US20050136495A1 - Method and apparatus for distinguishing Crohn's disease from ulcerative colitis and other gastrointestinal diseases by detecting the presence of fecal antibodies to Saccharomyces cerevisiae - Google Patents

Method and apparatus for distinguishing Crohn's disease from ulcerative colitis and other gastrointestinal diseases by detecting the presence of fecal antibodies to Saccharomyces cerevisiae Download PDF

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US20050136495A1
US20050136495A1 US11/059,711 US5971105A US2005136495A1 US 20050136495 A1 US20050136495 A1 US 20050136495A1 US 5971105 A US5971105 A US 5971105A US 2005136495 A1 US2005136495 A1 US 2005136495A1
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James Boone
David Lyerly
Tracy Wilkins
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N33/00Investigating or analysing materials by specific methods not covered by groups G01N1/00 - G01N31/00
    • G01N33/48Biological material, e.g. blood, urine; Haemocytometers
    • G01N33/50Chemical analysis of biological material, e.g. blood, urine; Testing involving biospecific ligand binding methods; Immunological testing
    • G01N33/53Immunoassay; Biospecific binding assay; Materials therefor
    • G01N33/564Immunoassay; Biospecific binding assay; Materials therefor for pre-existing immune complex or autoimmune disease, i.e. systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid factors or complement components C1-C9
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N2469/00Immunoassays for the detection of microorganisms
    • G01N2469/20Detection of antibodies in sample from host which are directed against antigens from microorganisms
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S435/00Chemistry: molecular biology and microbiology
    • Y10S435/975Kit

Abstract

A method and apparatus for the differentiation of Crohn's disease from other gastrointestinal illnesses, such as ulcerative colitis and irritable bowel syndrome, using the presence of fecal anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA) as a marker for Crohn's disease are provided. The apparatus includes an enzyme-linked immunoassay or other immunoassay that utilizes antibodies specific to human immunoglobins for the measurement of total endogenous ASCA in a human fecal sample. The method and apparatus may be used by healthcare providers to distinguish Crohn's disease from other gastrointestinal illnesses, such as ulcerative colitis and irritable bowel syndrome.

Description

    CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
  • This application claims the benefit of priority to U.S. application Ser. No. 10/280,564 filed on Oct. 25, 2002 which claims the benefit of priority to U.S. Provisional Application No. 60/335,812 filed on Oct. 26, 2001, the entirety of the disclosures of which are hereby incorporated by reference.
  • STATEMENT REGARDING FEDERALLY SPONSORED RESEARCH OR DEVELOPMENT
  • Not Applicable.
  • FIELD OF THE INVENTION
  • A method and apparatus for the differentiation of Crohn's disease from other gastrointestinal illnesses, such as ulcerative colitis and irritable bowel syndrome, using the presence of fecal anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA) as a marker for Crohn's disease are provided. The apparatus includes an enzyme-linked immunoassay or other immunoassay that utilizes antibodies specific to human immunoglobulins for the measurement of total endogenous ASCA in a human fecal sample. The method and apparatus may be used by healthcare providers to distinguish Crohn's disease from other gastrointestinal illnesses, such as ulcerative colitis and irritable bowel syndrome.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • It is estimated that at least one million Americans suffer from Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). IBD is characterized by a chronic inflammatory response that results in histologic damage to the intestinal lining. IBD comprises two known clinical subtypes, Crohn's Disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). CD may involve the entire gastrointestinal tract and include inflammation extending into the transmural mucosa whereas UC affects solely the large bowel and includes inflammation of the innermost lining. Due to the differences between them, these two distinct diseases require a rapid differential diagnosis for optimal treatment. Conventional methods for differentiating between these clinical subtypes of IBD utilize multiple endoscopy examinations and histological analysis. These methods, however, do not permit quick differential diagnosis as each may require years for a diagnosis to be confirmed. As a result, methods are needed for the rapid differential diagnosis of CD and UC.
  • Serological methods for the differential diagnosis of CD and UC are known in the art. For example, it is known in the art to use the presence of serum anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA) to diagnose CD. See Main et al., Antibody to Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast) in Crohn's disease, BMJ Vol. 297 (Oct. 29, 1988); Broker et al., A Murine Monoclonal Antibody Directed Against a Yeast Cell Wall Glycoprotein Antigen of the Yeast Genus Saccharomyces, FEMS Microbiology Letters 118 (1994), 297-304. It is further known in the art to use the presence of serum ASCA to diagnose clinical subtypes of UC and CD in patients presenting with established diagnoses. For example, U.S. Pat. No. 5,968,741 discloses utilizing the presence of serum ASCA to diagnose a medically resistant clinical subtype of UC in patients presenting with an established diagnosis of UC. Similarly, U.S. Pat. No. 5,932,429 discloses utilizing the presence of serum ASCA to diagnose a clinical subtype of CD in patients presenting with an established diagnosis of CD.
  • Each of the above-mentioned serological methods utilizing ASCA as a marker has a number of drawbacks. For instance, each method requires an invasive procedure such as a finger prick or the like to obtain a serum sample. Further, each method utilizes only serum antibodies that are not required to cross the intestinal wall and the serum antibodies may not be accurate indicator for the proper diagnosis.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • A method for testing a fecal sample, the method comprising: obtaining a fecal sample from a person; and determining the amount of anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies in the sample.
  • A method for testing a fecal sample, the method comprising: obtaining a fecal sample from a person; and determining the presence of anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies in the sample, wherein the presence of fecal anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies is used to aid in the differentiation of Crohn's disease from other gastrointestinal illnesses such as, ulcerative colitis and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).
  • An assay for determining the concentration of endogenous anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies, the assay comprising: obtaining a human fecal sample; diluting the fecal sample; contacting the sample with extract of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to create a treated sample; contacting the treated sample with enzyme-linked polyclonal antibodies to create a readable sample; determining the optical density of the readable sample at 450 nm; generating a purified anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies standard curve; and comparing the optical density of the readable sample to the standard curve to determine the concentration of endogenous anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies in the fecal sample.
  • A diagnostic assay for diagnosing Crohn's disease by determining the level of endogenous anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies, the assay comprising: obtaining a human fecal sample; diluting the sample; contacting the sample extract Saccharomyces cerevisiae to create a treated sample; contacting the treated sample with enzyme-linked polyclonal antibodies to create a readable sample; adding an enzyme substrate for color development and determining the optical density of the readable sample at 450 nm to determine whether the readable sample contains an elevated level of endogenous anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies as compared to a reference value for healthy control subjects.
  • A kit for diagnosing Crohn's disease by testing a fecal sample from a person to be diagnosed, the kit comprising: one or more microassay plates, each the plate containing extract Saccharomyces cerevisiae; enzyme-linked polyclonal antibody to human anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies; and enzyme substrate for color development.
  • Additional aspects of invention, together with the advantages and novel features appurtenant thereto, will be set forth in part in the description which follows, and in part will become apparent to those skilled in the art upon examination of the following, or may be learned from the practice of the invention. The objects and advantages of the invention may be realized and attained by means, instrumentalities and combinations particularly pointed out in the appended claims.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE SEVERAL VIEWS OF THE DRAWINGS
  • FIG. 1 is a graphical representation of a standard curve of purified anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
  • A method and apparatus for the differentiation of Crohn's disease from other gastrointestinal illnesses, such as ulcerative colitis and irritable bowel syndrome, using the presence of fecal anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA) as a marker for Crohn's disease are provided. The apparatus includes an enzyme-linked immunoassay or other immunoassay that utilizes antibodies specific to human immunoglobulins for the measurement of total endogenous ASCA in a human fecal sample. The method and apparatus may be used by healthcare providers to distinguish Crohn's disease from other gastrointestinal illnesses, such as ulcerative colitis and irritable bowel syndrome. The particular embodiments described herein are intended in all respects to be illustrative rather than restrictive. Alternative embodiments will become apparent to those skilled in the art to which the present embodiment of the invention pertains without departing from its scope.
  • The present embodiment of the invention provides immunoassays, including, but not limited to, enzyme-linked immunoassays (ELISAs), that utilize antibodies specific to human ASCA for the measurement of total endogenous ASCA in fecal samples, including feces and mucosal secretions. The assay of the present invention may include, but is not limited to, the following steps: 1) obtaining a fecal sample from a person to be diagnosed, 2) diluting the sample, 3) contacting the sample with extract of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to create a treated sample, and 4) contacting the treated sample with enzyme-linked polyclonal antibodies to create a readable sample. Further, the optical density of the readable sample at 450 nm may be determined. The optical density of the readable sample then may be compared to a standard curve generated using purified anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae standard curve to determine the concentration of the endogenous anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies in the fecal sample. The present embodiment of the invention further provides a kit usable in such immunoassays to aid physicians and other clinical personnel in diagnosing Crohn's disease.
  • It will be understood and appreciated by those of skill in the art that a immunoassay such as a lateral flow dipstick that utilizes both monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies to total endogenous ASCA also may be used to diagnose Crohn's disease. Such is contemplated to be within the scope hereof.
  • A limited number of cases of ulcerative colitis and IBS may test positive for ASCA. Therefore, it is possible that a diagnosis of Crohn's disease cannot be established solely on the basis of a positive result with the assay of the present embodiment of the invention. However, a positive result with the assay of the present embodiment of the invention will permit the substantial preclusion of a diagnosis of a other gastrointestinal illness, such as IBS or ulcerative colitis.
  • The immunoassay of the embodiment of the present embodiment of the invention may be used as an in vitro diagnostic aid for detecting elevated levels of ASCA as a detection marker for Crohn's disease. The immunoassay of the present embodiment of the invention provides a test that is easy to use, simple to read, and accurate for distinguishing Crohn's disease from IBS or ulcerative colitis.
  • The following examples are intended in all respects to be illustrative rather than restrictive.
  • EXAMPLE 1
  • In this example using an ELISA method, a fecal sample was obtained and serially diluted 20 fold. 100 μl of the diluted sample was added to a test well of a microassay plate coated with extract of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and purified mannan. The sample then was incubated at 37° C. to allow antibodies to Saccharomyces cerevisiae to bind to the extract of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Following incubation, anti-human Ig polyclonal antibodies coupled to horseradish peroxidase enzyme (conjugate) were added to the test well and allowed to bind to captured ASCA. Unbound conjugate then was washed from the well and one component substrate (tetra-methyl-benzidene and hydrogen peroxide) was added for color development. Following the substrate incubation, 0.1M sulfuric acid was added to quench the reaction and the optical density (OD) was obtained spectrophotometrically at 450 nm using a single wavelength spectrophotometer.
  • The method described above was used in a clinical study to test a total of 86 IBD patients (55.8% males and 44.2% females). The approximate 1 to 1 ratio of males to females was similar to the ratio observed in IBD patient populations. The IBS patient group ranged in age from 19 to 78 years and was 9% male and 91% female. This ratio of males to females (1:10) reflects the increased incidence for IBS in females as seen in patient populations. The healthy control (HC) patient group ranged in age from 20 to 79 years old and was 33.3% male and 66.6% female. A summary of the patient population in the clinical study is shown in Table 1.
    TABLE 1
    Summary of patient population.
    Summary of Clinical Histories Total
    (N = 120) Subjects
    Total number of IBD patients 86
    No. Males 48
    No. Females 38
    Total number of patients with Crohn's Disease 49
    No. Males 26
    No. Females 23
    Total number of patients with ulcerative colitis 37
    No. Males 22
    No. Females 15
    Total number of patients with irritable bowel syndrome 22
    No. Males 2
    No. Females 20
    Total number of healthy controls 12
    No. Males 4
    No. Females 8
  • In the clinical study, there were 37 ulcerative colitis patients, 49 Crohn's disease patients, 22 irritable bowel patients, and 12 healthy controls. Fecal samples were collected from each enrolled subject and stored at −70° C. until tested. The optical densities for each sample were determined using the method described above. Results were reported as positive for fecal ASCA if an optical density of greater than or equal to 0.200 was observed. Results were reported as negative for fecal ASCA if an optical density of less than or equal to 0.199 was observed. Other clinical data, such as stool consistency, was also determined. Table 2, below, contains the clinical data and test results for healthy patients that participated in this clinical study. Table 3, below, contains the clinical data and test results for patients with ulcerative colitis patients that participated in this clinical study. Table 4, below, contains the clinical data and test results for patients with Crohn's disease that participated in this study. Table 5, below, contains the clinical data and test results for patients with irritable bowel syndrome that participated in this study.
    TABLE 2
    Clinical data and test results for healthy controls
    Previous of
    Age chronic GI Stool
    Donor ID Sex Range illness Consistency Optical Density Fecal ASCA
    HC1 F 40-49 NO Solid 0.098 NEGATIVE
    HC2 F 40-49 NO Solid 0.089 NEGATIVE
    HC3 M 70-79 NO Solid 0.095 NEGATIVE
    HC4 F 60-69 NO Solid 0.085 NEGATIVE
    HC5 M 70-79 NO Solid 0.083 NEGATIVE
    HC6 F 70-79 NO Solid 0.076 NEGATIVE
    HC7 F 50-59 NO Solid 0.124 NEGATIVE
    HC8 F 40-49 NO Solid 0.095 NEGATIVE
    HC9 F 50-49 NO Solid 0.111 NEGATIVE
    HC10 F 40-49 NO Solid 0.111 NEGATIVE
    HC11 M 50-60 NO Solid 0.070 NEGATIVE
    HC12 M 50-60 NO Solid 0.054 NEGATIVE
  • TABLE 3
    Clinical data and test results for ulcerative colitis patients
    Stool Disease
    Patient ID Sex Age Disease Consistency Activity Optical Density Fecal ASCA
    UC1 F 46 UC Liquid ACTIVE 0.184 NEGATIVE
    UC2 M 39 UC Liquid ACTIVE 0.378 POSITIVE
    UC3 F 30 UC Semi-Solid ACTIVE 0.193 NEGATIVE
    UC4 F 31 UC Semi-Solid INACTIVE 0.319 POSITIVE
    UC5 F 30 UC Semi-Solid ACTIVE 0.114 NEGATIVE
    UC6 M 61 UC Semi-Solid INACTIVE 0.115 NEGATIVE
    UC7 F 68 UC Liquid INACTIVE 0.091 NEGATIVE
    UC8 F 45 UC Liquid ACTIVE 0.356 POSITIVE
    UC9 F 21 UC Semi-Solid ACTIVE 0.082 NEGATIVE
    UC10 F 27 UC Liquid ACTIVE 0.161 NEGATIVE
    UC11 F 24 UC Solid INACTIVE 0.104 NEGATIVE
    UC12 F 74 UC Semi-Solid INACTIVE 0.091 NEGATIVE
    UC13 M 69 UC Semi-Solid ACTIVE 0.070 NEGATIVE
    UC14 M 19 UC Solid INACTIVE 0.088 NEGATIVE
    UC15 M 62 UC Solid INACTIVE 0.054 NEGATIVE
    UC16 F 70 UC Solid INACTIVE 0.056 NEGATIVE
    UC17 M 23 UC Liquid ACTIVE 0.573 POSITIVE
    UC18 F 52 UC Solid ACTIVE 0.073 NEGATIVE
    UC19 M 60 UC Solid INACTIVE 0.062 NEGATIVE
    UC20 F 52 UC Liquid ACTIVE 0.089 NEGATIVE
    UC21 M 31 UC Solid INACTIVE 0.064 NEGATIVE
    UC22 M 44 UC Semi-Solid INACTIVE 0.143 NEGATIVE
    UC23 F 30 UC Liquid ACTIVE 0.110 NEGATIVE
    UC24 M 48 UC Semi-Solid INACTIVE 0.096 NEGATIVE
    UC25 F 37 UC Liquid ACTIVE 0.282 POSITIVE
    UC26 F 32 UC Solid ACTIVE 0.107 NEGATIVE
    UC27 F 46 UC Liquid ACTIVE 0.199 NEGATIVE
    UC28 M 49 UC Semi-Solid INACTIVE 0.161 NEGATIVE
    UC29 F 42 UC Solid INACTIVE 0.080 NEGATIVE
    UC30 F 41 UC Semi-Solid INACTIVE 0.087 NEGATIVE
    UC31 F 43 UC Solid INACTIVE 0.070 NEGATIVE
    UC32 M 30 UC Solid ACTIVE 0.103 NEGATIVE
    UC33 F 43 UC Solid INACTIVE 0.092 NEGATIVE
    UC34 F 33 UC Semi-Solid INACTIVE 0.075 NEGATIVE
    UC35 M 58 UC Semi-Solid ACTIVE 0.121 NEGATIVE
    UC36 F 32 UC Semi-Solid ACTIVE 0.083 NEGATIVE
  • TABLE 4
    Clinical Data and test results for Crohn's disease patients.
    Stool Disease
    Patient ID Sex Age Disease Consistency Activity Optical Density FECAL ASCA
    CD1 M 26 CD Liquid INACTIVE 1.900 POSITIVE
    CD2 M 60 CD Liquid ACTIVE 2.849 POSITIVE
    CD3 F 66 CD Liquid ACTIVE 0.282 POSITIVE
    CD4 F 74 CD Semi-Solid INACTIVE 0.091 NEGATIVE
    CD5 F 25 CD Solid INACTIVE 0.162 NEGATIVE
    CD6 F 66 CD Semi-Solid INACTIVE 1.240 POSITIVE
    CD7 M 39 CD No Data ACTIVE 1.150 POSITIVE
    CD8 F 46 CD Liquid ACTIVE 0.160 NEGATIVE
    CD9 F 46 CD Semi-Solid INACTIVE 0.074 NEGATIVE
    CD10 F 56 CD Solid ACTIVE 0.406 POSITIVE
    CD11 M 56 CD Solid ACTIVE 0.168 NEGATIVE
    CD12 F 56 CD Liquid ACTIVE 0.732 POSITIVE
    CD13 M 21 CD Solid ACTIVE 1.369 POSITIVE
    CD14 M 52 CD Semi-Solid INACTIVE 0.136 NEGATIVE
    CD15 M 63 CD Solid INACTIVE 0.134 NEGATIVE
    CD16 M 34 CD Solid ACTIVE 0.076 NEGATIVE
    CD17 F 45 CD Semi-Solid ACTIVE 0.160 NEGATIVE
    CD18 M 67 CD Semi-Solid INACTIVE 0.059 NEGATIVE
    CD19 F 46 CD No Data ACTIVE 0.839 POSITIVE
    CD20 M 66 CD Semi-Solid INACTIVE 0.084 NEGATIVE
    CD21 M 63 CD Liquid ACTIVE 0.780 POSITIVE
    CD21 M 51 CD Semi-Solid ACTIVE 3.000 POSITIVE
    CD22 M 34 CD Semi-Solid ACTIVE 1.447 POSITIVE
    CD23 M 21 CD Solid ACTIVE 2.757 POSITIVE
    CD24 F 78 CD Semi-Solid INACTIVE 0.092 NEGATIVE
    CD25 F 27 CD Semi-Solid ACTIVE 0.979 POSITIVE
    CD26 M 40 CD Liquid ACTIVE 0.373 POSITIVE
    CD27 M 51 CD Liquid ACTIVE 0.978 POSITIVE
    CD28 M 42 CD Liquid ACTIVE 0.089 NEGATIVE
    CD29 F 31 CD Solid INACTIVE 0.075 NEGATIVE
    CD30 F 59 CD Solid ACTIVE 0.088 NEGATIVE
    CD31 M 35 CD Semi-Solid ACTIVE 1.487 POSITIVE
    CD32 M 37 CD Semi-Solid INACTIVE 1.257 POSITIVE
    CD33 F 77 CD Solid INACTIVE 0.093 NEGATIVE
    CD34 F 40 CD No Data ACTIVE 1.762 POSITIVE
    CD35 F 38 CD Liquid ACTIVE 0.098 NEGATIVE
    CD36 M 51 CD Liquid ACTIVE 2.326 POSITIVE
    CD37 M 38 CD Semi-Solid ACTIVE 0.091 NEGATIVE
    CD38 M 37 CD Liquid ACTIVE 0.372 POSITIVE
    CD39 M 59 CD Semi-Solid ACTIVE 0.224 POSITIVE
    CD40 F 41 CD Solid ACTIVE 0.503 POSITIVE
    CD41 M 41 CD Solid ACTIVE 0.117 NEGATIVE
    CD42 M 48 CD Liquid ACTIVE 0.115 NEGATIVE
    CD43 F 40 CD Solid INACTIVE 0.638 POSITIVE
    CD44 F 72 CD Solid ACTIVE 0.087 NEGATIVE
    CD45 F 32 CD Liquid INACTIVE 0.911 POSITIVE
    CD46 F 24 CD Liquid ACTIVE 0.341 POSITIVE
    CD47 M 23 CD Solid INACTIVE 0.088 NEGATIVE
    CD48 F 34 CD Liquid ACTIVE 0.599 POSITIVE
  • TABLE 5
    Clinical data and test results for irritable bowel syndrome patients
    Stool Disease
    Patient ID Sex Age Disease consistency Activity Optical Density Fecal ASCA
    IBS1 F 56 IBS Semi-Solid ACTIVE 0.132 NEGATIVE
    IBS2 F 48 IBS Solid ACTIVE 0.103 NEGATIVE
    IBS3 F 30 IBS Solid ACTIVE 0.073 NEGATIVE
    IBS4 F 31 IBS Solid ACTIVE 0.074 NEGATIVE
    IBS5 F 72 IBS Semi-Solid ACTIVE 0.079 NEGATIVE
    IBS6 F 47 IBS Solid ACTIVE 0.088 NEGATIVE
    IBS7 F 19 IBS Semi-Solid ACTIVE 0.105 NEGATIVE
    IBS8 F 58 IBS Semi-Solid ACTIVE 0.107 NEGATIVE
    IBS9 F 40 IBS Solid ACTIVE 0.065 NEGATIVE
    IBS10 F 33 IBS Semi-Solid ACTIVE 0.065 NEGATIVE
    IBS11 F 78 IBS Solid ACTIVE 0.071 NEGATIVE
    IBS12 F 74 IBS Semi-Solid ACTIVE 0.063 NEGATIVE
    IBS13 F 50 IBS Semi-Solid ACTIVE 0.052 NEGATIVE
    IBS14 F 39 IBS Solid ACTIVE 0.079 NEGATIVE
    IBS15 F 54 IBS Solid ACTIVE 0.080 NEGATIVE
    IBS16 M 49 IBS Semi-Solid ACTIVE 0.238 POSITIVE
    IBS17 M 53 IBS Solid ACTIVE 0.123 NEGATIVE
    IBS18 F 34 IBS Solid ACTIVE 0.091 NEGATIVE
    IBS19 F 43 IBS Solid ACTIVE 0.075 NEGATIVE
    IBS20 F 35 IBS Solid ACTIVE 0.075 NEGATIVE
    IBS21 F 51 IBS Semi-Solid ACTIVE 0.081 NEGATIVE
    IBS22 F 40 IBS Solid ACTIVE 0.083 NEGATIVE
  • There were a total of 49 patients with Crohn's disease and 37 with ulcerative colitis. In the Crohn's disease group, a total of 55.1% patients were positive for fecal ASCA. In the ulcerative colitis group, 13.5% were positive. Of the 22 IBS patients, a single patient (4.6%) was positive for fecal ASCA. All 12 healthy controls were negative. A summary of positive results for fecal ASCA is shown in Table 6.
    TABLE 6
    Summary of positive results for Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis,
    active IBS, and healthy controls
    Total Fecal ASCA Fecal ASCA
    Assessments N = 120 Total Positive Negative
    Total IBD (Crohn's disease 86 37.2% (32)  62.8% (54)
    and ulcerative colitis)
    Total Crohn's Disease 49 55.1% (27)  44.9% (22)
    Total Ulcerative Colitis 37 13.5% (5)  86.5% (32)
    Total Active IBS 22  4.6% (1)  96.4% (21)
    Total Healthy Controls 12 0 100.0% (12)
  • When distinguishing Crohn's disease from ulcerative colitis, fecal ASCA exhibited a sensitivity of 55.1% and specificity of 86.5%. The predictive positive and negative values were 84.4% and 59.3%, respectively, and the correlation was 68.6% as shown in Table 7.
    TABLE 7
    Statistical evaluation using the presence of fecal ASCA to distinguish
    Crohn's disease from ulcerative colitis
    N = 86 Crohn's disease Ulcerative colitis
    Fecal ASCA positive 27  5
    Fecal ASCA negative 22 32
    Sensitivity 55.1%
    Specificity 86.5%
    Predictive Positive Value 84.4%
    Predictive Negative Value 59.3%
    Correlation 68.6%
  • When distinguishing Crohn's disease from ulcerative colitis, irritable bowel syndrome and healthy controls, fecal ASCA exhibited a sensitivity of 55% and a specificity of 91.6%. The predictive positive and negative values were 82% and 75%, respectively, and the correlation was 77% as shown below in Table 8.
    TABLE 8
    Statistical evaluation using fecal ASCA to distinguish Crohn's disease
    from ulcerative colitis, irritable bowel syndrome/healthy controls
    N = 120 Crohn's disease UC/IBS/Healthy Controls
    Fecal ASCA positive 27  6
    Fecal ASCA negative 22 65
    Sensitivity 55.1%
    Specificity 91.6%
    Predictive Positive Value 81.8%
    Predictive Negative Value 74.7%
    Correlation 76.7%
  • The mean optical densities for each group were obtained and differences were tested for statistical significance using a two-tailed t-test giving a p-value result. Of the 33 patients that tested positive for fecal ASCA, there were 27 CD, 5 UC, and 1 IBS. Sensitivity, specificity and overall correlation were 55.1%, 91.5% and 76.7%, respectively. ASCA-positive CD showed a higher mean±SD A450 of 1.183±0.794 as compared to 0.382±0.113 for UC and the single A450 of 0.0.091±0.0.038 for IBS. There was a significant difference between CD and all other subject groups. A summary of the statistical analysis is listed in Table 9.
    TABLE 9
    Summary of the Mean and P values of Optical Densities for Fecal ASCA
    Mean Optical
    Optical Standard Density
    Test Group Density Deviation Range P Value
    CD 1.183 0.794 0.341-3.000 CD vs UC, IBS, HC
    P < 0.005
    UC 0.382 0.113 0.382-0.113 CD vs UC
    P < 0.05
    IBS 0.091 0.038 0.052-0.238 CD vs IBS
    P < 0.005
    HC 0.091 0.019 0.054-0.124 CD vs HC
    P < 0.005
  • EXAMPLE 2
  • In this example, the sensitivity of the fecal ASCA test was determined using serial two fold dilutions of highly purified ASCA antibodies. For the analysis, standard curves were generated using the kit dilutent. The test was consistently positive at a concentration of 0.62 μg/mL as determined by a cutoff absorbency value of ≧0.200. Individual results are shown below in Table 10. The standard curves are shown in FIG. 1.
    TABLE 10
    Standard curves generated using purified ASCA antibodies
    Purified
    ASCA
    Antibodies
    (μg/mL) Test 1 Test 2 Mean Std Dev
    5.00 1.702 1.856 1.779 0.108
    2.50 1.117 1.099 1.108 0.012
    1.25 0.634 0.624 0.629 0.007
    0.62 0.303 0.329 0.316 0.018
    0.31 0.191 0.164 0.177 0.019
    0.16 0.115 0.113 0.114 0.001
    0.08 0.090 0.077 0.083 0.009
    0.04 0.063 0.065 0.064 0.001
  • EXAMPLE 3
  • In this example, tests were conducted to determine what type of immunoglobulins (antibodies) were present in a fecal sample and in serum. The immunglobulin typing was done for human IgA, human IgAsec, human IgD, human IgM, and human IgG. The immunoglobulin typing was done on a fecal sample from 6 Crohn's disease patients and 2 ulcerative colitis and on a serum control sample using pre-absorbed Ig-type specific conjugates. The serum control sample was obtained from a patient with a confirmed allergy to Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
  • Of the Crohn's disease patients, 5 patients exhibited a response to IgA and IgAsec, 4 patients exhibited a response to IgM and a single patient exhibited a response to IgG. Of the 2 ulcerative colitis patients, a single patient reacted with the Ig conjugate. The serum control only exhibited a response to individual immunoglobulins IgM and IgG. A response to IgA and IgAsec occurred the fecal samples but not in the control serum sample. A summary of results are shown in Table 11.
    TABLE 11
    A Summary of Immunoglobulin Typing of ASCA in a Human Fecal sample and
    a Serum Control
    Patient IgA IgAsec IgD IgM IgG Ig
    Number Disease Conjugate Conjugate Conjugate Conjugate Conjugate Conjugate
    1 Crohn's + + + + +
    Disease
    2 Crohn's + + + +
    Disease
    3 Crohn's
    Disease
    4 Crohn's + + NO + +
    Disease DATA
    5 Crohn's + + NO +
    Disease DATA
    6 Crohn's + + NO + +
    Disease DATA
    7 Ulcerative
    Colitis
    8 Ulcerative +
    Colitis
    Serum Yeast + + +
    Control Allergy
  • In summary, the present embodiment of the invention provides a method and apparatus for the differentiation of Crohn's disease from other gastrointestinal illnesses, such as ulcerative colitis and irritable bowel syndrome, using the presence of fecal anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA) as a marker for Crohn's disease. The apparatus includes an enzyme-linked immunoassay or other immunoassay that utilizes antibodies specific to human immunoglobins for the measurement of total endogenous ASCA in a human fecal sample. The method and apparatus may be used by healthcare providers to distinguish Crohn's disease from other gastrointestinal illnesses, such as ulcerative colitis and irritable bowel syndrome. The present embodiment of the invention has been described in relation to particular embodiments which are intended in all respects to be illustrative rather than restrictive. Alternative embodiments will become apparent to those skilled in the art to which the present embodiment of the invention pertains without departing from its scope.
  • From the foregoing, it will be seen that this embodiment of the invention is one well adapted to attain all the ends and objects hereinabove set forth together with other advantages which are obvious and which are inherent to the method.
  • It will be understood that certain features and subcombinations are of utility and may be employed without reference to other features and subcombinations. This is contemplated by and is within the scope of the claims.

Claims (4)

1. A kit for diagnosing Crohn's disease by testing a fecal sample from a person to be diagnosed, the kit comprising:
one or more microassay plates, each the plate containing extract Saccharomyces cerevisiae;
enzyme-linked polyclonal antibody to human anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies; and
enzyme substrate for color development.
2. The kit as recited in claim 1, further comprising purified human anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies as a positive control.
3. The kit as recited in claim 1, further comprising a stop solution for quenching the reaction.
4. The kit as recited in claim 2, further comprising a stop solution for quenching the reaction.
US11/059,711 2001-10-26 2005-02-16 Method and apparatus for distinguishing Crohn's disease from ulcerative colitis and other gastrointestinal diseases by detecting the presence of fecal antibodies to Saccharomyces cerevisiae Abandoned US20050136495A1 (en)

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US10/280,564 US6872540B2 (en) 2001-10-26 2002-10-25 Method and apparatus for distinguishing Crohn's disease from ulcerative colitis and other gastrointestinal diseases by detecting the presence of fecal antibodies to Saccharomyces cerevisiae
US11/059,711 US20050136495A1 (en) 2001-10-26 2005-02-16 Method and apparatus for distinguishing Crohn's disease from ulcerative colitis and other gastrointestinal diseases by detecting the presence of fecal antibodies to Saccharomyces cerevisiae

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US20030143649A1 (en) 2003-07-31
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EP1444519A4 (en) 2006-01-11

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