US20040247819A1 - Casing-free insulation blanket - Google Patents

Casing-free insulation blanket Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US20040247819A1
US20040247819A1 US10856982 US85698204A US2004247819A1 US 20040247819 A1 US20040247819 A1 US 20040247819A1 US 10856982 US10856982 US 10856982 US 85698204 A US85698204 A US 85698204A US 2004247819 A1 US2004247819 A1 US 2004247819A1
Authority
US
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
insulation
material
test
flame
blanket
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
Application number
US10856982
Inventor
Sithya Khieu
Richard Pieper
Thomas Tompkins
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
3M Innovative Properties Co
Original Assignee
3M Innovative Properties Co
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

Links

Images

Classifications

    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B17/00Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres
    • B32B17/02Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres in the form of fibres or filaments
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B33/00Layered products characterised by particular properties or particular surface features, e.g. particular surface coatings; Layered products designed for particular purposes not covered by another single class
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16LPIPES; JOINTS OR FITTINGS FOR PIPES; SUPPORTS FOR PIPES, CABLES OR PROTECTIVE TUBING; MEANS FOR THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16L59/00Thermal insulation in general
    • F16L59/02Shape or form of insulating materials, with or without coverings integral with the insulating materials
    • F16L59/026Mattresses, mats, blankets or the like
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B2307/00Properties of the layers or laminate
    • B32B2307/10Properties of the layers or laminate having particular acoustical properties
    • B32B2307/102Insulating
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B2307/00Properties of the layers or laminate
    • B32B2307/30Properties of the layers or laminate having particular thermal properties
    • B32B2307/304Insulating
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B2307/00Properties of the layers or laminate
    • B32B2307/30Properties of the layers or laminate having particular thermal properties
    • B32B2307/306Resistant to heat
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B2307/00Properties of the layers or laminate
    • B32B2307/70Other properties
    • B32B2307/73Hydrophobic
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B37/00Methods or apparatus for laminating, e.g. by curing or by ultrasonic bonding
    • B32B37/14Methods or apparatus for laminating, e.g. by curing or by ultrasonic bonding characterised by the properties of the layers
    • B32B37/16Methods or apparatus for laminating, e.g. by curing or by ultrasonic bonding characterised by the properties of the layers with all layers existing as coherent layers before laminating
    • B32B37/20Methods or apparatus for laminating, e.g. by curing or by ultrasonic bonding characterised by the properties of the layers with all layers existing as coherent layers before laminating involving the assembly of continuous webs only
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T428/00Stock material or miscellaneous articles
    • Y10T428/23Sheet including cover or casing
    • Y10T428/237Noninterengaged fibered material encased [e.g., mat, batt, etc.]
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T428/00Stock material or miscellaneous articles
    • Y10T428/249921Web or sheet containing structurally defined element or component
    • Y10T428/249924Noninterengaged fiber-containing paper-free web or sheet which is not of specified porosity
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T442/00Fabric [woven, knitted, or nonwoven textile or cloth, etc.]
    • Y10T442/10Scrim [e.g., open net or mesh, gauze, loose or open weave or knit, etc.]
    • Y10T442/102Woven scrim
    • Y10T442/164Including a preformed film, foil, or sheet
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T442/00Fabric [woven, knitted, or nonwoven textile or cloth, etc.]
    • Y10T442/20Coated or impregnated woven, knit, or nonwoven fabric which is not [a] associated with another preformed layer or fiber layer or, [b] with respect to woven and knit, characterized, respectively, by a particular or differential weave or knit, wherein the coating or impregnation is neither a foamed material nor a free metal or alloy layer
    • Y10T442/2861Coated or impregnated synthetic organic fiber fabric

Abstract

An insulation blanket comprises (a) substantially hydrophobic insulation material; and (b) high temperature-resistant material; with the proviso that the blanket is casing-free.

Description

    STATEMENT OF PRIORITY
  • This application claims the priority of U.S. Provisional Application No. 60/477,080 filed Jun. 9, 2003, the contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference.[0001]
  • FIELD
  • This invention relates to insulation blankets for use as thermal and/or acoustic shielding in, for example, transportation vehicles such as aircraft. In other aspects, this invention also relates to processes for preparing the blankets, to blankets produced thereby, and to insulation processes. [0002]
  • BACKGROUND
  • Blankets providing thermal and/or acoustic insulation are used in aircraft and other vehicles to shield passengers from engine and aerodynamic noise and from temperature extremes. One problem with such blankets is moisture uptake. This problem is particularly significant in aircraft, where weight increases due to water entrapment in the blankets can be dramatic. Not only is moisture uptake undesirable from an economical standpoint, but it causes other problems as well. These problems include reduced thermal and acoustic performance, reduced service life for the blanket, and increased potential for corrosion on the aluminum skin and framing of the aircraft. [0003]
  • Insulation blankets for aircraft are typically comprised of a fibrous lofted insulation such as fiberglass batting encased within a protective covering. The protective covering is typically made from two pieces of light-weight, tear-resistant, reinforced polymer film. Although the protective covering can facilitate blanket installation and also serve to protect the insulation from damage during the installation process, its primary purpose is to prevent moisture from being taken up and retained by the insulation during the service life of the blanket. The protective covering, however, increases blanket cost and weight. [0004]
  • The labor-intensive method of blanket construction that is typically used further increases cost. The method involves cutting two separate pieces of polymer film to a size slightly larger than that of the insulation to be contained, so as to form selvedges. The two pieces of film are then sealed along the selvedges (for example, by sewing, by application of adhesive, or by heat sealing) to encase the insulation. [0005]
  • SUMMARY
  • Thus, we recognize that there is a need for insulation blankets that exhibit relatively low moisture uptake, that are relatively light in weight and low in cost, and that can be simply and cost-effectively produced without the need for labor-intensive, multiple process steps. [0006]
  • Briefly, in one aspect, this invention provides such an insulation blanket, which comprises (a) substantially hydrophobic insulation material; and (b) high temperature-resistant material; with the proviso that the blanket is casing-free. The insulation material preferably comprises polymer (more preferably, it comprises polyolefin). Preferably, the insulation material is fibrous. The high temperature-resistant material is preferably a flame-resistant material (more preferably, a burnthrough-resistant material). [0007]
  • It has been discovered that insulation blankets can function effectively without the need for a protective covering or casing when substantially hydrophobic insulation material is utilized in their construction. For example, fibrous insulation made from substantially hydrophobic polymer such as polypropylene exhibits little moisture uptake and substantially maintains its thermal and acoustic performance without the need for a casing. In spite of the organic nature of such insulation material, the requisite thermal insulation characteristics of the blanket can be achieved by the addition of high temperature-resistant material (for example, fiberglass paper or ceramic paper) to the blanket construction. Surprisingly, by appropriate selection of the high-temperature resistant material, the blanket can even be rendered burnthrough-resistant. [0008]
  • Since the insulation blanket of the invention is casing- or bag-free, it can be easily and cost-effectively manufactured by continuously bringing together its component layers, without the need for separate, labor-intensive cutting, assembling, and sealing steps. The blanket can be made in the form of wide panels or webs that are conformable to vehicle surfaces and that enable installation with only a minimal number of seams, reducing the need for taping to prevent flame propagation. Thus, the blanket meets the need in the art for thermal/acoustic insulation blankets that exhibit relatively low moisture uptake, that are relatively light in weight and low in cost, and that can be simply and cost-effectively produced and installed without the need for labor-intensive, multiple process steps. [0009]
  • In other aspects, this invention also provides the following: [0010]
  • an encased version of the insulation blanket (for ultimate moisture exclusion yet burnthrough resistance) comprising (a) substantially hydrophobic insulation material comprising at least one polymer (preferably, polyolefin; more preferably, polypropylene), and (b) burnthrough-resistant material, the materials being encased within a protective covering; [0011]
  • a process for producing the insulation blankets of the invention, the process comprising the step of continuously bringing together, optionally in the presence of one or more intervening or adjacent materials, at least one insulation material and at least one high temperature-resistant material; [0012]
  • a blanket produced by the process, wherein the materials are in the form of layers that are substantially coextensive; and [0013]
  • a process for insulating a surface, the process comprising the step of providing the surface with an insulation blanket of the invention.[0014]
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION
  • Definitions [0015]
  • As used in this patent application: [0016]
  • “substantially hydrophobic” means having hydrophobicity greater than or equal to that of untreated linear polyethylene (M[0017] n=∞) (as evidenced by measurements of contact angle or surface tension such as those compiled in Polymer Handbook, Fourth Edition, edited by J. Brandrup, E. H. Immergut, and E. A. Grulke, John Wiley & Sons, New York (1999));
  • “high temperature-resistant material” means a material that does not melt, flow, decompose, or otherwise substantially change shape at temperatures up to at least about 500° C.; [0018]
  • “casing-free” in reference to an insulation blanket means that the insulation material of the blanket is not encased in a protective covering (that is, although the blanket can comprise exterior protective layers, these protective layers are not directly sealed to each other (that is, are not sealed to each other in the absence of intervening insulation material) so as to substantially fully enclose the insulation); [0019]
  • “substantially coextensive” in reference to the component layers of an insulation blanket means that, if the blanket has exterior protective layers, the exterior protective layers do not extend beyond the insulation layer(s) of the blanket so as to form selvedges for direct sealing of the exterior protective layers to each other in the absence of intervening insulation layer(s); [0020]
  • “lofty” in reference to a material means a fluffy material that, after application and removal of a compressive force, substantially resumes its original shape; [0021]
  • “flame-resistant material” means a material that meets the flammability requirements of the Federal Aviation Administration set forth at 14 C.F.R. Part 25, Sections 25.853(a) and 25.855(d) (which reference Part I of Appendix F to Part 25), the texts of which are incorporated herein by reference; [0022]
  • “flame propagation-resistant material” means a material that meets the flammability requirements of the Federal Aviation Administration set forth at 14 C.F.R. Part 25, Section 25.856(a) (which references Part VI of Appendix F to Part 25), the texts of which are incorporated herein by reference; [0023]
  • “flame penetration-resistant material” means a material that meets the flammability requirements of the Federal Aviation Administration set forth at 14 C.F.R. Part 25, Section 25.856(b) (which references Part VII of Appendix F to Part 25), the texts of which are incorporated herein by reference; and [0024]
  • “burnthrough-resistant material” means a material that meets the flammability requirements of the Federal Aviation Administration set forth at 14 C.F.R. Part 25, Sections 25.853(a) and 25.855(d) (which reference Part I of Appendix F to Part 25), as well as those set forth at 14 C.F.R. Part 25, Sections 25.856(a) (flame propagation)and 25.856(b) (flame penetration) (which reference Parts VI and VII, respectively, of Appendix F to Part 25), the texts of which are incorporated herein by reference. [0025]
  • Substantially Hydrophobic Insulation Material [0026]
  • Insulation materials suitable for use in the insulation blanket of the invention are those that are more hydrophobic than untreated linear polyethylene, as evidenced by measured parameters known to correlate with hydrophobicity (for example, contact angle or surface tension measurements). Such materials include substantially hydrophobic polymers such as polyolefins (for example, polyethylene and polypropylene) and the like, and substantially hydrophobic blends thereof with each other and/or with other polymers. Other less hydrophobic materials can also be utilized, provided that they are treated to increase their hydrophobicity to greater than that of untreated linear polyethylene. Such hydrophobicity treatments can involve, for example, the use of silicones or fluorochemicals as topical treatments or polymer melt additives. Substantially hydrophobic polymers or other materials can also be treated, if desired, to further enhance their hydrophobicity characteristics. Preferably, the insulation material comprises or consists essentially of at least one polymer (more preferably, it comprises or consists essentially of at least one polyolefin; most preferably, it comprises or consists essentially of polypropylene). [0027]
  • Blends of polypropylene and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) can be used to prepare useful insulation material. Preferably, the blends comprise at least about 50 percent polypropylene (more preferably, at least about 55 percent; even more preferably, at least about 65 percent; most preferably, at least about 80 percent). Lesser amounts of polypropylene can be utilized, however, when hydrophobicity treatments are applied. [0028]
  • The insulation material can be in the form of fibrous insulation, foam insulation, or combinations thereof, with lofty fibrous insulation being preferred. Such materials can be manufactured by known methods. Suitable fibrous materials include, for example, the melt blown fibers comprising polypropylene that are commercially available from 3M Company of St. Paul, Minn. under the trade designation THINSULATE. Fibrous insulation can be provided in the form of a lofty non-woven layer or mat in which the fibers are entangled with or bonded to each other. Such mats can be prepared according to conventional techniques such as melt blowing, air laying, or carding. The mats can be made with thermobonding fibers and exposed to heat to cause the thermobonding fibers to soften and bind at least some of the fibers together. [0029]
  • An example of a useful lofty nonwoven mat is described in U.S. Pat. No. 4,837,067 (Carey et al.), the description of which is incorporated herein by reference. As described therein, the mat consists of a combination of entangled staple fibers and bonding staple fibers where the bonding fibers have, for example, a core of polyethylene terephthalate surrounded by a sheath of an adhesive polymer formed from isophthalate and terephthalate esters. [0030]
  • Other useful fibrous nonwoven webs are those that comprise a collected mass of directly-formed fibers disposed within the web in a C-shaped configuration, and crimped staple fibers dispersed within the web to give the web loft and uniformity. Such directly-formed fibers are fibers formed and collected as a web in essentially one operation, for example, by extruding fibers from a fiber-forming liquid (for example, molten or dissolved polymer, glass, or the like) and collecting the extruded fibers as a web. “C-shaped configuration” means that the fibers are assembled or organized in the web so that, when the web is viewed in a vertical, longitudinal cross-section, a representative individual directly-formed fiber is seen to include a) a segment or segments disposed within the web transversely to the faces of the web (this segment(s) forms the vertical portion of the “C”), and b) other segments (the arms of the “C”), which are connected to the transverse segment(s), are substantially parallel to the opposite faces of the web, and extend from the transverse segment in a direction opposite from the “machine direction” of the web (the direction in which the web moved during formation). [0031]
  • Other known insulation constructions can also be utilized including, for example, the thermally insulating sheet material described in U.S. Pat. No. 4,136,222 (Jonnes), the description of which is incorporated herein by reference. [0032]
  • High Temperature-Resistant Material [0033]
  • Suitable high temperature-resistant materials for use in the insulation blanket of the invention include ceramic papers (for example, aluminosilicate ceramic fiber papers commercially available as KAOWOOL Paper from Thermal Ceramics, Inc., Augusta, Ga., and under the trade designation LYTHERM Paper from Lydall, Inc. of Rochester, N.H., as well as a ceramic fiber paper encapsulated in polyimide film available as 3M NEXTEL Flame Shield AL-1 from 3M Company, St. Paul, Minn.), woven ceramic fibers (for example, fabrics commercially available under the trade designation NEXTEL 312 AF-10 Aerospace Fabric from 3M Company, St. Paul, Minn.), woven fiberglass fibers (for example, fabrics commercially available under the trade designation SILTEMP Silica Fabric Type 84CH from Ametek of Wilmington, Del.), ceramic non-woven scrims (for example, scrims prepared from ceramic oxide fibers commercially available under the trade designation NEXTEL 312 Ceramic Fibers from 3M Company, St. Paul, Minn.), and fiberglass non-woven scrims. Such materials can be manufactured by known methods. Suitable high temperature-resistant materials include those described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,670,291 (Tompkins et al.), the description of which is incorporated herein by reference. [0034]
  • Preferred high temperature-resistant materials are flame-resistant materials (for example, aluminosilicate ceramic fiber papers and S-glass paper). More preferred high temperature-resistant materials are both flame propagation-resistant and flame penetration-resistant. Most preferred high temperature-resistant materials are burnthrough resistant materials (for example, ceramic papers such as 3M NEXTEL Flame Stopping Dot Paper, available from 3M Company, St. Paul, Minn., and vermiculite-coated ceramic paper available as 3M NEXTEL Flame Stopping Coated Paper from 3M Company, as well as NOMEX Type 418 Paper available from DuPont, Richmond, Va.). [0035]
  • Additional Materials or Layers The insulation blanket of the invention can comprise one or more layers of substantially hydrophobic insulation material and one or more layers of high-temperature resistant material. In addition, other materials and layers conventionally found in insulation blankets can be included. For example, the blanket can further comprise one or more adhesive compositions or films, one or more scrims (for example, woven polymeric fabric), one or more water repellent coatings, one or more intumescent additives or coatings, and one or more polymer films (which can optionally be metallized), as well as flame retardants, antistatic agents, anti-mildew agents, and the like. When casing-free blankets are desired, however, the additional materials and/or layers are preferably selected so as to not significantly increase the moisture uptake and retention characteristics of the blanket. [0036]
  • Production, Installation, and Use of Insulation Blanket [0037]
  • The insulation blankets of the invention can be prepared by known methods such as those described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,624,726 (Sanocki et al.), the description of which is incorporated herein by reference. Preferably, the blankets are prepared by a continuous process that is simpler and more cost-effective than prior methods. This process comprises the step of continuously bringing together, optionally in the presence of one or more intervening or adjacent materials (as described in the previous section), at least one insulation material (which can be of any type, but which is preferably substantially hydrophobic) and at least one high temperature-resistant material. In a preferred embodiment of the process, fibrous insulation material can be continuously deposited on a moving web of high temperature-resistant material, for example, by melt blowing, air laying, or carding. [0038]
  • Unlike conventional insulation blankets (which rely upon selvedges for blanket assembly and casing), blankets produced by the continuous process of the invention can, if desired, be constructed so as to have substantially coextensive layers. The preferred use of polymeric insulation material (more preferably, fibrous polymeric insulation material) provides blankets that are cold-sealable by cutting. If desired, the blankets can be provided with check valves, although these are not necessary due to the blankets' casing-free construction. Other optional features include holes (to aid in blanket installation) and non-encasing external protective layers. [0039]
  • The blankets of the invention are useful in a variety of applications requiring thermal and/or acoustic insulation (for example, in aircraft, automobiles, and other vehicles) and can be installed using known methods. The blankets can be particularly useful as fire barriers. [0040]
  • EXAMPLES
  • Objects and advantages of this invention are further illustrated by the following examples, but the particular materials and amounts thereof recited in these examples, as well as other conditions and details, should not be construed to unduly limit this invention. [0041]
  • Flammability Requirements of the Federal Aviation Administration [0042]
  • 14 C.F.R. Section 25.853 Compartment Interiors. [0043]
  • For each compartment occupied by the crew or passengers, the following apply: [0044]
  • (a) Materials (including finishes or decorative surfaces applied to the materials) must meet the applicable test criteria prescribed in part I of appendix F of this part, or other approved equivalent methods, regardless of the passenger capacity of the airplane. [0045]
  • (b) [Reserved][0046]
  • (c) In addition to meeting the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section, seat cushions, except those on flight crewmember seats, must meet the test requirements of part II of appendix F of this part, or other equivalent methods, regardless of the passenger capacity of the airplane. [0047]
  • (d) Except as provided in paragraph (e) of this section, the following interior components of airplanes with passenger capacities of 20 or more must also meet the test requirements of parts IV and V of appendix F of this part, or other approved equivalent method, in addition to the flammability requirements prescribed in paragraph (a) of this section: [0048]
  • (1) Interior ceiling and wall panels, other than lighting lenses and windows; [0049]
  • (2) Partitions, other than transparent panels needed to enhance cabin safety; [0050]
  • (3) Galley structure, including exposed surfaces of stowed carts and standard containers and the cavity walls that are exposed when a full complement of such carts or containers is not carried; and [0051]
  • (4) Large cabinets and cabin stowage compartments, other than underseat stowage compartments for stowing small items such as magazines and maps. [0052]
  • (e) The interiors of compartments, such as pilot compartments, galleys, lavatories, crew rest quarters, cabinets and stowage compartments, need not meet the standards of paragraph (d) of this section, provided the interiors of such compartments are isolated from the main passenger cabin by doors or equivalent means that would normally be closed during an emergency landing condition. [0053]
  • (f) Smoking is not to be allowed in lavatories. If smoking is to be allowed in any other compartment occupied by the crew or passengers, an adequate number of self-contained, removable ashtrays must be provided for all seated occupants. [0054]
  • (g) Regardless of whether smoking is allowed in any other part of the airplane, lavatories must have self-contained, removable ashtrays located conspicuously on or near the entry side of each lavatory door, except that one ashtray may serve more than one lavatory door if the ashtray can be seen readily from the cabin side of each lavatory served. [0055]
  • (h) Each receptacle used for the disposal of flammable waste material must be fully enclosed, constructed of at least fire resistant materials, and must contain fires likely to occur in it under normal use. The capability of the receptacle to contain those fires under all probable conditions of wear, misalignment, and ventilation expected in service must be demonstrated by test. [0056]
  • [Arndt. 25-83, 60 FR 6623, Feb. 2, 1995][0057]
  • 14 C.F.R. Section 25.855 Cargo or Baggage Compartments [0058]
  • For each cargo and baggage compartment not occupied by crew or passengers, the following apply: [0059]
  • (a) The compartment must meet one of the class requirements of §25.857. [0060]
  • (b) Class B through Class E cargo or baggage compartments, as defined in §25.857, must have a liner, and the liner must be separate from (but may be attached to) the airplane structure. [0061]
  • (c) Ceiling and sidewall liner panels of Class C compartments must meet the test requirements of part III of appendix F of this part or other approved equivalent methods. [0062]
  • (d) All other materials used in the construction of the cargo or baggage compartment must meet the applicable test criteria prescribed in part I of appendix F of this part or other approved equivalent methods. [0063]
  • (e) No compartment may contain any controls, wiring, lines, equipment, or accessories whose damage or failure would affect safe operation, unless those items are protected so that—[0064]
  • (1) They cannot be damaged by the movement of cargo in the compartment, and [0065]
  • (2) Their breakage or failure will not create a fire hazard. [0066]
  • (f) There must be means to prevent cargo or baggage from interfering with the functioning of the fire protective features of the compartment. [0067]
  • (g) Sources of heat within the compartment must be shielded and insulated to prevent igniting the cargo or baggage. [0068]
  • (h) Flight tests must be conducted to show compliance with the provisions of §25.857 concerning—[0069]
  • (1) Compartment accessibility, [0070]
  • (2) The entries of hazardous quantities of smoke or extinguishing agent into compartments occupied by the crew or passengers, and [0071]
  • (3) The dissipation of the extinguishing agent in Class C compartments. [0072]
  • (i) During the above tests, it must be shown that no inadvertent operation of smoke or fire detectors in any compartment would occur as a result of fire contained in any other compartment, either during or after extinguishment, unless the extinguishing system floods each such compartment simultaneously. [0073]
  • [Amdt. 25-72, 55 FR 29784, Jul. 20, 1990, as amended by Amdt. 25-93, 63 FR 8048, Feb.17, 1998 [0074]
  • 14 C.F.R. Section 25.856 Thermal/Acoustic Insulation Materials. [0075]
  • (a) Thermal/acoustic insulation material installed in the fuselage must meet the flame propagation test requirements of part VI of Appendix F to this part, or other approved equivalent test requirements. This requirement does not apply to “small parts,” as defined in part I of Appendix F of this part. [0076]
  • (b) For airplanes with a passenger capacity of 20 or greater, thermal/acoustic insulation materials (including the means of fastening the materials to the fuselage) installed in the lower half of the airplane fuselage must meet the flame penetration resistance test requirements of part VII of Appendix F to this part, or other approved equivalent test requirements. This requirement does not apply to thermal/acoustic insulation installations that the FAA finds would not contribute to fire penetration resistance. [0077]
  • [Amdt. 25-111, 68 FR 45059, Jul. 31, 2003][0078]
  • Appendix F to Part 25 [0079]
  • Part I—Test Criteria and Procedures for Showing Compliance with Section 25.853 or Section 25.855. [0080]
  • (a) Material test criteria—(1) Interior compartments occupied by crew or passengers. (i) Interior ceiling panels, interior wall panels, partitions, galley structure, large cabinet walls, structural flooring, and materials used in the construction of stowage compartments (other than underseat stowage compartments and compartments for stowing small items such as magazines and maps) must be self-extinguishing when tested vertically in accordance with the applicable portions of part I of this appendix. The average burn length may not exceed 6 inches and the average flame time after removal of the flame source may not exceed 15 seconds. Drippings from the test specimen may not continue to flame for more than an average of 3 seconds after falling. [0081]
  • (ii) Floor covering, textiles (including draperies and upholstery), seat cushions, padding, decorative and nondecorative coated fabrics, leather, trays and galley furnishings, electrical conduit, air ducting, joint and edge covering, liners of Class B and E cargo or baggage compartments, floor panels of Class B, C, D, or E cargo or baggage compartments, cargo covers and transparencies, molded and thermoformed parts, air ducting joints, and trim strips (decorative and chafing), that are constructed of materials not covered in subparagraph (iv) below, must be self-extinguishing when tested vertically in accordance with the applicable portions of part I of this appendix or other approved equivalent means. The average burn length may not exceed 8 inches, and the average flame time after removal of the flame source may not exceed 15 seconds. Drippings from the test specimen may not continue to flame for more than an average of 5 seconds after falling. [0082]
  • (iii) Motion picture film must be safety film meeting the Standard Specifications for Safety Photographic Film PHI.25 (available from the American National Standards Institute, 1430 Broadway, New York, N.Y. 10018). If the film travels through ducts, the ducts must meet the requirements of subparagraph (ii) of this paragraph. [0083]
  • (iv) Clear plastic windows and signs, parts constructed in whole or in part of elastomeric materials, edge lighted instrument assemblies consisting of two or more instruments in a common housing, seat belts, shoulder harnesses, and cargo and baggage tiedown equipment, including containers, bins, pallets, etc., used in passenger or crew compartments, may not have an average burn rate greater than 2.5 inches per minute when tested horizontally in accordance with the applicable portions of this appendix. [0084]
  • (v) Except for small parts (such as knobs, handles, rollers, fasteners, clips, grommets, rub strips, pulleys, and small electrical parts) that would not contribute significantly to the propagation of a fire and for electrical wire and cable insulation, materials in items not specified in paragraphs (a)(1)(i), (ii), (iii), or (iv) of part I of this appendix may not have a burn rate greater than 4.0 inches per minute when tested horizontally in accordance with the applicable portions of this appendix. [0085]
  • (2) Cargo and baggage compartments not occupied by crew or passengers. [0086]
  • (i) [Reserved][0087]
  • (ii) A cargo or baggage compartment defined in §25.857 as Class B or E must have a liner constructed of materials that meet the requirements of paragraph (a)(1)(ii) of part I of this appendix and separated from the airplane structure (except for attachments). In addition, such liners must be subjected to the 45 degree angle test. The flame may not penetrate (pass through) the material during application of the flame or subsequent to its removal. The average flame time after removal of the flame source may not exceed 15 seconds, and the average glow time may not exceed 10 seconds. [0088]
  • (iii) A cargo or baggage compartment defined in §25.857 as Class B, C, D, or E must have floor panels constructed of materials which meet the requirements of paragraph (a)(1)(ii) of part I of this appendix and which are separated from the airplane structure (except for attachments). Such panels must be subjected to the 45 degree angle test. The flame may not penetrate (pass through) the material during application of the flame or subsequent to its removal. The average flame time after removal of the flame source may not exceed 15 seconds, and the average glow time may not exceed 10 seconds. [0089]
  • (iv) Insulation blankets and covers used to protect cargo must be constructed of materials that meet the requirements of paragraph (a)(1)(ii) of part I of this appendix. Tiedown equipment (including containers, bins, and pallets) used in each cargo and baggage compartment must be constructed of materials that meet the requirements of paragraph (a)(1)(v) of part I of this appendix. [0090]
  • (3) Electrical system components. Insulation on electrical wire or cable installed in any area of the fuselage must be self-extinguishing when subjected to the 60 degree test specified in part I of this appendix. The average burn length may not exceed 3 inches, and the average flame time after removal of the flame source may not exceed 30 seconds. Drippings from the test specimen may not continue to flame for more than an average of 3 seconds after falling. [0091]
  • (b) Test Procedures—(1) Conditioning. Specimens must be conditioned to 70±5 F., and at 50 percent ±5 percent relative humidity until moisture equilibrium is reached or for 24 hours. Each specimen must remain in the conditioning environment until it is subjected to the flame. [0092]
  • (2) Specimen configuration. Except for small parts and electrical wire and cable insulation, materials must be tested either as section cut from a fabricated part as installed in the airplane or as a specimen simulating a cut section, such as a specimen cut from a flat sheet of the material or a model of the fabricated part. The specimen may be cut from any location in a fabricated part; however, fabricated units, such as sandwich panels, may not be separated for test. Except as noted below, the specimen thickness must be no thicker than the minimum thickness to be qualified for use in the airplane. Test specimens of thick foam parts, such as seat cushions, must be ½-inch in thickness. Test specimens of materials that must meet the requirements of paragraph (a)(1)(v) of part I of this appendix must be no more than ⅛-inch in thickness. Electrical wire and cable specimens must be the same size as used in the airplane. In the case of fabrics, both the warp and fill direction of the weave must be tested to determine the most critical flammability condition. Specimens must be mounted in a metal frame so that the two long edges and the upper edge are held securely during the vertical test prescribed in subparagraph (4) of this paragraph and the two long edges and the edge away from the flame are held securely during the horizontal test prescribed in subparagraph (5) of this paragraph. The exposed area of the specimen must be at least 2 inches wide and 12 inches long, unless the actual size used in the airplane is smaller. The edge to which the burner flame is applied must not consist of the finished or protected edge of the specimen but must be representative of the actual cross-section of the material or part as installed in the airplane. The specimen must be mounted in a metal frame so that all four edges are held securely and the exposed area of the specimen is at least 8 inches by 8 inches during the 45° test prescribed in subparagraph (6) of this paragraph. [0093]
  • (3) Apparatus. Except as provided in subparagraph (7) of this paragraph, tests must be conducted in a draft-free cabinet in accordance with Federal Test Method Standard 191 Model 5903 (revised Method 5902) for the vertical test, or Method 5906 for horizontal test (available from the General Services Administration, Business Service Center, Region 3, Seventh & D Streets SW., Washington, DC 20407). Specimens which are too large for the cabinet must be tested in similar draft-free conditions. [0094]
  • (4) Vertical test. A minimum of three specimens must be tested and results averaged. For fabrics, the direction of weave corresponding to the most critical flammability conditions must be parallel to the longest dimension. Each specimen must be supported vertically. The specimen must be exposed to a Bunsen or Tirrill burner with a nominal ⅜-inch I.D. tube adjusted to give a flame of 1½ inches in height. The minimum flame temperature measured by a calibrated thermocouple pyrometer in the center of the flame must be 1550° F. The lower edge of the specimen must be ¾-inch above the top edge of the burner. The flame must be applied to the center line of the lower edge of the specimen. For materials covered by paragraph (a)(1)(i) of part I of this appendix, the flame must be applied for 60 seconds and then removed. For materials covered by paragraph (a)(1)(ii) of part I of this appendix, the flame must be applied for 12 seconds and then removed. Flame time, burn length, and flaming time of drippings, if any, may be recorded. The burn length determined in accordance with subparagraph (7) of this paragraph must be measured to the nearest tenth of an inch. [0095]
  • (5) Horizontal test. A minimum of three specimens must be tested and the results averaged. Each specimen must be supported horizontally. The exposed surface, when installed in the aircraft, must be face down for the test. The specimen must be exposed to a Bunsen or Tirrill burner with a nominal ⅜-inch I.D. tube adjusted to give a flame of 1½ inches in height. The minimum flame temperature measured by a calibrated thermocouple pyrometer in the center of the flame must be 1550° F. The specimen must be positioned so that the edge being tested is centered ¾-inch above the top of the burner. The flame must be applied for 15 seconds and then removed. A minimum of 10 inches of specimen must be used for timing purposes, approximately 1½ inches must burn before the burning front reaches the timing zone, and the average burn rate must be recorded. [0096]
  • (6) Forty-five degree test. A minimum of three specimens must be tested and the results averaged. The specimens must be supported at an angle of 45° to a horizontal surface. The exposed surface when installed in the aircraft must be face down for the test. The specimens must be exposed to a Bunsen or Tirrill burner with a nominal ⅜-inch I.D. tube adjusted to give a flame of 1½ inches in height. The minimum flame temperature measured by a calibrated thermocouple pyrometer in the center of the flame must be 1550° F. Suitable precautions must be taken to avoid drafts. The flame must be applied for 30 seconds with one-third contacting the material at the center of the specimen and then removed. Flame time, glow time, and whether the flame penetrates (passes through) the specimen must be recorded. [0097]
  • (7) Sixty degree test. A minimum of three specimens of each wire specification (make and size) must be tested. The specimen of wire or cable (including insulation) must be placed at an angle of 60° with the horizontal in the cabinet specified in subparagraph (3) of this paragraph with the cabinet door open during the test, or must be placed within a chamber approximately 2 feet high by 1 foot by 1 foot, open at the top and at one vertical side (front), and which allows sufficient flow of air for complete combustion, but which is free from drafts. The specimen must be parallel to and approximately 6 inches from the front of the chamber. The lower end of the specimen must be held rigidly clamped. The upper end of the specimen must pass over a pulley or rod and must have an appropriate weight attached to it so that the specimen is held tautly throughout the flammability test. The test specimen span between lower clamp and upper pulley or rod must be 24 inches and must be marked 8 inches from the lower end to indicate the central point for flame application. A flame from a Bunsen or Tirrill burner must be applied for 30 seconds at the test mark. The burner must be mounted underneath the test mark on the specimen, perpendicular to the specimen and at an angle of 30° to the vertical plane of the specimen. The burner must have a nominal bore of ⅜-inch and be adjusted to provide a 3-inch high flame with an inner cone approximately one-third of the flame height. The minimum temperature of the hottest portion of the flame, as measured with a calibrated thermocouple pyrometer, may not be less than 1750° F. The burner must be positioned so that the hottest portion of the flame is applied to the test mark on the wire. Flame time, burn length, and flaming time of drippings, if any, must be recorded. The burn length determined in accordance with paragraph (8) of this paragraph must be measured to the nearest tenth of an inch. Breaking of the wire specimens is not considered a failure. [0098]
  • (8) Burn length. Burn length is the distance from the original edge to the farthest evidence of damage to the test specimen due to flame impingement, including areas of partial or complete consumption, charring, or embrittlement, but not including areas sooted, stained, warped, or discolored, nor areas where material has shrunk or melted away from the heat source. [0099]
  • Part VI—Test Method to Determine the Flammability and Flame Propagation Characteristics of Thermal/Acoustic Insulation Materials [0100]
  • Use this test method to evaluate the flammability and flame propagation characteristics of thermal/acoustic insulation when exposed to both a radiant heat source and a flame. [0101]
  • (a) Definitions. [0102]
  • “Flame propagation” means the furthest distance of the propagation of visible flame towards the far end of the test specimen, measured from the midpoint of the ignition source flame. Measure this distance after initially applying the ignition source and before all flame on the test specimen is extinguished. The measurement is not a determination of burn length made after the test. [0103]
  • “Radiant heat source” means an electric or air propane panel. [0104]
  • “Thermal/acoustic insulation” means a material or system of materials used to provide thermal and/or acoustic protection. Examples include fiberglass or other batting material encapsulated by a film covering and foams. [0105]
  • “Zero point” means the point of application of the pilot burner to the test specimen. [0106]
  • (b) Test Apparatus. [0107]
  • (1) Radiant panel test chamber. Conduct tests in a radiant panel test chamber. Place the test chamber under an exhaust hood to facilitate clearing the chamber of smoke after each test. The radiant panel test chamber must be an enclosure 55 inches (1397 mm) long by 19.5 (495 mm) deep by 28 (710 mm) to 30 inches (maximum) (762 mm) above the test specimen. Insulate the sides, ends, and top with a fibrous ceramic insulation, such as Kaowool M™ board. On the front side, provide a 52 by 12-inch (1321 by 305 mm) draft-free, high-temperature, glass window for viewing the sample during testing. Place a door below the window to provide access to the movable specimen platform holder. The bottom of the test chamber must be a sliding steel platform that has provision for securing the test specimen holder in a fixed and level position. The chamber must have an internal chimney with exterior dimensions of 5.1 inches (129 mm) wide, by 16.2 inches (411 mm) deep by 13 inches (330 mm) high at the opposite end of the chamber from the radiant energy source. The interior dimensions must be 4.5 inches (114 mm) wide by 15.6 inches (395 mm) deep. The chimney must extend to the top of the chamber. [0108]
  • (2) Radiant heat source. Mount the radiant heat energy source in a cast iron frame or equivalent. An electric panel must have six, 3-inch wide emitter strips. The emitter strips must be perpendicular to the length of the panel. The panel must have a radiation surface of 12⅞ by 18½ inches (327 by 470 mm). The panel must be capable of operating at temperatures up to 1300° F. (704° C.). An air propane panel must be made of a porous refractory material and have a radiation surface of 12 by 18 inches (305 by 457 mm). The panel must be capable of operating at temperatures up to 1,500° F. (816° C.). [0109]
  • i) Electric radiant panel. The radiant panel must be 3-phase and operate at 208 volts. A single-phase, 240 volt panel is also acceptable. Use a solid-state power controller and microprocessor-based controller to set the electric panel operating parameters. [0110]
  • (ii) Gas radiant panel. Use propane (liquid petroleum gas—2.1 UN 1075) for the radiant panel fuel. The panel fuel system must consist of a venturi-type aspirator for mixing gas and air at approximately atmospheric pressure. Provide suitable instrumentation for monitoring and controlling the flow of fuel and air to the panel. Include an air flow gauge, an air flow regulator, and a gas pressure gauge. [0111]
  • (iii) Radiant panel placement. Mount the panel in the chamber at 30° to the horizontal specimen plane, and 7½ inches above the zero point of the specimen. [0112]
  • (3) Specimen holding system. [0113]
  • (i) The sliding platform serves as the housing for test specimen placement. Brackets may be attached (via wing nuts) to the top lip of the platform in order to accommodate various thicknesses of test specimens. Place the test specimens on a sheet of Kaowool M™ board or 1260 Standard Board (manufactured by Thermal Ceramics and available in Europe), or equivalent, either resting on the bottom lip of the sliding platform or on the base of the brackets. It may be necessary to use multiple sheets of material based on the thickness of the test specimen (to meet the sample height requirement). Typically, these non-combustible sheets of material are available in ¼ inch (6 mm) thicknesses. A sliding platform that is deeper than a 2-inch (50.8 mm) platform is acceptable as long as the sample height requirement is met. [0114]
  • (ii) Attach a ½ inch (13 mm) piece of Kaowool M™ board or other high temperature material measuring 41½ by 8¼ inches (1054 by 210 mm) to the back of the platform. This board serves as a heat retainer and protects the test specimen from excessive preheating. The height of this board must not impede the sliding platform movement (in and out of the test chamber). If the platform has been fabricated such that the back side of the platform is high enough to prevent excess preheating of the specimen when the sliding platform is out, a retainer board is not necessary. [0115]
  • (iii) Place the test specimen horizontally on the non-combustible board(s). Place a steel retaining/securing frame fabricated of mild steel, having a thickness of ⅛ inch (3.2 mm) and overall dimensions of 23 by 13⅛ inches (584 by 333 mm) with a specimen opening of 19 by 10¾ inches (483 by 273 mm) over the test specimen. The front, back, and right portions of the top flange of the frame must rest on the top of the sliding platform, and the bottom flanges must pinch all 4 sides of the test specimen. The right bottom flange must be flush with the sliding platform. [0116]
  • (4) Pilot Burner. The pilot burner used to ignite the specimen must be a Bernzomatic™ commercial propane venturi torch with an axially symmetric burner tip and a propane supply tube with an orifice diameter of 0.006 inches (0.15 mm). The length of the burner tube must be 2⅞ inches (71 mm). The propane flow must be adjusted via gas pressure through an in-line regulator to produce a blue inner cone length of ¾ inch (19 mm). A ¾ inch (19 mm) guide (such as a thin strip of metal) may be soldered to the top of the burner to aid in setting the flame height. The overall flame length must be approximately 5 inches long (127 mm). Provide a way to move the burner out of the ignition position so that the flame is horizontal and at least 2 inches (50 mm) above the specimen plane. [0117]
  • (5) Thermocouples. Install a 24 American Wire Gauge (AWG) Type K (Chromel-Alumel) thermocouple in the test chamber for temperature monitoring. Insert it into the chamber through a small hole drilled through the back of the chamber. Place the thermocouple so that it extends 11 inches (279 mm) out from the back of the chamber wall, 11½ inches (292 mm) from the right side of the chamber wall, and is 2 inches (51 mm) below the radiant panel. The use of other thermocouples is optional. [0118]
  • (6) Calorimeter. The calorimeter must be a one-inch cylindrical water-cooled, total heat flux density, foil type Gardon Gage that has a range of 0 to 5 BTU/ft[0119] 2-second (0 to 5.7 Watts/cm2).
  • (7) Calorimeter calibration specification and procedure. [0120]
  • (i) Calorimeter specification. [0121]
  • (A) Foil diameter must be 0.25±0.005 inches (6.35±0.13 mm). [0122]
  • (B) Foil thickness must be 0.0005±0.0001 inches (0.013±0.0025 mm). [0123]
  • (C) Foil material must be thermocouple grade Constantan. [0124]
  • (D) Temperature measurement must be a Copper Constantan thermocouple. [0125]
  • (E) The copper center wire diameter must be 0.0005 inches (0.013 mm). [0126]
  • (F) The entire face of the calorimeter must be lightly coated with “Black Velvet” paint having an emissivity of 96 or greater. [0127]
  • (ii) Calorimeter calibration. [0128]
  • (A) The calibration method must be by comparison to a like standardized transducer. [0129]
  • (B) The standardized transducer must meet the specifications given in paragraph VI(b)(6) of this appendix. [0130]
  • (C) Calibrate the standard transducer against a primary standard traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). [0131]
  • (D) The method of transfer must be a heated graphite plate. [0132]
  • (E) The graphite plate must be electrically heated, have a clear surface area on each side of the plate of at least 2 by 2 inches (51 by 51 mm), and be ⅛ inch ±{fraction (1/16)} inch thick (3.2±1.6 mm). [0133]
  • (F) Center the 2 transducers on opposite sides of the plates at equal distances from the plate. [0134]
  • (G) The distance of the calorimeter to the plate must be no less than 0.0625 inches (1.6 mm), nor greater than 0.375 inches (9.5 mm). [0135]
  • (H) The range used in calibration must be at least 0-3.5 BTUs/ft[0136] 2 second (0-3.9 Watts/cm2 ) and no greater than 0-5.7 BTUs/ft2 second (0-6.4 Watts/cm2).
  • (I) The recording device used must record the 2 transducers simultaneously or at least within {fraction (1/10)} of each other. [0137]
  • (8) Calorimeter fixture. With the sliding platform pulled out of the chamber, install the calorimeter holding frame and place a sheet of non-combustible material in the bottom of the sliding platform adjacent to the holding frame. This will prevent heat losses during calibration. The frame must be 13⅛ inches (333 mm) deep (front to back) by 8 inches (203 mm) wide and must rest on the top of the sliding platform. It must be fabricated of ⅛ inch (3.2 mm) flat stock steel and have an opening that accommodates a ½ inch (12.7 mm) thick piece of refractory board, which is level with the top of the sliding platform. The board must have three 1-inch (25.4 mm) diameter holes drilled through the board for calorimeter insertion. The distance to the radiant panel surface from the centerline of the first hole (“zero” position) must be 7½±⅛ inches (191±3 mm). The distance between the centerline of the first hole to the centerline of the second hole must be 2 inches (51 mm). It must also be the same distance from the centerline of the second hole to the centerline of the third hole. A calorimeter holding frame that differs in construction is acceptable as long as the height from the centerline of the first hole to the radiant panel and the distance between holes is the same as described in this paragraph. [0138]
  • (9) Instrumentation. Provide a calibrated recording device with an appropriate range or a computerized data acquisition system to measure and record the outputs of the calorimeter and the thermocouple. The data acquisition system must be capable of recording the calorimeter output every second during calibration. [0139]
  • (10) Timing device. Provide a stopwatch or other device, accurate to ±1 second/hour, to measure the time of application of the pilot burner flame. [0140]
  • (c) Test Specimens. [0141]
  • (1) Specimen preparation. Prepare and test a minimum of three test specimens. If an oriented film cover material is used, prepare and test both the warp and fill directions. [0142]
  • (2) Construction. Test specimens must include all materials used in construction of the insulation (including batting, film, scrim, tape etc.). Cut a piece of core material such as foam or fiberglass, and cut a piece of film cover material (if used) large enough to cover the core material. Heat sealing is the preferred method of preparing fiberglass samples, since they can be made without compressing the fiberglass (“box sample”). Cover materials that are not heat sealable may be stapled, sewn, or taped as long as the cover material is over-cut enough to be drawn down the sides without compressing the core material. The fastening means should be as continuous as possible along the length of the seams. The specimen thickness must be of the same thickness as installed in the airplane. [0143]
  • (3) Specimen Dimensions. To facilitate proper placement of specimens in the sliding platform housing, cut non-rigid core materials, such as fiberglass, 12½ inches (318mm) wide by 23 inches (584 mm) long. Cut rigid materials, such as foam, 11½±¼ inches (292 mm ±6 mm) wide by 23 inches (584 mm) long in order to fit properly in the sliding platform housing and provide a flat, exposed surface equal to the opening in the housing. [0144]
  • (d) Specimen conditioning. Condition the test specimens at 70±5° F. (21±2° C.) and 55% ±10% relative humidity, for a minimum of 24 hours prior to testing. [0145]
  • (e) Apparatus Calibration. [0146]
  • (1) With the sliding platform out of the chamber, install the calorimeter holding frame. Push the platform back into the chamber and insert the calorimeter into the first hole (“zero” position). Close the bottom door located below the sliding platform. The distance from the centerline of the calorimeter to the radiant panel surface at this point must be [0147] 7.{fraction (1/2)} inches ±⅛ (191 mm ±3). Prior to igniting the radiant panel, ensure that the calorimeter face is clean and that there is water running through the calorimeter.
  • (2) Ignite the panel. Adjust the fuel/air mixture to achieve 1.5 BTUs/ft[0148] 2-second ±5% (1.7 Watts/cm2±5%) at the “zero” position. If using an electric panel, set the power controller to achieve the proper heat flux. Allow the unit to reach steady state (this may take up to 1 hour). The pilot burner must be off and in the down position during this time.
  • (3) After steady-state conditions have been reached, move the calorimeter 2 inches (51 mm) from the “zero” position (first hole) to position 1 and record the heat flux. Move the calorimeter to position 2 and record the heat flux. Allow enough time at each position for the calorimeter to stabilize. Table 1 depicts typical calibration values at the three positions. [0149]
    TABLE 1
    Calibration Table
    Position BTU's/ft2 sec Watts/cm2
    “Zero” Position 1.5 1.7
    Position 1 1.51-1.50-1.49 1.71-1.70-1.69
    Position 2 1.43-1.44 1.62-1.63
  • (4) Open the bottom door, remove the calorimeter and holder fixture. Use caution as the fixture is very hot. [0150]
  • (f) Test Procedure. [0151]
  • (1) Ignite the pilot burner. Ensure that it is at least 2 inches (51 mm) above the top of the platform. The burner must not contact the specimen until the test begins. [0152]
  • (2) Place the test specimen in the sliding platform holder. Ensure that the test sample surface is level with the top of the platform. At “zero” point, the specimen surface must be 7½ inches ±⅛ inch (191 mm ±3) below the radiant panel. [0153]
  • (3) Place the retaining/securing frame over the test specimen. It may be necessary (due to compression) to adjust the sample (up or down) in order to maintain the distance from the sample to the radiant panel (7½ inches ±⅛ inch (191 mm±3) at “zero” position). With film/fiberglass assemblies, it is critical to make a slit in the film cover to purge any air inside. This allows the operator to maintain the proper test specimen position (level with the top of the platform) and to allow ventilation of gases during testing. A longitudinal slit, approximately 2 inches (51 mm) in length, must be centered 3 inches ±½ inch (76 mm±13 mm) from the left flange of the securing frame. A utility knife is acceptable for slitting the film cover. [0154]
  • (4) Immediately push the sliding platform into the chamber and close the bottom door. [0155]
  • (5) Bring the pilot burner flame into contact with the center of the specimen at the “zero” point and simultaneously start the timer. The pilot burner must be at a 27° angle with the sample and be approximately ½ inch (12 mm) above the sample. A stop allows the operator to position the burner correctly each time. [0156]
  • (6) Leave the burner in position for 15 seconds and then remove to a position at least 2 inches (51 mm) above the specimen. [0157]
  • (g) Report. [0158]
  • (1) Identify and describe the test specimen. [0159]
  • (2) Report any shrinkage or melting of the test specimen. [0160]
  • (3) Report the flame propagation distance. If this distance is less than 2 inches, report this as a pass (no measurement required). [0161]
  • (4) Report the after-flame time. [0162]
  • (h) Requirements. [0163]
  • (1) There must be no flame propagation beyond 2 inches (51 mm) to the left of the centerline of the pilot flame application. [0164]
  • (2) The flame time after removal of the pilot burner may not exceed 3 seconds on any specimen. [0165]
  • Part VII—Test Method to Determine the Burnthrough Resistance of Thermal/Acoustic Insulation Materials [0166]
  • Use the following test method to evaluate the burnthrough resistance characteristics of aircraft thermal/acoustic insulation materials when exposed to a high intensity open flame. [0167]
  • (a) Definitions. [0168]
  • Burnthrough time means the time, in seconds, for the burner flame to penetrate the test specimen, and/or the time required for the heat flux to reach 2.0 Btu/ft[0169] 2sec (2.27 W/cm2) on the inboard side, at a distance of 12 inches (30.5 cm) from the front surface of the insulation blanket test frame, whichever is sooner. The burnthrough time is measured at the inboard side of each of the insulation blanket specimens.
  • Insulation blanket specimen means one of two specimens positioned in either side of the test rig, at an angle of 30° with respect to vertical. [0170]
  • Specimen set means two insulation blanket specimens. Both specimens must represent the same production insulation blanket construction and materials, proportioned to correspond to the specimen size. [0171]
  • (b) Apparatus. [0172]
  • (1) The arrangement of the test apparatus must include the capability of swinging the burner away from the test specimen during warm-up. [0173]
  • (2) Test burner. The test burner must be a modified gun-type such as the Park Model DPL 3400. Flame characteristics are highly dependent on actual burner setup. Parameters such as fuel pressure, nozzle depth, stator position, and intake airflow must be properly adjusted to achieve the correct flame output. [0174]
  • (i) Nozzle. A nozzle must maintain the fuel pressure to yield a nominal 6.0 gal/hr (0.378 L/min) fuel flow. A Monarch-manufactured 80° PL (hollow cone) nozzle nominally rated at 6.0 gal/hr at 100 lb/in2 (0.71 MPa) delivers a proper spray pattern. [0175]
  • (ii) Fuel Rail. The fuel rail must be adjusted to position the fuel nozzle at a depth of 0.3125 inch (8 mm) from the end plane of the exit stator, which must be mounted in the end of the draft tube. [0176]
  • (iii) Internal Stator. The internal stator, located in the middle of the draft tube, must be positioned at a depth of 3.75 inches (95 mm) from the tip of the fuel nozzle. The stator must also be positioned such that the integral igniters are located at an angle midway between the 10 and 11 o'clock position, when viewed looking into the draft tube. Minor deviations to the igniter angle are acceptable if the temperature and heat flux requirements conform to the requirements of paragraph VII(e) of this appendix. [0177]
  • (iv) Blower Fan. The cylindrical blower fan used to pump air through the burner must measure 5.25 inches (133 mm) in diameter by 3.5 inches (89 mm) in width. [0178]
  • (v) Burner cone. Install a 12+0.125-inch (305±3 mm) burner extension cone at the end of the draft tube. The cone must have an opening 6±0.125-inch (152±3 mm) high and 11±0.125-inch (280±3 mm) wide. [0179]
  • (vi) Fuel. Use JP-8, Jet A, or their international equivalent, at a flow rate of 6.0±0.2 gal/hr (0.378±0126 L/min). If this fuel is unavailable, ASTM K2 fuel (Number 2 grade kerosene) or ASTM D2 fuel (Number 2 grade fuel oil or Number 2 diesel fuel) are acceptable if the nominal fuel flow rate, temperature, and heat flux measurements conform to the requirements of paragraph VII(e) of this appendix. [0180]
  • (vii) Fuel pressure regulator. Provide a fuel pressure regulator, adjusted to deliver a nominal 6.0 gal/hr (0.378 L/min) flow rate. An operating fuel pressure of 100 lb/in 2 (0.71 MPa) for a nominally rated 6.0 gal/hr 80° spray angle nozzle (such as a PL type) delivers 6.0±0.2 gal/hr (0.378±0.0126 L/min). [0181]
  • (3) Calibration Rig and Equipment. [0182]
  • (i) Construct individual calibration rigs to incorporate a calorimeter and thermocouple rake for the measurement of heat flux and temperature. Position the calibration rigs to allow movement of the burner from the test rig position to either the heat flux or temperature position with minimal difficulty. [0183]
  • (ii) Calorimeter. The calorimeter must be a total heat flux, foil type Gardon Gage of an appropriate range such as 0-20 Btu/ft[0184] 2-sec (0-22.7 W/cm2), accurate to ±3% of the indicated reading. The heat flux calibration method must be in accordance with paragraph VI(b)(7) of this appendix.
  • (iii) Calorimeter mounting. Mount the calorimeter in a 6- by 12-±125 inch (152- by 305-±3 mm) by 0.75±0.125 inch (19 mm±3 mm) thick insulating block which is attached to the heat flux calibration rig during calibration. Monitor the insulating block for deterioration and replace it when necessary. Adjust the mounting as necessary to ensure that the calorimeter face is parallel to the exit plane of the test burner cone. [0185]
  • (iv) Thermocouples. Provide seven ⅛-inch (3.2 mm) ceramic packed, metal sheathed, type K (Chromel-alumel), grounded junction thermocouples with a nominal 24 American Wire Gauge (AWG) size conductor for calibration. Attach the thermocouples to a steel angle bracket to form a thermocouple rake for placement in the calibration rig during burner calibration. [0186]
  • (v) Air velocity meter. Use a vane-type air velocity meter to calibrate the velocity of air entering the burner. An Omega Engineering Model HH30A is satisfactory. Use a suitable adapter to attach the measuring device to the inlet side of the burner to prevent air from entering the burner other than through the measuring device, which would produce erroneously low readings. Use a flexible duct, measuring 4 inches wide (102 mm) by 20 feet long (6.1 meters), to supply fresh air to the burner intake to prevent damage to the air velocity meter from ingested soot. An optional airbox permanently mounted to the burner intake area can effectively house the air velocity meter and provide a mounting port for the flexible intake duct. [0187]
  • (4) Test specimen mounting frame. Make the mounting frame for the test specimens of ⅛-inch (3.2 mm) thick steel, except for the center vertical former, which should be ¼-inch (6.4 mm) thick to minimize warpage. The specimen mounting frame stringers (horizontal) should be bolted to the test frame formers (vertical) such that the expansion of the stringers will not cause the entire structure to warp. Use the mounting frame for mounting the two insulation blanket test specimens. [0188]
  • (5) Backface calorimeters. Mount two total heat flux Gardon type calorimeters behind the insulation test specimens on the back side (cold) area of the test specimen mounting frame. Position the calorimeters along the same plane as the burner cone centerline, at a distance of 4 inches (102 mm) from the vertical centerline of the test frame. [0189]
  • (i) The calorimeters must be a total heat flux, foil type Gardon Gage of an appropriate range such as 0-5 Btu/ft[0190] 2-sec (0-5.7 W/cm2), accurate to ±3% of the indicated reading. The heat flux calibration method must comply with paragraph VI(b)(7) of this appendix.
  • (6) Instrumentation. Provide a recording potentiometer or other suitable calibrated instrument with an appropriate range to measure and record the outputs of the calorimeter and the thermocouples. [0191]
  • (7) Timing device. Provide a stopwatch or other device, accurate to ±1%, to measure the time of application of the burner flame and burnthrough time. [0192]
  • (8) Test chamber. Perform tests in a suitable chamber to reduce or eliminate the possibility of test fluctuation due to air movement. The chamber must have a minimum floor area of 10 by 10 feet (305 by 305 cm). [0193]
  • (i) Ventilation hood. Provide the test chamber with an exhaust system capable of removing the products of combustion expelled during tests. [0194]
  • (c) Test Specimens. [0195]
  • (1) Specimen preparation. Prepare a minimum of three specimen sets of the same construction and configuration for testing. [0196]
  • (2) Insulation Blanket Test Specimen. [0197]
  • (i) For batt-type materials such as fiberglass, the constructed, finished blanket specimen assemblies must be 32 inches wide by 36 inches long (81.3 by 91.4 cm), exclusive of heat sealed film edges. [0198]
  • (ii) For rigid and other non-conforming types of insulation materials, the finished test specimens must fit into the test rig in such a manner as to replicate the actual in-service installation. [0199]
  • (3) Construction. Make each of the specimens tested using the principal components (i.e., insulation, fire barrier material if used, and moisture barrier film) and assembly processes (representative seams and closures). [0200]
  • (i) Fire barrier material. If the insulation blanket is constructed with a fire barrier material, place the fire barrier material in a manner reflective of the installed arrangement For example, if the material will be placed on the outboard side of the insulation material, inside the moisture film, place it the same way in the test specimen. [0201]
  • (ii) Insulation material. Blankets that utilize more than one variety of insulation (composition, density, etc.) must have specimen sets constructed that reflect the insulation combination used. If, however, several blanket types use similar insulation combinations, it is not necessary to test each combination if it is possible to bracket the various combinations. [0202]
  • (iii) Moisture barrier film. If a production blanket construction utilizes more than one type of moisture barrier film, perform separate tests on each combination. For example, if a polyimide film is used in conjunction with an insulation in order to enhance the burnthrough capabilities, also test the same insulation when used with a polyvinyl fluoride film. [0203]
  • (iv) Installation on testframe. Attach the blanket test specimens to the test frame using 12 steel spring type clamps. Use the clamps to hold the blankets in place in both of the outer vertical formers, as well as the center vertical former (4 clamps per former). The clamp surfaces should measure 1 inch by 2 inches (25 by 51 mm). Place the top and bottom clamps 6 inches (15.2 cm) from the top and bottom of the test frame, respectively. Place the middle clamps 8 inches (20.3 cm) from the top and bottom clamps. [0204]
  • (Note: For blanket materials that cannot be installed in accordance with the above, the blankets must be installed in a manner approved by the FAA.) [0205]
  • (v) Conditioning. Condition the specimens at 70°≅5° F. (21°±2° C.) and 55%±10% relative humidity for a minimum of 24 hours prior to testing. [0206]
  • (d) Preparation of Apparatus. [0207]
  • (1) Level and center the frame assembly to ensure alignment of the calorimeter and/or thermocouple rake with the burner cone. [0208]
  • (2) Turn on the ventilation hood for the test chamber. Do not turn on the burner blower. Measure the airflow of the test chamber using a vane anemometer or equivalent measuring device. The vertical air velocity just behind the top of the upper insulation blanket test specimen must be 100±50 ft/min (0.51±0.25 m/s). The horizontal air velocity at this point must be less than 50 ft/min (0.25 m/s). [0209]
  • (3) If a calibrated flow meter is not available, measure the fuel flow rate using a graduated cylinder of appropriate size. Turn on the burner motor/fuel pump, after insuring that the igniter system is turned off. Collect the fuel via a plastic or rubber tube into the graduated cylinder for a 2-minute period. Determine the flow rate in gallons per hour. The fuel flow rate must be 6.0±0.2 gallons per hour (0.378±0.0126 L/min). [0210]
  • (e) Calibration. [0211]
  • (1) Position the burner in front of the calorimeter so that it is centered and the vertical plane of the burner cone exit is 4±0.125 inches (102±3 mm) from the calorimeter face. Ensure that the horizontal centerline of the burner cone is offset 1 inch below the horizontal centerline of the calorimeter. Without disturbing the calorimeter position, rotate the burner in front of the thermocouple rake, such that the middle thermocouple (number 4 of 7) is centered on the burner cone. [0212]
  • Ensure that the horizontal centerline of the burner cone is also offset 1 inch below the horizontal centerline of the thermocouple tips. Re-check measurements by rotating the burner to each position to ensure proper alignment between the cone and the calorimeter and thermocouple rake. (Note: The test burner mounting system must incorporate “detents” that ensure proper centering of the burner cone with respect to both the calorimeter and the thermocouple rakes, so that rapid positioning of the burner can be achieved during the calibration procedure.) [0213]
  • (2) Position the air velocity meter in the adapter or airbox, making certain that no gaps exist where air could leak around the air velocity measuring device. Turn on the blower/motor while ensuring that the fuel solenoid and igniters are off. Adjust the air intake velocity to a level of 2150 ft/min, (10.92 m/s) then turn off the blower/motor. (Note: The Omega HH30 air velocity meter measures 2.625 inches in diameter. To calculate the intake airflow, multiply the cross-sectional area (0.03758 ft[0214] 2) by the air velocity (2150 ft/min) to obtain 80.80 ft3/min. An air velocity meter other than the HH30 unit can be used, provided the calculated airflow of 80.80 ft3/min (2.29 m3/min) is equivalent.)
  • (3) Rotate the burner from the test position to the warm-up position. Prior to lighting the burner, ensure that the calorimeter face is clean of soot deposits, and there is water running through the calorimeter. Examine and clean the burner cone of any evidence of buildup of products of combustion, soot, etc. Soot buildup inside the burner cone may affect the flame characteristics and cause calibration difficulties. Since the burner cone may distort with time, dimensions should be checked periodically. [0215]
  • (4) While the burner is still rotated to the warm-up position, turn on the blower/motor, igniters and fuel flow, and light the burner. Allow it to warm up for a period of 2 minutes. Move the burner into the calibration position and allow 1 minute for calorimeter stabilization, then record the heat flux once every second for a period of 30 seconds. Turn off burner, rotate out of position, and allow to cool. Calculate the average heat flux over this 30-second duration. The average heat flux should be 16.0±0.8 Btu/ft[0216] 2 sec (18.2±0.9 W/cm2).
  • (5) Position the burner in front of the thermocouple rake. After checking for proper alignment, rotate the burner to the warm-up position, turn on the blower/motor, igniters and fuel flow, and light the burner. Allow it to warm up for a period of 2 minutes. Move the burner into the calibration position and allow 1 minute for thermocouple stabilization, then record the temperature of each of the 7 thermocouples once every second for a period of 30 seconds. Turn off burner, rotate out of position, and allow to cool. Calculate the average temperature of each thermocouple over this 30-second period and record. The average temperature of each of the 7 thermocouples should be 1900° F.±100° F. (1038±56° C.). [0217]
  • (6) If either the heat flux or the temperatures are not within the specified range, adjust the burner intake air velocity and repeat the procedures of paragraphs (4) and (5) above to obtain the proper values. Ensure that the inlet air velocity is within the range of 2150 ft/min ±50 ft/min (10.92±0.25 m/s). [0218]
  • (7) Calibrate prior to each test until consistency has been demonstrated. After consistency has been confirmed, several tests may be conducted with calibration conducted before and after a series of tests. [0219]
  • (f) Test Procedure. [0220]
  • (1) Secure the two insulation blanket test specimens to the test frame. The insulation blankets should be attached to the test rig center vertical former using four spring clamps positioned according to the criteria of paragraph (c)(4) or (c)(4)(i) of this part of this appendix. [0221]
  • (2) Ensure that the vertical plane of the burner cone is at a distance of 4±0.125 inch (102±3 mm) from the outer surface of the horizontal stringers of the test specimen frame, and that the burner and test frame are both situated at a 30° angle with respect to vertical. [0222]
  • (3) When ready to begin the test, direct the burner away from the test position to the warm-up position so that the flame will not impinge on the specimens prematurely. Turn on and light the burner and allow it to stabilize for 2 minutes. [0223]
  • (4) To begin the test, rotate the burner into the test position and simultaneously start the timing device. [0224]
  • (5) Expose the test specimens to the burner flame for 4 minutes and then turn off the burner. Immediately rotate the burner out of the test position. [0225]
  • (6) Determine (where applicable) the burnthrough time, or the point at which the heat flux exceeds 2.0 Btu/ft[0226] 2-sec (2.27 W/cm2).
  • (g) Report. [0227]
  • (1) Identify and describe the specimen being tested. [0228]
  • (2) Report the number of insulation blanket specimens tested. [0229]
  • (3) Report the burnthrough time (if any), and the maximum heat flux on the back face of the insulation blanket test specimen, and the time at which the maximum occurred. [0230]
  • (h) Requirements. [0231]
  • (1) Each of the two insulation blanket test specimens must not allow fire or flame penetration in less than 4 minutes. [0232]
  • (2) Each of the two insulation blanket test specimens must not allow more than 2.0 Btu/ft[0233] 2-sec (2.27 W/cm2) on the cold side of the insulation specimens at a point 12 inches (30.5 cm) from the face of the test rig.
  • [Amdt. 25-32, 37 FR 3972, Feb. 24, 1972][0234]
  • Test Methods Utilized
  • Hydrophobicity [0235]
  • The ability of a substrate to be wetted was evaluated using mixtures of water and isopropyl alcohol (IPA). The following test solutions of IPA in water were first prepared: 16%, 18%, 20%, 22%, 24% and 26% (all percentages were by volume). Each substrate to be evaluated was dried for one hour at 60° C. in an air circulating oven and then allowed to cool to room temperature before testing. Circles measuring about 1 inch (2.54 cm) were then drawn on a surface of the substrate. Next, about 0.5 mL of the 18% IPA solution was placed inside a first circle using a disposable transfer pipette. The IPA solution was then observed to determine whether or not it wetted out/into the substrate. If it did wet out, it was graded as a “+”, and, if it did not, it was graded as a “−”. This procedure was repeated using the other IPA solutions and circles. In all cases reported herein, it was evident when the solutions wetted the substrate and when they did not. In this manner, a crossover point was determined at which the EPA solution wetted out/into the substrate. [0236]
  • Using this test procedure, the hydrophobicity of melt-blown fibrous web insulation materials containing 55-100 percent by weight polypropylene (primarily isotactic) and 0-45 percent by weight polyethylene terephthalate (PET) was evaluated. The results are reported in Table 1 below. The experiments were repeated several times, using both embossed and un-embossed webs, with similar results. The fibrous web materials used as Samples 1-3 are available from 3M Company, St. Paul, Minn. The 100 percent polypropylene web was prepared using a polypropylene feedstock having a melt flow index of 350 grams/10 minutes (available as FINA 350 from ATO FINA, Deer Park, Tex.) using a melt-blowing process to provide individual fibers having an effective diameter of less than 12 micrometers (μm), which formed a web having a thickness of approximately 1.0-1.5 centimeters (cm) and an areal weight of approximately 200 grams/meter[0237] 2.
    Polypropylene:Polyester
    Sample Insulation Material (w:w)
    1 3M ™ THINSULATE ™ 55:45
    ACOUSTIC INSULATION
    TC-3302-60
    2 3M ™ THINSULATE ™ 65:35
    ACOUSTIC INSULATION
    AU-2020-1
    3 3M ™ THINSULATE ™ 80:20
    ACOUSTIC INSULATION 2099
    4 Melt-blown Polypropylene Web 100:0 
  • [0238]
    TABLE 1
    % Isopropyl Alcohol in Water
    Sample % Polypropylene 18 20 22 24 26
    1 55 + + + +
    2 65 + + +
    3 80 + +
    4 100 +
  • A sample of a non-woven web comprising polyethylene-coated poly(ethylene terephthalate) staple fibers was also tested using a solution of 16 percent IPA in water, and wetting was observed. [0239]
  • For reference, the surface tension (gamma) value at 20° C. for linear polyethylene (infinite molecular weight) is reported as 36.8, that of polypropylene (atactic, MWn=3000) as 28.3, and that of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (hereinafter, “PET”, MWn=25,000) as 44.6 by J. Bicerano in [0240] Prediction of Polymer Properties, pp. 195-196, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York (1996). In the Polymer Handbook, J. Brandup, E. Immergut, and E. Grulke (Ed.), 4th Edition, pp. 524 and 530, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, these values are reported as 36.8 (infinite molecular weight), 29.4 (atactic, no MW given), and 44.6 (MWn=25,000), respectively, along with values of 29.4 for isotactic polypropylene (no MW given) and 30.1 for a mixture of isotactic and atactic polypropylene.
  • Radiant Panel Test and Burnthrough Test [0241]
  • Radiant panel testing and burnthrough testing were carried out according to the above-detailed Federal Aviation Administration regulations and procedures in essentially the same manner as that described at columns 18-24 of U.S. Pat. No. 6,670,291 (Tompkins et al.), the descriptions of which are incorporated herein by reference. [0242]
  • Examples 1-4
  • In these examples, various thermal acoustic insulation blankets were prepared in rollstock form using a continuous process. The resulting blankets comprised materials in the form of layers that were substantially coextensive. [0243]
  • Example 1
  • 3M™ NEXTEL™ Flame Stopping Dot Paper (an alumina fiber-based paper fire barrier material having a basis weight of 70-80 grams/meter[0244] 2, available from 3M Company, St. Paul, Minn.) was used to prepare rollstock of a two-layer thermal acoustic insulation blanket. The 3M™ NEXTEL™ Flame Stopping Dot Paper was fed through a melt-blown process chamber essentially as described at column 8, line 49, to column 10, line 18, of U.S. Pat. No. 5,841,081 (Thompson et al.) to collect a non-woven, melt-blown blend of polypropylene/PET (65:35/w:w) fibers on one side of the fire barrier material. The resulting thermal acoustic insulation blanket in rollstock form comprised a fibrous web (having a thickness of approximately 1 inch (2.5 cm) and an areal weight of approximately 123 grams/meter2) on a paper fire barrier.
  • Example 2
  • Example 1 was repeated with the following modification: 3M™ NEXTEL™ Flame Stopping Coated Paper (a vermiculite coated, alumina fiber-based paper fire barrier material having a basis weight of 70-80 grams/meter[0245] 2, available from 3M Company, St. Paul, Minn.) was used instead of 3M™ NEXTEL™ Flame Stopping Dot Paper. The resulting thermal acoustic insulation blanket in rollstock form comprised a fibrous web (having a thickness of approximately 1 inch (2.5 cm) and an areal weight of approximately 123 grams/meter2) on a paper fire barrier.
  • Example 3
  • INSULFAB 331 (a lightweight, high strength vapor barrier comprising a scrim-reinforced, metallized polyvinyl fluoride film (available as TEDLAR from E. I. DuPont de Nemours Company, Wilmington, Del.) available from Chase Facile, Incorporated, Paterson, N.J.) was used to prepare a three-layer thermal acoustic insulation blanket in a rollstock form. One piece of INSULFAB 331A was laminated to 3M™ NEXTEL™ Flame Stopping Coated Paper. This intermediate two-layer laminate was fed through a melt-blown process chamber essentially as described in Example 1 to collect a non-woven, melt-blown blend of polypropylene/PET (65:35/w:w) fibers such that the non-woven melt-blown fibers contacted the fire barrier side of the laminate. A thermal acoustic insulation blanket comprising a paper fire barrier with a vapor barrier laminated to one side and a fibrous web (having a thickness of approximately 1 inch (2.5 cm) and an areal weight of approximately 123 grams/meter[0246] 2) on the opposite side was obtained in rollstock form.
  • Example 4
  • Example 3 was repeated with the following modification: a light coat of adhesive (3M™ SUPER SPRAY 77 ADHESIVE, available from 3M Company, St. Paul, Minn.) was applied to the ceramic paper side of the intermediate fire barrier/vapor barrier laminate prior to feeding it through the melt-blown process chamber. A thermal acoustic insulation blanket comprising a paper fire barrier with a vapor barrier laminated to one side and a fibrous web (having a thickness of approximately 2 inches (5.0 cm) and an areal weight of approximately 121 grams/meter[0247] 2) adhered to the opposite side was obtained in rollstock form.
  • Examples 5-7
  • In these examples, various thermal acoustic insulation blankets were prepared using manual lay-up methods and were evaluated using radiant panel and burnthrough tests. [0248]
  • Example 5
  • Two pieces of INSULFAB 2000A (a lightweight, high strength vapor barrier comprising a scrim-reinforced polyimide film, available from Chase Facile, Incorporated, Paterson, N.J.) were used to prepare a four-layer thermal acoustic insulation blanket. More specifically, two pieces of INSULFAB 2000A were used to encapsulate one piece each of 1) 3M™ NEXTEL™ Flame Stopping Dot Paper (fire barrier) and 2) a web formed from a non-woven, melt-blown blend of polypropylene/PET (65:35/w:w) fibers and having a thickness of approximately 1 inch (2.5 cm) and an areal weight of approximately 417 grams/meter[0249] 2 (commercially available as 3M™ THINSULATE™ ACOUSTIC INSULATION AU 4020-6 from 3M Company, St. Paul, Minn.) such that the adhesive side of the INSULFAB 2000A sheets contacted the fire barrier and the non-woven web. The pieces were laid up so as to provide an overhanging edge of the INSULFAB 2000A layers around the outer border of the fire barrier and non-woven web pieces. The facing adhesive edges of the two INSULFAB 2000A layers were heat sealed together using a tool having a temperature of between 300 and 320° F. (149 and 160° C.) to produce a final thermal acoustic insulation sample.
  • For the “Radiant Panel Test,” the sample comprised two pieces of INSULFAB 2000A that had dimensions of approximately 13 inches by 21 inches (33.0 cm by 53.3 cm) and fire barrier and non-woven web pieces that had dimensions of approximately 12 inches by 20 inches (30.5 cm by 50.8 cm), and the overhanging edge of the INSULFAB 2000A layers was approximately 0.5 inches (1.3 cm). For the “Burnthrough Test,” the sample comprised two pieces of INSULFAB 2000A that had dimensions of approximately 34 inches by 38 inches (86.4 cm by 96.5 cm) and fire barrier and non-woven web pieces that had dimensions of approximately 32 inches by 36 inches (81.3 cm by 91.4 cm), and the overhanging edge of the INSULFAB 2000A layers was approximately 1.0 inch (2.5 cm). The samples were tested according to the “Radiant Panel Test” and “Burnthrough Test” procedures described above and passed the tests. [0250]
  • Example 6
  • Example 5 was repeated with the following modification: two layers of 3M™ THINSULATE™ ACOUSTIC INSULATION AU 4020-6 material were positioned on one side of the fire barrier material. The resulting thermal acoustic insulation blanket samples passed the “Radiant Panel Test” and the “Burnthrough Test”. [0251]
  • Example 7
  • Example 5 was repeated with the following modification: 3M™ NEXTEL™ Flame Stopping Coated Paper was used in place of 3M™ NEXTEL™ Flame Stopping Dot Paper. The resulting thermal acoustic insulation blanket was tested and passed the “Burnthrough Test”. [0252]
  • The referenced descriptions contained in the patents, patent documents, and publications cited herein are incorporated by reference as if each were individually incorporated. Various unforeseeable modifications and alterations to this invention will become apparent to those skilled in the art without departing from the scope and spirit of this invention. It should be understood that this invention is not intended to be unduly limited by the illustrative embodiments and examples set forth herein and that such examples and embodiments are presented by way of example only, with the scope of the invention intended to be limited only by the claims set forth herein as follows: [0253]

Claims (22)

    We claim:
  1. 1. An insulation blanket comprising (a) substantially hydrophobic insulation material; and (b) high temperature-resistant material; with the proviso that said blanket is casing-free.
  2. 2. The blanket of claim 1 wherein said substantially hydrophobic insulation material comprises at least one polymer.
  3. 3. The blanket of claim 2 wherein said polymer is a polyolefin.
  4. 4. The blanket of claim 1 wherein said substantially hydrophobic insulation material is fibrous.
  5. 5. The blanket of claim 1 wherein said high temperature-resistant material is a flame-resistant material.
  6. 6. The blanket of claim 1 wherein said high temperature-resistant material is a material that is both flame propagation-resistant and flame penetration-resistant, or that is burnthrough-resistant.
  7. 7. An insulation blanket comprising (a) fibrous, substantially hydrophobic insulation material comprising polyolefin; and (b) a material that is both flame propagation-resistant and flame penetration-resistant, or that is burnthrough-resistant; with the proviso that said blanket is casing-free.
  8. 8. An insulation blanket comprising (a) substantially hydrophobic insulation material comprising at least one polymer; and (b) a material that is both flame propagation-resistant and flame penetration-resistant, or that is burnthrough-resistant; said materials being encased within a protective covering.
  9. 9. A process for producing an insulation blanket, the process comprising the step of continuously bringing together, optionally in the presence of one or more intervening or adjacent materials, at least one insulation material and at least one high temperature-resistant material.
  10. 10. The process of claim 9 wherein said insulation material comprises substantially hydrophobic insulation material.
  11. 11. The process of claim 9 wherein said insulation material comprises at least one polymer.
  12. 12. The process of claim 10 wherein said substantially hydrophobic insulation material comprises at least one polymer.
  13. 13. The process of claim 11 or claim 12 wherein said polymer is a polyolefin.
  14. 14. The process of claim 9 or claim 10 wherein said insulation material is fibrous.
  15. 15. The process of claim 9 wherein said high temperature-resistant material is a flame-resistant material.
  16. 16. The process of claim 9 wherein said high temperature-resistant material is a material that is both flame propagation-resistant and flame penetration-resistant, or that is burnthrough-resistant.
  17. 17. A process for producing an insulation blanket, the process comprising the step of continuously bringing together, optionally in the presence of one or more intervening or adjacent materials, at least one fibrous, substantially hydrophobic insulation material comprising polyolefin and at least one material that is both flame propagation-resistant and flame penetration-resistant, or that is burnthrough-resistant.
  18. 18. An insulation blanket produced by the process of claim 9, wherein said materials are in the form of layers that are substantially coextensive.
  19. 19. The blanket of claim 18, wherein said insulation material is polymeric.
  20. 20. The blanket of claim 19, wherein said polymeric insulation material is fibrous.
  21. 21. An insulation blanket produced by the process of claim 17, wherein said materials are in the form of layers that are substantially coextensive.
  22. 22. A process for insulating a surface, the process comprising the step of providing said surface with the insulation blanket of claim 1, claim 7, claim 8, claim 18, or claim 21.
US10856982 2003-06-09 2004-05-28 Casing-free insulation blanket Abandoned US20040247819A1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US47708003 true 2003-06-09 2003-06-09
US10856982 US20040247819A1 (en) 2003-06-09 2004-05-28 Casing-free insulation blanket

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US10856982 US20040247819A1 (en) 2003-06-09 2004-05-28 Casing-free insulation blanket

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US20040247819A1 true true US20040247819A1 (en) 2004-12-09

Family

ID=33551672

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US10856982 Abandoned US20040247819A1 (en) 2003-06-09 2004-05-28 Casing-free insulation blanket

Country Status (2)

Country Link
US (1) US20040247819A1 (en)
WO (1) WO2004110742A1 (en)

Cited By (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20090094908A1 (en) * 2007-10-15 2009-04-16 Krueger Jill A Flexible Fire-Resistant Thermally Insulated Composite Structures
US20090173570A1 (en) * 2007-12-20 2009-07-09 Levit Natalia V Acoustically absorbent ceiling tile having barrier facing with diffuse reflectance
US20090173569A1 (en) * 2007-12-20 2009-07-09 E. I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company Acoustic absorber with barrier facing
US20110156467A1 (en) * 2009-12-24 2011-06-30 Toyota Boshoku Kabushiki Kaisha Vehicle seat cushion and manufacturing method thereof
US8062985B2 (en) 2007-03-26 2011-11-22 Owens Corning Intellectual Capital, Llc Flexible composite multiple layer fire-resistant insulation structure
WO2014088833A1 (en) * 2012-12-03 2014-06-12 Illinois Tool Works Inc. Insulation film and method for making insulation film
US9074778B2 (en) 2009-11-04 2015-07-07 Ssw Holding Company, Inc. Cooking appliance surfaces having spill containment pattern
WO2016085984A1 (en) * 2014-11-25 2016-06-02 Polymer Technologies, Inc. Foam insulation with thermoformable film coating and process for manufacture
US9708052B2 (en) 2010-11-19 2017-07-18 Unifrax I Llc Fire barrier layer and fire barrier film laminate
US9942989B2 (en) 2013-11-21 2018-04-10 Illinois Tool Works Inc. Insulation film and method for making insulation film

Families Citing this family (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP1902830A1 (en) * 2006-09-19 2008-03-26 Quadrant Plastic Composites AG Method of manufacturing a deformable thermoplastic composite comprising a hydrophobic layer

Citations (18)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4118531A (en) * 1976-08-02 1978-10-03 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Web of blended microfibers and crimped bulking fibers
US4136222A (en) * 1977-04-18 1979-01-23 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Thermally insulating sheet material
US4215682A (en) * 1978-02-06 1980-08-05 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Melt-blown fibrous electrets
US4837067A (en) * 1987-06-08 1989-06-06 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Nonwoven thermal insulating batts
US4915998A (en) * 1988-08-24 1990-04-10 International Fuel Cells Corporation Thermal insulation blanket
US4917942A (en) * 1988-12-22 1990-04-17 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Nonwoven filter material
US5169700A (en) * 1991-02-22 1992-12-08 Manville Corporation Faced fiber glass insulation
US5277959A (en) * 1989-09-21 1994-01-11 The United States Of America As Represented By The Administrator Of National Aeronautics And Space Administration Composite flexible blanket insulation
US5368950A (en) * 1988-06-10 1994-11-29 Kohmix Co., Ltd. Water-soluble, film-forming inorganic compounds, fireproof and fire-resistance composites and fire-resistance, flexible, sheet composite covering materials formed by the use of the compounds, and fire-resistance-covering process
US5624726A (en) * 1995-01-09 1997-04-29 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Insulation blanket
US5788184A (en) * 1997-01-04 1998-08-04 Eddy; Robert G. Aircraft passenger safety enhanced fuselage insulation blanket
US5841081A (en) * 1995-06-23 1998-11-24 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Method of attenuating sound, and acoustical insulation therefor
US5952248A (en) * 1997-12-11 1999-09-14 Horton; Bill D. Fire retardant thermal and acoustic insulation material
US5985362A (en) * 1997-12-22 1999-11-16 Mcdonnell Douglas Corporation Insulation system for transport aircraft
US6305494B1 (en) * 1996-10-14 2001-10-23 Faist Automotive Gmbh & Co. Kg Device for absorbing and/or damping sound waves
US6312561B1 (en) * 2000-01-21 2001-11-06 E. I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company Flame barrier compositions and their use
US6358591B1 (en) * 1999-06-04 2002-03-19 Orcon Corporation Fire-blocking insulation blanket
US6670291B1 (en) * 2000-10-18 2003-12-30 3M Innovative Properties Company Laminate sheet material for fire barrier applications

Family Cites Families (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20020069453A1 (en) * 2000-07-31 2002-06-13 Kelleher Karen A. Firefighter garment thermal liner material including hydrophobic fibers
CN1306993C (en) * 2000-12-22 2007-03-28 思攀气凝胶公司 Aerogel composite with fibrous batting

Patent Citations (19)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4118531A (en) * 1976-08-02 1978-10-03 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Web of blended microfibers and crimped bulking fibers
US4136222A (en) * 1977-04-18 1979-01-23 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Thermally insulating sheet material
US4215682A (en) * 1978-02-06 1980-08-05 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Melt-blown fibrous electrets
US4837067A (en) * 1987-06-08 1989-06-06 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Nonwoven thermal insulating batts
US5368950A (en) * 1988-06-10 1994-11-29 Kohmix Co., Ltd. Water-soluble, film-forming inorganic compounds, fireproof and fire-resistance composites and fire-resistance, flexible, sheet composite covering materials formed by the use of the compounds, and fire-resistance-covering process
US4915998A (en) * 1988-08-24 1990-04-10 International Fuel Cells Corporation Thermal insulation blanket
US4917942A (en) * 1988-12-22 1990-04-17 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Nonwoven filter material
US5277959A (en) * 1989-09-21 1994-01-11 The United States Of America As Represented By The Administrator Of National Aeronautics And Space Administration Composite flexible blanket insulation
US5169700A (en) * 1991-02-22 1992-12-08 Manville Corporation Faced fiber glass insulation
US5759659A (en) * 1995-01-09 1998-06-02 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Insulation blanket
US5624726A (en) * 1995-01-09 1997-04-29 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Insulation blanket
US5841081A (en) * 1995-06-23 1998-11-24 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Method of attenuating sound, and acoustical insulation therefor
US6305494B1 (en) * 1996-10-14 2001-10-23 Faist Automotive Gmbh & Co. Kg Device for absorbing and/or damping sound waves
US5788184A (en) * 1997-01-04 1998-08-04 Eddy; Robert G. Aircraft passenger safety enhanced fuselage insulation blanket
US5952248A (en) * 1997-12-11 1999-09-14 Horton; Bill D. Fire retardant thermal and acoustic insulation material
US5985362A (en) * 1997-12-22 1999-11-16 Mcdonnell Douglas Corporation Insulation system for transport aircraft
US6358591B1 (en) * 1999-06-04 2002-03-19 Orcon Corporation Fire-blocking insulation blanket
US6312561B1 (en) * 2000-01-21 2001-11-06 E. I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company Flame barrier compositions and their use
US6670291B1 (en) * 2000-10-18 2003-12-30 3M Innovative Properties Company Laminate sheet material for fire barrier applications

Cited By (11)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US8062985B2 (en) 2007-03-26 2011-11-22 Owens Corning Intellectual Capital, Llc Flexible composite multiple layer fire-resistant insulation structure
US20090094908A1 (en) * 2007-10-15 2009-04-16 Krueger Jill A Flexible Fire-Resistant Thermally Insulated Composite Structures
US20090173570A1 (en) * 2007-12-20 2009-07-09 Levit Natalia V Acoustically absorbent ceiling tile having barrier facing with diffuse reflectance
US20090173569A1 (en) * 2007-12-20 2009-07-09 E. I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company Acoustic absorber with barrier facing
US9074778B2 (en) 2009-11-04 2015-07-07 Ssw Holding Company, Inc. Cooking appliance surfaces having spill containment pattern
US20110156467A1 (en) * 2009-12-24 2011-06-30 Toyota Boshoku Kabushiki Kaisha Vehicle seat cushion and manufacturing method thereof
US9708052B2 (en) 2010-11-19 2017-07-18 Unifrax I Llc Fire barrier layer and fire barrier film laminate
US9919790B2 (en) 2010-11-19 2018-03-20 Unifrax I Llc Fire barrier layer and fire barrier film laminate
WO2014088833A1 (en) * 2012-12-03 2014-06-12 Illinois Tool Works Inc. Insulation film and method for making insulation film
US9942989B2 (en) 2013-11-21 2018-04-10 Illinois Tool Works Inc. Insulation film and method for making insulation film
WO2016085984A1 (en) * 2014-11-25 2016-06-02 Polymer Technologies, Inc. Foam insulation with thermoformable film coating and process for manufacture

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
WO2004110742A1 (en) 2004-12-23 application

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
Thomas et al. Some experiments on buoyant diffusion flames
US4433732A (en) Cable tray protection system
US4299872A (en) Intumescent material-honeycomb thermal barrier
US7150059B2 (en) Heat and flame-resistant materials and upholstered articles incorporating same
US3799056A (en) Thermal insulation blocks, particularly for space vehicles
US6536169B2 (en) Adjustable rack for supporting firestop material in a through-penetration
EP1134479A2 (en) Burn through resistant nonwoven mat, barrier, and insulation system
US8496088B2 (en) Acoustic composite
US4956217A (en) Silicate treated honeycomb structures
US6890638B2 (en) Ballistic resistant and fire resistant composite articles
US4522673A (en) Heat insulating blanket
US4735841A (en) Fire-resistant cowls, particularly for aircraft engines
US2389579A (en) Insulated military tank and other vehicles
Nakaya et al. Doorway flow induced by a propane fire
US6358591B1 (en) Fire-blocking insulation blanket
US20060182915A1 (en) Duct wrap and method for fire protecting a duct
US4463465A (en) Fire blocking systems for aircraft seat cushions
US20120321883A1 (en) Composite flame barrier laminate for a thermal and acoustic insulation blanket
US6371240B1 (en) Anechoic chamber
US6312561B1 (en) Flame barrier compositions and their use
US20110114342A1 (en) Fire barrier protection for airplanes comprising graphite films
US20090140097A1 (en) Flexible composite multiple layer fire-resistant insulation structure
US5418050A (en) Fire/heat barrier laminates
WO2010123771A1 (en) Composite laminate for a thermal and acoustic insulation blanket
US6726971B1 (en) Thermally stable clear polyurethane adhesive tape

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
AS Assignment

Owner name: 3M INNOVATIVE PROPERTIES COMPANY, MINNESOTA

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:KHIEU, SITHYA S.;PIEPER, RICHARD M.;TOMPKINS, THOMAS L.;REEL/FRAME:015411/0267

Effective date: 20040526