, such as welding with badges as seen in FIG. 16, riveted as seen in FIG. 17, or screwed as seen in FIG. 18. The main materials that are used in the present invention are concrete 50 and reinforced steel 55, taking care of the quality of both materials and their perfect compatibility. The concrete is high performance concrete (HPC) that complies with applicable city building codes and meets standards of durability. Should these standards not be in place for production and/or supply purposes, then the standards will be the applicable international standards used for steel, which will fulfill the applicable standards of quality of the city building code or of the state. Should these standards be wanting, then the applicable international standards would apply.
  • FIG. 2 depicts concrete beam types known to exist as prior art. These include a single tee beam 57, a double tee beam 58, hollow core slab 59, rectangular beam 60, a I beam (ASSHTO) 61, beam drawer 62, channel beam 63, L-shaped beam 64, inverted tee beam 65, open soul beam 66, beam of variable section with holes 67, and beam of variable section 68.
  • FIGS. 3, 4 and 5 show three embodiments of the present invention in schematic form taking into account the relationship among the necessary minimum number of pieces and the number of nodes that compose a Concrete Truss. Triangles are placed in a series where their three vertexes fix the position of three nodes. For each additional node, two more sides are required. This relationship is characterized by the formula (1) n=2p−3, where p=number of nodes in the whole structure and n=necessary minimum number of pieces.
  • FIG. 3 shows the schematic disposition of a complete or isostatic Concrete Truss that is composed of the smallest number possible of necessary pieces to form a complete system of triangles. In FIG. 3, n (necessary minimum number of pieces) is similar to the number that is obtained from the formula (1) n=(2p)−3. For example, this isostatic Concrete Truss has fifteen pieces 69 and nine nodes 70. Applying the formula indicates that the necessary minimum number of pieces is fifteen. (n=(2×9)−3=15). As shown, the outline of the Concrete Truss in FIG. 3 has fifteen pieces. This is the same number of pieces that the minimum number of necessary pieces indicated in the formula (1). Therefore, this is classified as a complete or isostatic Concrete Truss.
  • FIG. 4 show schematically the disposition of an incomplete or hypostatic Concrete Truss that is composed of a number smaller than the minimum number of necessary pieces to form a complete system of triangles. In FIG. 4, n (necessary minimum number of pieces) is smaller than the formula (1) n=(2p)−3 since this embodiment has twelve pieces 69 and eight nodes 70. Applying the formula indicates that the necessary minimum number of pieces is thirteen. (n=(2×8)−3=13). As shown, the outline of the Concrete Truss in FIG. 4 has twelve pieces which is less than the minimum number of necessary pieces indicated in the formula (1). Therefore, this is classified as an incomplete or hypostatic Concrete Truss.
  • FIG. 5 depicts the disposition of a superstatic or hyperstatic Concrete Truss. A hypnostatic Concrete Truss is composed of a bigger number that the minimum number of necessary pieces to form a complete system of triangles. In FIG. 5, n (necessary minimum number of pieces) is smaller than the formula (1): since it has sixteen pieces 69 and nine nodes 70. Applying the formula indicates that the minimum number of necessary pieces is fifteen. (n=(2×9)−3=15). As shown, the outline of the Concrete Truss in FIG. 4 has sixteen pieces which are more than the minimum number of necessary pieces indicated in the formula (1). Therefore, this is classified as a superstatic or hyperstatic Concrete Truss.
  • FIGS. 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14 show in schematic form the types of Concrete Truss that can be manufactured, according to the disposition of the pieces that form it. Shown in FIG. 6 is a Warren type straight line. FIG. 7 is a Pratt type with two slopes. FIG. 8 is a Pratt type straight line. FIG. 9 is a Howe type with two slopes. FIG. 10 is a Howe type straight line. FIG. 11 is a Fink type with two slopes. FIG. 12 is a Petit or direct Baltimore type. FIG. 13 is a scissor type with two slopes. FIG. 14 is an Arch type. These are some of the types of Concrete Truss that can be manufactured according to the disposition of their elements. It is important to note that while the previous various uses of a Concrete Truss are described using a particular type of format (i.e., a Concrete Warren Truss), a combination of the previous dispositions or a union among them are also contemplated and fall within the slope of the present invention.
  • FIGS. 15, 16, 17 and 18 illustrate various examples of joining the different unions or nodes with the elements of a Concrete Truss. FIG. 15 depicts a node that unites the diagonal web 52, the bottom chord 53, and the vertical web 55, in monolithic form. That is to say, the concrete is strained in the three elements to form a single piece. Another type of union is illustrated in FIG. 16 which shows a node joining the diagonal web 52, the bottom chord 53 and the vertical web 55, by means of a badge to which other badges will be welded, that are previously strained and fixed to the ends of each one of the elements that form the Concrete Truss. Another type of union is appreciated in FIG. 17 which depicts a node that unites the diagonal web 52, the bottom chord 53, and the vertical web 55, by means of a badge to which it will unite other riveted badges or screws that are previously strained and fixed to the ends of each one of the elements that form the Concrete Truss. Another type of union is appreciated in FIG. 18 which illustrates a node that unites the diagonal web 52, the bottom chord 53, and the vertical web 55, by means of a badge or any other securing means that allows for a screw previously held in the ends of each one of the elements that form the Concrete Truss. The unions or nodes illustrated in FIGS. 16, 17 and 18 can be reinforced by covering them with concrete to increase the durability, as well as to increase the resistance to fire once already installed and/or mounted in work. These examples are shown for purposes of illustration and not limitation.
  • FIGS. 19, 20 and 21 in schematic form illustrate some segments of concrete in combination with various types of reinforced steel that can be part of a Concrete Truss. FIG. 19 depicts a rectangular segment of reinforced steel concrete that has reinforced steel without being prestressed in the interior. FIG. 20 depicts a rectangular segment of reinforced concrete that has prestressed steel 76 in the interior. FIG. 21 illustrates a rectangular segment of concrete that contain a plurality of ducts 77 that allow the placement of steel inside the interior of the segment of concrete so that after the steel has been forged and the concrete has the designed strength, the steel 78 can be post-tensioned. While these examples show a Concrete Truss used in combination with a particular type of steel, it is also contemplated that various types of steel be used with a Concrete Truss in a single application and therefore, such combination also falls within the scope of the present invention.
  • Referring now to the FIGS. 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27 and 28, these illustrate various alternative embodiments of the different types of sections that can be manufactured using of reinforced concrete that are part of the Concrete Truss. For example, the section of a segment can be rectangular as shown in FIG. 22, or oval or circular as in FIG. 23. The segments can also be configured in a T as in FIG. 24, in an I (AASHTO) as in FIG. 25, in an L-shape as in FIG. 26, in a U as in FIG. 27, or in a closed channel, which can be rectangular as in FIG. 28, oval or circular. Importantly, any section chosen will be bowled, rounded or beveled to increase the resistance to the impacts in the edges.
  • The Concrete Truss can also be classified according to their section which can include configurations of the type in I (AASHTO), in Tee (T), in double Tee (TT), in L-shape, and in inverted Tee. These are illustrated in FIGS. 29, 30, 31 and 32. FIG. 29 shows a Concrete Truss simple type Pratt straight line, classification isostatic, with monolithic unions type 71 and the section of the pieces or segments are rectangular according to FIG. 22. FIG. 30 depicts a Tee Concrete Truss type Pratt straight line, classification isostatic, with monolithic unions 71 and the section of the pieces or segments are rectangular according to FIG. 22, with top slab 78, which can be prestressed or post-tensioned in both directions. FIG. 31 demonstrates a double Tee Concrete Truss type Pratt straight line, classification isostatic, with monolithic unions 71 and section of the rectangular pieces according to FIG. 22, with top slab 78, which can be prestressed or post-tensioned in both directions. FIG. 32 illustrates a Concrete Truss in drawer with slab 78 in the top and bottom part, either of which can be prestressed or post-tensioned in both directives.
  • FIGS. 33 and 34 show architectural cross section of a building with more than eight stories, and illustrate distinctly the geometric difference of an embodiment of the present invention with the prior art. The structure of a Concrete Truss (FIG. 33) and another structure according to the prior art (FIG. 34), with double Tee beams 58. It is appreciated that in FIG. 33, Concrete Truss was also used for the floors 80, as to unite the columns of the foundation 83, by a Concrete Truss 81. It is important to note that the foundation 84, is of smaller cost in the building of FIG. 33, the Concrete Truss is a lighter system than the heavier double Tee beam (TT) 58 system occupied in the building of FIG. 34 that is developed according to the prior art.
  • FIGS. 35 and 36 show an architectural cross section and make reference to a six lane bridge with two double Concrete Truss in drawer 88 type Pratt straight line, classification isostatic, which serve to allow for the passing of vehicles as well as pedestrians but other two double Concrete Truss (TT) 90 type Pratt straight line, classification isostatic. FIG. 35 shows a longitudinal cross section and FIG. 36 shows a cross section. In these imagines can be appreciated the advantage of combining two Concrete Truss of drawer 88 and two double Tee Concrete Truss (TT) 90. The same structure serves in passing vehicular and pedestrian traffic. At the same time, the concrete serves as protection against the corrosion of the steel as well achieve a clearing with more resistance and with less material, as noted by the level of the water 87 observed, the foundation 84 and the slope of the channel 86.
  • FIGS. 37 and 38 show two architectural cross sections of the prior art. As a longitudinal (FIG. 37) and a cross section (FIG. 38) view of a six lane bridge with two double Concrete Truss (TT) in drawer 58. Also shown is foundation 84 in schematic form and the slope of the channel 86.
  • FIG. 39 depicts a section of the complete mark of a Concrete isostatic Warren Truss, for a storage facility of multiple uses, such as a hangar or warehouse, in which each one of the pieces that form the Concrete Truss is rectangular (as in FIG. 22), formed by the top chord 51, the diagonals web 52, the bottom chord 53, the vertical web 54, as well as in schematic form the foundation column is drawn 83 and the foundation 84. FIG. 39 disputes joining of the various pieces monolithically.
  • The calculation of the Concrete Truss will be according to the current methods of structural design for concrete and steel. It will also comply with the standards of a city's building code where the present invention will be manufactured, stored, transported, and ultimately placed. Should the city or state not have standards in place, compliance occurs at national or international levels as deemed appropriate.
  • The method of manufacturing the present invention uses form works or molds, preferably metallic. However, it is contemplated that other materials such aluminum, glass fiber, wood, plastics, polyethylene, cardboards or any other suitable material can be used and so fall within the scope of the present invention.
  • The Concrete Truss will have fixed or temporary fasteners that help to transport the assembly and placement of each one of the pieces according to the current techniques.
  • The concrete type is substantial and it will be designed according to the applicable standards, for what it will be able to be in charge of the concrete types that the same technology allows us day by day, as high performance concrete (HPC). The reinforced steel, including prestressed and/or post-tensioned, will be designed according to the applicable standards, for what it will be able to be in charge of the steel types that the same technology allows us day by day. It is also contemplated that other new materials may be used as substitute for steel and concrete in the future without losing the basic approach of a mark integrated by a series of willing and united right pieces joined by means of monolithic unions, welded with badges, rivets or screws, so that external loads applied where these pieces meet produce direct stress on these pieces.
  • All headings are for the convenience of the reader and should not be used to limit the meaning of the text that follows the heading, unless so specified. The present invention has been described generally and with respect to preferred embodiments. It is understood that various changes and modifications may be made of the disclosed invention without departing from the spirit and scope of the novel concept of the present invention.
  • It is well established that the claims of the patent serve an important public notice function to potential competitors—enabling them to not only determine what is covered, but also what is not covered—by the patent. And a number of Federal Circuit decisions have emphasized the importance of discerning the patentee's intent—as expressed in the specification—in construing the claims of the patent.
  • But defendants in patent infringement suits—while arguing the importance of this public notice function—often seek strained and uncharitable constructions of the claims that would render them either nonsensical, too narrow to have any significant value, or so broad that the claim is anticipated by the prior art.
  • Accordingly, I wish to make my intensions clear—and at the same time put potential competitors on clear public notice. It is my intent that the claims receive a liberal construction and be interpreted to uphold and not destroy the right of the inventor. It is my intent that the claim terms be construed in a charitable and common-sensical manner. It is my intent that the claim terms be construed as broadly as practical while preserving the validity of the claims. It is my intent that the claim terms be construed in a manner consistent with the context of the overall claim language and the specification, without importing extraneous limitations from the specification or other sources into the claims, and without confining the scope of the claims to the exact representations depicted in the specification or drawings.
  • The headquarters building of the World Intellectual Property Organization bears the following inscription: “Human genius is the source of all works of art and invention; these works are the guarantee of a life worthy of me; it is the duty of the State to ensure with diligence the protection of the arts and inventions.” It is my intent that the claims as this patent be construed—and ultimately enforced, if necessary—in a manner worthy of this mandate.

Claims (11)

1. A concrete structural framework comprising:
a top member;
a bottom member; and
a plurality of interlacing members wherein said interlacing members are arranged in diagonal and vertical positions and connect said top member and said bottom member in a webular configuration.
2. A concrete structural framework as recited in claim 1, wherein said top member, said bottom member, and said plurality of interlacing members are further comprised of a first layer of steel within a second layer of a porous material.
3. A concrete structural framework as recited in claim 2, wherein said first layer of steel is made up of at least one steel bar and is reinforced.
4. A concrete structural framework as recited in claim 3, wherein said first layer of steel is pre-stressed.
5. A concrete structural framework as recited in claim 4, wherein said first layer of steel is post-tensioned.
6. A concrete structural framework as recited in claim 2, wherein said porous material is concrete.
7. A concrete structural framework as recited in claim 2, wherein said top member, said bottom member, and said plurality of interlacing members are joined together monolithically.
8. A concrete structural framework as recited in claim 7, wherein said top member, said bottom member, and said plurality of interlacing members are joined together with welded badges.
9. A concrete structural framework as recited in claim 8, wherein said top member, said bottom member, and said plurality of interlacing members are joined together with rivets.
10. A concrete structural framework as recited in claim 9, wherein said top member, said bottom member, and said plurality of interlacing members are joined together with screws.
11. A method of manufacturing a concrete structural framework comprising:
preparing a mixture of porous material wherein said porous material is concrete;
placing at least one steel bar in a molding; and
pouring said mixture of porous material into the molding to encase said at least one steel bar within said porous material.
US11/343,571 2005-01-31 2006-01-30 Concrete truss Abandoned US20060272267A1 (en)

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CN103031917A (en) * 2012-12-31 2013-04-10 清华大学建筑设计研究院有限公司 Reinforced concrete prefabricated laminated slab with truss rib
US20130131420A1 (en) * 2011-11-22 2013-05-23 Fluor Technologies Corporation Hazardous Liquid Triple Containment
US8453406B2 (en) 2010-05-04 2013-06-04 Plattforms, Inc. Precast composite structural girder and floor system
KR101355445B1 (en) * 2012-06-01 2014-01-29 이재성 Trust type prestressed concrete girder and manufacturing method for the same
US20140345069A1 (en) * 2011-12-19 2014-11-27 Fdn Construction Bv Prefabricated bridge
JP2015232217A (en) * 2014-06-09 2015-12-24 大成建設株式会社 Concrete structure
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KR101355445B1 (en) * 2012-06-01 2014-01-29 이재성 Trust type prestressed concrete girder and manufacturing method for the same
CN103031917A (en) * 2012-12-31 2013-04-10 清华大学建筑设计研究院有限公司 Reinforced concrete prefabricated laminated slab with truss rib
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