US20050079368A1 - Diffusion barrier and protective coating for turbine engine component and method for forming - Google Patents

Diffusion barrier and protective coating for turbine engine component and method for forming Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US20050079368A1
US20050079368A1 US10681433 US68143303A US2005079368A1 US 20050079368 A1 US20050079368 A1 US 20050079368A1 US 10681433 US10681433 US 10681433 US 68143303 A US68143303 A US 68143303A US 2005079368 A1 US2005079368 A1 US 2005079368A1
Authority
US
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
coating
layer
barrier
protective
substrate
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Granted
Application number
US10681433
Other versions
US6933052B2 (en )
Inventor
Mark Gorman
Bangalore Nagaraj
Ramgopal Darolia
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Tohto Kasei Co Ltd
General Electric Co
Original Assignee
General Electric Co
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

Links

Images

Classifications

    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C25ELECTROLYTIC OR ELECTROPHORETIC PROCESSES; APPARATUS THEREFOR
    • C25DPROCESSES FOR THE ELECTROLYTIC OR ELECTROPHORETIC PRODUCTION OF COATINGS; ELECTROFORMING; APPARATUS THEREFOR
    • C25D5/00Electroplating characterised by the process; Pretreatment or after-treatment of workpieces
    • C25D5/48After-treatment of electroplated surfaces
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C23COATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; CHEMICAL SURFACE TREATMENT; DIFFUSION TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL; INHIBITING CORROSION OF METALLIC MATERIAL OR INCRUSTATION IN GENERAL
    • C23CCOATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; SURFACE TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL BY DIFFUSION INTO THE SURFACE, BY CHEMICAL CONVERSION OR SUBSTITUTION; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL
    • C23C28/00Coating for obtaining at least two superposed coatings either by methods not provided for in a single one of groups C23C2/00 - C23C26/00 or by combinations of methods provided for in subclasses C23C and C25C or C25D
    • C23C28/30Coatings combining at least one metallic layer and at least one inorganic non-metallic layer
    • C23C28/32Coatings combining at least one metallic layer and at least one inorganic non-metallic layer including at least one pure metallic layer
    • C23C28/322Coatings combining at least one metallic layer and at least one inorganic non-metallic layer including at least one pure metallic layer only coatings of metal elements only
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C23COATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; CHEMICAL SURFACE TREATMENT; DIFFUSION TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL; INHIBITING CORROSION OF METALLIC MATERIAL OR INCRUSTATION IN GENERAL
    • C23CCOATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; SURFACE TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL BY DIFFUSION INTO THE SURFACE, BY CHEMICAL CONVERSION OR SUBSTITUTION; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL
    • C23C28/00Coating for obtaining at least two superposed coatings either by methods not provided for in a single one of groups C23C2/00 - C23C26/00 or by combinations of methods provided for in subclasses C23C and C25C or C25D
    • C23C28/30Coatings combining at least one metallic layer and at least one inorganic non-metallic layer
    • C23C28/34Coatings combining at least one metallic layer and at least one inorganic non-metallic layer including at least one inorganic non-metallic material layer, e.g. metal carbide, nitride, boride, silicide layer and their mixtures, enamels, phosphates and sulphates
    • C23C28/345Coatings combining at least one metallic layer and at least one inorganic non-metallic layer including at least one inorganic non-metallic material layer, e.g. metal carbide, nitride, boride, silicide layer and their mixtures, enamels, phosphates and sulphates with at least one oxide layer
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C23COATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; CHEMICAL SURFACE TREATMENT; DIFFUSION TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL; INHIBITING CORROSION OF METALLIC MATERIAL OR INCRUSTATION IN GENERAL
    • C23CCOATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; SURFACE TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL BY DIFFUSION INTO THE SURFACE, BY CHEMICAL CONVERSION OR SUBSTITUTION; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL
    • C23C28/00Coating for obtaining at least two superposed coatings either by methods not provided for in a single one of groups C23C2/00 - C23C26/00 or by combinations of methods provided for in subclasses C23C and C25C or C25D
    • C23C28/30Coatings combining at least one metallic layer and at least one inorganic non-metallic layer
    • C23C28/34Coatings combining at least one metallic layer and at least one inorganic non-metallic layer including at least one inorganic non-metallic material layer, e.g. metal carbide, nitride, boride, silicide layer and their mixtures, enamels, phosphates and sulphates
    • C23C28/345Coatings combining at least one metallic layer and at least one inorganic non-metallic layer including at least one inorganic non-metallic material layer, e.g. metal carbide, nitride, boride, silicide layer and their mixtures, enamels, phosphates and sulphates with at least one oxide layer
    • C23C28/3455Coatings combining at least one metallic layer and at least one inorganic non-metallic layer including at least one inorganic non-metallic material layer, e.g. metal carbide, nitride, boride, silicide layer and their mixtures, enamels, phosphates and sulphates with at least one oxide layer with a refractory ceramic layer, e.g. refractory metal oxide, ZrO2, rare earth oxides or a thermal barrier system comprising at least one refractory oxide layer
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C23COATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; CHEMICAL SURFACE TREATMENT; DIFFUSION TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL; INHIBITING CORROSION OF METALLIC MATERIAL OR INCRUSTATION IN GENERAL
    • C23CCOATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; SURFACE TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL BY DIFFUSION INTO THE SURFACE, BY CHEMICAL CONVERSION OR SUBSTITUTION; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL
    • C23C28/00Coating for obtaining at least two superposed coatings either by methods not provided for in a single one of groups C23C2/00 - C23C26/00 or by combinations of methods provided for in subclasses C23C and C25C or C25D
    • C23C28/30Coatings combining at least one metallic layer and at least one inorganic non-metallic layer
    • C23C28/36Coatings combining at least one metallic layer and at least one inorganic non-metallic layer including layers graded in composition or physical properties
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C23COATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; CHEMICAL SURFACE TREATMENT; DIFFUSION TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL; INHIBITING CORROSION OF METALLIC MATERIAL OR INCRUSTATION IN GENERAL
    • C23CCOATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; SURFACE TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL BY DIFFUSION INTO THE SURFACE, BY CHEMICAL CONVERSION OR SUBSTITUTION; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL
    • C23C4/00Coating by spraying the coating material in the molten state, e.g. by flame, plasma or electric discharge
    • C23C4/02Pretreatment of the material to be coated, e.g. for coating on selected surface areas
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C23COATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; CHEMICAL SURFACE TREATMENT; DIFFUSION TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL; INHIBITING CORROSION OF METALLIC MATERIAL OR INCRUSTATION IN GENERAL
    • C23CCOATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; SURFACE TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL BY DIFFUSION INTO THE SURFACE, BY CHEMICAL CONVERSION OR SUBSTITUTION; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL
    • C23C4/00Coating by spraying the coating material in the molten state, e.g. by flame, plasma or electric discharge
    • C23C4/18After-treatment
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C25ELECTROLYTIC OR ELECTROPHORETIC PROCESSES; APPARATUS THEREFOR
    • C25DPROCESSES FOR THE ELECTROLYTIC OR ELECTROPHORETIC PRODUCTION OF COATINGS; ELECTROFORMING; APPARATUS THEREFOR
    • C25D5/00Electroplating characterised by the process; Pretreatment or after-treatment of workpieces
    • C25D5/34Pretreatment of metallic surfaces to be electroplated
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01DNON-POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES, e.g. STEAM TURBINES
    • F01D5/00Blades; Blade-carrying members; Heating, heat-insulating, cooling or antivibration means on the blades or the members
    • F01D5/12Blades
    • F01D5/28Selecting particular materials; Particular measures relating thereto; Measures against erosion or corrosion
    • F01D5/288Protective coatings for blades
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F05INDEXING SCHEMES RELATING TO ENGINES OR PUMPS IN VARIOUS SUBCLASSES OF CLASSES F01-F04
    • F05DINDEXING SCHEME FOR ASPECTS RELATING TO NON-POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES, GAS-TURBINES OR JET-PROPULSION PLANTS
    • F05D2230/00Manufacture
    • F05D2230/90Coating; Surface treatment
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F05INDEXING SCHEMES RELATING TO ENGINES OR PUMPS IN VARIOUS SUBCLASSES OF CLASSES F01-F04
    • F05DINDEXING SCHEME FOR ASPECTS RELATING TO NON-POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES, GAS-TURBINES OR JET-PROPULSION PLANTS
    • F05D2300/00Materials; Properties thereof
    • F05D2300/10Metals, alloys or intermetallic compounds
    • F05D2300/14Noble metals, i.e. Ag, Au, platinum group metals
    • F05D2300/143Platinum group metals, i.e. Os, Ir, Pt, Ru, Rh, Pd
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F05INDEXING SCHEMES RELATING TO ENGINES OR PUMPS IN VARIOUS SUBCLASSES OF CLASSES F01-F04
    • F05DINDEXING SCHEME FOR ASPECTS RELATING TO NON-POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES, GAS-TURBINES OR JET-PROPULSION PLANTS
    • F05D2300/00Materials; Properties thereof
    • F05D2300/20Oxide or non-oxide ceramics
    • F05D2300/21Oxide ceramics
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F05INDEXING SCHEMES RELATING TO ENGINES OR PUMPS IN VARIOUS SUBCLASSES OF CLASSES F01-F04
    • F05DINDEXING SCHEME FOR ASPECTS RELATING TO NON-POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES, GAS-TURBINES OR JET-PROPULSION PLANTS
    • F05D2300/00Materials; Properties thereof
    • F05D2300/20Oxide or non-oxide ceramics
    • F05D2300/21Oxide ceramics
    • F05D2300/2112Aluminium oxides
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F05INDEXING SCHEMES RELATING TO ENGINES OR PUMPS IN VARIOUS SUBCLASSES OF CLASSES F01-F04
    • F05DINDEXING SCHEME FOR ASPECTS RELATING TO NON-POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES, GAS-TURBINES OR JET-PROPULSION PLANTS
    • F05D2300/00Materials; Properties thereof
    • F05D2300/20Oxide or non-oxide ceramics
    • F05D2300/21Oxide ceramics
    • F05D2300/2118Zirconium oxides
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F05INDEXING SCHEMES RELATING TO ENGINES OR PUMPS IN VARIOUS SUBCLASSES OF CLASSES F01-F04
    • F05DINDEXING SCHEME FOR ASPECTS RELATING TO NON-POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES, GAS-TURBINES OR JET-PROPULSION PLANTS
    • F05D2300/00Materials; Properties thereof
    • F05D2300/20Oxide or non-oxide ceramics
    • F05D2300/22Non-oxide ceramics
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F05INDEXING SCHEMES RELATING TO ENGINES OR PUMPS IN VARIOUS SUBCLASSES OF CLASSES F01-F04
    • F05DINDEXING SCHEME FOR ASPECTS RELATING TO NON-POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES, GAS-TURBINES OR JET-PROPULSION PLANTS
    • F05D2300/00Materials; Properties thereof
    • F05D2300/20Oxide or non-oxide ceramics
    • F05D2300/22Non-oxide ceramics
    • F05D2300/228Nitrides
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F05INDEXING SCHEMES RELATING TO ENGINES OR PUMPS IN VARIOUS SUBCLASSES OF CLASSES F01-F04
    • F05DINDEXING SCHEME FOR ASPECTS RELATING TO NON-POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES, GAS-TURBINES OR JET-PROPULSION PLANTS
    • F05D2300/00Materials; Properties thereof
    • F05D2300/20Oxide or non-oxide ceramics
    • F05D2300/22Non-oxide ceramics
    • F05D2300/228Nitrides
    • F05D2300/2281Nitrides of aluminium
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F05INDEXING SCHEMES RELATING TO ENGINES OR PUMPS IN VARIOUS SUBCLASSES OF CLASSES F01-F04
    • F05DINDEXING SCHEME FOR ASPECTS RELATING TO NON-POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES, GAS-TURBINES OR JET-PROPULSION PLANTS
    • F05D2300/00Materials; Properties thereof
    • F05D2300/60Properties or characteristics given to material by treatment or manufacturing
    • F05D2300/611Coating
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T50/00Aeronautics or air transport
    • Y02T50/60Efficient propulsion technologies
    • Y02T50/67Relevant aircraft propulsion technologies

Abstract

A turbine engine component comprising a substrate made of a nickel-base or cobalt-base superalloy, a non-metallic oxide or nitride diffusion barrier layer overlying the substrate, and a protective coating overlying the barrier layer, the protective coating comprising at least one platinum group metal selected from the group consisting of platinum, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium and iridium. The diffusion barrier layer may be a deposited or thermally grown oxide material, especially aluminum oxide. The protective coating may be heat treated to increase homogeneity of the coating and adherence with the substrate. The component typically further comprises a ceramic thermal barrier coating overlying the protective coating. Also disclosed are methods for forming a protective coating system on the turbine engine component by forming the non-metallic oxide or nitride diffusion barrier layer on the substrate and then depositing the platinum group metal on top of the barrier layer.

Description

    BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • [0001]
    The present invention relates to a diffusion barrier layer and protective coating for turbine engine components that are exposed to high temperature, oxidation and corrosive environments. More particularly, the invention is directed to forming a non-metallic oxide or nitride diffusion barrier layer between a superalloy substrate and a protective coating for the substrate. The protective coating can be an environmental coating or a bond coat for a thermal barrier coating on the turbine engine component, and is formed by depositing at least one platinum group metal on the diffusion barrier layer.
  • [0002]
    In aircraft gas turbine engines, the turbine vanes and blades are typically made of nickel-based or cobalt-based superalloys that can operate at temperatures of up to about 1150° C. Various types of coatings are used to protect these superalloys. One type of protective coating is based on a material like MCrAl(X), where M is nickel, cobalt, or iron, or combinations thereof, and X is an element selected from the group consisting of Ta, Re, Ru, Pt, Si, B, C, Hf, Y and Zr, and combinations thereof. The MCrAl(X) coatings can be applied by many techniques, such as high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF), plasma spray, or electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD). Another type of protective coating is an aluminide material, such as nickel-aluminide. A platinum-aluminide coating can be applied, for example, by electroplating platinum onto the substrate, followed by a diffusion step, which is then followed by an aluminiding step, such as pack aluminiding. These types of coatings usually have relatively high aluminum content as compared to the superalloy substrates. The coatings often function as the primary protective layer (e.g., an environmental coating). As an alternative, these coatings can serve as bond layers for subsequently applied overlayers, e.g., thermal barrier coatings (TBCs).
  • [0003]
    When the protective coatings and substrates are exposed to a hot, oxidative, corrosive environment (as in the case of a gas turbine engine), various metallurgical processes occur. For example, an adherent alumina (Al2O3) layer (“scale”) usually forms on top of the protective coatings. This oxide scale is desirable because of the protection it provides to the underlying coating and substrate.
  • [0004]
    At elevated temperatures, interdiffusion of elemental components between the coating and the substrate often occurs. The interdiffusion can change the chemical characteristics of each of these regions, while also changing the characteristics of the oxide scale. In general, there is a tendency for the aluminum from the aluminum-rich protective layer to migrate inwardly toward the substrate. At the same time, traditional alloying elements in the substrate (e.g., a superalloy), such as cobalt, tungsten, chromium, rhenium, tantalum, molybdenum, and titanium, tend to migrate from the substrate into the coating. (These effects occur as a result of composition gradients between the substrate and the coating).
  • [0005]
    Aluminum diffusion into the substrate reduces the concentration of aluminum in the outer regions of the protective coatings. This reduction in concentration will reduce the ability of the outer region to regenerate the protective alumina layer. Moreover, the aluminum diffusion can result in the formation of a diffusion zone in an airfoil wall, which undesirably consumes a portion of the wall. Simultaneously, migration of the traditional alloying elements like molybdenum and tungsten from the substrate into the coating can also prevent the formation of an adequately protective alumina layer.
  • [0006]
    A diffusion barrier between the coating and the substrate alloy can prolong coating life by eliminating or greatly reducing the interdiffusion of elemental components. However, very thin layers of some materials may be insufficient for reducing the interdiffusion at high operating temperatures. Also, there should not be a substantial mismatch in CTE (coefficient of thermal expansion) between the protective coating, the diffusion barrier layer and a superalloy substrate. Otherwise, the overlying coating may spall during thermal cycling of the turbine engine component.
  • [0007]
    Thus, new diffusion barrier layers and protective coatings that overcome some of the drawbacks of the art would be welcome for high-temperature superalloy substrates. The barrier layer should have relatively low “interdiffusivity” for substrate elements and the protective coating. The barrier layer should also be chemically compatible and compositionally stable with the substrate alloy and any protective coating, especially during anticipated service lives at temperatures up to about 1150° C. Moreover, the barrier layer should exhibit a relatively high level of adhesion to both the substrate and the protective coating. The barrier layer should also exhibit only a minimum of CTE mismatch with the substrate and protective coating. Furthermore, the barrier layer and the protective coating should be capable of deposition by conventional techniques.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
  • [0008]
    In one aspect, the invention relates to a turbine engine component comprising:
      • a) a substrate made of a nickel-base or cobalt-base superalloy;
      • b) a non-metallic oxide or nitride diffusion barrier layer overlying the substrate; and
      • c) a protective coating overlying the barrier layer, the protective coating comprising at least one platinum group metal selected from the group consisting of platinum, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium and iridium.
  • [0012]
    In another aspect, this invention relates to a turbine engine component comprising:
      • a) a substrate made of a nickel-base or cobalt-base superalloy;
      • b) a non-metallic oxide or nitride diffusion barrier layer overlying the substrate;
      • c) a protective coating overlying the barrier layer, the protective coating comprising at least one platinum group metal selected from the group consisting of platinum, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium and iridium; and
      • d) a ceramic thermal barrier coating overlying the protective coating.
  • [0017]
    Another aspect of the invention relates to a method for forming a protective coating system on a turbine engine component, the method comprising:
      • a) providing a substrate made of a nickel-base or cobalt-base superalloy;
      • b) forming a non-metallic oxide or nitride diffusion barrier layer on the substrate; and
      • c) depositing a protective coating comprising at least one platinum group metal selected from the group consisting of platinum, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium and iridium on the barrier layer.
  • [0021]
    The invention also relates to a method for forming a protective coating system on a turbine engine component, the method comprising:
      • a) providing a substrate made of a nickel-base or cobalt-base superalloy;
      • b) forming a non-metallic oxide or nitride diffusion barrier layer on the substrate;
      • c) depositing a protective coating comprising at least one platinum group metal selected from the group consisting of platinum, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium and iridium on the barrier layer; and
      • d) forming a ceramic thermal barrier coating over the protective coating.
    BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • [0026]
    FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a gas turbine engine component; and
  • [0027]
    FIG. 2 is a sectional view through the component of FIG. 1 along line 2-2, showing one embodiment of the invention.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
  • [0028]
    This invention is directed to a diffusion barrier layer and protective coating for a turbine engine component, such as a turbine blade or vane, having a substrate made of a nickel-base or cobalt-base superalloy. The term “superalloy” is intended to embrace complex cobalt- or nickel-based alloys that include one or more other elements, such as chromium, rhenium, aluminum, tungsten, molybdenum, tantalum and titanium. Superalloys are described in various references, e.g., U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,399,313 and 4,116,723. High temperature alloys are also generally described in Kirk-Othmer's Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, 3rd Edition, Vol. 12, pp. 417-479 (1980), and Vol. 15, pp. 787-800 (1981). The actual configuration of the substrate may vary widely. For example, the substrate may be in the form of various turbine engine parts, such as combustor liners, combustor domes, shrouds, blades, nozzles, or vanes.
  • [0029]
    As used herein, “diffusion barrier layer” is meant to describe a layer of material that prevents the substantial migration of alloy elements of the substrate into the protective coating. Non-limiting examples of alloy elements of the substrate are nickel, cobalt, iron, aluminum, chromium, refractory metals (e.g., tungsten, tantalum, rhenium, and molybdenum), hafnium, carbon, boron, yttrium, titanium, and combinations thereof. These elements, when diffused into the protective coating, can be detrimental to the environmental resistance and/or thermal barrier coating adhesion properties of the turbine engine component. The diffusion barrier layer is relatively thermodynamically and kinetically stable at the service temperatures encountered by the turbine engine component.
  • [0030]
    Overlying the superalloy substrate is the non-metallic oxide or nitride diffusion barrier layer. The barrier layer is formed between, and typically is in direct contact with, the superalloy substrate and the overlying protective coating. The barrier layer is tightly adherent and substantially impermeable to diffusion of atoms from the substrate and from the overlying protective coating. It is thermally stable and has a low self-diffusion coefficient. The diffusion barrier layer essentially creates a stable zone between the underlying substrate and the protective coating that prevents interactions, which are usually undesirable, between the substrate and the coating.
  • [0031]
    The diffusion barrier layer herein can be an oxide of a variety of elements, for example, aluminum, zirconium, hafnium, yttrium, silicon, and chromium, and mixtures thereof. Of these, oxides of aluminum and zirconium, or mixtures thereof, are typically used. Such oxides can be deposited on the superalloy substrate by various processes known in the art, such as thermal spray, sol gel, laser deposition, physical vapor deposition, chemical vapor deposition, or ion plasma (also known as cathodic arc) deposition, or they can be formed on the substrate as a thermally grown oxide.
  • [0032]
    In one embodiment, the oxide layer is alumina. A thin alumina layer can significantly reduce the migration of elements from the protective coating inwardly and the migration of elements outwardly from the substrate into the protective coating, thereby stabilizing the compositions of both the coating and substrate. Alumina forms a strong bond with nickel-base superalloy substrates used in airfoils. It also forms a strong bond with the protective coatings herein.
  • [0033]
    In one embodiment, a thin, tightly adherent alumina layer is formed on the surface of a Ni-base superalloy substrate by subjecting the substrate to a controlled oxidizing heat treatment at a temperature above about 980° C. Aluminum, inherent in commonly used nickel-base superalloy substrates for airfoil applications, such as, for example, René N5 having a nominal composition of 6.2% Al, oxidizes at the surface of the substrate forming a tightly adherent alumina film. While the film thickness will depend on the temperature and the length of time at the temperature, the thickness typically is from about 0.5 to about 5 microns, more typically about 1 micron.
  • [0034]
    In another embodiment, a thermally grown oxide layer is promoted by depositing a thin layer (e.g., about 1-25 microns thick, depending on the choice of material and deposition process) of aluminum, an aluminide (e.g., Ni or Co), a chromium-rich material like Ni—Cr—Al, or a platinum group metal such as platinum, on the substrate. A variety of deposition processes may be used, but physical vapor deposition, chemical vapor deposition, thermal spray, plating or diffusion coating processes are typically used. The aluminum, chromium or platinum group metal promotes the formation of the thermally grown oxide during a pre-oxidation step. The oxide-promoting layer formed is typically thin enough to diffuse to a low concentration and not be considered an additional layer at the completion of the coating process.
  • [0035]
    If additional strength is required between the diffusion barrier layer and the substrate, a mechanical bond can be generated between the barrier layer and substrate by including fine oxides of reactive elements, including at least one element selected from the group consisting of Zr, Y, Ca, Ce and Hf, as disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 6,455,167. These reactive elements may already be present in the substrate in sufficient amounts to cause the formation of internal oxides during a subsequent heat treatment after application of the diffusion barrier layer.
  • [0036]
    In another embodiment, the diffusion barrier layer in the form of an alumina scale is applied directly to the substrate or to a pre-bond coat applied to the substrate. If the above mechanical interlocks are not employed, or if the substrate includes sufficient reactive metals to form the requisite amounts of fine oxides across the substrate/diffusion barrier interface during a subsequent heat treatment, a pre-bond coat is typically not applied. If the substrate does not include sufficient amounts of reactive elements or if mechanical interlocks are desired across both interfaces of the diffusion barrier, then a pre-bond layer including the above reactive elements may be deposited over the substrate. In this embodiment, a thin layer of alumina having a thickness of less than about 10 microns, and typically about 1 micron or less, is directly deposited over either the substrate surface or the pre-bond coat applied to the substrate surface. Unlike the prior embodiment in which the alumina was thermally grown over the underlying material, in this embodiment a thin layer of oxide, alumina for example, is directly applied to the underlying material by sputtering, organo-metallic chemical vapor deposition or by electron beam physical vapor deposition. The applied oxide layer may also include reactive elements that can assist in the formation of oxides during subsequent heat treatment. The protective coating can then be applied over the diffusion barrier and fine oxides forming the mechanical interlocks, when required, can be grown in a thermal treatment as set forth above.
  • [0037]
    In other embodiments, the diffusion barrier layer comprises a non-metallic nitride material, such as chromium nitride, aluminum nitride and titanium nitride as disclosed in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,484,263, 6,528,189 and 6,129,998. The diffusion barrier layer herein may also comprise mixtures of oxides and nitrides (e.g., oxy-nitrides).
  • [0038]
    Methods for applying the diffusion barrier layer over the substrate are known in the art. They include, for example, electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD), electroplating, ion plasma deposition (IPD), chemical vapor deposition (CVD), plasma spray (e.g., air plasma spray (APS)), high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF), low-pressure plasma spray (LPPS), sputtering, and the like. Single-stage processes can be used to deposit the entire coating chemistry. Those skilled in the art can adapt the present invention to various types of equipment. For example, the alloy coating elements can be incorporated into the source material in the case of physical vapor deposition. Thermal spray processes (e.g., APS, LPPS, and HVOF) benefit from surface roughening (e.g., grit blasting, etching, shot peening, surface grooving, or combinations thereof) prior to deposition in order to improve adhesion of the diffusion barrier layer.
  • [0039]
    The thickness of the barrier layer will depend on a variety of factors, including the particular composition of the substrate and the layer (or layers) applied over the barrier layer; the intended end use for the turbine engine component; the expected temperature and temperature patterns to which the component will be subjected; and the intended service life and repair intervals for the coating system. When used on a turbine engine blade or airfoil, the barrier layer usually has a thickness in the range of about 0.05 to about 10 microns, typically from about 0.5 to about 5 microns, and more typically from about 1 to about 3 microns. These ranges may be varied considerably to suit the needs of a particular end use.
  • [0040]
    Sometimes, a heat treatment is performed after the diffusion barrier layer is applied over the substrate. The purpose of the heat treatment is to improve adhesion and to enhance the chemical equilibration between the barrier layer and the substrate. The treatment is often carried out at a temperature in the range of about 950° C. to about 1200° C., for up to about 16 hours.
  • [0041]
    A protective coating comprising at least one platinum group metal selected from the group consisting of platinum, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium and iridium, and optionally comprising chromium, nickel, hafnium, zirconium, aluminum, yttrium, or cerium, or mixtures thereof, is then formed overlying the diffusion barrier layer. The resulting protective coating system comprises the diffusion barrier layer and the protective coating. The protective coating can be used as an environmental coating or a bond coat for a ceramic thermal barrier coating deposited on the overlay coating. The thermal barrier coating system formed provides improved resistance to oxidation, spallation, and hot corrosion as compared to conventional bond coats such as aluminide diffusion coatings and MCrAlY coatings. Additionally, conventional bond coats and environmental coatings often have high levels of aluminum that can diffuse into the base metal and create a secondary reaction zone that reduces the mechanical strength of the component. This is avoided in the present invention by forming a protective coating comprising relatively inert platinum group metals. The protective coatings have low oxidation rates, and are sometimes referred to as inert coatings. The resulting coatings also have high strength and durability, and a minimum of thermal expansion mismatch with ceramic thermal barrier coatings used on turbine engine components. The protective coatings herein typically replace conventional environmental coatings and bond coats used on turbine engine components. The invention thus provides an improved turbine engine component that is protected against high temperatures and adverse environmental effects by the diffusion barrier layer and protective coating herein, and optionally further protected by an additional ceramic thermal barrier coating.
  • [0042]
    The present invention is generally applicable to turbine engine components that operate within environments characterized by relatively high temperatures, severe thermal stresses and thermal cycling. Such components include the high and low-pressure turbine nozzles and blades, shrouds, combustor liners and augmentor hardware of gas turbine engines. One such example is the high-pressure turbine blade 10 shown in FIG. 1. The blade 10 generally includes an airfoil 12 against which hot combustion gases are directed during operation of the gas turbine engine, and whose surface is therefore subjected to severe attack by oxidation, corrosion and erosion. The airfoil 12 is anchored to a turbine disk (not shown) with a dovetail 14 formed on a root section 16 of the blade 10. Cooling holes 18 are present in the airfoil 12 through which bleed air is forced to transfer heat from the blade 10. While the advantages of this invention will be described with reference to the high pressure turbine blade 10 shown in FIG. 1, and particularly nickel-base superalloy blades of the type shown in FIG. 1, the teachings of this invention are generally applicable to any turbine engine component susceptible to degradation from diffusion of substrate elements into an overlay coating used to protect the component from its environment.
  • [0043]
    FIG. 2 shows a thermal barrier coating system 20 of a type that benefits from the teachings of this invention. Coating system 20 includes a ceramic layer 26 and a protective coating 24, which serves as a bond coat to the ceramic layer 26. A diffusion barrier layer 28 overlays blade substrate 22. Substrate 22 is typically a high-temperature material, such as an iron, nickel or cobalt-base superalloy.
  • [0044]
    The diffusion barrier layer 28 is employed to minimize diffusion between the protective coating 24 and the substrate 22. In one embodiment, the diffusion barrier is a thin layer (e.g., from about 0.05 to about 10 microns thick) of aluminum oxide, which may be deposited on the substrate by processes such as thermal spray, sol gel, laser deposition, physical vapor deposition, or chemical vapor deposition, or formed as a thermally grown oxide, as described above. For example, an aluminum oxide layer about 1 micron thick may be formed by oxidizing the surface of an aluminum rich superalloy or a superalloy that has had its surface enriched in aluminum to promote the formation of aluminum oxide. The oxidation step may be performed by heating the substrate to a temperature in the range of from about 900° C. to about 1150° C. for about two hours in air or in a controlled atmosphere, especially with a partial pressure of oxygen.
  • [0045]
    Protective coating 24 comprises at least one platinum group metal selected from the group consisting of platinum, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium, and iridium. The platinum group metal or metals can be deposited on the substrate 22 by a variety of processes, including electroplating, EB-PVD, sputtering, ion plasma and thermal spray processes. In one embodiment, the coating 24 comprises at least two, and often at least three, of the above platinum group metals. In most applications, coating 24 comprises at least about 40%, and typically at least about 50%, by weight, of platinum or rhodium, or mixtures thereof. The particular platinum group metals used, their relative proportions, and the thickness of the coating can be selected to obtain the desired properties, such as strength, oxidation resistance, durability, hardness, thermal expansion, and elastic modulus for the coating application at hand. Minor amounts of additional elements, such as aluminum, zirconium, hafnium and chromium, and mixtures thereof, can be added to improve the mechanical and/or physical properties of the coating 24. Such elements can be added at levels up to about 25%, typically up to about 20%, by weight of the coating. Coating 24 typically has a thickness of from about 5 to about 120 microns, more typically from about 10 to about 60 microns. When the above metals are deposited sequentially as individual layers on the substrate, the thickness of each layer of metal in the protective coating 24 is usually from about 2 to about 50 microns, more typically from about 5 to about 25 microns.
  • [0046]
    Prior to depositing the diffusion barrier layer 28 and/or the protective coating 24, the surface of the turbine engine component may be cleaned or conditioned, for example, by using a caustic solution or grit blasting operation, immersing the component in a heated liquid solution comprising a weak acid, and/or agitating the surface of the component while it remains immersed in the solution. In this manner, any dirt or corrosion products on the surface can be removed without damaging the component.
  • [0047]
    The protective coating 24, and each of its layers, may be deposited by a variety of methods as mentioned above. One suitable approach is electroplating, including the various electroplating and entrapment plating processes known in the art. Electroplating processes have relatively high deposition efficiencies that make them particularly useful for depositing the expensive platinum group metals herein. The platinum group metals may be deposited sequentially; two or more metals may be co-plated; the metals may be deposited using entrapment plating; or any combination of these processes may be used. Electroplating of individual layers is typically used, however, to more easily the control bath chemistry and process parameters. For example, a platinum layer may be deposited by placing a platinum-comprising solution into a deposition tank and depositing platinum from the solution onto the component in an electroplating process. An operable platinum-comprising aqueous solution is Pt(NH3)4HPO4 having a concentration of about 4-20 grams per liter of platinum. The voltage/current source can be operated at about 0.5-20 amperes per square foot (about 0.05-0.93 amperes per square meter) of facing article surface. The platinum layer can be deposited in from about 1 hour to about 4 hours at a temperature of about 190-200° F. (about 88-93° C.). Other platinum source chemicals and plating parameters known in the art may also be used. Similar processes can be used to deposit palladium, rhodium, ruthenium and iridium, and combinations thereof. A thin flash coating of a conductive material may be deposited to promote electroplating over the non-electrically conductive, non-metallic diffusion barrier layer. Examples include electroless nickel plate and spluttered platinum.
  • [0048]
    In one embodiment, an entrapment plating process is used to deposit the platinum group metals herein. In this process, standard electroplating is conducted with a fine dispersion of solid particulate material suspended in the plating solution. Some of the particles become entrapped and retained in the plated coating. A diffusion treatment can then be used to obtain a substantially uniform composition of the coating. The ratio of plated to entrapped material and the composition of each material is controlled to arrive at the desired overall coating composition. For example, platinum plating can be used to trap rhodium-palladium particulates and obtain a Pt—Rh—Pd coating. An entrapment plating process is particularly useful for adding minor amounts (e.g., up to about 25%, typically up to about 20%, by weight) of non-platinum group metals such as aluminum, zirconium, hafnium and chromium, and mixtures thereof.
  • [0049]
    After depositing the protective coating 24, or each layer thereof, the article is often heat treated, typically at about 900° C. to about 1200° C., more typically from about 1000° C. to about 1100° C., for a period of time, e.g., up to about 24 hours, but generally from about 1 to about 8 hours, typically from about 2 to about 4 hours. This causes the metals of the protective coating to interdiffuse, increasing the homogeneity of the coating. Heat treating also improves the adherence or bond between the coating and the diffusion barrier layer, and the barrier layer and the substrate. The heat treatment may be conducted after deposition of single or multiple layers of the platinum group metals, or after electroplating is complete, to enhance microstructure and composition uniformity, improve adherence of the protective coating 24, and reduce residual stresses within the coating and the adjoining surfaces.
  • [0050]
    A ceramic layer 26 may then be deposited on the protective coating 24. Ceramic layer 26 is formed of a ceramic material that serves to insulate the substrate 22 from the temperature of the hot exhaust gas passing over the surface of the airfoil 12 when the engine is in service. The ceramic layer 26 may be any acceptable material, but typically is yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) having a composition of from about 3 to about 20 weight percent yttrium oxide (e.g., about 7 percent yttrium oxide), with the balance zirconium oxide. Other thermal barrier materials can also be used, such as zirconia stabilized by ceria (CeO2), scandia (Sc2O3), or other oxides. The ceramic layer 26 usually has a thickness of from about 50 to about 1000 microns, typically about 75 to about 400 microns. The ceramic layer 26 is typically applied by air plasma spray, low-pressure plasma spray or physical vapor deposition techniques. To attain a strain-tolerant columnar grain structure, the ceramic layer 26 is usually deposited by physical vapor deposition (PVD), though other deposition techniques can be used. In contrast with conventional environmental coatings and bond coats, the surface of the protective coating 24 typically does not oxidize to any significant degree to form an oxide surface layer. However, since ceramic thermal barrier coatings are sufficiently permeable to gas that oxygen from the operating environment may diffuse through such a coating and react with non-platinum group metals in the bond coat, a small amount of oxide may be formed. Any such oxide layer formed adheres well to the protective coating and chemically bonds with the ceramic layer 26 so that satisfactory performance of a thermal barrier coating system is provided.
  • [0051]
    The following example is intended to illustrate aspects of the invention, and should not be taken as limiting the invention in any respect.
  • EXAMPLE
  • [0052]
    A protective coating system of the invention comprising a diffusion barrier layer and a protective coating is formed on button specimens of a nickel-base superalloy known as René N5 having a nominal composition, in weight percent, of 7.5% Co, 7.0% Cr, 6.2% Al, 6.5% Ta, 5.0% W, 3.0% Re, 1.5% Mo, 0.15% Hf, 0.05% C, 0.004% B, 0.01% Y, with the balance nickel and incidental impurities. First, an aluminum oxide diffusion barrier layer about 1 micron thick is formed on the substrate by oxidizing the surface of the aluminum rich superalloy. The oxidation step is performed by heating the substrate to a temperature in the range of from about 900° C. to about 1150° C. for about two hours in air or in a controlled atmosphere, especially with a partial pressure of oxygen.
  • [0053]
    A thin flash layer (about 2 microns thick) of platinum is applied over the diffusion barrier layer by sputtering. Layers of platinum (about 76.2 microns thick), rhodium (about 12.7 microns thick), and palladium (about 12.7 microns thick) are then sequentially deposited over the diffusion barrier layer by electroplating the button specimens. The samples are then heat treated at a temperature of about 1050° C. for 2 hours. All samples are then coated with a ceramic layer (about 125 microns thick) of zirconia with about 7% yttria by electron beam physical vapor deposition. The thermal barrier coating system formed comprises the ceramic layer and the protective coating comprising platinum, rhodium and palladium.
  • [0054]
    Various embodiments of this invention have been described. However, this disclosure should not be deemed to be a limitation on the scope of the invention. Accordingly, various modifications, adaptations, and alternatives may occur to one skilled in the art without departing from the spirit and scope of the claimed invention.

Claims (32)

  1. 1. A turbine engine component comprising:
    a) a substrate made of a nickel-base or cobalt-base superalloy;
    b) a non-metallic oxide or nitride diffusion barrier layer overlying the substrate and formed on or deposited on the substrate; and
    c) a protective coating overlying the barrier layer, the protective coating comprising at least two platinum group metals selected from the group consisting of platinum, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium and iridium and comprising at least about 40% by weight of platinum or rhodium, said protective coating having a thickness of from about 10 to about 120 microns.
  2. 2. The component of claim 1 wherein the diffusion barrier layer is an oxide material.
  3. 3. The component of claim 2 wherein the diffusion barrier layer is aluminum oxide or zirconium oxide, or mixtures thereof.
  4. 4. The component of claim 3 wherein the diffusion barrier layer has a thickness of from about 0.05 to about 10 microns.
  5. 5. The component of claim 1 wherein the diffusion barrier layer is a thermally grown oxide material.
  6. 6. The component of claim 1 wherein the protective coating comprises at least three metals selected from the group consisting of platinum, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium, and iridium.
  7. 7. The component of claim 6 wherein the protective coating comprises at least about 50% by weight of platinum or rhodium, or mixtures thereof, and has a thickness of from about 10 to about 60 microns.
  8. 8. A turbine engine component comprising:
    a) a substrate made of a nickel-base or cobalt-base superalloy;
    b) a non-metallic oxide or nitride diffusion barrier layer overlying the substrate and formed on or deposited on the substrate; and
    c) a protective coating overlying the barrier layer, the protective coating comprising at least one platinum group metal selected from the group consisting of platinum, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium and iridium; and
    d) a ceramic thermal barrier coating overlying the protective coating.
  9. 9. The component of claim 8 wherein the diffusion barrier layer is aluminum oxide or zirconium oxide, or mixtures thereof.
  10. 10. The component of claim 9 wherein the diffusion barrier layer has a thickness of from about 0.05 to about 10 microns.
  11. 11. The component of claim 10 wherein the diffusion barrier layer has a thickness of from about 0.5 to about 5 microns.
  12. 12. The component of claim 10 wherein the protective coating comprises at least about 50% by weight of platinum or rhodium, or mixtures thereof.
  13. 13. The component of claim 12 wherein the protective coating comprises at least two metals selected from the group consisting of platinum, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium and iridium.
  14. 14. A method for forming a protective coating system on a turbine engine component, the method comprising.
    a) providing a substrate made of a nickel-base or cobalt-base superalloy;
    b) forming a non-metallic oxide or nitride diffusion barrier layer on the substrate; and
    c) depositing a protective coating comprising at least one platinum group metal selected from the group consisting of platinum, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium and iridium on the barrier layer.
  15. 15. The method of claim 14 wherein the diffusion barrier layer is a thermally grown oxide material.
  16. 16. The method of claim 15 wherein the thermally grown oxide layer is promoted by depositing a layer of aluminum, aluminide, chromide, or platinum group metal on the substrate, followed by an oxidation step.
  17. 17. The method of claim 16 wherein the diffusion barrier layer is aluminum oxide having a thickness of from about 0.05 to about 10 microns.
  18. 18. The method of claim 14 wherein the substrate surface is roughened by grit blasting, etching, peening, grooving, or combinations thereof, prior to forming the diffusion barrier layer by a low pressure plasma spray, air plasma spray or high velocity oxy-fuel process.
  19. 19. The method of claim 14 wherein the diffusion barrier layer is aluminum oxide having a thickness of from about 0.5 to about 5 microns.
  20. 20. The method of claim 19 wherein the protective coating has a thickness of from about 10 to about 60 microns.
  21. 21. The method of claim 19 wherein the protective coating comprises at least about 50% by weight of platinum or rhodium, or mixtures thereof.
  22. 22. The method of claim 21 wherein the protective coating comprises at least two metals selected from the group consisting of platinum, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium, and iridium.
  23. 23. The method of claim 22 wherein the platinum group metals are sequentially deposited.
  24. 24. The method of claim 14 wherein the platinum group metal is deposited using an electroplating step.
  25. 25. The method of claim 14 wherein the platinum group metal is deposited by ion plasma deposition.
  26. 26. The method of claim 14 wherein the protective coating is heat treated at a temperature of from about 900° C. to about 1200° C. for from about 1 to about 8 hours.
  27. 27. A method for forming a protective coating system on a turbine engine component, the method comprising:
    a) providing a substrate made of a nickel-base or cobalt-base superalloy;
    b) forming a non-metallic oxide or nitride diffusion barrier layer on the substrate;
    c) depositing a protective coating comprising at least one platinum group metal selected from the group consisting of platinum, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium and iridium on the barrier layer; and
    d) forming a ceramic thermal barrier coating over the protective coating.
  28. 28. The method of claim 27 wherein the diffusion barrier layer is a thermally grown oxide material.
  29. 29. The method of claim 28 wherein the thermally grown oxide layer is promoted by depositing a layer of aluminum, aluminide, chromide, or platinum group metal on the substrate, followed by an oxidation step.
  30. 30. The method of claim 27 wherein the diffusion barrier layer is aluminum oxide having a thickness of from about 0.05 to about 10 microns.
  31. 31. The method of claim 30 wherein the protective coating comprises at least two metals selected from the group consisting of platinum, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium and iridium.
  32. 32. The method of claim 31 wherein the protective coating has a thickness of from about 10 to about 60 microns, and comprises at least about 50% by weight of platinum or rhodium, or mixtures thereof.
US10681433 2003-10-08 2003-10-08 Diffusion barrier and protective coating for turbine engine component and method for forming Expired - Fee Related US6933052B2 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US10681433 US6933052B2 (en) 2003-10-08 2003-10-08 Diffusion barrier and protective coating for turbine engine component and method for forming

Applications Claiming Priority (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US10681433 US6933052B2 (en) 2003-10-08 2003-10-08 Diffusion barrier and protective coating for turbine engine component and method for forming
EP20040256244 EP1522608A3 (en) 2003-10-08 2004-10-08 Diffusion barrier and protective coating for turbine engine component and method for forming
US11168660 US20070020399A1 (en) 2003-10-08 2005-06-28 Diffusion barrier and protective coating for turbine engine component and method for forming

Related Child Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US11168660 Division US20070020399A1 (en) 2003-10-08 2005-06-28 Diffusion barrier and protective coating for turbine engine component and method for forming

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
US20050079368A1 true true US20050079368A1 (en) 2005-04-14
US6933052B2 US6933052B2 (en) 2005-08-23

Family

ID=34314123

Family Applications (2)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US10681433 Expired - Fee Related US6933052B2 (en) 2003-10-08 2003-10-08 Diffusion barrier and protective coating for turbine engine component and method for forming
US11168660 Abandoned US20070020399A1 (en) 2003-10-08 2005-06-28 Diffusion barrier and protective coating for turbine engine component and method for forming

Family Applications After (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US11168660 Abandoned US20070020399A1 (en) 2003-10-08 2005-06-28 Diffusion barrier and protective coating for turbine engine component and method for forming

Country Status (2)

Country Link
US (2) US6933052B2 (en)
EP (1) EP1522608A3 (en)

Cited By (16)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20060275624A1 (en) * 2005-06-07 2006-12-07 General Electric Company Method and apparatus for airfoil electroplating, and airfoil
US20080138647A1 (en) * 2006-12-08 2008-06-12 General Electric Company Coating systems containing rhodium aluminide-based layers
US20080160213A1 (en) * 2006-12-29 2008-07-03 Michael Patrick Maly Method for restoring or regenerating an article
US20090239061A1 (en) * 2006-11-08 2009-09-24 General Electric Corporation Ceramic corrosion resistant coating for oxidation resistance
US20100086397A1 (en) * 2008-10-03 2010-04-08 General Electric Company Surface Treatments for Turbine Components to Reduce Particle Accumulation During Use Thereof
US20100247323A1 (en) * 2006-05-30 2010-09-30 United Technologies Corporation Erosion barrier for thermal barrier coatings
US20110111190A1 (en) * 2009-11-11 2011-05-12 Southwest Research Institute Method For Applying A Diffusion Barrier Interlayer For High Temperature Components
US20110256417A1 (en) * 2010-04-15 2011-10-20 Southwest Research Institute Oxidation Resistant Nanocrystalline MCrAl(Y) Coatings And Methods of Forming Such Coatings
US20120224975A1 (en) * 2007-10-03 2012-09-06 Snecma Process for the vapor phase aluminization of a turbomachine metal part and donor liner and turbomachine vane comprising such a liner
US20130011270A1 (en) * 2011-07-08 2013-01-10 Barson Composites Corporation Coatings for gas turbine components
US20130323069A1 (en) * 2012-05-30 2013-12-05 National University Corporation Hokkaido University Turbine Blade for Industrial Gas Turbine and Industrial Gas Turbine
US20150377069A1 (en) * 2014-06-30 2015-12-31 Rolls-Royce Corporation Coating for isolating metallic components from composite components
EP3054095A1 (en) * 2015-02-05 2016-08-10 Mitsubishi Hitachi Power Systems, Ltd. Steam turbine and surface treatment method therefor
US9511572B2 (en) 2011-05-25 2016-12-06 Southwest Research Institute Nanocrystalline interlayer coating for increasing service life of thermal barrier coating on high temperature components
US9523146B1 (en) 2015-06-17 2016-12-20 Southwest Research Institute Ti—Si—C—N piston ring coatings
US9970102B2 (en) * 2016-02-08 2018-05-15 International Business Machines Corporation Energy release using tunable reactive materials

Families Citing this family (17)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20040240600A1 (en) * 2003-05-30 2004-12-02 Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation Positron annihilation for inspection of land based industrial gas turbine components
RU2347080C2 (en) * 2003-05-30 2009-02-20 Исикавадзима-Харима Хэви Индастриз Ко., Лтд. TURBINE BLADE WITH COATING FOR DETERRENCE OF REACTIVITY OF SUPERALLOY ON BASIS OF Ni
US20050255329A1 (en) * 2004-05-12 2005-11-17 General Electric Company Superalloy article having corrosion resistant coating thereon
GB0509263D0 (en) * 2005-05-06 2005-06-15 Rolls Royce Plc Component fabrication
US20060269775A1 (en) * 2005-05-27 2006-11-30 Hai Luah K Thermal barrier coating
US7833472B2 (en) * 2005-06-01 2010-11-16 General Electric Company Article prepared by depositing an alloying element on powder particles, and making the article from the particles
CA2568971A1 (en) * 2005-11-29 2007-05-29 General Electric Company Method for applying a bond coat and a thermal barrier coating over an aluminided surface
EP1816316B1 (en) * 2006-01-24 2009-01-07 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Method for Repairing a Component
US7527877B2 (en) * 2006-10-27 2009-05-05 General Electric Company Platinum group bond coat modified for diffusion control
US8257572B2 (en) * 2008-03-28 2012-09-04 Tenaris Connections Limited Method for electrochemical plating and marking of metals
US8535005B2 (en) 2010-04-30 2013-09-17 Honeywell International Inc. Blades, turbine blade assemblies, and methods of forming blades
FR2960970B1 (en) * 2010-06-03 2015-02-20 Snecma Measuring damage to a thermal barrier turbine blade
US9719353B2 (en) 2011-04-13 2017-08-01 Rolls-Royce Corporation Interfacial diffusion barrier layer including iridium on a metallic substrate
FR2993901B1 (en) * 2012-07-30 2014-12-12 Snecma Method of manufacturing a thermal barrier
RU2530974C1 (en) * 2013-05-16 2014-10-20 Фонд поддержки научной, научно-технической и инновационной деятельности "Энергия без границ" (Фонд "Энергия без границ") Composition of packing coating for modification of turbine stator element
EP2913425A1 (en) * 2014-02-26 2015-09-02 MTU Aero Engines GmbH Thermal barrier coating with iridium - rhodium - alloy
EP2918705B1 (en) 2014-03-12 2017-05-03 Rolls-Royce Corporation Coating including diffusion barrier layer including iridium and oxide layer and method of coating

Citations (28)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3998603A (en) * 1973-08-29 1976-12-21 General Electric Company Protective coatings for superalloys
US5427866A (en) * 1994-03-28 1995-06-27 General Electric Company Platinum, rhodium, or palladium protective coatings in thermal barrier coating systems
US5484263A (en) * 1994-10-17 1996-01-16 General Electric Company Non-degrading reflective coating system for high temperature heat shields and a method therefor
US5645893A (en) * 1994-12-24 1997-07-08 Rolls-Royce Plc Thermal barrier coating for a superalloy article and method of application
US5759640A (en) * 1996-12-27 1998-06-02 General Electric Company Method for forming a thermal barrier coating system having enhanced spallation resistance
US5824205A (en) * 1994-07-22 1998-10-20 Praxair S.T. Technology, Inc. Protective coating
US5837385A (en) * 1997-03-31 1998-11-17 General Electric Company Environmental coating for nickel aluminide components and a method therefor
US6020075A (en) * 1996-12-23 2000-02-01 General Electric Company Thermal barrier coating system
US6129988A (en) * 1998-08-14 2000-10-10 Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation Gaseous modification of MCrAlY coatings
US20010004475A1 (en) * 1999-12-20 2001-06-21 United Technologies Corporation Methods of providing article with corrosion resistant coating and coated article
US6306524B1 (en) * 1999-03-24 2001-10-23 General Electric Company Diffusion barrier layer
US6306515B1 (en) * 1998-08-12 2001-10-23 Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation Thermal barrier and overlay coating systems comprising composite metal/metal oxide bond coating layers
US6413584B1 (en) * 1999-08-11 2002-07-02 General Electric Company Method for preparing a gas turbine airfoil protected by aluminide and platinum aluminide coatings
US20020119043A1 (en) * 1999-12-20 2002-08-29 Allen William Patrick Article having corrosion resistant coating
US6455167B1 (en) * 1999-07-02 2002-09-24 General Electric Company Coating system utilizing an oxide diffusion barrier for improved performance and repair capability
US6458473B1 (en) * 1997-01-21 2002-10-01 General Electric Company Diffusion aluminide bond coat for a thermal barrier coating system and method therefor
US20020197502A1 (en) * 2001-06-11 2002-12-26 Ji-Cheng Zhao Diffusion barrier coatings, and related articles and processes
US20030003328A1 (en) * 2001-06-27 2003-01-02 Irene Spitsberg Environmental/thermal barrier coating system with silica diffusion barrier layer
US6521113B2 (en) * 2000-01-14 2003-02-18 Honeywell International Inc. Method of improving the oxidation resistance of a platinum modified aluminide diffusion coating
US6528189B1 (en) * 1996-06-13 2003-03-04 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Article with a protective coating system including an improved anchoring layer and method of manufacturing the same
US6582534B2 (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-06-24 General Electric Company High-temperature alloy and articles made therefrom
US20030118863A1 (en) * 2001-12-20 2003-06-26 Ramgopal Darolia Nickel aluminide coating and coating systems formed therewith
US20030148141A1 (en) * 2002-02-05 2003-08-07 General Electric Company Materials for protection of substrates at high temperature, articles made therefrom, and method for protecting substrates
US20030157363A1 (en) * 2001-04-26 2003-08-21 Rigney Joseph David Plasma sprayed thermal bond coat system
US6609894B2 (en) * 2001-06-26 2003-08-26 General Electric Company Airfoils with improved oxidation resistance and manufacture and repair thereof
US6627323B2 (en) * 2002-02-19 2003-09-30 General Electric Company Thermal barrier coating resistant to deposits and coating method therefor
US20030186075A1 (en) * 2002-03-18 2003-10-02 General Electric Crd Article for high temperature service and method for manufacture
US6652987B2 (en) * 2001-07-06 2003-11-25 United Technologies Corporation Reflective coatings to reduce radiation heat transfer

Family Cites Families (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JPS55130756A (en) * 1979-02-01 1980-10-09 Johnson Matthey Co Ltd Improved protective layer
US5538796A (en) * 1992-10-13 1996-07-23 General Electric Company Thermal barrier coating system having no bond coat
US6656605B1 (en) * 1992-10-13 2003-12-02 General Electric Company Low-sulfur article coated with a platinum-group metal and a ceramic layer, and its preparation
GB9617267D0 (en) * 1996-08-16 1996-09-25 Rolls Royce Plc A metallic article having a thermal barrier coating and a method of application thereof
US6830827B2 (en) * 2000-03-07 2004-12-14 Ebara Corporation Alloy coating, method for forming the same, and member for high temperature apparatuses
US6838190B2 (en) * 2001-12-20 2005-01-04 General Electric Company Article with intermediate layer and protective layer, and its fabrication

Patent Citations (29)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3998603A (en) * 1973-08-29 1976-12-21 General Electric Company Protective coatings for superalloys
US5427866A (en) * 1994-03-28 1995-06-27 General Electric Company Platinum, rhodium, or palladium protective coatings in thermal barrier coating systems
US5824205A (en) * 1994-07-22 1998-10-20 Praxair S.T. Technology, Inc. Protective coating
US5484263A (en) * 1994-10-17 1996-01-16 General Electric Company Non-degrading reflective coating system for high temperature heat shields and a method therefor
US5645893A (en) * 1994-12-24 1997-07-08 Rolls-Royce Plc Thermal barrier coating for a superalloy article and method of application
US6528189B1 (en) * 1996-06-13 2003-03-04 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Article with a protective coating system including an improved anchoring layer and method of manufacturing the same
US6020075A (en) * 1996-12-23 2000-02-01 General Electric Company Thermal barrier coating system
US5759640A (en) * 1996-12-27 1998-06-02 General Electric Company Method for forming a thermal barrier coating system having enhanced spallation resistance
US6458473B1 (en) * 1997-01-21 2002-10-01 General Electric Company Diffusion aluminide bond coat for a thermal barrier coating system and method therefor
US5837385A (en) * 1997-03-31 1998-11-17 General Electric Company Environmental coating for nickel aluminide components and a method therefor
US6306515B1 (en) * 1998-08-12 2001-10-23 Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation Thermal barrier and overlay coating systems comprising composite metal/metal oxide bond coating layers
US6129988A (en) * 1998-08-14 2000-10-10 Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation Gaseous modification of MCrAlY coatings
US6306524B1 (en) * 1999-03-24 2001-10-23 General Electric Company Diffusion barrier layer
US6455167B1 (en) * 1999-07-02 2002-09-24 General Electric Company Coating system utilizing an oxide diffusion barrier for improved performance and repair capability
US6413584B1 (en) * 1999-08-11 2002-07-02 General Electric Company Method for preparing a gas turbine airfoil protected by aluminide and platinum aluminide coatings
US20020119043A1 (en) * 1999-12-20 2002-08-29 Allen William Patrick Article having corrosion resistant coating
US20010004475A1 (en) * 1999-12-20 2001-06-21 United Technologies Corporation Methods of providing article with corrosion resistant coating and coated article
US20020130047A1 (en) * 1999-12-20 2002-09-19 United Technologies Corporation Methods of providing article with corrosion resistant coating and coated article
US6521113B2 (en) * 2000-01-14 2003-02-18 Honeywell International Inc. Method of improving the oxidation resistance of a platinum modified aluminide diffusion coating
US20030157363A1 (en) * 2001-04-26 2003-08-21 Rigney Joseph David Plasma sprayed thermal bond coat system
US20020197502A1 (en) * 2001-06-11 2002-12-26 Ji-Cheng Zhao Diffusion barrier coatings, and related articles and processes
US6609894B2 (en) * 2001-06-26 2003-08-26 General Electric Company Airfoils with improved oxidation resistance and manufacture and repair thereof
US20030003328A1 (en) * 2001-06-27 2003-01-02 Irene Spitsberg Environmental/thermal barrier coating system with silica diffusion barrier layer
US6652987B2 (en) * 2001-07-06 2003-11-25 United Technologies Corporation Reflective coatings to reduce radiation heat transfer
US6582534B2 (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-06-24 General Electric Company High-temperature alloy and articles made therefrom
US20030118863A1 (en) * 2001-12-20 2003-06-26 Ramgopal Darolia Nickel aluminide coating and coating systems formed therewith
US20030148141A1 (en) * 2002-02-05 2003-08-07 General Electric Company Materials for protection of substrates at high temperature, articles made therefrom, and method for protecting substrates
US6627323B2 (en) * 2002-02-19 2003-09-30 General Electric Company Thermal barrier coating resistant to deposits and coating method therefor
US20030186075A1 (en) * 2002-03-18 2003-10-02 General Electric Crd Article for high temperature service and method for manufacture

Cited By (29)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20060275624A1 (en) * 2005-06-07 2006-12-07 General Electric Company Method and apparatus for airfoil electroplating, and airfoil
US8470458B1 (en) 2006-05-30 2013-06-25 United Technologies Corporation Erosion barrier for thermal barrier coatings
US8512871B2 (en) * 2006-05-30 2013-08-20 United Technologies Corporation Erosion barrier for thermal barrier coatings
US20100247323A1 (en) * 2006-05-30 2010-09-30 United Technologies Corporation Erosion barrier for thermal barrier coatings
US20100279018A1 (en) * 2006-11-08 2010-11-04 General Electric Corporation Ceramic corrosion resistant coating for oxidation resistance
US20090239061A1 (en) * 2006-11-08 2009-09-24 General Electric Corporation Ceramic corrosion resistant coating for oxidation resistance
US20090061086A1 (en) * 2006-12-08 2009-03-05 General Electric Company Coating systems containing rhodium aluminide-based layers
GB2444611B (en) * 2006-12-08 2012-04-11 Gen Electric Coating systems containing rhodium aluminide-based layers
US20080138647A1 (en) * 2006-12-08 2008-06-12 General Electric Company Coating systems containing rhodium aluminide-based layers
US7416790B2 (en) 2006-12-08 2008-08-26 General Electric Company Coating systems containing rhodium aluminide-based layers
US8293324B2 (en) 2006-12-08 2012-10-23 General Electric Company Coating systems containing rhodium aluminide-based layers
US20080160213A1 (en) * 2006-12-29 2008-07-03 Michael Patrick Maly Method for restoring or regenerating an article
US9157142B2 (en) * 2007-10-03 2015-10-13 Snecma Process for the vapor phase aluminization of a turbomachine metal part and donor liner and turbomachine vane comprising such a liner
US20120224975A1 (en) * 2007-10-03 2012-09-06 Snecma Process for the vapor phase aluminization of a turbomachine metal part and donor liner and turbomachine vane comprising such a liner
JP2010090892A (en) * 2008-10-03 2010-04-22 General Electric Co <Ge> Surface treatment for turbine component to reduce particle accumulation during use thereof
US20100086397A1 (en) * 2008-10-03 2010-04-08 General Electric Company Surface Treatments for Turbine Components to Reduce Particle Accumulation During Use Thereof
US9279187B2 (en) * 2009-11-11 2016-03-08 Southwest Research Institute Method for applying a diffusion barrier interlayer for high temperature components
US20110111190A1 (en) * 2009-11-11 2011-05-12 Southwest Research Institute Method For Applying A Diffusion Barrier Interlayer For High Temperature Components
US8790791B2 (en) * 2010-04-15 2014-07-29 Southwest Research Institute Oxidation resistant nanocrystalline MCrAl(Y) coatings and methods of forming such coatings
US20110256417A1 (en) * 2010-04-15 2011-10-20 Southwest Research Institute Oxidation Resistant Nanocrystalline MCrAl(Y) Coatings And Methods of Forming Such Coatings
US9511572B2 (en) 2011-05-25 2016-12-06 Southwest Research Institute Nanocrystalline interlayer coating for increasing service life of thermal barrier coating on high temperature components
US20130011270A1 (en) * 2011-07-08 2013-01-10 Barson Composites Corporation Coatings for gas turbine components
US9297089B2 (en) * 2011-07-08 2016-03-29 Barson Composites Corporation Coatings for gas turbine components
US20130323069A1 (en) * 2012-05-30 2013-12-05 National University Corporation Hokkaido University Turbine Blade for Industrial Gas Turbine and Industrial Gas Turbine
US20150377069A1 (en) * 2014-06-30 2015-12-31 Rolls-Royce Corporation Coating for isolating metallic components from composite components
US9920656B2 (en) * 2014-06-30 2018-03-20 Rolls-Royce Corporation Coating for isolating metallic components from composite components
EP3054095A1 (en) * 2015-02-05 2016-08-10 Mitsubishi Hitachi Power Systems, Ltd. Steam turbine and surface treatment method therefor
US9523146B1 (en) 2015-06-17 2016-12-20 Southwest Research Institute Ti—Si—C—N piston ring coatings
US9970102B2 (en) * 2016-02-08 2018-05-15 International Business Machines Corporation Energy release using tunable reactive materials

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
US6933052B2 (en) 2005-08-23 grant
US20070020399A1 (en) 2007-01-25 application
EP1522608A3 (en) 2006-06-21 application
EP1522608A2 (en) 2005-04-13 application

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
Rhys-Jones Coatings for blade and vane applications in gas turbines
US5817371A (en) Thermal barrier coating system having an air plasma sprayed bond coat incorporating a metal diffusion, and method therefor
US5427866A (en) Platinum, rhodium, or palladium protective coatings in thermal barrier coating systems
US5238752A (en) Thermal barrier coating system with intermetallic overlay bond coat
US5824423A (en) Thermal barrier coating system and methods
US5667663A (en) Method of applying a thermal barrier coating to a superalloy article and a thermal barrier coating
US7229701B2 (en) Chromium and active elements modified platinum aluminide coatings
US5981088A (en) Thermal barrier coating system
US6218029B1 (en) Thermal barrier coating for a superalloy article and a method of application thereof
US6455167B1 (en) Coating system utilizing an oxide diffusion barrier for improved performance and repair capability
US6296447B1 (en) Gas turbine component having location-dependent protective coatings thereon
US6482469B1 (en) Method of forming an improved aluminide bond coat for a thermal barrier coating system
US6283714B1 (en) Protection of internal and external surfaces of gas turbine airfoils
US5942337A (en) Thermal barrier coating for a superalloy article and a method of application thereof
US5763107A (en) Thermal barrier coating for a superalloy article
US20060127695A1 (en) Methods for making high-temperature coatings having Pt metal modified gamma-Ni + gamma&#39;-Ni3Al alloy compositions and a reactive element
US6746782B2 (en) Diffusion barrier coatings, and related articles and processes
US6340500B1 (en) Thermal barrier coating system with improved aluminide bond coat and method therefor
US6274193B1 (en) Repair of a discrete selective surface of an article
US20050145503A1 (en) Platinum aluminide coating and method thereof
US5015502A (en) Ceramic thermal barrier coating with alumina interlayer
US6485844B1 (en) Thermal barrier coating having a thin, high strength bond coat
Feuerstein et al. Technical and economical aspects of current thermal barrier coating systems for gas turbine engines by thermal spray and EBPVD: a review
US4880614A (en) Ceramic thermal barrier coating with alumina interlayer
US20020132132A1 (en) Method of forming an active-element containing aluminide as stand alone coating and as bond coat and coated article

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
AS Assignment

Owner name: GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY, NEW YORK

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:GORMAN, MARK DANIEL;NAGARAJ, BANGALORE ASWATHA;DAROLIA, RAMGOPAL;REEL/FRAME:014406/0124

Effective date: 20031008

AS Assignment

Owner name: TOHTO KASEI CO., LTD., JAPAN

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:TOHTO KASEI CO., LTD.;REEL/FRAME:018442/0384

Effective date: 20060227

REMI Maintenance fee reminder mailed
LAPS Lapse for failure to pay maintenance fees
FP Expired due to failure to pay maintenance fee

Effective date: 20090823