US20060030495A1 - Bullet lubrication formula - Google Patents

Bullet lubrication formula Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US20060030495A1
US20060030495A1 US10/913,059 US91305904A US2006030495A1 US 20060030495 A1 US20060030495 A1 US 20060030495A1 US 91305904 A US91305904 A US 91305904A US 2006030495 A1 US2006030495 A1 US 2006030495A1
Authority
US
United States
Prior art keywords
projectile
composition
bullet
casing
portion
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
Application number
US10/913,059
Inventor
George Gregg
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
CLEAN BALLISTICS LLC
Original Assignee
CLEAN BALLISTICS LLC
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by CLEAN BALLISTICS LLC filed Critical CLEAN BALLISTICS LLC
Priority to US10/913,059 priority Critical patent/US20060030495A1/en
Assigned to CLEAN BALLISTICS LLC reassignment CLEAN BALLISTICS LLC ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: GREGG, GEORGE L., JR.
Publication of US20060030495A1 publication Critical patent/US20060030495A1/en
Application status is Abandoned legal-status Critical

Links

Images

Classifications

    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F42AMMUNITION; BLASTING
    • F42BEXPLOSIVE CHARGES, e.g. FOR BLASTING, FIREWORKS, AMMUNITION
    • F42B5/00Cartridge ammunition, e.g. separately-loaded propellant charges
    • F42B5/02Cartridges, i.e. cases with charge and missile
    • F42B5/24Cartridges, i.e. cases with charge and missile for cleaning; for cooling; for lubricating ; for wear reducing
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F42AMMUNITION; BLASTING
    • F42BEXPLOSIVE CHARGES, e.g. FOR BLASTING, FIREWORKS, AMMUNITION
    • F42B12/00Projectiles, missiles or mines characterised by the warhead, the intended effect, or the material
    • F42B12/72Projectiles, missiles or mines characterised by the warhead, the intended effect, or the material characterised by the material
    • F42B12/74Projectiles, missiles or mines characterised by the warhead, the intended effect, or the material characterised by the material of the core or solid body

Abstract

A composition for bullet lubrication that comprises an admixture of carnauba wax and beeswax in combination with mineral oil, silicone oil, metal-containing greases, molybdenum disulfide and graphite. The application of lubricants may be made to the aft portion of the surface of the bullet.

Description

    BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • 1. Field of the Invention
  • The present invention relates to lubricants for and lubrication of projectiles such as bullets.
  • 2. Description of the Related Art
  • Bullets fired from pistols, rifles and other guns are exposed to extremes of temperature and pressure. The bullets from a high-powered rifle may reach velocities on the order of 3,000 to 4,000 feet per second (914 to 1220 m/s) and may be subjected to peak pressures of 50,000 pounds per square inch (34,500 N/cm2). One of the more important problems with unjacketed bullets is known as “leading”, which is the phenomenon of lead from the bullet being deposited, by melting, friction, or otherwise, on the surfaces of the bore of a gun barrel. Lead fouling, fouling by other metals and other fouling make it difficult to fire the bullets accurately and consistently even with exactly matched loads, and even from a fixed position.
  • In an attempt to overcome the detrimental effects of lead fouling, commercial ammunition manufacturers and individual hand loaders have adopted various expedients. One of these consists of jacketing the lead bullet with gilding metal, such as a copper base alloy nominally containing 5 percent zinc. Unfortunately, while the jacketed bullet is a significant advance in the art, it too has disadvantages, the more important of which include copper fouling; i.e., the transfer of copper from the bullet to the inner surface of the barrel in a manner analogous to lead fouling. Aluminum jacketed bullets have been introduced for pistols to solve the metal deposition problem at reduced cost. Unfortunately, this round is not suitable for rifles where bullet velocities are high enough to result in aluminum fouling. These improvements thus have not provided a complete answer to the metal fouling problem.
  • In addition to metal fouling, the combustion of the propellants frequently leaves a residue in the bore. This is also undesirable as it can affect the accuracy and consistency of the firearm. The residue may also be hygroscopic and/or corrosive, potentially contributing to pitting of the barrel that further affects accuracy.
  • Another concern is friction between the bore and the bullet. Previously, friction was considered to be such a small factor in projectile ballistics that it was often ignored. However, it is now understood that even a relatively low projectile velocity can create sufficient frictional heat to actually melt the surface of a lead bullet, causing leading in the barrel and emission of lead vapor from the barrel. Furthermore, even microscopic imperfections in the bore can cause small particles of metal jackets, zinc bases or lead to become embedded in the surface of the bore. Continued firing only creates additional deposits which can shift positions within the barrels resulting in erratic trajectories.
  • In order to reduce the effects of friction, including metal fouling, a variety of lubricants have been employed. Some attempts at providing a bullet lubricant have not been particularly successful, such as those based on paraffin wax or lubricants not originally developed for use in lubrication of projectiles. The lack of success of such lubricants may arise from the environment encountered in the discharge of a firearm, which may include velocities as high as 3,000 to 4,000 feet per second (914 to 1220 m/s), and pressures as great as 50,000 pounds per square inch (34,474 N/cm 2). Many of the prior art wax lubricants, including those intended for ballistics applications, are unstable at the temperatures and pressures encountered by a bullet rapidly traveling through a gun barrel.
  • Another problem of bullet lubricants has been that they are often soft and greasy or tacky. This can result in the accumulation of grit and other particulates, and the lubricant and embedded grit may accumulate in the magazine, cylinder, receiver and elsewhere in the firearms. Such accumulations may contribute to jamming and other malfunctions of the firearms. Accumulation of the lubricant in loading or reloading equipment can similarly be problematic.
  • Hard, non-tacky lubricants such as certain molybdenum-based bullet lubricants solve some of these problems. However, in some cases, these lubricants may chip or flake off.
  • One approach to remedy this problem has been to provide one or more annular or other recesses in the surface of the bullet, but this results in a bullet that does not have a smooth, uninterrupted surface, and increases the cost of producing the bullet. Another approach involves etching the surface of the bullet and embedding the lubricant in the recesses so created. Again, this increases the cost of bullet production and leaves the bullet with a rough, rather than smooth surface. Yet another approach involves providing a reservoir of lubricant within the bullet together with channels that allow the lubricant to escape from the reservoir to the surface of the bullet when it is fired. This again adds cost and complexity to bullet production.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • In one aspect, the present invention provides a method of lubricating a bullet in which a thin film of lubricant is applied in a band that may be applied from about the ogive of the bullet to the rear end thereof. In another aspect, the lubricant has a tenacity that permits it to be inserted into the casing while retaining a sufficient quantity of lubricant on the bullet or other projectile. In another aspect, a lubricant is provided that has a high concentration of carnauba wax. In other aspects, the high-carnauba lubricant includes components such as silicone oil, paste or grease, graphite, beeswax, molybdenum disulfide and lithium and/or other metal-containing greases.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • FIG. 1 is a side elevation of a prior art, unlubricated cartridge for a firearm with parts broken away.
  • FIG. 2 is a side elevation with parts broken away of a cartridge with a band of lubricant covering the rear portion of the bullet.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF EMBODIMENTS OF THE INVENTION
  • In addition to pistols and rifles, a variety of projectile-firing weapons can benefit from proper projectile lubrication. These other weapons include machine guns, tank and naval cannons, howitzers and the like. For the sake of simplicity, although the invention has such broader application, small arms and small arms munitions will be used to illustrate the invention.
  • As shown in FIG. 1, which is labeled “Prior Art,” a modem center-fire pistol cartridge 10 comprises a bullet 12 and a casing 14. A primer 16 is mounted in an aperture in the base 18 of the casing 14. The propellant charge 20 is contained within the casing 14.
  • The bullet 12 comprises a rounded nose portion 22 that blends into a rear, cylindrical body 24. The cylindrical body 24 of the bullet has a diameter approximately equal to the caliber of the weapon in which it is intended to be used. Some bullets depart from the foregoing structure in that the rearward portion of the cylindrical body 24 of the bullet 12 tapers to a smaller diameter. Such bullets are often referred to as boat-tailed. A significant portion of the cylindrical body 24, however, retains a diameter approximately equal to the bullet diameter.
  • For both pistol and rifle rounds, the portion of the bullet 12 that is seated within the cartridge 14 typically includes a portion having a diameter equal to the caliber of the weapon, with the exception of a possible boat-tailed section, while the portion extending forward from the casing 14 tapers down to the nose. Accordingly, most of the portion of the bullet 12 contained within the casing 14 is of the caliber of the weapon while the portion forward of the casing is of a diameter less than the bullet caliber.
  • According to one embodiment of the invention, and as shown in FIG. 2, a band of lubricant may be applied to the rear portion 26 of the bullet 12. The coating may include the portion of the bullet 12 that is intended to be contained within the casing 14, the portion of the bullet 12 that has a diameter approximately equal to the caliber of the firearm in which it is to be used, or the portion of the bullet 12 that contacts the barrel of the firearm during firing. In most cases, the point along the surface of the bullet 12 behind which lubricant is applied will generally be mostly, if not entirely, within the casing 14 and will not be much forward of the casing 14. After lubrication, the bullet 12 may thereafter be inserted into the casing 14. The forepart or nose 22 of the bullet may be, but need not be, coated with the lubricant, as this part does not contact the bore of the firearm. This reduces the amount of lubricant actually used and decreases the amount of vaporized lubricant discharged into the air when the bullet is fired.
  • After insertion of the bullet 12 into the casing 14, the band of lubricant, or at least the portion thereof that is within the casing 14, is protected against removal from the bullet by the casing 14. In addition, as the outside diameter of the casing of many bullet cartridges is greater than the maximum diameter of the bullet 12, the casing can provide some protection against removal of the lubricant for a short distance forward of the mouth of the casing 14. Deposit of the lubricant in the magazine, breach or other mechanisms within the firearm is reduced because the lubricant does not come into contact with such mechanisms during the loading or firing process. As the lubricated portions 26 of the bullets 12 are the only portions that contact the interior of the bore of the firearm, the necessary lubrication is provided to reduce fouling of the bore as well as to reduce undesired frictional effects resulting from movement of the bullet along the length of the bore.
  • There are many possible methods of applying a band of lubricant to the exterior, rear portion of a projectile. One simple method involves dipping the desired portion of the projectile 12 into the lubricant, removing it therefrom and allowing it to cool. This can be accomplished by hand, or the process may be automated. as by using a mechanism that grips the nose or other portion 22 of the projectile 12 and dips the rear portion 24 into the lubricant. For lubricants such as those described herein, the lubricant may need to be melted before dipping. The projectiles 12 may be preheated before dipping them in the pan to facilitate the dipping process.
  • Pan coating may also be used. According to this method, the projectiles 12 are set upright in a pan with a planar bottom surface. The lubricant is then flowed around the bullets to the desired depth. The pan may be drained before the projectiles are removed. Multiple coats may be used if a single coat does not produce the desired thickness. In coating the projectiles 12, the bottom surface of the projectile may be coated as well as the exterior of the cylindrical portion 24, since this portion does not contact the mechanisms of the firearm, and hence lubricant cannot be abraded from or transferred to the mechanisms of the firearm from this portion of the projectile 12.
  • Those skilled in the art will recognize that other methods for providing a band of lubricant about the rearward portions of a bullet may also be used.
  • Not all lubricants are suitable for use with the band lubrication process of the present invention. As lubrication of the bullet 12 occurs prior to insertion of the bullet into the casing 14, if the lubricant is too soft and lacking in adherence to the bullet 12, an excessive amount may be removed as the bullet is pressed into the casing. Likewise, a lubricant that is too brittle or prone to flaking may peel or flake away from the bullet 12 as it is inserted into the casing. Lubricants of the type described below and in my prior U.S. Pat. No. 4,731,189 of Mar. 15, 1988 entitled “Bullet Lubricant and Method of Compounding Said Lubricant” form a suitable film of lubricant the thickness of which can be kept to under 0.002-0.003 inches (0.05-0.08 mm).
  • Test rounds according to the present invention were prepared using band lubrication of bullets as described herein, and were found to retain sufficient lubricant after insertion of bullets 12 into casings 14.
  • Bullets that have been band lubricated with the lubricant of my prior patent and with lubricants according to the present invention reduce the accumulation in the bore of the typical residues left by unlubricated, but otherwise equivalent, rounds. In fact, the amount of such residue left after firing of a series of unlubricated rounds has been observed to be reduced by the firing of such band-lubricated rounds. Copper or other metal fouling has also been observed to be reduced after firing of such band-lubricated bullets. Another effect that has been observed firing such lubricated rounds as compared to firing of unlubricated rounds is reduced barrel temperature. Groupings from bench-fired, band-lubricated rounds also have been observed to be tighter than for firing of equivalent unlubricated rounds.
  • Lubricants according to one embodiment comprise an admixture of mineral oil, silicone oil or paste, such as MOLYKOTE® 44 (a phenyl methyl silicone paste), graphite, such as graphite flake products sold by Dixon Microfine Graphite of Lakehurst, N.J., molybdenum disulfide, such as molybdenum disulfide powder manufactured by Dow Coming Corp. of Midland, Mich. and sold under the brand name MOLYKOTE® Z, and metal-containing grease, such as MOLYKOTE® BR-2 (a molybdenum disulfide-containing lithium soap base grease) and MOLYKOTE® G-N (a molybdenum disulfide-containing mineral oil base paste) products also manufactured by Dow Corning Corp., and waxes, such as beeswax and carnauba wax. For purposes of reducing greasiness/tackiness of the formulation while avoiding undue chipping or flaking, carnauba wax in amounts of 29 percent to 43 percent by volume are used.
  • The term “silicone oil” is used herein to include compositions that may also be referred to as pastes, as is the case with the MOLYKOTE® product, or as greases. Similarly, the metal-containing greases may be alternatively characterized as pastes, as is the case with the MOLYKOTE® G-N product.
  • Several formulations have been compounded with carnauba wax concentrations in the range recited above. These formulations are set forth in Tables I and II below, with the corresponding concentration of the components being given in parts by volume in Tables III and IV. TABLE I A B C D E F G H I J K L Mineral 0.5 1 5 3 1 1.5 5 0.5 5 1 1 1 Oil Silicone 0.5 1 2 1.5 2 0.5 2 1 1 0.5 2 1 Oil Microfine 1 1.5 3 1 3 1.5 2.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1 Graphite Camauba 6 10 17 12 12 11 14 10 10 10 10 10 Wax Beeswax 5 11 16 12 10 14 10 11 11 11 11 11 Molybdenum 0.5 1 2 1.5 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 Disulfide Molykote ® 1 2 4 4 1.5 2.5 3 2 2 2 2 2 BR-2 Molykote ® 1 2 4 3 1.5 2.5 4 2 2 2 2 2 G-N
  • TABLE II M N 0 P Q R S T U V W Mineral Oil 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Silicone Oil 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Microfine Graphite 3 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 15 15 Carnauba Wax 10 9 14 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 Beeswax 11 11 11 5 16 11 11 11 11 11 11 Molybdenum 1 1 1 1 1 0.5 2 1 1 1 1 Disulfide Molykote ® BR-2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 4 2 2 Molykote ® G-N 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 4
  • Tables III and IV below provide the corresponding percent by volume of the various formulations of Tables I and II. The percentages for a particular formulation may not add up to one hundred percent due to rounding. TABLE III A B C D E F G H I J K L Mineral 3.2% 3.4% 9.4% 7.9% 3.0% 4.4% 12% 1.7% 15% 3.5% 3.3% 3.5% Oil Silicone 3.2% 3.4% 3.8% 4.0% 6.1% 1.5% 4.7% 3.5% 3.0% 1.7% 6.6% 3.5% Oil Microfine 6.5% 5.1% 5.7% 2.6% 9.1% 4.4% 5.9% 5.2% 4.5% 5.2% 4.9% 3.5% Graphite Camauba  39%  34%  32%  32%  36%  32%  33%  34%  30%  34%  33%  34% Wax Beeswax  32%  37%  30%  32%  30%  41%  24%  38%  33%  38%  36%  38% Molybdenum 3.2% 3.4% 3.8% 4.0% 6.1% 2.9% 4.7% 3.5% 3.0% 3.5% 3.3% 3.5% Disulfide Molykote ® 6.5% 6.8% 7.6%  11% 4.6% 7.3% 7.1% 6.9% 6.0% 6.9% 6.6% 6.9% BR-2 Molykote ® 6.5% 6.8% 7.6% 7.9% 4.6% 7.3% 9.4% 6.9% 6.0% 6.9% 6.6% 6.9% G-N
  • TABLE IV M N 0 P Q R S T U V W Mineral Oil 3.2% 3.5% 3.0% 4.3% 2.9% 3.5% 3.3% 3.5% 3.2% 3.5% 3.2% Silicone Oil 3.2% 3.5% 3.0% 4.3% 2.9% 3.5% 3.3% 3.5% 3.2% 3.5% 3.2% Microfine Graphite 9.7% 5.3% 4.5% 6.4% 4.5% 5.2% 4.9% 5.3% 4.8% 5.3% 4.8% Carnauba Wax  32%  32%  42%  43%  29%  34%  33%  35%  32%  35%  32% Beeswax  35%  39%  33%  21%  46%  38%  36%  39%  35%  39%  35% Molybdenum Disulfide 3.2% 3.5% 3.0% 4.3% 2.9% 1.7% 6.6% 3.5% 3.2% 3.5% 3.2% Molykote ® BR-2 6.5% 7.0% 6.0% 8.6% 5.8% 6.9% 6.6% 3.5%  13% 7.0% 6.4% Molykote ® G-N 6.5% 7.0% 6.0% 8.6% 5.8% 6.9% 6.6% 7.0% 6.4% 3.5%  13%
  • As illustrated in Tables III and IV above, the total amount of mineral oil used ranges from 1.7 to 15 percent by volume of the composition. Silicone oil is used in amounts of 1.5 to 6.6 percent, graphite is used in amounts of 2.6 to 9.7 percent, carnauba wax is used in amounts of 29 to 43 percent, beeswax is used in amounts of 21 to 46 10 percent, and the metal-containing greases are used in amounts of 9.4 to 19 percent.
  • The foregoing tables provide guidance that should enable those skilled in the art to compound lubricants that have sufficient tenacity, that is that adhere sufficiently to the bullet, that a sufficient amount of the lubricant remains on the portion of the bullet inserted into the casing for proper lubrication and anti-fouling purposes, and yet that lack greasiness or tackiness that may attract grit or may accumulate excessively on loading equipment and in the cylinder, receiver, etc. of a firearm, and that are not prone to chipping or flaking off during normal handling.
  • The lubricants of the above tables may be compounded by heating and mixing them together. As the beeswax and carnauba wax are not liquid at room temperature the waxes may be melted and the other components may then be mixed in. Once a uniform mixing of the components has been achieved, the lubricant is ready to be coated onto the bullets.
  • Although the invention has been discussed above in connection with various embodiments, it will be appreciated that it is susceptible of changes and/or modifications within the scope of the inventive concept within the scope of the appended claims.

Claims (20)

1. A bullet lubricating composition comprising 29% to 43% of carnauba wax in admixture with 21% to 46% beeswax, 1.7% to 15% mineral oil, 1.7% to 6.6% silicone oil, 2.6% to 9.7% graphite, 1.7% to 6.6% molybdenum disulfide powder and 9.2% to 19% metal grease, all by volume.
2. The composition of claim 1 wherein the metal grease comprises two metal-containing greases mixed with the remaining components and wherein the two metal greases comprise the molybdenum disulfide-containing lithium soap based grease sold under the trademark MOLYKOTE® BR-2 PLUS and the molybdenum disulfide-containing mineral oil based paste sold under the trademark MOLYKOTE® G-N.
3. The composition of claim 2 wherein the silicone oil comprises a phenyl methyl silicone past.
4. The composition of claim 3 wherein the silicone oil is that sold under the trademark MOLYKOTE® 44.
5. A bullet lubricating composition comprising 29% to 43% by volume of carnauba wax out of a total percentage of carnauba and beeswax of 57% to 74% by volume, the composition further comprising mineral oil, silicone oil, graphite, molybdenum disulfide powder, and metal-containing grease.
6. The bullet lubricating composition of claim 5 wherein the mineral oil comprises 1.7% to 15%, the silicone oil comprises 1.7% to 6.6%, the graphite comprises 2.6% to 9.7%, the molybdenum disulfide powder comprises 1.7% to 6.6% and the metal-containing grease comprises 9.2% to 19% of the composition by volume.
7. The composition of claim 6 wherein the metal-containing grease comprises two metal-containing greases mixed with the remaining components and wherein the two metal greases comprise the molybdenum disulfide-containing lithium soap based grease sold under the trademark MOLYKOTE® BR-2 PLUS and the molybdenum disulfide-containing mineral oil based paste sold under the trademark MOLYKOTE® G-N.
8. The composition of claim 7 wherein the silicone oil component comprises a phenyl methyl silicone paste.
9. The composition of claim 8 wherein the silicone oil comprises the phenyl methyl silicone paste sold under the trademark MOLYKOTE® 44.
10. A method of lubricating a projectile comprising the step of applying a film of lubricating composition to the rear portion only of the surface of the projectile.
11. The method of claim 10 wherein the rear portion of the projectile is defined by the portions of the projectile behind the first point at which the diameter of the projectile is at least as great as the bore of a weapon suitable for its use.
12. The method of claim 10 wherein the rear portion of the projectile is defined by that portion extending rearward from the ogive of the projectile.
13. The method of claim 10 further comprising the step of inserting the projectile into a casing such that the lubricated portion of the bullet is contained within the casing.
14. The method of claim 10 wherein the lubricating composition comprises 57% to 74% by volume of waxes, of which 29% to 43% by volume is carnauba wax and the remainder of the waxes is beeswax, the composition further comprising mineral oil, silicone oil, graphite, molybdenum disulfide powder, and metal-containing grease.
15. A method of lubricating a projectile having forward end comprising the nose of the projectile and a rearward end remote from the nose, at least a portion of the rearward end being insertable into a shell casing, comprising the steps of:
formulating a lubricating composition suitable for application as a lubricant film on the surface of said projectile;
applying a film of said lubricating composition to the rear portion only of the projectile; and
assembling the projectile and the casing to form a cartridge.
16. The method of claim 15 wherein the rear portion of the projectile is defined by the portions of the projectile behind the first point at which the diameter of the projectile is at least as great as the bore of a weapon suitable for its use.
17. The method of claim 15 wherein the rear portion of the projectile is defined by that portion extending rearward from the ogive of the projectile.
18. The method of claim 15 wherein the rear portion of the projectile is defined by that portion of the projectile that is inserted into the casing.
19. The method of claim 15 wherein the lubricating composition comprises 57% to 74% by volume of waxes, of which 29% to 43% by volume is carnauba wax and the remainder of the waxes is beeswax, the composition further comprising mineral oil, silicone oil, graphite, molybdenum disulfide powder, and metal-containing grease.
20. A ballistic cartridge comprising:
a projectile having a forward end portion adjacent the nose thereof and a rear end portion at the opposite end thereof;
a film of lubricating composition coated onto the surface of only the rear end portion only of said projectile;
a casing including a propellant chamber, the casing having a mouth at one end for receiving the projectile, the rear end portion of the projectile being inserted into the casing in gripping engagement with inner wall portions of the casing, at least a portion of the film of lubricating composition being applied to that portion of the projectile that is inserted into the casing.
US10/913,059 2004-08-06 2004-08-06 Bullet lubrication formula Abandoned US20060030495A1 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US10/913,059 US20060030495A1 (en) 2004-08-06 2004-08-06 Bullet lubrication formula

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US10/913,059 US20060030495A1 (en) 2004-08-06 2004-08-06 Bullet lubrication formula

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US20060030495A1 true US20060030495A1 (en) 2006-02-09

Family

ID=35758172

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US10/913,059 Abandoned US20060030495A1 (en) 2004-08-06 2004-08-06 Bullet lubrication formula

Country Status (1)

Country Link
US (1) US20060030495A1 (en)

Cited By (22)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20080176767A1 (en) * 2007-01-24 2008-07-24 Micron Technology, Inc. Two-dimensional arrays of holes with sub-lithographic diameters formed by block copolymer self-assembly
US20090047790A1 (en) * 2007-08-16 2009-02-19 Micron Technology, Inc. Selective Wet Etching of Hafnium Aluminum Oxide Films
US20090240001A1 (en) * 2008-03-21 2009-09-24 Jennifer Kahl Regner Methods of Improving Long Range Order in Self-Assembly of Block Copolymer Films with Ionic Liquids
WO2009151429A1 (en) * 2007-09-17 2009-12-17 Mirage Products, Llc Coated ammunition and methods of making
US20100279062A1 (en) * 2007-06-12 2010-11-04 Millward Dan B Alternating Self-Assembling Morphologies of Diblock Copolymers Controlled by Variations in Surfaces
US8101261B2 (en) 2008-02-13 2012-01-24 Micron Technology, Inc. One-dimensional arrays of block copolymer cylinders and applications thereof
US8409449B2 (en) 2007-03-06 2013-04-02 Micron Technology, Inc. Registered structure formation via the application of directed thermal energy to diblock copolymer films
US8426313B2 (en) 2008-03-21 2013-04-23 Micron Technology, Inc. Thermal anneal of block copolymer films with top interface constrained to wet both blocks with equal preference
US8445592B2 (en) 2007-06-19 2013-05-21 Micron Technology, Inc. Crosslinkable graft polymer non-preferentially wetted by polystyrene and polyethylene oxide
US8450418B2 (en) 2010-08-20 2013-05-28 Micron Technology, Inc. Methods of forming block copolymers, and block copolymer compositions
US8455082B2 (en) 2008-04-21 2013-06-04 Micron Technology, Inc. Polymer materials for formation of registered arrays of cylindrical pores
US8518275B2 (en) 2008-05-02 2013-08-27 Micron Technology, Inc. Graphoepitaxial self-assembly of arrays of downward facing half-cylinders
US8551808B2 (en) 2007-06-21 2013-10-08 Micron Technology, Inc. Methods of patterning a substrate including multilayer antireflection coatings
US8557128B2 (en) 2007-03-22 2013-10-15 Micron Technology, Inc. Sub-10 nm line features via rapid graphoepitaxial self-assembly of amphiphilic monolayers
US8669645B2 (en) 2008-10-28 2014-03-11 Micron Technology, Inc. Semiconductor structures including polymer material permeated with metal oxide
US8900963B2 (en) 2011-11-02 2014-12-02 Micron Technology, Inc. Methods of forming semiconductor device structures, and related structures
US8956713B2 (en) 2007-04-18 2015-02-17 Micron Technology, Inc. Methods of forming a stamp and a stamp
US8999492B2 (en) 2008-02-05 2015-04-07 Micron Technology, Inc. Method to produce nanometer-sized features with directed assembly of block copolymers
US9087699B2 (en) 2012-10-05 2015-07-21 Micron Technology, Inc. Methods of forming an array of openings in a substrate, and related methods of forming a semiconductor device structure
US9142420B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2015-09-22 Micron Technology, Inc. Extensions of self-assembled structures to increased dimensions via a “bootstrap” self-templating method
US9177795B2 (en) 2013-09-27 2015-11-03 Micron Technology, Inc. Methods of forming nanostructures including metal oxides
US9229328B2 (en) 2013-05-02 2016-01-05 Micron Technology, Inc. Methods of forming semiconductor device structures, and related semiconductor device structures

Citations (24)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US48729A (en) * 1865-07-11 Improvement in projectiles for rifled fire-arms
US819518A (en) * 1905-07-15 1906-05-01 Henry F Clark Cartridge.
US1895207A (en) * 1929-06-25 1933-01-24 Berlin Karlsruher Industriewer Method of forming projectiles
US3097169A (en) * 1960-05-27 1963-07-09 Leslie B Hall Solid bullet lubricant
US3208387A (en) * 1963-04-04 1965-09-28 John E Giles Self-lubricating ammunition
US3356029A (en) * 1966-03-03 1967-12-05 American Metal Climax Inc Ballistic lubricating composition
US4176487A (en) * 1970-11-18 1979-12-04 Manis John R Firearm barrels and projectiles
US4353282A (en) * 1980-11-28 1982-10-12 Holt Herbert H Method and device for projectile lubrication
US4417521A (en) * 1981-10-26 1983-11-29 Buffalo Bullet Company Bullet for muzzle loading guns
US4454175A (en) * 1982-02-12 1984-06-12 Merrill David Martin Method of applying lubricant coating to bullets
US4465883A (en) * 1982-08-12 1984-08-14 Olin Corporation Bullet lubricant and method of coating bullets with said lubricant to reduce the leading effect thereof on the bores of firearms
US4670174A (en) * 1985-06-19 1987-06-02 Jorge Mirkin Colloid lubricant and method of lubricating musical wind instruments
US4731189A (en) * 1986-09-29 1988-03-15 Gregg Jr George L Bullet lubricant and method of compounding said lubricant
US4735146A (en) * 1986-04-23 1988-04-05 Amoco Corporation Ballistic lubricating grease, ammunition and process
US4858534A (en) * 1986-04-23 1989-08-22 Amoco Corporation Ballistic lubricating and process
US5062974A (en) * 1989-06-23 1991-11-05 Lighthouse Manufacturing Co., Inc. Munitions lubricant and protector
US5275108A (en) * 1990-08-23 1994-01-04 Endowment Fund Of The International Shooter Development Fund, Inc. Match-grade rifle cartridge with improved components
US5378499A (en) * 1992-12-11 1995-01-03 Neco/Nostalgia Enterprises Co. Method of applying abrasives to bullets for use in pressure (fire) lapping of gun barrels
US5443010A (en) * 1993-11-01 1995-08-22 Buffalo Bullet Company Muzzle loading rifle projectile
US5490463A (en) * 1993-09-20 1996-02-13 Federal-Hoffman, Inc. Match performance .22 caliber cartridge
US5715785A (en) * 1994-04-07 1998-02-10 Gregg, Jr.; George L. Method of lubricating machinery in the presence of an electrical charge
US5914298A (en) * 1996-08-13 1999-06-22 Karydas; Athanasios Fluorinated lubricants for polyethylene snow sliders
US6209459B1 (en) * 1998-01-16 2001-04-03 Blount, Inc. Method for etching characters on bullets and bullets made by the method
US6569817B1 (en) * 1997-04-16 2003-05-27 Ferag Ag Composition for treating surfaces of flat objects to produce predetermined separation points to plurality of such flat objects arranged at least partially in a pile

Patent Citations (24)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US48729A (en) * 1865-07-11 Improvement in projectiles for rifled fire-arms
US819518A (en) * 1905-07-15 1906-05-01 Henry F Clark Cartridge.
US1895207A (en) * 1929-06-25 1933-01-24 Berlin Karlsruher Industriewer Method of forming projectiles
US3097169A (en) * 1960-05-27 1963-07-09 Leslie B Hall Solid bullet lubricant
US3208387A (en) * 1963-04-04 1965-09-28 John E Giles Self-lubricating ammunition
US3356029A (en) * 1966-03-03 1967-12-05 American Metal Climax Inc Ballistic lubricating composition
US4176487A (en) * 1970-11-18 1979-12-04 Manis John R Firearm barrels and projectiles
US4353282A (en) * 1980-11-28 1982-10-12 Holt Herbert H Method and device for projectile lubrication
US4417521A (en) * 1981-10-26 1983-11-29 Buffalo Bullet Company Bullet for muzzle loading guns
US4454175A (en) * 1982-02-12 1984-06-12 Merrill David Martin Method of applying lubricant coating to bullets
US4465883A (en) * 1982-08-12 1984-08-14 Olin Corporation Bullet lubricant and method of coating bullets with said lubricant to reduce the leading effect thereof on the bores of firearms
US4670174A (en) * 1985-06-19 1987-06-02 Jorge Mirkin Colloid lubricant and method of lubricating musical wind instruments
US4858534A (en) * 1986-04-23 1989-08-22 Amoco Corporation Ballistic lubricating and process
US4735146A (en) * 1986-04-23 1988-04-05 Amoco Corporation Ballistic lubricating grease, ammunition and process
US4731189A (en) * 1986-09-29 1988-03-15 Gregg Jr George L Bullet lubricant and method of compounding said lubricant
US5062974A (en) * 1989-06-23 1991-11-05 Lighthouse Manufacturing Co., Inc. Munitions lubricant and protector
US5275108A (en) * 1990-08-23 1994-01-04 Endowment Fund Of The International Shooter Development Fund, Inc. Match-grade rifle cartridge with improved components
US5378499A (en) * 1992-12-11 1995-01-03 Neco/Nostalgia Enterprises Co. Method of applying abrasives to bullets for use in pressure (fire) lapping of gun barrels
US5490463A (en) * 1993-09-20 1996-02-13 Federal-Hoffman, Inc. Match performance .22 caliber cartridge
US5443010A (en) * 1993-11-01 1995-08-22 Buffalo Bullet Company Muzzle loading rifle projectile
US5715785A (en) * 1994-04-07 1998-02-10 Gregg, Jr.; George L. Method of lubricating machinery in the presence of an electrical charge
US5914298A (en) * 1996-08-13 1999-06-22 Karydas; Athanasios Fluorinated lubricants for polyethylene snow sliders
US6569817B1 (en) * 1997-04-16 2003-05-27 Ferag Ag Composition for treating surfaces of flat objects to produce predetermined separation points to plurality of such flat objects arranged at least partially in a pile
US6209459B1 (en) * 1998-01-16 2001-04-03 Blount, Inc. Method for etching characters on bullets and bullets made by the method

Cited By (45)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US8512846B2 (en) 2007-01-24 2013-08-20 Micron Technology, Inc. Two-dimensional arrays of holes with sub-lithographic diameters formed by block copolymer self-assembly
US20080176767A1 (en) * 2007-01-24 2008-07-24 Micron Technology, Inc. Two-dimensional arrays of holes with sub-lithographic diameters formed by block copolymer self-assembly
US8394483B2 (en) 2007-01-24 2013-03-12 Micron Technology, Inc. Two-dimensional arrays of holes with sub-lithographic diameters formed by block copolymer self-assembly
US8753738B2 (en) 2007-03-06 2014-06-17 Micron Technology, Inc. Registered structure formation via the application of directed thermal energy to diblock copolymer films
US8409449B2 (en) 2007-03-06 2013-04-02 Micron Technology, Inc. Registered structure formation via the application of directed thermal energy to diblock copolymer films
US8784974B2 (en) 2007-03-22 2014-07-22 Micron Technology, Inc. Sub-10 NM line features via rapid graphoepitaxial self-assembly of amphiphilic monolayers
US8557128B2 (en) 2007-03-22 2013-10-15 Micron Technology, Inc. Sub-10 nm line features via rapid graphoepitaxial self-assembly of amphiphilic monolayers
US8801894B2 (en) 2007-03-22 2014-08-12 Micron Technology, Inc. Sub-10 NM line features via rapid graphoepitaxial self-assembly of amphiphilic monolayers
US9768021B2 (en) 2007-04-18 2017-09-19 Micron Technology, Inc. Methods of forming semiconductor device structures including metal oxide structures
US9276059B2 (en) 2007-04-18 2016-03-01 Micron Technology, Inc. Semiconductor device structures including metal oxide structures
US8956713B2 (en) 2007-04-18 2015-02-17 Micron Technology, Inc. Methods of forming a stamp and a stamp
US9142420B2 (en) 2007-04-20 2015-09-22 Micron Technology, Inc. Extensions of self-assembled structures to increased dimensions via a “bootstrap” self-templating method
US20100279062A1 (en) * 2007-06-12 2010-11-04 Millward Dan B Alternating Self-Assembling Morphologies of Diblock Copolymers Controlled by Variations in Surfaces
US8609221B2 (en) 2007-06-12 2013-12-17 Micron Technology, Inc. Alternating self-assembling morphologies of diblock copolymers controlled by variations in surfaces
US8404124B2 (en) 2007-06-12 2013-03-26 Micron Technology, Inc. Alternating self-assembling morphologies of diblock copolymers controlled by variations in surfaces
US9257256B2 (en) 2007-06-12 2016-02-09 Micron Technology, Inc. Templates including self-assembled block copolymer films
US8513359B2 (en) 2007-06-19 2013-08-20 Micron Technology, Inc. Crosslinkable graft polymer non preferentially wetted by polystyrene and polyethylene oxide
US8445592B2 (en) 2007-06-19 2013-05-21 Micron Technology, Inc. Crosslinkable graft polymer non-preferentially wetted by polystyrene and polyethylene oxide
US8785559B2 (en) 2007-06-19 2014-07-22 Micron Technology, Inc. Crosslinkable graft polymer non-preferentially wetted by polystyrene and polyethylene oxide
US8551808B2 (en) 2007-06-21 2013-10-08 Micron Technology, Inc. Methods of patterning a substrate including multilayer antireflection coatings
US20090047790A1 (en) * 2007-08-16 2009-02-19 Micron Technology, Inc. Selective Wet Etching of Hafnium Aluminum Oxide Films
WO2009151429A1 (en) * 2007-09-17 2009-12-17 Mirage Products, Llc Coated ammunition and methods of making
US10005308B2 (en) 2008-02-05 2018-06-26 Micron Technology, Inc. Stamps and methods of forming a pattern on a substrate
US8999492B2 (en) 2008-02-05 2015-04-07 Micron Technology, Inc. Method to produce nanometer-sized features with directed assembly of block copolymers
US8642157B2 (en) 2008-02-13 2014-02-04 Micron Technology, Inc. One-dimensional arrays of block copolymer cylinders and applications thereof
US8101261B2 (en) 2008-02-13 2012-01-24 Micron Technology, Inc. One-dimensional arrays of block copolymer cylinders and applications thereof
US20090240001A1 (en) * 2008-03-21 2009-09-24 Jennifer Kahl Regner Methods of Improving Long Range Order in Self-Assembly of Block Copolymer Films with Ionic Liquids
US8641914B2 (en) 2008-03-21 2014-02-04 Micron Technology, Inc. Methods of improving long range order in self-assembly of block copolymer films with ionic liquids
US9682857B2 (en) 2008-03-21 2017-06-20 Micron Technology, Inc. Methods of improving long range order in self-assembly of block copolymer films with ionic liquids and materials produced therefrom
US8633112B2 (en) 2008-03-21 2014-01-21 Micron Technology, Inc. Thermal anneal of block copolymer films with top interface constrained to wet both blocks with equal preference
US8425982B2 (en) 2008-03-21 2013-04-23 Micron Technology, Inc. Methods of improving long range order in self-assembly of block copolymer films with ionic liquids
US8426313B2 (en) 2008-03-21 2013-04-23 Micron Technology, Inc. Thermal anneal of block copolymer films with top interface constrained to wet both blocks with equal preference
US10153200B2 (en) 2008-03-21 2018-12-11 Micron Technology, Inc. Methods of forming a nanostructured polymer material including block copolymer materials
US9315609B2 (en) 2008-03-21 2016-04-19 Micron Technology, Inc. Thermal anneal of block copolymer films with top interface constrained to wet both blocks with equal preference
US8455082B2 (en) 2008-04-21 2013-06-04 Micron Technology, Inc. Polymer materials for formation of registered arrays of cylindrical pores
US8518275B2 (en) 2008-05-02 2013-08-27 Micron Technology, Inc. Graphoepitaxial self-assembly of arrays of downward facing half-cylinders
US8993088B2 (en) 2008-05-02 2015-03-31 Micron Technology, Inc. Polymeric materials in self-assembled arrays and semiconductor structures comprising polymeric materials
US8669645B2 (en) 2008-10-28 2014-03-11 Micron Technology, Inc. Semiconductor structures including polymer material permeated with metal oxide
US8450418B2 (en) 2010-08-20 2013-05-28 Micron Technology, Inc. Methods of forming block copolymers, and block copolymer compositions
US9431605B2 (en) 2011-11-02 2016-08-30 Micron Technology, Inc. Methods of forming semiconductor device structures
US8900963B2 (en) 2011-11-02 2014-12-02 Micron Technology, Inc. Methods of forming semiconductor device structures, and related structures
US9087699B2 (en) 2012-10-05 2015-07-21 Micron Technology, Inc. Methods of forming an array of openings in a substrate, and related methods of forming a semiconductor device structure
US9229328B2 (en) 2013-05-02 2016-01-05 Micron Technology, Inc. Methods of forming semiconductor device structures, and related semiconductor device structures
US9177795B2 (en) 2013-09-27 2015-11-03 Micron Technology, Inc. Methods of forming nanostructures including metal oxides
US10049874B2 (en) 2013-09-27 2018-08-14 Micron Technology, Inc. Self-assembled nanostructures including metal oxides and semiconductor structures comprised thereof

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US5535495A (en) Die cast bullet manufacturing process
US6257149B1 (en) Lead-free bullet
ES2550628T3 (en) One piece coated core ammo
US4700630A (en) Ammunition round
US20030101891A1 (en) Jacketed bullet and methods of making the same
US8820212B2 (en) Urban combat system automatic firearm having ammunition feed controlled by weapon cycle
Hatcher Hatcher's Notebook
US7353756B2 (en) Lead free reduced ricochet limited penetration projectile
CN1089432C (en) Lead-free tin projectile
US3680485A (en) Salvo squeezebore projectile
US6070532A (en) High accuracy projectile
US1886218A (en) Gun barrel and process of finishing the same
JP4810527B2 (en) Projectile
US20020005137A1 (en) Lead-free frangible projectile
CA2301805C (en) Jacketed projectile with a hard core
CA2257620A1 (en) Gas operated firearm
US5275108A (en) Match-grade rifle cartridge with improved components
US20030019385A1 (en) Subsonic cartridge for gas-operated automatic and semiautomatic weapons
US6293203B1 (en) Firearms and ammunition
EP1745259A4 (en) Jacketed boat-tail bullet
US6532876B1 (en) Gun cartridge
US4942818A (en) Training or marking bullets
Montgomery Surface melting of rotating bands
US7765934B2 (en) Lead-free projectile
CZ85796A3 (en) Lead-free projectile

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
AS Assignment

Owner name: CLEAN BALLISTICS LLC, NEW MEXICO

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:GREGG, GEORGE L., JR.;REEL/FRAME:015928/0848

Effective date: 20040819

STCB Information on status: application discontinuation

Free format text: ABANDONED -- FAILURE TO RESPOND TO AN OFFICE ACTION